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• In general, approximate model of diode is used in applications because of non-ideal real life conditions (tolerance, temperature effect, etc) never allow an ideal case to be applied

**Load Line Analysis
**

• The load of a circuit determines the point or the region of operation of a diode (or device) • The method: A line is drawn on the characteristic of the device • The intersection point gives the point of operation

**Load Line Analysis
**

• In the above figure, E has to be in the forward bias direction and > VT of the diode, in order for the current to flow. Using KVL: • -E + VD + VR = 0 • E = VD + VR = VD + IDR • Notice: Variables VD , ID are same in the above equation • For VD=0: ID = E/R • For ID=0: E = VD + IDR

**Load Line Analysis
**

• The intersection point is called Q point • Same solution can be found by using nonlinear diode equation • We can avoid heavy math using load line analysis. • Exp from notes 1 • Exp from notes 2 • Exp from notes 3

Example 1

• For below figure, determine VDQ, IDQ and VR

Solution

• Refer to notes for the solution

Example 2

• Repeat the previous example using approximate model of the Si diode • Solution: Refer to notes and see the next figure

Solution to Example 2.

Example 3

• Repeat the same example using ideal model of the diode • Solution: Refer to notes and see next figure

Solution to example 3 using ideal model

Diode Approximations

• As an engineer, we will generally use approximate models to avoid extensive mathematical calculations • This is achieved by using approximate model of a device whenever it is possible • Approximate model of diodes are given in Table 2.1 • Also see Figure 2.11

**Series Diode Config. with DC Inputs
**

• When connected to voltage sources in series, the diode is on if the applied voltage is in the direction of forward-bias and it is greater than the VT of the diode • When a diode is on, we can use the approximate model for the on state • See next two figures

Using equivalent model of the diode in the forward-bias region

**Series Diode Config. with DC Inputs
**

• Here, VD = VT, VR = E - VT • ID = IR = VR / R • When the diode is in the off state, the model for the off state is used • See two figures • Here, VD = E, VR = 0, ID = 0 • Keep in mind that KVL has to be satisfied under all conditions • Exp from notes 1,2,3,4,5

Example 4

• For the figure below, determine VD, ID, and VR • Refer to notes for the solution

Example 5

• For the figure below, determine VD, ID, and VR • Refer to notes for the solution

Example 6

• Determine VD2 , ID and V0 for the figure below • Refer notes for the solution

Example 7

• Determine I1 , V1 , V2 and V0 for the figure below • Refer to notes for the solution

Parallel Diode Configurations • Determine I1 , VD1 , VD2 and V0 for the paralel doide circuit in below figure • Refer to notes for the solution

Determining unknown quantities

Example 9

• Determine the current I for the circuit below • Refer to notes for the solution

Example 10

• Determine I1, I2, and ID for the figure below • Refer to notes for the solution

Example 10

Determining the unknown quantities for the above example

**Sinusoidal Inputs: Half-wave Rectifier
**

• We expand our analysis to include time varying signals • Such a network is shown as in the next figure • This circuit is called half-wave rectifier • For the positive and negative cycles, the circuit is approximated as in below • See following 2 figures

Half-wave Rectifier

**Half-wave Rectifier
**

• The total effect of diode on the output signal is given in below

**Half-wave Rectifier
**

• For the half-wave rectified signal: Vdc = 0.318 Vm • If the effect of VT is also considered, the output of the system will as below • Vdc = 0.318 (Vm- VT) • See next Figure

Effect of VT on half-wave rectified signal

**PIV rating of Half-wave Rectifiers
**

• PIV rating is very important consideration for rectifier circuits • For the half-wave rectifier: • PIV ≥ Vm

**Full-wave Rectifiers Bridge Networks
**

• The dc level obtained from a sinusoidal input to the halfwave rectifier can be improved to 100% using full wave rectifiers • Bridge networks are used for this purpose • See Figure 2.54 • For positive and negative cycles, network acts as below • See Figures 2.55 – 2.58

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