DRUG NAME Lactulose

CLASSIFICATION GASTROINTESTINAL DRUGSLaxative

ACTION Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase thus preventing replication in susceptible bacteria Decreases total acid load of GI tract. Increase esophageal sphincter tone Dopamine antagonist that acts by increasing receptor sensitivity and response of upper GIT tissues to acetylcholine Exertsmainlybeta-1adrenergicblockingactivitybutalso blocksbeta-2receptorsat highdoses Relieve cramps or spasms of the stomach, intestines, and bladder Citicoline is an interneuronal communication enhancer. It increases the neurotransmission levels because it favors the synthesis and production speed of dopamine in the striatum, acting then as a dopaminergic agonist thru the inhibition of tyrosine- hydroxylase. Inhibits sodium and chloride reabsorption at the proximal and distal tubules and the ascending loop of Henle Completely inhibits action of histamine on the H2 at receptor sites of parietal cells, decreasing gastric acid secretions Inhibits central vasomotor centers, thereby decreasing sympathetic outflow Diffuses across cell membrane and complexes with specific cytoplasmic receptors Mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolality, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues, including the brain and cerebrospinal fluid, into interstitial fluid and plasma. As a result, cerebral edema, elevated intracranial pressure, and cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure may be reduced. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown but similar morphine. Like morphine, tramadol binds to receptors in the brain (opioid receptors) that are important for transmitting the sensation of pain from throughout the body. 1|P a ge

Calcium Carbonate Metoclopromide

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS-Anti-anxiety GASTROINTESTINAL DRUGSANTI-FLATULENTS

Metropolol

CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGSBETA-BLOCKERS Antispasmodic

Hyoscine-Nbutylbromide Citicoline

CNS Stimulant

Furosemide

LoopDiuretic

Ranitidine HCL

Anti-ulcer

Clonidine hydrochloride Dexamethasone

Non narcotic /analgesics and antipyretic/ antiplatelet Corticosteroids

Mannitol

Diuretic, antiglaucoma agent (systemic), antihemolytic

Tramadol

Analgesic

Relaxing the muscles lining the arteries of the rest of the body lowers the blood pressure. Spironolactone inhibits the action of aldosterone thereby causing the kidneys to excrete salt and fluid in the urine while retaining potassium. the production of acid is decreased. blocks the enzyme in the wall of the stomach that produces acid. This shift in chloride ions results in hyperpolarization (a less excitable state) and stabilization. It is used to treat asthma. Metronidazole is an antibiotic effective 2|P a ge . including dental extraction procedures. By relaxing coronary arteries. blocking calcium transport relaxes artery muscles and dilates coronary arteries and other arteries of the body. and this allows the stomach and esophagus to heal This drug relaxes the smooth muscle in the lungs and opens airways to improve breathing. Since calcium is important in muscle contraction. Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin which plays an important role in blood clotting. including the limbic system. emphysema and to prevent exerciserelated asthma. By blocking the enzyme. Enhancement of the inhibitory effect of GABA on neuronal excitability results by increased neuronal membrane permeability to chloride ions. These medications block the transport of calcium into the smooth muscle cells lining the coronary arteries and other arteries of the body. This medication is used to prevent and treat hypoprothrombinemia (low blood clot factor levels) caused by vitamin K deficiency. This medication is used for short-term control of bleeding in hemophiliacs. short-acting Vitamin K Anticoagulant Tranexamic Acid Antifibrinolytic agent Amlodipine Calcium Channel Blockers Spironolactone Potassium-sparing diuretic Metronidazole Antibiotic Binds to stereo Specific benzodiazepine receptors on the postsynaptic GABA neuron at several sites within the central nervous system. chronic bronchitis. reticular formation. which reduces the burden on the heart as it pumps blood to the body. amlodipine is useful in preventing chest pain (angina) resulting from coronary artery spasm.Bromazepam Antianxiety agent Omeprazole Proton-Pump Inhibitors (PPI) Salbutamol Beta2 agonists.

Anaerobic bacteria are singlecelled. Giardia lambliaand ameba are intestinal parasites that can cause abdominal pain and diarrhea in infected individuals. This medication contains an antibiotic which helps prevent or treat an infection and a steroid which reduces inflammation. living organisms that thrive in environments in which there is little oxygen (anaerobic environments) and can cause disease in the abdomen (bacterial peritonitis). and many others. chemically similar to penicillin. Haemophilus influenzae. N. middle ear infections (otitis media). Common side effects of the drug include diarrhea. Trichomonas is a vaginal parasite that causes inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis). liver (liver abscess). and pelvis (abscess of the ovaries and the Fallopian tubes). It is effective against a wide variety of bacteria organisms.Cefuroxime Semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic Ceftriaxone Semisynthetic. POM Cefazolin first- . broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic against anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. It is used in the treatment of various eye (ophthalmic) or ear (otic) conditions. Inhibits enzymes involved in formation of peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell wall No effect on human cell walls Bactericidal. unexplained rash. A few of the infections that can be treated with ceftriaxone include meningitis. only works on dividing bacteria Well absorbed enterally Clavulanic acid inhibits bacterial ßlactamase Cefazolin is mainly used to treat bacterial 3|P a ge Gentamycin Antibiotic Co-amoxiclav Penicillins. coli. and respiratory tract infections. gonorrhoeae. E. and pain at the injection site. Ceftriaxone treats a number of common bacterial infections by preventing bacteria from building and maintaining their cell walls. It is a prescription antibiotic given as a shot or through an intravenous line (IV). Cefuroxime is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic. such as Staphylococcus aureus. Streptococcus pneumoniae. Metronidazole selectively blocks some of the functions within the bacterial cells and the parasites resulting in their death.

Resistance to cefazolin is seen in several species of bacteria. stomach.generation cephalosporin antibiotic Ketorolac NSAID Dopamine Catecholamine neurotransmitter Isosorbide Mononitrate Antianginal. An acid-sensitive form of penicillin prepared as penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine used for deep intramuscular administration. Clindamycin is an antibiotic which works by stopping the growth of bacteria. It is clinically effective against infections caused by staphylococci andstreptococci of Grampositive bacteria. and urinary tract. use:prevention of angina pectoris caused by coronary artery disease. The penicillin is slowly released. systemic vascular resistance. joint. resulting in prolonged effective blood levels of penicillin G. blood. These organisms are common on normal human skin. It is used to treat moderate to severe pain usually after surgery. arterial and venous dilation. It can also be used to treat moderately severe bacterial infections involving the lung. This medication is used to treat heart conditions. 4|P a ge . The medication provides additional pumping strength by stimulating the heart muscle. In some patients it is used for improving kidney blood supply. decreases preload/afterload. heart valve. bone. organic nitrate Penicillin G Penicillin antibiotic Clindamycin Semisynthetic antibiotic infections of the skin. relieves pain and reduces swelling. which is responsible for decreasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure.

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