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Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p.
1/35
Control of Large HorizontalAxis Wind
Turbines
Chen Wang
Supervisor: Professor George Weiss
Control & Power Research Group
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Imperial College London
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 2/35
Contents
s
Introduction
s
LPV control of the rotor current of a DFIG
s
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
s
Suppression of vibrations in wind turbine
s
Conclusions
qContents
Introduction
qSystem overview
qSystem overview
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 3/35
Introduction
qContents
Introduction
qSystem overview
qSystem overview
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 4/35
System overview
DFIG
AC
DC
DC
AC
Grid
Pitch
Rotorside
converter
Gridside
converter
Wind
'&
9
TransIormer
Gear
Figure 1: A gridconnected wind driven DFIG.
qContents
Introduction
qSystem overview
qSystem overview
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 5/35
System overview
DFIG
AC
DC
DC
AC
Rotor current
controller
Grid
Pitch
Rotorside
converter
Gridside
converter
Wind
Wind
speed
ReIerence
speed
Calculation
PWM PWM L
UHI
TU
L
UHI
GU
L
UHI
'&
9
UHI
T
L
'&
9
UHI
U
Z
U
Z
U
L
DClink
voltage
controller
V
Y
Stator Ilux
calculation
V
L
V
\
Speed
controller
Electrical
loop
Mechanical loop
Grid
operator
TransIormer
Gear
Figure 2: Control of a gridconnected wind driven DFIG.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 6/35
LPV control of the rotor current of a
DFIG
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 7/35
LPV systems
Linear parameter varying (LPV) systems are a special class of
systems, which for every ﬁxed value of the parameter vector
θ(t) ∈ R
s
are linear time invariant (LTI) systems. We need to
consider LPV systems where the statespace matrices depend
on the vector of parameters θ(t) in an afﬁne fashion. A
statespace representation of a LPV system Σ is
˙ x(t) = A(θ(t))x(t) +B(θ(t))u(t), (1)
y(t) = C(θ(t))x(t) +D(θ(t))u(t). (2)
where x is the state (x ∈ R
n
), u is the input vector (u ∈ R
m
)
and y is the measured output vector (y ∈ R
p
). In this report, we
only have to deal with LPV systems where measurements of
θ(t) are available in real time.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 8/35
LPV systems
Notation 1.1. L
2
[0, ∞) denotes the set of measurable, square
integrable functions of t, t > 0, with norm
f
L
2 = (
∞
0
f(t)
2
dt)
1
2
. By abuse of notation, we will also use the
same notation for the space of vectorvalued square integrable
signals.
Deﬁnition 1.1. Let Θ ⊂ R
s
be a compact set of possible parameter
vectors. The LPV system Σ from (1) and (2) has quadratic H
∞
performance γ > 0 if there exists a matrix X > 0 such that
A(θ)
T
X +XA(θ) XB(θ) C(θ)
T
B(θ)
T
X −γI D(θ)
T
C(θ) D(θ) −γI
< 0 (3)
for all θ ∈ Θ (see P. Apkarian et al., 1995).
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 9/35
LPV systems
Remark 1.2. The LMI (3) implies, by multiplying the matrix from the
left with z
T
= [x(t)
T
u(t)
T 1
γ
y(t)
T
] and then multiplying it from the
right with z, that
d
dt
Xx(t), x(t) ≤ γu(t)
2
−
1
γ
y(t)
2
. (4)
s
If X > 0,
1
γ
> 0 and (A, C) observable, then the system Σ is
stable. Because, taking u = 0 ⇒
d
dt
Xx(t), x(t) ≤ −
1
γ
y
2
;
s
If the initial state of Σ is zero, we obtain that y
L
2 ≤ γu
L
2,
and this is true for any measurable function θ : [0, ∞) → Θ.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 10/35
LPV systems
Deﬁnition 1.2 (Induced L
2
norm). For each θ ∈ Θ, let G
θ
be the
transfer function of the stable system obtained by taking θ(t) = θ in
(1) and (2). The induced L
2
norm of the family G = (G
θ
) is deﬁned
by
G = sup
θ∈Θ
G
θ
∞
, (5)
where G
θ
∞
= sup
Re(s)>0
G
θ
(s).
It follows from Remark 1.2 that, if Σ has quadratic H
∞
performance γ > 0, then G ≤ γ.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 11/35
LPV model for the DFIG
Based on a 5th order nonlinear DFIG model, (see G.M. Asher
et al., 1996 and P. Vas, 1998), we take the state variables x as
the stator ﬂuxes and rotor currents. The external input
variables w (disturbances and references) are stator voltages
and rotor current references. The controller output u consists
of rotor voltages. All of the variables are expressed in a dq
reference frame synchronous with the stator ﬂux. Thus
x =
Ψ
ds
Ψ
qs
i
dr
i
qr
, w =
v
ds
v
qs
i
ref
dr
i
ref
qr
, u =
v
dr
v
qr
.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 12/35
LPV model for the DFIG
The tracking errors are z =
e
idr
e
iqr
T
, where e
idr
= i
ref
dr

i
dr
and e
iqr
= i
ref
qr
 i
qr
. The measured outputs are
y =
Ψ
ds
Ψ
qs
i
dr
i
qr
T
.
The statespace equations of the DFIG model are
˙ x = (A
1
+ω
sl
A
2
)x +B
1
w +B
2
u,
z = C
1
x +D
11
w +D
12
u, (6)
y = C
2
x +D
21
w +D
22
u,
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 13/35
LPV current control of the DFIG
Drive
train
H
7
LPV controller
.
'),*
3
&RQYHUWHU
VO
Z
LGT
H
UGT
L
VGT
\
H
7
°
¯
°
®
VGT
UHI
UGT
Y
L
Z
UGT
Y
Figure 3: LPV control of a wind driven DFIG
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV systems
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV model for the DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
qLPV current control of the
DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 14/35
LPV current control of the DFIG
LPV controller
Plant
1
:
X
:
Plant
z
y
w
P
~
u
z
~
¿
¾
½
y
~
¿
¾
½
) t ( T
K
Figure 4: Block diagram of the augmented plant for LPV con
troller design
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 15/35
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 16/35
Rotor blade theory
U
U G
7
Z
U
U
7
Z
D 8
f
UD
7
Z
Wind
Figure 5(a): A blade element sweeps out an annular ring
a Axial ﬂow induction factor
a
′
Tangential ﬂow induction factor
r Radius of blade element (m)
U
∞
Freestream wind velocity (m/s)
ω
T
Rotational speed of rotor (rad/s)
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 17/35
Rotor blade theory
5
0
5
3
2
1
0
1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Xaxis (m)
x
y
z
Yaxis (m)
B
l
a
d
e
l
e
n
g
t
h
(
m
)
Wind
Rotating direction
Figure 5(b): Blade geometry
E
p q
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 18/35
Rotor blade theory
5
0
5 4
2
0
2
0
20
40
60
B
l
a
d
e
l
e
n
g
t
h
(
m
)
Wind
Rotating direction
z
x
y
Xaxis (m)
Yaxis (m)
Figure 5(c): Blade geometry
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 19/35
Rotor blade theory
5
0
5
3
2
1
0
1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
x
z
Yaxis (m)
y
B
l
a
d
e
l
e
n
g
t
h
(
m
)
Xaxis (m)
Wind
Rotating direction
Figure 5(d): Blade geometry
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 20/35
Rotor blade theory
D 8
f
E
D
I
(A) Velocities
D U
7
Z
ZU
9
I
'
)
/
)
D[
)
7
)
(B) Forces
Rotating direction
Figure 6: Blade element velocities and forces
Chord
α Angle of attack (AOA)
β Pitch angle
φ Flow angle of relative wind velocity V
wr
to rotor plane
c Blade chord length (m)
V
wr
Wind velocity relative to a point on rotating blade
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 21/35
Rotor blade theory
Assume optimal operation which implies maximum power
efﬁciency, and a is constant along each blade, then we have
(see T. Burton, et al, 2001)
a =
1
3
, a
′
=
a(1 −a)
λ
2
µ
2
(7)
tanφ =
1 −a
λµ(1 +a
′
)
, (8)
α = φ −β, (9)
V
wr
=
U
2
∞
(1 −a)
2
+ω
2
T
r
2
(1 +a
′
)
2
, (10)
dF
ax
=
1
2
ρV
2
wr
Nc(C
l
cos φ +C
d
sinφ)dr, (11)
µ Nondimensional radial position, r/R
C
l
(C
d
) Sectional lift (drag) coefﬁcient
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 22/35
Lift and drag coefﬁcient
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Angle of attack(deg)
C
l
C
d
Figure 7: Sectional lift and drag coefficients
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 23/35
Axial force for structural pitch
0
5
10
15
0
10
20
30
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
2000
4000
Turbine rotor speed (rad/s)
Wind speed (m/s)
A
x
i
a
l
f
o
r
c
e
(
k
N
)
Figure 8(a): Axial force for structural pitch
E Z
7 D[
8 I )
f
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qRotor blade theory
qLift and drag coefﬁcient
qAxial force for structural pitch
qAxial force for different pitch
angles
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 24/35
Axial force for different pitch angles
0
1
2
0
10
20
30
1000
500
0
500
1000
1500
A
x
i
a
l
f
o
r
c
e
(
k
N
)
Figure 8(b): Axial force for different pitch angles E Z
7 D[
8 I )
f
Wind speed (m/s)
Rotor speed (rad/s)
V
E
$
V
E
$
V
E
$
V
E
$
V
E
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 25/35
Suppression of vibrations in wind
turbines
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 26/35
Wind turbine model
Blade edge
Drivetrain torsion
Tower sidetoside
Tower foreaft
Blade flap
Generator
azimuth
Wind direction
Figure 9: Assumed wind turbine model with 10 degreeoffreedom
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 27/35
Wind turbine model
The linear dynamics of the wind turbine about an equilibrium
point can be written as:
[M]¨ q + [D] ˙ q + [K]q = {f
β
}β +{f
T
}T +{f
U
∞
}U
∞
, (12)
q, ˙ q, ¨ q The deviation of DOF displacement, velocity
and acceleration from the operating equilibr
ium point values
β, T, U
∞
The deviations of the inputs from their operat
ing point values
[M], [D], [K] System mass, damping and stiffness matrices
{f(·)} The forcing function
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 28/35
Wind turbine tower model
The structural dynamics of a ﬂexible wind turbine system can
be modeled as a uniform beam with top mass M, as shown in
Figure 10. The 1
st
natural frequency may be approximated as
(see J. van der Tempel, et al, 2002)
f
2
1
≈
3.04EI
4π
2
(M + 0.227mL)L
3
. (13)
M
m
EÌ
Figure 10: Simplified structural model of a flexible
wind turbine tower
L Tower height (P)
M
m
EÌ
Top mass (NJ)
Tower mass per unit length (NJP)
Tower bending stiffness
1P
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 29/35
Wind turbine tower model
I ≈
1
8
πD
3
t, m = ρ
s
πDt, b =
M
mL
, (14)
f
1
≈
D
L
2
E
104(b + 0.227)ρ
s
. (15)
where
t Tower wall thickness
D Tower average diameter
ρ
s
Steel density
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 30/35
Wind turbine tower model
Table 1 OptiOWECS characteristics
L 81m
N 2
P
rated
3MW
ω
T
22 rmp=0.37 Hz
Softstiff Stiffstiff Softsoft
1P 2P
0.37Hz 0.74Hz
1P Blade rotating frequency (+])
2P Blade passing frequency (+])
Figure 11(a): Frequency intervals for a constant
speed wind turbine
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 31/35
Wind turbine tower model
Table 2 Vestas V66 2MW characteristics
L 68m
N 3
P
rated
2MW
ω
T
10.524.4 rmp=0.170.4 Hz
1P
0.51
3P
0.17 0.4 1.2
Hz
Softstiff Stiffstiff Softsoft
1P Blade rotating frequency (+])
3P Blade passing frequency (+])
Figure 11(b): Frequency intervals for a variable
speed wind turbine
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 32/35
Control of tower foreaft vibration
Given the 1
st
foreaft mode of the wind turbine tower, we have
M¨ x +D
1
˙ x +K
1
x = F
ax
, (16)
Then the 1
st
tower foreaft mode frequency is
K
1
/Mrad/s.
δF
ax
=
∂F
ax
∂β
δβ = −D
p1
˙ x, (17)
δβ =
−D
p1
∂F
ax
/∂β
˙ x, (18)
where D
p1
is the additional damping. The tower velocity ˙ x can
be calculated by integration of the tower acceleration
measured by an accelerometer mounted in the nacelle.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 33/35
Control of drivetrain torsional vibration
Given the 1
st
tower sidetoside mode, we have
M¨ x +D
2
˙ x +K
2
x = F
t
+F
g
, (19)
Then the 1
st
tower sidetoside mode frequency is
K
2
/Mrad/s.
δF
g
=
∂F
g
∂T
e
δT
e
= −D
p2
˙ x, (20)
δT
e
=
−D
p2
∂F
g
/∂T
e
˙ x, (21)
where D
p2
is the additional damping.
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 34/35
Control of drivetrain torsional vibration
AC
DC
Rotor current
controller
3phase
supply
Pitch
Rotorside
converter
DC link
Wind
Speed
controller
Wind
speed
ReIerence
Speed
calculation
PWM
U
L
'&
9
UHI
U
Z
UHI
TU
L
F V
1
+
+
UHI
GU
L
[
[
.
Figure 12: Control of wind turbine vibrations
1DFHOOH
U
Z
qContents
Introduction
LPV control of the rotor current
of a DFIG
Aerodynamics of wind turbines
Suppression of vibrations in
wind turbines
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qWind turbine tower model
qControl of tower foreaft
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
qControl of drivetrain torsional
vibration
Imperial College London, June 1, 2006 Control of Large HAWT  p. 35/35
Control of drivetrain torsional vibration
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
0
5
10
t (sec)
W
i
n
d
s
p
e
e
d
(
m
/
s
)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
1
2
3
t (sec)
w
T
(
r
a
d
/
s
)
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
0
1
2
x 10
5
Frequency (rad/sec)
P
S
D
Figure 13: Realistic wind speed, turbine rotor speed and the power
spectral density of the rotor speed