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Guide t o building

services for historic


buildings

Sustainable services for


traditional buildings

Maldngbusfness ylly

CIBSE
ofclimate change

The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers


222 Balham High Road, London S W12 9BS
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0 November 2002 The Chartered Institution of Building


Services Engineers London

Registered charity number 278104

ISBN 1-903287-30-8

This document is based on the best knowledge available a t


the time of publication. However no responsibility of any
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Glossary 75

Glossary Archaeology
Systematic scientific study of remains and monuments of
earlier periods. Archaeology is not limited to below-
Adaptation
ground remains; it can include buildings and their
services.
Modifying a place to suit proposed compatible uses (Burra
Charter).
Arts and Crafts
Airconditioning Influential late 19th century and earlier 20th century
English movement in architecture and furnishing based
Controlling the temperature and the humidity of a space, on the revival of traditional crafts and the use of natural
usually at the same time as providing fresh air. Expensive materials, usually English ‘vernacular’ in character.
to install and run, as the humidity-control portion Inspired by William Morris and J o h n Ruskin, the
requires cooling the air to below its dewpoint to movement included many notable designers - Philip
precipitate excess moisture, followed by reheating the air Webb, Norman Shaw, Voysey, Lutyens, and in Scotland
to the required temperature as opposed to just comfort Robert Lorrimer, Reginald Fairley, J J Stevenson, James
cooling, where the air is just reduced in temperature but Marjoribanks Maclaren.
will increase in humidity. Close-control airconditioning is
where conditions are controlled within tight limits, such
as temperature 23 +l0C; relative humidity 55% +10%, Athens Charter
and requires even more energy to run. The Athens Charter of 1931 was the first major initiative
to stimulate international debate on conservation issues.
Many older buildings provide thermal and moisture Several general conclusions were reached concerning the
buffering which may be enough to avoid sudden changes protection of monuments, administrative and legislative
in humidity, making airconditioning not so necessary. measures, aesthetic enhancement, restoration of
Alternatively, artefacts that require very strictly controlled monuments, deterioration, restorative techniques, and
environmental conditions can often be contained in international co-operation. These gave rise to seven main
smaller cases which then provide a much smaller resolutions - the ‘Carta del Restauro’:
airconditioning load, which can also eliminate any
problems between the artefacts’ and the building’s 1 International organisations for restoration on
environmental requirements. operational and advisory levels are to be
established.
2 Proposed restoration projects are to be subjected to
Air-handling unit (AHU) knowledgeable criticism to prevent mistakes
which will cause loss of character and historical
The unit containing the physical heat exchangers, filters values to the structures.
and fans for ventilation, comfort cooling o r air-
conditioning plant, connected by ductwork or plenums to 3 Problems of preservation of historic sites are to be
the areas to be served. solved by legislation at national level for all
countries.
Air-leakage index 4 Excavated sites which are not subject to immediate
restoration should be reburied for protection.
A building-envelope pressure test result expressed as air-
5 Modern techniques and materials may be used in
leakage rate (in cubic metredhour) at 50 pascals imposed restoration work.
differential pressure between the inside and outside of a
building, divided by the envelope area of the building. 6 Historical sites are to be given strict custodial
The envelope area is measured along the boundary or protection.
barrier separating the interior of the building from the
outdoor environment, which might for example be at 7 Attention should be given to the protection of
ceiling or roof level depending how the building is areas surrounding historic sites.
constructed. The area of the lowest floor is only included
for suspended floors, NOT for solid floors laid directly These resolutions were not re-examined until the 2nd
onto the ground. Much historic air-leakage information is International Congress of Architects and Specialists of
expressed in this form, but modern practice simplifies this Historic Buildings which took place in May 1964, where
by always including the ground floor area - see Air the Venice Charter was approved.
permeability.
Beneficial use
Air permeability
A building is in beneficial use if the integrity of the
As the air-leakage index above but with the area of the building is maintained, preventing it falling into decay.
lowest floor always included in t h e envelope area,
whatever the floor’s construction. This definition is the Biomass
one adopted in recent European standards and in Approved
Document L2 of the Building Regulations. (units: Plant matter that can be burnt to release energy, e.g. wood,
metres/hour or m3/h per m2 surface area) straw etc. Essentially a form of solar energy storage.
Previous page
is blank
76 Guide to building services for historic buildings

Breather membrane Condensing boiler


A building sheet or fabric which is practically air tight but A type of efficient boiler that has a heat exchanger made of
allows water vapour to diffuse through easily. an aluminium or stainless material that can withstand the
mild acid from fossil-fuel combustion products. A better
specification nowadays is to use ‘band A’ from the
Breathing construction government-backed website www.boilers.org.uk
Construction, normally traditional, with a low resistance
(high permeability) to water vapour owing to the use of Consent
porous moisture-absorbent materials, renders, plasters and
paints. Does NOT imply passage of draughts or a high air See Listed building consent
permeability, i.e. refers to passage of moisture vapour
through structure, not bulk air movement. Conservation (building)
This is defined by the Burra Charter as ‘all the processes
Building services of looking after a place so as to retain its cultural signif-
Services such as lighting, heating, ventilation, air icance. It includes maintenance, and may according to
conditioning, public health systems and lifts which, in circumstance include preservation, restoration,
commercial buildings, typically account for 30-40% of reconstruction and adaptation and will be commonly a
total construction costs. combination of more than one of these’.

William Morris (founder of the SPAB) pioneered the


Burra Charter approach of preserving as much of the original, or historic,
A document adopted by Australia ICOMOS in 1981 that fabric as possible.
took the basic principles of the Venice Charter as its
starting point, and developed the concept of cultural Conservation heating control
significance.
A method of heating control based on keeping relative
humidity constant. See Section 3.5.
Cement
A quick wetting binder for making mortars and concretes. Conservation officer
T h e most common form of cement encountered is
A heritage conservation specialist referred to in Planning
Portland cement (ordinary Portland cement or OPC),
Policy Guidance Note often a member of the Institute
which is made by grinding the resultant clinker that has
resulted from clay and limestone being prepared at high of Historic Building Conservation (IHBC), responsible for
temperatures. technical and other advice within a local planning
authority. Local authorities which adopt a team-based
approach sometimes delegate responsibilities for historic
The use of cement-based mortars, renders and plasters in buildings, in the first instance, to a ‘nominated officer’
the repair and maintenance of traditional buildings can within the development control section. Some smaller
inhibit the ability of the building to ‘breathe’ which can authorities use consultants.
lead to problems of dampness and decay. See Breathing
construction.
Conservation plan
Class L 1, L2, P I , P2 fire detection systems A document which identifies the significance and
vulnerability of a building, its fabric and/or its setting,
These refer to the standard of fire protection (alarm) which informs what action is required and appropriate to
systems installed: L is for ‘Life’ and L1 is the most ensure that significance is retained and what measures can
comprehensive level. P stands for ‘Property’ and be formulated to reduce the threat to those areas identified
represents a higher standard of coverage, specifically as being vulnerable.
designed to give adequate warning to preserve the fabric.
The Heritage Lottery Fund require the preparation of a
Combined heat and power (CHP) conservation plan where an application for grant seems
particularly complex, or large in financial terms.
A method of generating power (generally electricity) that Increasingly, conservation plans are being requested by
also produces heat in a usable form. Has the advantage of planning authorities to support difficult or sensitive
being much more efficient in the use of fuel, but only as applications for listed building consent.
long as there is a real use for the heat.
CulturaI significance
Comfort cooling
This is defined by the Burra Charter as ‘aesthetic, historic,
See Airconditioning scientific or social value for past, present or future
generations’.
Compatible use
Curtilage
A use which involves no change to the culturally signif-
icant fabric, changes which are substantially reversible, or The curtilage of a building is generally taken as the area
changes which require a minimal impact (Burra Charter). containing the building, its garden, outbuildings, walls
Glossary 77

a n d fences. It is important i n the context of historic Government departments


buildings as a listed building has everything within the
curtilage listed. However, the exact definition is a highly DEFRA Department of the Environment, Food,
complex area, ‘not even lawyers can have a precise idea of and Rural Affairs
what “curtilage” means. It is a matter of fact and degree’ DETR Department of the Environment,
- Lord Justice Robert Walker, Secretary of State v S k e m h Transport and the Regions (until 2001)
of Nottingham 1999.
DNH Department of National Heritage

Delivered energy DOE Department of the Environment (until


1996)
The energy delivered to a building, through the gas or DTLR Department for Transport, Local
electricity meter, o r by t a n k e r a n d lorry. Usually Government and the Regions (until 2002)
measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh), gross calorific value.
It is important to measure and report delivered energy ODPM Office of the Deputy Prime Minister
figures fuel by fuel, and not to add them up, as the cost
a n d carbon dioxide emissions associated with o n e Building Regulations Division was within DOE until 1996,
delivered unit can vary substantially from fuel to fuel. DETR until it was abolished in June 2001, DTLR until
June 2002, and is now (October 2002) part of the Office of
the Deputy Prime Minister.
Dewpoin t
T h e temperature to which air of a certain moisture Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF)
content has to be cooled before condensation will occur.
See also Relative humidity. Created in January 1995, funded by the National Lottery
and administered by the Trustees of the National Heritage
Memorial F u n d . T h e F u n d aims to ‘Safeguard a n d
Displacement ventilation enhance those heritage assets, including buildings, objects
and the environment, whether man-made or natural
Ventilation without mixing, whereby air is introduced which have been important i n the formation of t h e
slowly and evenly across a surface (typically a floor), and character and identity of the UK and which will be a vital
rises, perhaps assisted by natural buoyancy, to push the part of its future’.
contaminated air upwards where it is extracted.
High vapour resistance (HVR)
Electrolytic action
Construction type that does not allow moisture move-
A process which occurs when two dissimilar metals, eg ment, i.e. it will not ‘breath’. Typical example would be
copper and steel, are in the presence of moisture. It can basement waterproof tanking or DPM. See also Low
result is rapid corrosion. This is a problem in heating and vapour resistance.
water supply pipework, but can also occur with fixings,
particularly in the presence of lime mortar.(50) Historic building
T h e Building Regulations definition of an historic
Embodied energy building covers:
T h e amount of energy used to construct a building in 1 Listed buildings;
terms of extraction of materials, manufacture, transport
and assembly on site. 2 Buildings situated in conservation areas;
3 Buildings of local architectural or historical in-
Environmental control terest and which are referred to as a material con-
sideration in a local authority’s development plan;
Generally taken to be the control of temperature and 4 Buildings w i t h i n national parks a n d World
humidity but can also be extended to dust and smell. Heritage Sites.

Fan pressurisation Historic buildings inspectorate


A method of using a calibrated fan to measure t h e The official body in the relevant country:
background infiltration of a building - in the context of
historic buildings, before deciding w h e t h e r to 0 English Heritage in England
draughtproof. Also used as a method of keeping fire escape 0 Historic Scotland in Scotland
stairways clear of smoke during a fire.
0 Cadw in Wales
Free cooling 0 The Department of the Environment in Northern
Ireland.
A control strategy on some airconditioning plants that
allows unconditioned air to be used, with a consequent Holistic
saving in energy use. Also used in the context of natural
ventilation as a method of removing excess internal heat The definition of holistic in a medicinal context is: ‘The
gains and controlling temperatures. treating of the whole person . . . rather than just the
78 Guide to building services for historic buildings

symptoms’ (Concise Oxford Dictionary). In the context of a carbonation to achieve a set, whereas hydraulic lime sets
building this can be seen to represent the treating of the by carbonating and a chemical reaction with water.
whole building and not the symptoms.
Note that there can be problems with electrolytic action
between metals in the presence of lime mortar.(50)
Hybrid
See Mixed mode Lime cycle
Lime does not occur naturally; it must be manufactured.
Hygroscopic T h e material passes through several stages to create a
The ability of a material to absorb water, and release it material suitable for use in the repair or construction of a
when taken to a higher temperature. Common hygro- building:
scopic materials are cellulose and sheep’s wool insulation.
This property provides an additional safeguard against The starting point is calcium carbonate (which might take
interstitial condensation occurring when these insulants the form of limestone, chalk or seashells). Heating the
are added to historic fabric. calcium carbonate in a kiln will produce calcium oxide
(known as quicklime or lump lime) which when combined
with water in a process known as slaking will produce
Impermeable calcium hydroxide (slaked lime or, in one particular state,
putty lime) which is the form of the material used as a
A building material that does not allow water vapour to binder i n making mortars, render a n d plasters a n d
diffuse through. Not part of a breathing construction. limewashes. T h e calcium hydroxide will absorb carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere, and will carbonate to form
Institute of Historic Building Conservation (IHBC) calcium carbonate - thus coming full circle.(51)

Evolved out of The Association of Conservation Officers


(ACO). The objectives of the IHBC are to ‘promote for the Listed building
benefit of the public the conservation of and education A building included on a list of buildings of architectural
and training in the conservation and preservation of or historic interest, compiled by the Secretary of State.
buildings, structures, areas, gardens and landscapes which
are of architectural and historical value in the United
K i n g d o m insofar as i t lies w i t h i n t h e duties a n d Listed building consent
responsibilities of any person whose principal professional Consent required for any work which would effect the
skills are to provide specialist advice in such conservation character of a listed building.
and preservation’.

Low NO, - see NO,


International Council of Monuments and Sites
(/COMOS) Low vapour resistance (LVR)
Created by UNESCO in 1965 to spread the message of the Construction type that allows moisture movement
Venice Charter, ICOMOS is the international authority on through, i.e. it will ‘breath’. See also High vapour resistance.
m o n u m e n t conservation t h a t is i n d e p e n d e n t of
government, and is responsible for World Heritage Sites. Mixed mode

Interstitial tondensation A design of plant that has airconditioning installed, but it


is controllable so t h a t i t only r u n s i n t h e height of
Condensation that occurs in the middle of a wall, roof or summer. The remaining time it uses natural ventilation
other building element, whereby vapour can diffuse into such as o p e n i n g windows, r a t h e r t h a n mechanical
the wall at a rate sufficient to condense as water droplets. ventilation. A very good way of reducing energy
For condensation to occur it is generally necessary for the consumption and associated pollution without sacrificing
wall to contain some insulation to provide a temperature conditions. Sometimes also called ‘hybrid’ systems.
drop - see Dewpoint.
NO, -nitrous oxides
IPXX
Products of combustion which act as pollutants: produce
A designation for electrical components which indicates global warming, acid rain and ozone depletion. Burners
their ability to resist solids (first number) and liquids can be designed to minimise these emissions.
(second number).
Plenum
Lime
A large duct designed to carry air at low velocity and
Lime is the binder traditionally used in the preparation of pressure drop.
mortars, renders a n d plasters a n d is t h e principal
ingredient of limewash (the other being water). Preservation
There are two principal types of lime: nonhydraulic lime Maintaining the fabric of a place in its existing state and
(putty) and hydraulic lime. Nonhydraulic lime relies on retarding deterioration (Burra Charter).
Glossary 79

Pressurisation Stack effect


See Fan pressurisation As air is heated, it becomes, lighter, and will rise, pulling
in cooler air behind it. Stack-effect ventilation requires
openings at high and low level. Stack- and wind-induced
Relative humidity -R H airflows are the two methods of natural ventilation.
A scale from 0 to 100% which indicates the amount of
water vapour contained in the air. Zero is dry air, 100% is Sustainability
the maximum amount of moisture that the air can absorb
at a particular temperature. It is important since it is a Development that meets the needs of the present without
good representation of whether moisture is absorbed or compromising the ability of future generations to meet
deposited on building fabric. As air is heated, its ability to their own needs.(s2)
absorb moisture increases dramatically, and so its relative
humidity will drop, and so it will tend to suck moisture
from the building. Conversely, as air is cooled, its relative Traditional building
humidity will increase. Eventually if the air is cooled A building which relies on evaporation for control of
enough, it will reach its dewpoint, where condensation moisture rather than absolute membranes such as damp-
will occur. See also Conservation heating. proof membranes (DPM), damp-proof courses (DPC),
cavity walls etc.
Restoration
Returning the existing fabric of a place to a known earlier U-value
state by removing accretions or by reassembling existing Thermal transmittance co-efficient, a measurement of heat
components without the introduction of new material loss of a building element, with units of watts per square
(Burra Charter). metre per kelvin. Technically, it is calculated on the rate
at which heat transfers through 1 m2 of a structure where
Sarking the temperature difference between the inner and outer
face is 1 K. The lower the figure, the better insulated the
Roof lining under the slates or tiles to provide increased element.
protection from driving rain. Can be board or membrane.
Sarking that is not vapour permeable (e.g. bituminous felt)
can produce large amounts of condensation if used Vapour barrier
without care. Breather membranes or permeable sarking An absolute protective barrier, usually of polyethylene and
boards carry much less risk. located on the inner, warm surface. It is designed to stop
moisture moving through a structure thereby eliminating
Saturation (or percentage saturation) its condensation on cooler surfaces behind. Not part of a
‘breathing’ structure.
A scale practically identical to Relative humidity.
Vapour check
Scheduled Ancient Monument
Similar in effect to a vapour barrier, but is not an absolute
A scheduled monument is any monument included in the barrier, i.e. allows some moisture through but at a slower
schedule to the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological rate than if i t was not there. Can be an important
Areas Act 1979, which defines a monument as ‘any component of a breathing structure.
building, structure or work, whether above or below the
surface of the land, and any cave or excavation’ or any site
comprising the remains of such things or comprising any Venice Charter
‘vehicle, vessel, aircraft or other movable structure or part
thereof. In 1964 the second meeting of A Congress of Architects
and Specialists of Historic Buildings approved the text of
an International Charter for t h e Conservation of
Once scheduled, consent for any works is required from Monuments and Sites ( t h e Venice Charter) that
the Secretary of State. The site of a monument includes superseded t h e Athens Charter. T h i s document
any adjoining land, which may be considered important to summarises how monuments should be approached and
the monument’s well being. cared for.
Most scheduled monuments are archaeological sites or
ruined buildings. Vernacular
‘ . . . that sort of building which is deliberately permanent
SPAB rather than temporary, which is traditional rather than
academic in its inspiration, which provides for the simple
Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings activities of ordinary people, their farms and their simple
industrial enterprises, which is strongly related to place,
Specification especially through the use of local building materials, but
which represents design and building with thought and
A description of work to be undertaken, including feeling rather than i n a base or strictly utilitarian
methods of completion and materials to be used. manner.’(53)
80 Guide to building services for historic buildings

22 Thomas A R, Williams G and Ashurst N The control of damp in


References old buildings. Technical Pamphlet 8 (London: Society for the
1 Sustaining the historic environment (London: English Heritage) Protection of Ancient Building) (1992)
(March 1997), p. 2 23 BS 5250: 1995: Code of practice for control of condensation in
2 BS 7913: 1998: Guide to the principles of the conservation of historic buildings (London: British Standards Institution) (1995)
buildings (London, British Standards Institution) (1998) 24 Environmental design CIBSE Guide A (London: Chartered
3 Building Regulations Approved Document L 1 Conservation of fire1 Institution of Building Services Engineers) (1999)
and power in dwellings (2001 edition); Building Regulations 25 Testing buildings for air leakage CIBSE Technical Memoranda 23
Approved Document L 2 Conservation of fuel and pourer in buildings ( L o n d o n : Chartered I n s t i t u t i o n of Building Services
other than dwellings (2001 edition) (London: The Stationery Engineers) (2000)
Office) (2001)
26 BREDEM-12: The BRE domestic energy model, available from
4 Suddards R W and Hargreaves J M Listed buildings (London: BRE, Garston, Watford, Herts WD25 9XX
Sweet & Maxwell) (1995)
27 Guide to R I B A forms of appointment ( L o n d o n : RIBA
5 Planning and the historic environment. Planning Policy Guidance Publications) (1999)
Note 15 (London: Department of t h e Environment and
Department of National Heritage) (1994) 28 Standard form of agreement for the appointment of a n architect
(SFAl99) (London: RIBA) (1999)
6 For Wales: Planning Guidance Wales Planning Policy First
29 RIBA Plan of Work (London: RIBA) (1999)
revision (Cardiff Welsh Office) (1999) and Circular 61/96
Planning and historic environment: historic buildings and 30 SFAl92 Standard form of agreement for the appointment of an
conservation areas (Cardiff: Welsh Office: 1996) architect. Historic buildings: repair and conservation work,
alternative schedule of services (London: RIBA/RIAS/IRSU/ACA)
7 For Scotland: Planning and the historic environment. National
(1992)
Planning Policy Guidance 18 (Edinburgh: Scottish Office)
(1998) and Memorandum of guidance on listed buildings and 31 Clark K Conservation plans in action Proc Oxford Conference
conservation areas, issued under cover of Historic Scotland (London: English Heritage) (1999)
Circular 111998 (Edinburgh: Historic Scotland) (1998)
32 A i r distribution systems CIBSE Commissioning Code A
8 For Northern Ireland: Planning (Northern Ireland) Order 1991 ( L o n d o n : Chartered I n s t i t u t i o n of Building Services
(London: Stationery Office) (1991) Engineers) (1996)

9 Hughes P The need for old buildings to Breathe’. Information Sheet 33 Boiler plant CIBSE Commissioning Code B (London: Chartered
4 (London: Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings) Institution of Building Services Engineers) (1975)
(1986)
34 Automatic controls CIBSE Commissioning Code C (London:
10 English Heritage ‘Framing opinions’ series: Leaflets 1 Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers) (2001)
Draughtproofing & secondary glazing (1994); 2 Metal windows 35 Reftlgeration systems CIBSE Commissioning Code R (London:
(1997); 3 Timber sash windows (1997); 4 Window comparisons Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers) (1991)
(1994); 5 Energy savings (1994) (London: English Heritage)
36 Water distribution systems. CIBSE Commissioning Code W
11 Brereton C The repair of historic buildings: advice on principles and ( L o n d o n : Chartered I n s t i t u t i o n of Building Services
methods (London: English Heritage) (1991) Engineers) (1994)
12 Bordass W Museum collections storage in industrial buildings: a 37 Lighting CIBSE Commissioning Code L (London: Chartered
selection and adaptation guide, edited by Cassar M (London: Institution of Building Services Engineers) (to be published)
Museums & Galleries Commission) (1996) - now Re:source
38 Commissioning management CIBSE Commissioning Code M
13 Blades N, Oreszczyn T, Bordass W and Cassar M Guidelines on ( L o n d o n : Chartered I n s t i t u t i o n of Building Services
pollution control in museum buildings Museum Practice issue Engineers) (to be published)
15, supplement (Nov 2000)
39 Kent D Technical advice and Innderdale J Old buildings, new
14 Impacts of acid rain on buildings Atmosphere, Climate & rules SPAB News 23(3) 50-53 (2002)
Environment Information Programme. Air Pollution Fact
Sheet 12 (Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University) 40 The installation of sprinkler systems in historic buildings. Technical
Advice Note 14 (Edinburgh: Historic Scotland ) (1998)
15 Curwell S, March C, Greenberg M and Fox R Hazardous
41 Slater S D and Dow D A (Eds) The Victoria Injirmaty of Glasgour
building materials - a guide to the selection of environmentally
1890-1990 (Glasgow: Victoria Infirmary Centenary Committee)
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16 Fire protection measures in Scottish historic buildings. Technical 42 Key W and Tindall R Improvements in the heating and cooling of
Advice Note 11 (Edinburgh: Historic Scotland) (1997)
school houses British Patent 19 900 (1892)
17 Bailey A Fire protection measures for the Royal Palaces (London: 43 Cairns G The Glasgour School of Art: the leading edge of technlogv
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18 BS 5268-2: Structural use of timber. Code of practice for permissible (1998)
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(London: Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings) Engioneers) vol 1, pp. 1-6
(1991) 45 Ingels M Willis Carrier, the father of air-conditioning (Garden
City, N Y : Country Life Press) (1952), p. 15
20 Fawcett, J Historic floors, their history and conservation
(Tisbury: Cathedral Communications Ltd) (2001) 46 Banham R The architecture of the well tempered environment
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21 Hughes P Patching old floorboards. Information Sheet 10 (London:
Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings) (1988) 47 Mattin D Cool operators The Times 2, 13 August 2002, p.10
References 81

48 Banham R The architecture of the well tempered environment 51 Wingate M An introduction to building limes Technical Pamphlet
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press) (1969), p, 82 9 (London: Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings)
52 Our common future (the Bruntland report) United Nations
49 Roberts B The quest for comfort (London: Chartered Institution
World Commission on Environment and Development
of Building Services Engineers) (1997) p. 113
(Oxford: Oxford University Press) (1987)
50 Ashurst J and Ashurst N Practical building conservation Volume 4 53 Brunskill R W Traditional buildings of Britain - an introduction
Mezals (Aldershot: Gower Publishing) (1988) to vernacular architecture (London: Victor Gollancz) (1992) p. 24
82 Guide to building services for historic buildings

Jay P and Crawforth W Church lighting (London: Church House


Further reading Publishing) (2001)
Curl J S Oxford dictionary of architecture (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
Sage A G Wiring of churches (London: Church House Publishing) (1997)
(1999)
Larsen K and Marstein N Conservation of historic timber structures - an Lightning protection for churches. A guide to design and installation (London:
ecological approach (Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann) (2000) English HeritageEcclesiastical Insurance Group) (2000)

Earl J Building conservation philosophy (Reading: The College of Estate M Cassar (Ed) Museums environment energy (London: HMSO) (1994)
Management) (1996) Feilden B Conservation of historic buildings (London: Butterworth
Robson P Structural repair of traditional buildings (Shaftesbury: Donhead Scientific) (1982)
Publishing) (1999)
Ridout B Timber decay in buildings (London: Spon) (2000)
Holrnes S and Wingate M Building with lime - a practical introduction
Mynors C Listed buildings, conservation areas and monuments (London:
(Colchester: Intermediate Technology Publications) (2002)
Sweet & Maxwell) (1999)
Watt D and Swallow P Surveying historic buildings (Shaftesbury: Donhead
Publishing) (1996) Technical pamphlets and information sheets The Society for the Protection
of Ancient Buildings (SPAB) wwwspab.0rg.uk - see also References 9,
Davey A, Heath B, Hodges D, Ketchin M and Milne R The care and 19,20,22 and 51
conservation of Georgian houses (Oxford: Butterworth Architecture) (1995)
Williarns G B A Pointing stone and brick walling Technical
Structural renovation of traditional buildings Report 11 1 (London: Pamphlet 5 (1994)
Construction Industry Research and Information Association) (1986)
H u n t A Electrical installations in old buildings Technical
Environmental design CIBSE Guide A (London: Chartered Institution of Pamphlet 9 (1996)
Building Services Engineers) (1999) - particularly section 7: moisture
transfer and condensation Stainton S and Sandwith H The National Trust manual of housekeeping
(London: The National Trust) (1991)
Energy efficiency in buildings CIBSE Guide F (London: Chartered
Institution of Building Services Engineers) (1998) Collings J Old house care &repair (Shaftesbury: Donhead) (2002)
Mixed mode ventilation CIBSE Application Manual 13 ( L o n d o n : Funds for historic buildings (in England and Wales) (London: T h e
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers) (2000) Architectural Heritage F u n d ) . T e l : 020 7925 0199. website:
www.ahfund.0rg.uk
Powys A R Repair of ancient buildings (London: The Society for the
Protection of Ancient Buildings) (1995) Sources of financial help for Scotland’s historic buildings (Glasgow: Scottish
Oliver A (Second Edition revised by Douglas, J and Stirling J S). Civic Trust). Tel: 0141 248 3398
Dampness in buildings (Oxford: Blackwell Science) (1997) Directory of funds for historic buildings Northern Ireland (Belfast: Ulster
The conservation glossary Architectural Heritage Society). Tel: 028 9055 0213
http://www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/research/glossary/glossary.html Publications, information and advice on energy efficiency in buildings is
Bordass W and Bemrose C Heatingyour church (London: Church House available from Action Energy. Call the Helpline on 0800 585794 or visit
Publishing) (1996) the website at www.actionenergy.0rg.uk
Useful contacts 83

South West: 29 Queen Square, Bristol BS1 4ND


Useful contacts
Action Energy Tel: 0117975 0700

Publications, information and advice on energy efficiency in buildings is South East: Eastgate Court, 195-205High Street, Guildford GU1 3EH
available from Action Energy. Call the Helpline on 0800 585794 or visit
the website at www.actionenergy.org.uk Tel: 01483 252000

Ancient Monuments Society The Georgian Group


St Anne's Vestry Hall, 2 Church Entry, London EC4V 5HB 6 Fitzroy Square, London W1P 6DN
Tel: 020 7236 3934
Tel: 0207387 1720
The Architectural Heritage Fund
Heritage Information Trust
Clareville House, 26-27 Oxendon Street, London SW1 Y4EL
Tel: 020 7925 0199. Fax: 020 7930 0295. e-mail: ahf@ahfUnd.0rg.uk Contact: Dorian Crone

The UK Association of Building Preservation Trusts Tel: 020 7243 5888. e-mail : info@heritageinformation.org.uk
Clareville House, 26-27 Oxendon Street, London SWlY 4EL Heritage Lottery Fund
Tel: 020 7930 1629
England: 7 Holbein Place, London SW1 W 8NR
Building Research Establishment
Tel: 020 7591 6031-4. Fax: 020 7591 6001
Garston, Watford, Herts WD25 9XX
Scotland: Heritage Lottery Fund
Tel: 01923 664000
Cadw. Welsh Historic Monuments 28 Thistle Street, Edinburgh EH2 1EN

Crown Buildings, Cathays Park, Cardiff CFlO 3NQ Tel: 0131 225 9450. Fax: 0131 225 9454
Tel: 029 2050 0200. Fax: 029 2082 6375. e-mail: cadw@wales.gsi.gov. uk Wales: Companies House, Crown Way, Cardiff CF4 3UZ
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers
Tel: 029 2034 3413. Fax: 029 2034 3427
222 Balham High Road, London SWl2 9BS
Northern Ireland: Glendinning House, 6 Murray Street, Belfast BT1 6DN
Tel: 020 8675 5211. Fax: 020 8675 5449. e-mail: info:cibse.org. Website:
www.cibse.org Tel: 0289031 0120. Fax: 028 9031 0120
CIBSE Building Services Heritage Group, c/o CIBSE
Historic Scotland
Website: www.hevac-heritage.org
Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH
Civic Trust
Te: 0131 668 8668. Fax: 0131 668 8669
17 Carlton House Terrace, London SWlY 4AW
Tel: 020 7930 0914 National Trust
Civic Trust for Wales 36 Queen Anne's Gate, London SWlH 9AS
2nd Floor, Empire House, Mount Stuart Square, Cardiff CF16DN
Tel: 0207 222 9251
Tel: 029 2048 4606
National Trust for Scotland
English Heritage
Wemyss House, 28 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh EH2 4ET
London: 23 Savile Row, London W1X 1AB
Tel: 020 7973 3000 Tel: 0131 243 9300. Fax: 0131 243 9301. e-mail: inforrnation@nts.0rg.uk.
Website: www,thenationaltrustforscotland,org.uk
North East: Bessie Surtees House, 41-44 Sandhill, Newcastle upon Tyne
NE1 3JF Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings
Tel: 0191 261 1585 37 Spital Square, London El 6DY
North West: Canada House, 3 Chepstow Street, Manchester M1 5FW
Tel: 020 7377 1644
Tel: 0161 242 1400
The Theatres Trust
Yorkshire: 37 Tanner Row, York YO1 6WP
Tel: 0 190460190 1 22 Charing Cross Road, London WC2H OQL

East Midlands: 44 Derngate, Northampton NN1 1UH Tel: 020 7836 8591
Tel: 01604 735400 The Twentieth Century Society
West Midlands: 112 Colmore Row, Birmingham B3 3AG
77 Cowcross Street, London EClM 6EJ
Tel: 0121 625 6820
Tel: 020 7250 3857
East of England: Brooklands House, 24 Brooklands Avenue, Cambridge
CB2 2BU The Victorian Society
Tel: 01223 58270 1 Priory Gardens, Bedford Park, London W4 1TT

Tel: 020 8994 1019


84 Guide to building services for historic buildings

BS 5268 11 Conservation (definition) 76


B S 5588-4 51 architect 21
B S 6651 36 areas 1,4
B S 7913 5 heating 7, 19, 76
A Builders, buildings associated with 3 plan 21,48,49, 74,76
Building control officer, local authority 3,24 policy 24
Absorption chillers 9 Building Conservation officer, local authority 3,4,5,23,
‘Acid rain’ 8 fabric 15 24,76
Acoustic treatment 62 ‘logbook’ 25 Contract administrator 25
Adaptation (definition) 75 services 7,76 Construction stage 25
Airconditioning 7,9, 12,23, 36,67,69,71,76 Building Regulations 1,4,5,6 Consultation, need for 11, 22,23
Air-handling unit Building Research Establishment 83 Contemporary services 52
definition 76 Burra Charter 76 Contractors 25
difficult installation of 62 Building services engineers 21 Controls 19
speed control for 61 improving 7
Air infiltration 3,7,8, 18,31 Control systems 7,9
Air leakage index 19,75 C Cooling, mechanical 7
Air movement L Coppice 8
Air permeability 18,75 Cable specification 12 Cornices
Air pressure tests See Fan pressurisation Cables, routes for 11 as routes for services 13
testing Cadw 78,83 assessment of importance of 21
Airtightness 25 Carbon dioxide emissions 1922 7383 9 Corrosion 23
Alternative energy 49 (see also box at end of each case study) Costs, avoiding unnecessary,
Ancient Monuments 1,3,4,35,79 Carrier, W H 72 through planning 14
Ancient Monuments and Case studies (table) 26 Covering historic features 23
Archaeological Areas Act 4 Castles and palaces 35 Criteria for new building services 11
Ancient Monuments Society 83 Cathedrals 54,59 Cultural benefits 2
Appliances, energy efficient 8 Cavity walls 2, 15 Cultural significance (definition) 76
Applications, need for 22 Ceiling roses, importance of 21 Curatorial staff, conservation
Appraisal 24 Ceilings heating a problem for 20
Approvals, obtaining 4, 23 painted 18,33 Curtilage 4,76
Approved Documents L1 and L2 1,5,19,25 voids above 13
Archaeological records 22 Cellars 12
Archaeologist 14,21 Cellulose fibre insulation 18,33
Cement (definition) 76
D
Archaeology (definition) 75
Architectural interest, buildings of 1 Cement mortar 14,16 Damage, avoiding 6,21
Architect, need for building services Chasing, minimising 11 Damp 8, 16, 17,58
engineer to work with 12 Chimneys 7, 13, 18, 19 Damp-proof courses and membranes 2,15,17
Architectural Heritage Fund 83 Churches 8, 14, 19,23,33,56,58 Data
Areas of outstanding natural beauty 1 CIBSE 83 distribution 7
Article 4 Direction 4 Building Services Heritage Group 83 logging 20
Arts and Crafts 75 Guide A 17 Daylight 29
Asbestos 11,37 Technical Memoranda 23 18 Decay revealed on opening-up 11
Aspirating smoke detectors 42,59 Civic Trust 83 DEFRA 77
Assessment of exposed fabric 14 Civic Trust for Wales 83 Dehumidifiers 10,54
Association of Building Preservation Trusts 83 Cladding 2,4, 15 Delays, allowing for 4
Athens Charter 75 Class L1, L2, P1, P2 fire detection systems Delivered energy (definition) 77
Attendance by principal contractor 14 (definitions) 76 Demolition 4
Attic spaces 12 Cob 1 Department of the Environment
Authenticity, protecting 21 Cold bridges 19 Northern Ireland 77
‘Cold radiation’ 19 Design
Cold water provision 7 approach 20
B Collymore Cottages 40 detailed, need for 11
Combination boilers 29 load, reducing 8
Background heating 19,23,33 Combined heat and power 9,61, 76 principles 6,21
Bath town house upgrade 29 Comfort Designers, buildings associated with 3
Beneficial use (definition) 75 expectations 23 Detailed proposals 24
Benham Valence 44 heating 23 DETR 77
Berg Cottage 3, 31 occupant 7, 18,20 Development plan, local authority 1
Biodeterioration, products of 9 Commissioning 25,26 Dewpoint (definition) 77
Biomass 8,75 Community buildings 48 Dimmable ballasts 29
Blinds 54 Compact fluorescent lamps 29 Disabled access 7, 36
Boilers 7,8,9, 11,33,35 Compatible use (definition) 76 Displacement ventilation (definition) 77
See also Condensing boilers; Oil fired Compatibility of materials 6 DNH 77
boilers Concealed Documentation of work 25
Breathable roof 17,29 historic fabric 61 DOE 77
Breather membranes 17, 18, 76 pipework 13 Doors
‘Breathing’ construction 2,5,15, 18,23,48,76 r outes, disadvantages 13 appearance of 6
BREDEM-12 19 Condensation 23 replacement 536
Brick construction 1, 16 interstitial 15, 17,40,78 Dormer windows 4
Brickwork, inappropriate fixing to 15 risk of 19 Double glazing 5,41
Briefing 24 Condensing boilers 9,29,31,33,39,42,47,48, Draughtproofing 2,18
British Standards 1 62,66 Draught seals, window 65
Brockley Hill Farm 47 Consent, not required 4 Drawings 11,12,24
B S 5250 17,40 Consents, obtaining 4, 23 Dry lining 41
Index 85

Dry rot 9 G Intermittent heating See Heating, intermittent


DTLR 77 Internal environment, improving 2,8
Ducts, routes for 11 Galleries, display 23 International Council of Monuments and
Georgian group 83 Sites (ICOMOS) 78
Ductwork 7,8
Glasgow School of Art 71 Interstitial condensation See Condensation,
Duff House, Aberdeenshire 68
Global Alliance for Building Sustainability 2 interstitial
Dwelling houses 4
Government departments 77 Intervention, minimising 1,6,21
Dynamic equilibrium 16
Grade A listing 4,68,71 IP rating (definition) 78
Grade B listing 4
Grade C listing 4
E Grade I listing 3,4,33,42,45,54,62,74
Grade 11*listing 3,4,41,44,52,67
J
Eagle Academy, Cowbridge 66
Grade I1 listing 4,29, 31,47,48, 51, 56,66 Johannesburg ‘Earth Summit’ 2
Earth construction 1, 16
Gravity flow systems 11
Economic benefits 2
Greenhouse gases 8
Efflorescence 23
Grisaille stained glass 58 K
Electrical circuits 7
Gurney, Sir Goldsworthy 73
Electric water heaters 9 Key, William 69,71
Embodied energy (definition) 77 King’s Arms Barn, Henley on Thames 48
Emergency lighting 7 King’s College, Cambridge 74
Emulsion, mineral-based 17
H
Energy efficiency 1,2, 3, 5,6,7,9, 25 Handover 25
England 4 Health and Safety etc Act 4 L
English Heritage 10,77,83 Health of occupants 8, 18
Entrance porch 21 Health risks of existing building L1, L2 class fire detection systems
Environmental services equipment 11 (definition) 76
control (definition) 77 Hearing loops 7 Lamb’s wool insulation See Sheep’s wool
Heat emitters 7,11,33 insulation
impact 2,ll
Heating Lath and plaster 18,37
Equilibrium, environmental 8,23
coils, reinstatement of 52 Lead, punctured by fixings 15
Erosion of stone 2
intermittent 19,23, 33 Leak detection systems 9
Escalators 7
pattern 19 Leaks, water 9, 13
Evaporation 15,16 Legal obligations 21
Heat recovery 7
Existing spaces and voids, using 6
Henman, William 69 Legislation 1,334
Expectations, public 7 Library 52
Heritage Information Trust 83
Exposed services 12 Lichen growth on windows 58
Heritage Lottery Fund 77,83
Exterior lighting 56 Hertsmonceux Castle 35 Lifts 7,36, 38
High-frequency dimmable ballasts 29 Light-emitting diodes 56
High thermal mass 19 Lighting 7, 11,33,36, 53, 56,61,62,67
F High vapour resistance (HVR) (definition) 77 free-standing 66
Historical interest, buildings of 1 Lightning protection 7, 14,36,62
Fabric Light pipes 29
Historical research 22
rapid deterioration 19 Light sources, efficient 7
Historic building (definition) 77
retaining 6 Light switches, existing 11
Historic building services 10,69,71
Famous people, buildings associated with 3 Historic Buildings Inspectorate 3,4,24,77 Lightweight structures 18
Fan-coil airconditioning 12 Historic Scotland 77,83 Like-for-like repairs 4
Fan pressurisation testing 18, 19,24,77 Holes in timbers, minimising 11,12 Lime (definition) 78
Feedback 25 Holistic approach 9,20,77 cycle (definition) 78
Fibre-optic lighting 61 Horniman Museum, London 64 mortar 2, 16
Final proposals 24 Hospital with historic services 69 Limestone, degradation of 8
Fire Hot water List description, obtaining 4
detection and alarms 7 provision 7 Listed building (definition) 78
escapes 36,38 supply systems, convoluted 9 consent 4,78
precautions 51,68 Houses and Listed buildings 1,4, 10
protection 7,59 cottages 29,31,40,41,42,45,47,49 Listed Buildings Act 29
resistant cables 12 Humidistat control of heating 29 Local architectural or historic interest 1
risk 11 Humidity, rapid changes 10,19 Local authority 4
Fireplaces, importance of 21 Hydro-electric generation 8 Localised heating 33
Fixings 15 Hygroscopic insulation materials 18,78 ‘Low tech’ approach 54
Fixtures and finishes, listing of 4 Low vapour resistance (LVR) 2, 15, 18,40,78
Flexibility of design approach 21 Low-water-use appliances 9
Floorboards 11,13,14,25,68 I Luminaires 11
Floors 11, 13,14,19,29
Impermeable materials 2, 15,78
damp 19 Individuality 1
Flow restrictors, tap 9 M
Industrial Revolution 17
Flues 7,9, 13 Infra-red thermography 58 Mackintosh, Charles Rennie 71
Folding wedges 11,12 Innovative construction techniques 2 Maintenance
Forms of appointment 22 Inspection, detailed 24 preventive 7
Fossil fuels 9 Institute of Historic Building Conservation 78 work, VAT liability 5
Free cooling 64,77 Insulation Management, building 7,8
Frontage, importance of 21 pipe and duct 12 Materials
Frost protection 13,49 sound 29 environmentally conscious 399
Fuel supply and storage 7 thermal 2,8,15, 17, 18,33,37,41,65 inappropriate 23
Fuels, clean 2,8 Integration of new services 11 Means of escape 36
Fungi 9 Interdisciplinary approach 1 Mechanical ventilation 7,29
86 Guide to building services for historic buildings

Metering, fuel 7 Planning Policy Guidance Note 15 4 Salt recrystallisation 19,23


Method of construction 3 Planning, project, to avoid delay 14 Sandstone walls 2
Mineral-insulated cables 12 Plan of work See RIBA Plan of Work Sanitary accommodation 7
Mineral-wool insulation 39 Plant, efficient, need for 9 SAP rating 24,29,31
Mixed mode ventilation 78 Plaster 15,18 Sarking 17, 18,79
Mobilisation 25 Plenum (definition) 78 Sash windows 29
Modern buildings 2 Plume from boiler flue 9 Satellite dishes 4
‘Modern Movement’ house Pollution 8,9, 18,23 Saturation (definition) 79
refurbishment 41 Pol yvin ylchloride 9, 13 Scheduled Ancient Monuments
Moisture Porous fabric 2 See Ancient Monuments
absorbing 2 Portland cement 2 Scotland 4
control 16 Power supply and distribution 7 Seasonal efficiency 9
excluding 2 Practical completion 25 Security systems 7
evaporation of 2 Presence detection 29 Sedbuk 9
levels 225 Preservation (definition) 78 Sefton Park Palm House, Liverpool 51
movement 2, 15 Preventive maintenance 7 Service runs 11
Monitoring, building performance 18,20,25, Primary energy efficiency 8 Services, listing of 4
33 Principles 1 Sewage treatment 36
Mortar 14,15 Production information 24 Sheep’s wool insulation 18,29,31,33,47,48
Motor efficiency 9 Project Shutters 29
Mould growth 9,15, 18, 19,33 manager 21 Significance of building 24
Movement sensors 29 team 21 Single-glazed windows 3
Museums 61,64 Proportion of UK buildings which are Site organisation and practice 25
historic or traditional 2 Small power 7
Protection 1 Smoke detectors, aspirating See Aspirating
N Public address 7 Social benefits 2
Pulsed radar 13 Society for the Protection of Ancient
National Centre for Early Music, York 62
Pumps, variable speed 35 Buildings 13,51,79,83
National Parks 1
Purpose of work, need to understand 21 Solar gain 20
National Trust 20,31,40,42,49,83
Solid walls 2, 15
National Trust For Scotland 83
Spalling 2
Natural ventilation 52
R Specification (definition) 79
Night set back 19
detailed, need for 11,12
Northern Ireland 4 Radiators Spores, toxic 9
Norton Park, Edinburgh 37 electric, dummy 42 Sprinklers 7,68
Notching of timbers 11
existing 11,35,39,42 Stack effect (definition) 79
NO, (definition) 78
new 29,31,35,39,54 Stained glass 58
Nursery Cottage 49
Radio linking of services 29,31,44,59 Staircase pressurisation 51
Rainwater collection 39 ‘Static’ commissioning 25
Ramps for disabled access 7 Statutory consents 22
Recommended approach 4 Statutory protection 1,6,11
Recording concealed services 13 Stone 1,8, 16, 19
0 Records, keeping proper 7 Storage areas 23
ODPM 77 Reid, D B 72 Strategic approach to design 20
Offices 37,44, 51,66 Relative humidity 7, 18,19,20,79 Straw as a fuel 8
Oil fired boiler 58 acceptable range 20 Structural features, notable 3
Operating and maintenance manual 25 close control of 20 Structural stability 11
Operatives with appropriate skills and monitoring 20 Structural engineer 14
knowledge 25 Render Stud walls 13
Outbuildings 4 Renewable energy sources 8 Style of building 3
Outline proposals 24 Repairs, like-for-like 4 Subcontractors 25
‘Over ventilation’ 23 Repairs, VAT liability 5 Sulphur dioxide 8
Research, need for 24 Surveys 12,24
Restoration (definition) 79 Surveyor, need for building services
P Re-using existing services 11 engineer to work with 12
Reversibility 1,6, 21,61 Sustainable
PI, P2 class fire detection systems 36,76
RIBA Plan of Work 22,24 approach 2
Painted ceilings 18
Risks and responsibilities 21 materials 9
Paint finishes, ‘breathable’ 16
Robustness of building 23 Sustainability 1, 2,7,23,24, 79
Paint, impervious 23
Rochester Cathedral 59
Pane11ing 13
Rooflights 5
Patina of age 2
Roof spaces 12,13,19 T
Permanent ventilation system 18
Room thermostats 31
Photo-electric cells 29 Telephone circuits 7
Rotherfield Park 45
Pipework Temperature
Royal Society of Chemistry 12,67
chemical cleaning 11 monitoring 20
Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast 69
concealed 13 rapid changes in 19
design 12 Temporary services 10
re-using 11 Tender action 22,25
routes for 11,12 S
Tender information 24
Planning (Listed Buildings and Safety guttering 9 Tendering 14,22
Conservation Areas) Act 4 St Leonard’s, Bilston, Wolverhampton 56 Testing, pipework 13
Planning (Listed Buildings and St Mary Abchurch 33 Thatch 31
Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 4 St Mary & St Barlock, Norbury, Theatres Trust 83
Planning (NI) Order 4 Derbyshire 58 Thermal insulation See Insulation, thermal
Index 87

Thermal mass 19 Windows


Thermal shock 11 appearance of 6
Thermography 58 concealed draughtproofing 29
Thermostatic radiator valves 29 importance of 21
Tiling, importance of 21 operation of 25
Timber floors 13 replacement 5,6
Timber framed buildings 2,14,16,31,47,48 role in ventilation 16
Timbers, notching and cutting of 11 single-glazed 3
Time for project, extra needed 23 Wind power 8
Toilets, external 7 Woodchip as a fuel 8,45
Toxic materials 9 World Heritage Sites 1
Traditional buildings 1,6, 15,18,79 Wren Library, Lincoln Cathedral 54
Transportation systems 7
Twentieth Century Society 83
z
Zero rating for VAT 5
U
U-values 5,29,39,48,79
Unauthorised works 4, 74
Underfloor heating 19,33,52,62,66
Unlisted buildings 4
Uplighters 36
Upgrading building stock 1
Urinals, low-water-use 9

Value Added Tax 5


Valves, re-using 11
Vapour
barrier (definition) 79
check (definition) 79
control materials 15,38
permeable construction 29
resistance 2, 17
Variable speed pumps 35
Venice Charter 79
Ventilation 18
background 39
eaves level 37
for moisture removal from fabric 19
hybrid 64
kitchen 36
mechanical 7
mechanical, humidity controlled 31
natural 15,52
pattern 19
systems, existing 6, 11
Vernacular (definition) 79
Victoria & Albert Museum 61
Victorian Society 83
Voids, using to conceal services 13
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 9
Vulnerability of building 24
Vyne, The 42

W
Wales 4
Wall paintings 19
Walls
chasing 11
re-inforced concrete 41
Warm-air heating 19,71
‘Warm’ roof 65
Water conservation 29
Water heaters, electric 9
Water leaks 9
Water pressure 11
Water vapour 19
WCs, low-water-use 9
Weatherboard cladding 2,31
,Weatheringof stone 2
88 Guide to building services for historic buildings

Adage for dealing with historic


buildings :

Sicut serpentes

Sicut Columbae

(be ye wise) as serpents

(and harmless) as doves

Matthew 10 v 16