Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p.

1/35
Control of Large Horizontal-Axis Wind
Turbines
Chen Wang
Supervisor: Professor George Weiss
Control & Power Research Group
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Imperial College London
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 2/35
Contents
s
Introduction
s
LPV control of the rotor current of a DFIG
s
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
s
Suppression of vibrations in wind turbine
s
Conclusions
qContents
Introduction
qSystem overview
qSystem overview
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 3/35
Introduction
qContents
Introduction
qSystem overview
qSystem overview
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 4/35
System overview
DFIG
AC
DC
DC
AC
Grid
Pitch
Rotor-side
converter
Grid-side
converter
Wind
'&
9
TransIormer
Gear
Figure 1: A grid-connected wind driven DFIG.
qContents
Introduction
qSystem overview
qSystem overview
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 5/35
System overview
DFIG
AC
DC
DC
AC
Rotor current
controller
Grid
Pitch
Rotor-side
converter
Grid-side
converter
Wind
Wind
speed
ReIerence
speed
Calculation
PWM PWM L
UHI
TU
L
UHI
GU
L
UHI
'&
9
UHI
T
L
'&
9
UHI
U
Z
U
Z
U
L
DC-link
voltage
controller
V
Y
Stator Ilux
calculation
V
L
V
\
Speed
controller
Electrical
loop
Mechanical loop
Grid
operator
TransIormer
Gear
Figure 2: Control of a grid-connected wind driven DFIG.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 6/35
LPV control of the rotor current of a
DFIG
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 7/35
LPV systems
Linear parameter varying (LPV) systems are a special class of
systems, which for every fixed value of the parameter vector
θ(t) ∈ R
s
are linear time invariant (LTI) systems. We need to
consider LPV systems where the state-space matrices depend
on the vector of parameters θ(t) in an affine fashion. A
state-space representation of a LPV system Σ is
˙ x(t) = A(θ(t))x(t) +B(θ(t))u(t), (1)
y(t) = C(θ(t))x(t) +D(θ(t))u(t). (2)
where x is the state (x ∈ R
n
), u is the input vector (u ∈ R
m
)
and y is the measured output vector (y ∈ R
p
). In this report, we
only have to deal with LPV systems where measurements of
θ(t) are available in real time.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 8/35
LPV systems
Notation 1.1. L
2
[0, ∞) denotes the set of measurable, square
integrable functions of t, t > 0, with norm
f
L
2 = (


0
|f(t)|
2
dt)
1
2
. By abuse of notation, we will also use the
same notation for the space of vector-valued square integrable
signals.
Definition 1.1. Let Θ ⊂ R
s
be a compact set of possible parameter
vectors. The LPV system Σ from (1) and (2) has quadratic H

performance γ > 0 if there exists a matrix X > 0 such that



A(θ)
T
X +XA(θ) XB(θ) C(θ)
T
B(θ)
T
X −γI D(θ)
T
C(θ) D(θ) −γI



< 0 (3)
for all θ ∈ Θ (see P. Apkarian et al., 1995).
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 9/35
LPV systems
Remark 1.2. The LMI (3) implies, by multiplying the matrix from the
left with z
T
= [x(t)
T
u(t)
T 1
γ
y(t)
T
] and then multiplying it from the
right with z, that
d
dt
Xx(t), x(t) ≤ γu(t)
2

1
γ
y(t)
2
. (4)
s
If X > 0,
1
γ
> 0 and (A, C) observable, then the system Σ is
stable. Because, taking u = 0 ⇒
d
dt
Xx(t), x(t) ≤ −
1
γ
y
2
;
s
If the initial state of Σ is zero, we obtain that y
L
2 ≤ γu
L
2,
and this is true for any measurable function θ : [0, ∞) → Θ.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 10/35
LPV systems
Definition 1.2 (Induced L
2
-norm). For each θ ∈ Θ, let G
θ
be the
transfer function of the stable system obtained by taking θ(t) = θ in
(1) and (2). The induced L
2
-norm of the family G = (G
θ
) is defined
by
G = sup
θ∈Θ
G
θ


, (5)
where G
θ


= sup
Re(s)>0
G
θ
(s).
It follows from Remark 1.2 that, if Σ has quadratic H

performance γ > 0, then G ≤ γ.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 11/35
LPV model for the DFIG
Based on a 5th order nonlinear DFIG model, (see G.M. Asher
et al., 1996 and P. Vas, 1998), we take the state variables x as
the stator fluxes and rotor currents. The external input
variables w (disturbances and references) are stator voltages
and rotor current references. The controller output u consists
of rotor voltages. All of the variables are expressed in a dq
reference frame synchronous with the stator flux. Thus
x =





Ψ
ds
Ψ
qs
i
dr
i
qr





, w =





v
ds
v
qs
i
ref
dr
i
ref
qr





, u =

v
dr
v
qr

.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 12/35
LPV model for the DFIG
The tracking errors are z =

e
idr
e
iqr

T
, where e
idr
= i
ref
dr
-
i
dr
and e
iqr
= i
ref
qr
- i
qr
. The measured outputs are
y =

Ψ
ds
Ψ
qs
i
dr
i
qr

T
.
The state-space equations of the DFIG model are
˙ x = (A
1

sl
A
2
)x +B
1
w +B
2
u,
z = C
1
x +D
11
w +D
12
u, (6)
y = C
2
x +D
21
w +D
22
u,
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 13/35
LPV current control of the DFIG
Drive
-train
H
7
LPV controller
.

'),*
3
&RQYHUWHU
VO
Z
LGT
H
UGT
L
VGT
\
H
7
°
¯
°
®
­
VGT
UHI
UGT
Y
L
Z
UGT
Y
Figure 3: LPV control of a wind driven DFIG
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 14/35
LPV current control of the DFIG
LPV controller
Plant
1
:
X
:
Plant
z
y
w
P
~
u
z
~
¿
¾
½
y
~
¿
¾
½
) t ( T
K
Figure 4: Block diagram of the augmented plant for LPV con-
troller design
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 15/35
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 16/35
Rotor blade theory
U
U G
7
Z
U
U
7
Z
D 8
f
UD
7
Z
Wind
Figure 5(a): A blade element sweeps out an annular ring
a Axial flow induction factor
a

Tangential flow induction factor
r Radius of blade element (m)
U

Free-stream wind velocity (m/s)
ω
T
Rotational speed of rotor (rad/s)
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 17/35
Rotor blade theory
-5
0
5
-3
-2
-1
0
1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
X-axis (m)
x
y
z
Y-axis (m)
B
l
a
d
e

l
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
Wind
Rotating direction
Figure 5(b): Blade geometry
E
p q
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 18/35
Rotor blade theory
-5
0
5 -4
-2
0
2
0
20
40
60
B
l
a
d
e

l
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
Wind
Rotating direction
z
x
y
X-axis (m)
Y-axis (m)
Figure 5(c): Blade geometry
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 19/35
Rotor blade theory
-5
0
5
-3
-2
-1
0
1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
x
z
Y-axis (m)
y
B
l
a
d
e

l
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
)
X-axis (m)
Wind
Rotating direction
Figure 5(d): Blade geometry
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 20/35
Rotor blade theory
D 8
f
E
D
I
(A) Velocities
D U
7
Z
ZU
9
I
'
)
/
)
D[
)
7
)
(B) Forces
Rotating direction
Figure 6: Blade element velocities and forces
Chord
α Angle of attack (AOA)
β Pitch angle
φ Flow angle of relative wind velocity V
wr
to rotor plane
c Blade chord length (m)
V
wr
Wind velocity relative to a point on rotating blade
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 21/35
Rotor blade theory
Assume optimal operation which implies maximum power
efficiency, and a is constant along each blade, then we have
(see T. Burton, et al, 2001)
a =
1
3
, a

=
a(1 −a)
λ
2
µ
2
(7)
tanφ =
1 −a
λµ(1 +a

)
, (8)
α = φ −β, (9)
V
wr
=

U
2

(1 −a)
2

2
T
r
2
(1 +a

)
2
, (10)
dF
ax
=
1
2
ρV
2
wr
Nc(C
l
cos φ +C
d
sinφ)dr, (11)
µ Non-dimensional radial position, r/R
C
l
(C
d
) Sectional lift (drag) coefficient
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 22/35
Lift and drag coefficient
-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Angle of attack(deg)
C
l
C
d
Figure 7: Sectional lift and drag coefficients
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 23/35
Axial force for structural pitch
0
5
10
15
0
10
20
30
-8000
-6000
-4000
-2000
0
2000
4000
Turbine rotor speed (rad/s)
Wind speed (m/s)
A
x
i
a
l

f
o
r
c
e

(
k
N
)
Figure 8(a): Axial force for structural pitch
E Z
7 D[
8 I )
f

qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefficient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 24/35
Axial force for different pitch angles
0
1
2
0
10
20
30
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
A
x
i
a
l

f
o
r
c
e

(
k
N
)
Figure 8(b): Axial force for different pitch angles E Z
7 D[
8 I )
f

Wind speed (m/s)
Rotor speed (rad/s)
V
E
$

V
E
$

V
E
$

V
E
$

V
E
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 25/35
Suppression of vibrations in wind
turbines
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 26/35
Wind turbine model
Blade edge
Drive-train torsion
Tower side-to-side
Tower fore-aft
Blade flap
Generator
azimuth
Wind direction
Figure 9: Assumed wind turbine model with 10 degree-of-freedom
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 27/35
Wind turbine model
The linear dynamics of the wind turbine about an equilibrium
point can be written as:
[M]¨ q + [D] ˙ q + [K]q = {f
β
}β +{f
T
}T +{f
U

}U

, (12)
q, ˙ q, ¨ q The deviation of DOF displacement, velocity
and acceleration from the operating equilibr-
ium point values
β, T, U

The deviations of the inputs from their operat-
ing point values
[M], [D], [K] System mass, damping and stiffness matrices
{f(·)} The forcing function
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 28/35
Wind turbine tower model
The structural dynamics of a flexible wind turbine system can
be modeled as a uniform beam with top mass M, as shown in
Figure 10. The 1
st
natural frequency may be approximated as
(see J. van der Tempel, et al, 2002)
f
2
1

3.04EI

2
(M + 0.227mL)L
3
. (13)
M
m

Figure 10: Simplified structural model of a flexible
wind turbine tower
L Tower height (P)
M
m

Top mass (NJ)
Tower mass per unit length (NJP)
Tower bending stiffness

1P
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 29/35
Wind turbine tower model
I ≈
1
8
πD
3
t, m = ρ
s
πDt, b =
M
mL
, (14)
f
1

D
L
2

E
104(b + 0.227)ρ
s
. (15)
where
t Tower wall thickness
D Tower average diameter
ρ
s
Steel density
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 30/35
Wind turbine tower model
Table 1 Opti-OWECS characteristics
L 81m
N 2
P
rated
3MW
ω
T
22 rmp=0.37 Hz
Soft-stiff Stiff-stiff Soft-soft
1P 2P
0.37Hz 0.74Hz
1P Blade rotating frequency (+])
2P Blade passing frequency (+])
Figure 11(a): Frequency intervals for a constant-
speed wind turbine
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 31/35
Wind turbine tower model
Table 2 Vestas V66 2MW characteristics
L 68m
N 3
P
rated
2MW
ω
T
10.5-24.4 rmp=0.17-0.4 Hz
1P
0.51
3P
0.17 0.4 1.2
Hz
Soft-stiff Stiff-stiff Soft-soft
1P Blade rotating frequency (+])
3P Blade passing frequency (+])
Figure 11(b): Frequency intervals for a variable-
speed wind turbine
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 32/35
Control of tower fore-aft vibration
Given the 1
st
fore-aft mode of the wind turbine tower, we have
M¨ x +D
1
˙ x +K
1
x = F
ax
, (16)
Then the 1
st
tower fore-aft mode frequency is

K
1
/Mrad/s.
δF
ax
=
∂F
ax
∂β
δβ = −D
p1
˙ x, (17)
δβ =
−D
p1
∂F
ax
/∂β
˙ x, (18)
where D
p1
is the additional damping. The tower velocity ˙ x can
be calculated by integration of the tower acceleration
measured by an accelerometer mounted in the nacelle.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 33/35
Control of drive-train torsional vibration
Given the 1
st
tower side-to-side mode, we have
M¨ x +D
2
˙ x +K
2
x = F
t
+F
g
, (19)
Then the 1
st
tower side-to-side mode frequency is

K
2
/Mrad/s.
δF
g
=
∂F
g
∂T
e
δT
e
= −D
p2
˙ x, (20)
δT
e
=
−D
p2
∂F
g
/∂T
e
˙ x, (21)
where D
p2
is the additional damping.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 34/35
Control of drive-train torsional vibration
AC
DC
Rotor current
controller
3-phase
supply
Pitch
Rotor-side
converter
DC link
Wind
Speed
controller
Wind
speed
ReIerence
Speed
calculation
PWM
U
L
'&
9
UHI
U
Z
UHI
TU
L
F V
1
+
+
UHI
GU
L
[

[

.
Figure 12: Control of wind turbine vibrations
1DFHOOH
U
Z
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower fore-aft
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
qControl of drive-train torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT - p. 35/35
Control of drive-train torsional vibration
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
0
5
10
t (sec)
W
i
n
d

s
p
e
e
d

(
m
/
s
)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
1
2
3
t (sec)
w
T

(
r
a
d
/
s
)
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
0
1
2
x 10
5
Frequency (rad/sec)
P
S
D
Figure 13: Realistic wind speed, turbine rotor speed and the power
spectral density of the rotor speed

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