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IOCAI AREA I\ETWORK 0


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r9 Part 1 of the text provides vital background information that forms the foun-
dation for much of the remainder of the book. In Chapter 1, Local Area Net-
works: A Business Perspective, the reader is introduced to the what, how,
and why of local area networking. In addition, key challenges and solutions
to effective LAN analysis, design, and impiementation are introduced.
Chapter 2,LocalArea Network Architectures, more deeply explores the
underlying local area network architectures that allow hardware and soft-
ware technologies to transparently interact. In this chapter, the components
of a network architecture will first be explored, followed by comparative
evaluations of the numerous network architectures either currently available
or emerging into the networking marketplace.
Local Area Network Hardware, Chapter 3, focuses on the hardware
technology including wiring centers, network interface cards, and media
that must be employed to implement a given network architecture.
Having covered the alternatives for LAN connectivity on OSI Model
Layers I and2 in the first three chapters, Chapter 4 introduces the communi-
cations protocols that work on OSI Model layers 3 thru 7. Once the general-
ized behavior of networking protocols is understood from this chapter, the
second part of the text introduces the differences between specific network
operating system implementations.
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CHAPTER

LOCAT ANEI I{ETWORKS: A ta I'

BT]Sil\ESS PUNSPECTWE

Concepts Introduced
Local Area Networks Top-Down Model
OSLT Layer Model Network Interface Cards
Internet Suite of Protocols Model Network Operating SYstems
I-F-O Model Protocols and ComPatibilitY
Business-Oriented LAN AnalYsis Logical Network Design

OBJEOT

After mastering the material in this chapter you should:

1. Understand what a Local Area Network is


2. understand how hardware and software technology are combined
to imPlement a LAN
3. lJnderstand the business need.s and functional requirements ful-
filled by a LAN
4. understand the key business driven characteristics of a LAN
5. understand the use of the top-down model in business-oriented
LAN analysis
understand the use of the osl model and other models in LAN con-
nectivity analYsis

ffi WHAT IS A tOCAt AREA NETWORK?

A Local Area Network (LAN) is a combination of hardware a¡rd sofhta¡e


iechnology that allows computers to share a variety of resources such a-t:
Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

o printers and other peripheral devices


. data

' application Programs

' storage devices

LANsalsoallowmessagestobesentbetweenattachedcomputers
thereby enabling .rr"r, to wórk together electronically
in a-process often
The local nature of a local area net-
referred to as co-iaborative computing.
There is no hard and fast rule
work is a relative rather than absoluteioncept.
of network that qualifies to be
or definition as to the geographic limitations a

calledalocalur"u't""t*o.-,k'Ingeneral,LANsareconfinedtoanareano
lurg", than a single building or a small group of buildings'..
LANs can be extendeá by conneiting to other similar
or dissimilar
coriputers' This process is generally
LANs, to remote users, or to máinframe
is .orr"t^"d in-depth in Part Three of the
referred to as LAN connectivity and
be connected to the LANs of trading
text. LANs of a particulur .o*pur1y can
may be
partnefs such ás vendors aná customers. These trading partners
Arrangements linking these
located in the same town or around the globe.
enterprise networks. These
trading partners are commonly referredto as
enterprise networks are created by combining LANs
with a variety of wide
AreaÑetwork (WAN) services, including the Internet'
of the LAN' In
Strictly speaking, the computers theinselves are not part
on personal
other words, u ,ir-rgi" .rr". .olld be productive a stand-alone
information, fesoufces/ or mes-
computef (PC). Howe\¡et, il1 Order to Share
sageswithotherusersandtheirComputels/aLANmustbeimplementedto
connect these computers. The LAN is the combination
of technology that
Figure 1-1 provides a concep-
allows computers ánd their users to interact.
tual illustration of a LAN.

T HOW IS A tOCAt AREA NETWORK IMPTBIT'IENTED?

to answering the qr9-


whereas most of the remainder of the text is dedicated
to introduce, in a highly
vious question, the purpose of this se,ction is merely
Complex LAN
conceptual -uorr"r, há* u simple LAN is implemented'
connectivity
interconnectivity, LAN remote aCCeSS/ and LAN to Mainframe
are Purposefully ignored in this discussion'
To begin with, appropriate networking hardware
and.software must be
or shared periphéral device that is to communicate
added to every
"o*p.rt"r media must physically
via the locai area network. Some type of network
connectthevariousnetworked"o*p.'t"''andperipheraldevices.Thevari- to
ous connected computers and peripheral deviies will share
this media
more specifically
converse with each tther. As u .Lrtli, LANs are sometimes
referred to as shared media LANs or media-sharing LANs' Figure 1-2
How Is a Local Area Network Implemented? 5

BEFORE:

Stand-alone PCs
5

n
i-
e

rO

af
11'
AFTER:
tte
:tg
be
5e
5e
,de

In
nal
[es-
Ito
hat
Ep-

ThesamePCswiththeadditionofaLocalAreaNetwork(LAN.)ALANisacombinationof
hardwareandsoftware.".r*otogywhichenablescommunicationandresourcesharingamong
attached comPuters.
PIE-
eilV Figure 1-1 What Is a Local Area Network?
L\\T
iritY
a shared media local area network
provides a highly conceptual view of how
st be
mightbe imPlemented
-''-"po., of the illus-
úcate
,uJ foote¿ uy tt apparent simplicity of Figure 1-2.,A11
ically " be cómpatible not only rt'ith
trated networking trura*ur" und softwaie must u'ith the
rvari- it is installed' but also
the compute, o, p"ript1"á d"t'ic" in which
üa to and the netu'orkirrg
hardware and software .hu..o^p,ises the LAN
itself,
ñca1lY instaleá on all other computers and peripheral
hardware and software
re 7-2
Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

The Network lnterface Card (NlC) and Networking


Software (NS) must be compatible with each other and
with the cómputer or device into which they are installed'

Shared Application
Seruer

Eigure 1-2 How Is a Local Area Network Implemented?

of hardware
devices attached to the LAN. Compatibility refers to the ability
and software, manufactured by,rulions vendols, to work together success-

fully without intervention by ihe end user. In other words, the combination
oi JompatlUle hardware uná ,oftwure technology is transparent to the
end
receiving the information they need to do
user. ljsers realize that they are
networking hard'are and soft-
iheir job effectively. Compátifitty among
analysis and
ware iechnology isone of tn" tey cna[enges to successful LAN
design.

Nehvorking Hardware
implement-
Among the types of possible networking hardware employed in
ing a LAN are:

o Network interface cards that must be installed in every linked


computer and PeriPheral device
l Some type of network hub, switch, or wiring centef into
which the
networkbd devices can be physically linked

Most LAN-connected PCs require specialized network interface cards


(NICs). Rather than using NICs, zéro-sloi t¡Xs use existing serial
or paral-
i"f poi, of personal com"puters and peripheral devices for communication'
How Is a Local Area Network Implemented? 7

Given the relative slow speeds of the serial and parallel ports as compared to
most NICs, Zerc-sLot tÁNs are usually limited to two to four users. \fant-
computers, especially laptops, are now equipped-with built-in infrared
transmission iorts that Lttá¡t" them to transfer data to other similarlr-
equipped computers without the need for additional wires or cables.
' in" netwórk interface card (or adapter) is appropriately named. Its job
is to provide a transparent interface between the shared media of the LAN
and the computer into which it is physically installed: Tlle NI9 takes mes-
sages whichihe computer directs it to send to other LAN attached
comput-
o, devices and formats those messages in a manner appropriate for
"rí
transport over the LAN. Conversely, messages arriving from the LAN are

reformatted into a form understanáable by the local computer. In order


to
and software technology interacting on
assure compatibility, all hardware
the LAN must adhére to the same agreed upon message format'
Most LANs now use some typeóf hub,lho sometimes known as a LAN
switch, wiring hub, or wiring .éttt"t. The reasons why most LANs use hubs
or switches as well as desciiptions of LANs that don't use hubs will be
The
explained further in Chapter 2, "Local-Area Network Architectures'"
which all attached devices are able
hub provides a connecting point through
to cónverse with one uñotfr".. Hubs must be compatible with both the
attached media and the NICs which are installed in client PCs.

!-are
-ress- Networking Software
Ltion
end Among the types of possible networking software employed in implement-
odo ing a LAN are:
sott-
iand r software that allows personal computers which are physically
attached to the LAN toihare networked resources such as printers,
data, and aPPlications
¡ software that runs on shared network devices such as printers, data
storage devices, and application servers which allow them to be
shared by multiple LAN-attached users
ngtt-
A stand-alone (not LAN-attached) PC requires software in order to oper-
interfaces
ate. Commonly referred to as the operating iystem, this software
nked Program' and the
between application programs ,.t.li ut a wórd processing
client hardware (CPU, memory, disk drive)'
hüe The software that runs on personal computers and allows them to log
into a LAN and converse with other LAN-attached devices is sometimes
PC is a
referred to as client software or client network software. A client
to LAN-attached resources and
cards computer that a user logs into in order access
is sometimes characterized as a sen'ice
paral- ,"rrri""r. A LAN-attach*ed client PC
the network
ation. requester. The client network software must be compatible with
Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

software running on all LAN-attached clients and servers. This compatibility


is most easily assured by having both the clients and the servers install the
same network operating system software. Examples of popular network
operating systems are NetWare and Windows Nl now renamed Windows
2000. Local Area Network software will be discussed extensively in Part Two
of the text.
Servers such as application servers and print servers are usually dedi-
cated computers accessed only through LAN connections. Although a client
could be considered a service requester, servers are characterized as service
providers. It would stand to reason that the server's job of trying to fulfill the
requests of multiple LAN-attached clients quickly and efficiently is more
complicated than a single LAN-attached client making a single request for a
serwice. Therefore, the server version of a particular network operating sys-
tem is more complex, expensive, and larger than the client version of the
same network operating system. Client and server versions of network oper-
ating systems are purchased separately. Client licenses are usually pur-
chased in groups (S-user, 21-user,100-user), whereas most server licenses are
purchased individually.
Compatibility is again an issue, because any network operating system
must be compatible with the operating system and hardware of the client or
server on which it is installed. Additionally, the network operating system
software must be able to successfully communicate with the installed net-
work interface card. The specifics of network operating system/network
interface card compatibiiity will be discussed further in Chapter 3, "Local
Area Network Hardware." Compatibility issues and analysis in general will
be discussed later in this chapter in the section entitled "Introduction to Pro-
tocols and Compatibility."

Netrvorking Media

Nelwork media can vary widely depending on required transmission speed


and a variety of other factors such as network interface card type, security
needs, as well as the physical characteristics of the environment in which the
media is to be deployed. Even the air can serve as a LAN media as evidenced
by the many wireless LAN alternatives currently available.
LAN media must be installed carefully and according to industry stan-
dard specifications. Something as innocent as pulling a cable tie too tightly
can wreak havoc on high-speed LAN performance. LAN media must be
compatible with network interface cards and hubs or wiring centers. LAN
media alternatives and selection criteria will be reviewed in Chapter 2.
Figure 1-3 offers a visual guide to further information on the elements of
a LAN discussed in the previous section. Chapters that are more specifically
related to client and server hardware and software as opposed to local area
network technology are now included on the accompanying CD and are des-
ignated as "CD Chapters" in Figure 1-3.
How Is a Local Area Network Implemented'

SERVICE REQUESTER
Rccess via local keYboard/login

o
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zt¡l
J
o

m
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m
:t-
rk
:al
úil
r0- É,
ul
É.
t¡l
a
a
z
o
eed
rit]- o
the
J
G
red G

tan-
htll'
tbe
_l\
rts of
PRovIDER
call)'
alea Access via Network Connections
r des-
-senvlcE
Topics
Contents of LAN-related
Figure 1-3 Visual Table of
10 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

ffi WITYARE TOCAT AREA NETWORKS IMPTEMENTED?

Business Needs-The Underlying Motivation

Business needs as articulated by management are not inherently local area


networking business needs, nor do they necessarily imply local area net-
works as a business solution. Only by analyzingbusiness activities and ask-
ing business analysis questions will it be determined whether or not a local
area networking solution is appropriate.
Business ne"ds or perspectives provide the motivation for further busi-
ness network analysis and design. A clear understanding of management's
perspectives before begirning any technical analysis will make it easier to
sell Lventual proposali to management after having completed technical
analysis, assured ihat tnis proposal will meet management's business objec-
tives. These business needs and perspectives provide the network analyst
with a frame of reference within which to conduct lesearch and evaluate
options. Figure 1-4 lists a few typical business needs and perspectives that
may lead to Local Area Networking solutions.
The previously listed high-level business needs and perspectives are
representative examples, typical of the kinds of upper-level management
prlorities that are often articulated. There ale many other possible business
needs or perspectives which could have been listed. Business needs and per-
spectiveJare dynamic, changing in response to shifting economic and com-
petitive climates, and management teams and philosophies.
In order to make this exercise in business-oriented LAN analysis and
design most effective, add business needs and perspectives that manage-
ment has articulated to you. Management's business needs and perspectives
should be clearly documented and understood before beginning network
analysis and design. These same needs and perspectives should be referred
to on a continual basis as a means of testing the feasibility of various techni-
cal networking options.
Although al[ business needs and perspectives will not necessarily be
solved by implementing local area netwolks, it can be unequivocally stated

. Recognition of information as a corporate asset to be leveraged to competitive


advantage

. Improved customer service


. Save money, reduce expenses, increase profitability
. Increaseproductivity

Eigure 1-4 Business Needs and Perspectives That May Lead to Local Area Net-
working Solutions
Why Are Local Area Networks lmplemented? Llt
stated busi'-
only be implemented if they meet
that local area networks should methodology ihat leads up'
ness needs.
p,.rrt¡termo'e, ;h" ;"1É1t and design
nature and should be docu-
to LAN implementatián snout¿ Ue of a structuréd
mentableinordertojustifyfinalconclusionsandrecommendations.Thebr:si.
a basis for
ness needs urrd p""p"tliíes
[sted in Figure L-4 will be used as
aád design later in this chapter'
turther business-oriJJi;Ñ;agsis

Strategic Role of Local Area Networks


as a corporate'asset to be
lever-
As the strategic importance of information business manage-
becomes clearer to senior
aged for competitive uJ"u"tug" precious
blilocat area networks to deliver that
ment, the key role pi"y"a time has become equaily
.ight piá.e and
information to tn" ,ig;i"1";'";;h; a strategic
within corporations-write
clear. Many net*o'ting organization-s
and concisety a1r.tiu"t the role of the network
vision statement tr.ul.i"urr"y a vision statement might
be:
to the overa* o,g"t;);; ¡" *"*pr"
oi
'uch X' the information
needs of Company
"In order to meet the critical business to
available, reriable, uná r".nt" in its mission
network murt u" "oritá-.r.rrr1y right place and time'"
the right user at the
deliver the right i^f";;;ti;io

of Local Area Networks


Key Business-Driven Characteristics

FlowcansuchavisionStatementbetranslatedintomoreconcretetermsor
strategy that would
measurable,u¡".ti.rJri ¿;^;ñ;"ts of the network objectives or evalua-
support such lofty vision itatement can be identified.
a
network characteristics can
tion criteria fo, "ulh of these business-driven
business-driven strategic characteristics
then be established. some possible_ are
later chapters in which these issues
of Local Area Netwárt , u.,¿ the
further are listed in Figure 1'-5'
".pfáit*a
Follow-uP ChaPtet
Strategic LAN Characteristic
Chapter 15
iluiuuirityzn"nuuirity/Faulttolerance/Redundancy
Chapter 15
Responsiveness / Perf ormance
Chapters 4,5
ConnectivitY
Chapters 9, 13
InteroperabilitY
Chapter 15
Management
Chapter 16
SecuritY
Chapter 9, 10
DirectorY Services

Eigure 1'5 Strategic LAN Characteristics


L2 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

The Importance of Effective LAN Analysis and Design

Given that LANs are implemented to solve real-world business needs as artic-
ulated by senior management and that recommended solutions must be both
justifiable and documentable, it is essential that LAN analysis and design be
conducted in a structured, effective manner. As will be seen in the following
section, because of the number of possible different pieces of hardware and
software technology manufactured by different vendors that may have to
interoperate, effective LAN analysis and design can be an overwhelming task.
From a business perspective, senior management wants assurance that money
invested in technology will have the desired business impact.

¡ Chief Executive Officers seek business solutions, not technical solutions, and
are concemed r,r'ith ensuring that information technology spending practices
';*:1.
Mffig$$al are properlv aligned lvith skateglc business objectives. Furthermore, senior
K{iil¡e$,t&e business executir-es realtze that the most expensive technology is not always
¡::t:t:::i:t);;:::.;:rr:i:1,
the best at delivering business solutions and that, in fact, less expensive tech-
nologf is olten sufficient. Perhaps most important, CEOs are concerned with
the ineviiable, constant, accelerating rate of technological change. Dealing with
this technological change by having a well-defined, strategic technology plan
and infrastructure closely aligned with business strategic plans is the best way
to prevent technological obsolescence from determining business outcomes.
Many networking organizations now take the time to create formal doc-
uments that articulate how the company's business mission is aligned with a
clearly articulated network architecture plan. Such a document assures
senior management that the network organization is strategically aligned
with the corporate business mission while also providing written documen-
tation of acceptable processes and technology to be used by any employee
involved with the corporate network infrastructure.

Mapping business strategic plans to technological strategic plans is the


purpose of LAN analysis and design. By first understanding the challenges
to effective LAN analysis and design, the proposed solutions and resultant
methodology should be more meaningful. In the remainder of the chapter,
challenges and solutions to effective LAN analysis and design are explained
followed by an example of how to get started with business-oriented LAN
analysis and design.

$$ CHATTENGES AND SOTUTIONS TO EFFACTTVE LAN ANALYSIS,


DESIGN, AND IMPTEMENTATION

Challen ge: Information Technolo gy Investment vs. Producti\.it), Gains,


Ensuring Implemented Technolory Meets Business Needs
In the past decade, more than $1 trillion has been invested by business in
information technology. Despite this massive investment, carefully con-
Challenges and Solutions to Effective LAN Analysis, Design, and lmplementatiort t3

ducted research indicates that there has been little if any increase irr pr.-
ductivity as a direct result of this investment. In \990, Paul Strassma:r
wrote inBusiness Value of Computers that there was no relationship betrr-een
expenses for computers and business profitability. This dilemma, in rr-hich
investments in technology have no relationship to traditional measure-
ments of productivity such as return on investment, is known as the pro-
ductivity paradox. Erik Brynjolfsson of MIT concluded that the problem
lies in the measurements that have been used to gauge the impact of tech-
nology investment. In other wotds, the real return on investment from
information technology is not in the incremental cost savings incurred by
computerizing manual tasks previously done by humans. Rather, success-
ful information technology investment must be more closely linked to
business strategy and organizational structure. More profitable technology
investments are achieved by computerizing new tasks and business
processes that deliver higher value to the customer, such as better designs,
faster delivery, higher quality, greater customization, or better customer
service. Clearly, something is wrong with an analysis and design process
which recommends technology implementations that fail to meet strategic
I
business objectives.
I
What are the characteristics required of a business first-technology last
I
analysis and design process with the potential to overcome the productivity
i
paradox?

a
Solution: The Top-Down Approach
5
d
In order to overcome the productivity paradox, a structured methodol-
t-
ogy must be followed to ensure that the implemented network meets

the communications needs of the intended business, organization, or
individual.
One such structured methodology is known as the top-down approach.

Such an approach can be graphically illustrated in a top-down model as
5
shown in Figure L-6. Using a top-down approach as illustrated in the top-
nt
down model is relatively straightforward. Insisting that a top-down
tf,
approach to network analysis and design is undertaken should ensure that
d the network design implemented will meet the business needs and objec-
\ tives that motivated the design in the first place.
This top-down approach requires network analysts to understand busi-
ness constraints and objectives as well as information systems applications
and the data on which those applications run, before considering data com-
munications and networking options.
Notice where the Network Layer occurs in the top-down model. It is no
accident that Data Communications and Networking form the foundation of
¡s.
today's sophisticated information systems. A properly designed network
supports flexible delivery of data to distributed application programs,
allowing businesses to respond quickly to 'customer needs and rapidl''
'1n
)n- changing market conditions.
r -F

14 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

BUSINESS

n APPLICATION
m
o a
g z
n o
m DATA tr
:f
J
m
z o
a
-l
a NETWORK

TECHNOLOGY

Figure 7-6 The Top-Down Model

ffi THETOP-DOWNMODAL

How does the proper use of the top-down model ensure effective, business-
oriented LAN analysis and design? Figure 1-7 lists the analysis processes
associated with each layer of the top-down model. One must start with the
business level objectives. What is the company (organization, individual) try-
ing to accomplish by installing this network? Without a clear understanding
of business level objectives it is virtually impossible to configure and imple-
ment a successful network. In many cases, firms take this opportunity to crit-
ically reexamine their business processes in an analysis methodology known
as business process reengineering (BPR). In what is perhaps the most
famous book on BPR, Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business
Reaolution by Michael Hammer and James Champy, the authors state that
"Business reengineering means starting all over, starting from scratch. Busi-
ness reengineering means putting aside much of the received wisdom of two
hundred years of industrial management. It means forgetting how work was
done in the age of the mass market and deciding how it can best be done
now. In business reengineering, old job titles and old organizational arrange-
ments-departments, divisions, groups/ and so on-cease to matter. They
are artifacts of another age."
Once business level objectives are understood, one must understand the
applications that will be running on the computer systems attached to these
networks. After all, the applications will be generating the traffic that will
travel over the implemented network.
Once applications are understood and have been documented, the data
which those applications generate must be examined. In this case, the term
datn is used in a general sense as today's networks are likely to transport a
variety of payloads including voice, video, image, and fax in addition to true
The Top-Down Model 15

Top-Down Model Layer Associated Analysis Processes

Business Layer ¡ Strategic business planning


. Business process reengineering
. Identify major business functions
. Idenüfy business processes
. Identify business opporhunities
Applications Layer . Applications development
. Systems analvsis a¡rd desiqn
. Identify information needs
r Relate information nee'l-. to bu-ciriess processes and
opportunities
Data Layer o Database ana-lvsis a¡i aes:sgi
. Data modeLi¡g
o Data distribuücn ¿¡.¿lr
=r.
. CLieni sen-er architerture design
. Dlstributed databa-.e de=ign
. Relate data collection and distribution to i¡iorma-
tion and business needs
Network Laver r \etwork analysis and design
. Logical network design (what)
. Network implementation planning
o Network management and performance
monitoring
o Relate logical network design to data collection and
distribution design
Technology Layer . Technology analysis grids
¡ Hardware-software-media technology analysis
. Physical network design (how)
¡ Physical network impiementation
r Relate physical network design to logical network
design

Figure L-7 Analysis Processes of the Top-Down Model

data. Data traffic analysis must determine not only the amount of data to be
transported, but also must detetmine important characteristics about the
nature of that data.
Once data traffic analysis has been completed, the following should be
known:

1. Physical locations of data (\tVhere?)

2. Data characteristics and compatibility issues (\A4rat?)


3. Amount of data generated and transported (How much?)
16 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

Giventheserequirementsasdeterminedbytheupperlayersofthetop-
down model, the next job is to determine the requirements of the
network
that will possess the capability to deliver this data in a timely, cost-effective
as what lhe
mannef. These network p"rfoimunce criteria could be referred to
business objectives out-
implemented network must do in order to meet the
requirements afe also
lined at the outset of this top-down analysis. These
sometimes referred to as the logical network design'
var\ous
The technology layer analyiis, in contrast, will determine how
hardware and softwar" .o*pár-r"nts will be combined to build a functional
network that will meet predltermined business objectives. The delineation
design.
oi r"q.rir"a technologv ii often referred to as the physical network
model
Overall, the reliáonship between the layers of the top-down
produces require-
could be described as folloivs: Analysis at upper layers
ments that are passed down to lower layers, while solutions meeting
these
among lay-
requlrements are passed back to uppef úyers. If this relationship
then the
ers holds true throughout the business-oriented network analysis,
implemented techno"logy (bottom layer) should meet the initially outlined
buiiness objectives (toiiayer). Hencé, the name, the Top-Down Approach'

Challenge: Analysis of Complex LAN Connectivif and


Compatibility lssues

Assuming that the pfoper use of the top-down model will ensure that imple-
more
mented tJchnical ról.rtior-rt will meet siated business requirements, the
technical challenges of LAN analysis and design must be addressed.

Introduction to Protocols and Compatibilif

In previous discussions of how LANs are implemented, the term compati-


bility was introduced and explained. solving incompatibility problems is_at
the íery heart of successfui LAN implementation. Compatibility can be
thoughi of as successfully bridging the gap or_communicating between two
logical
o, -ó." technology comionenti, *h"thét hurdware or software. This
gap between.o*-pott"ttit is commonly referred to as an interface'
Interfaces máy be physical (haidware to hardware) in nature. For
example:

o Cables physically connecting to serial ports on a computer


. A network interface card physically plugging into the expansion bus
inside a comPuter

Interfaces may also be logical or software-oriented (software to soft-


ware) as well. For examPle:
The ToP-DownModel lL;

¡ (NetScape) communicating rtittr


An Internet Browser client software
the client PC's operating system
(Windows 95)

. Excel) gathering data lrom


A client-based data query tool (Microsoft
u tutg" database *u'lug"rn"ttt system (Oracle)
to software boundary' For
Finally, interfaces may cross the hardware
example:
of known as a
. A network operating system specific piece :oft*"ut" card (NIC)
interface
driver which #;f;:;;an installed network

. A piece of operating ty-t:T.t?ft*are


known as a kernel which inter-
faies to a comPuter's CPU chiP

Thereasonthatthesevariousinterfacesareabletobebridgedsuc-
components' is due to
between
cessfully, thereby t"p;;;t*;;ompatibllity
than rules for how communicating
protocols. Protocols Jt" ''totiiog more
bridge interfaces or talk to one another'
hardware and soitwal;;r*p.";"ts or
(used excltisivety by one or more vendors)
Protocols may be pr"pti"táty prótoéots may be officially sanc-
open (used freety by itt iot"r"rt"¿ parties).
bodies such as the ISO' or may be
tioned by internatio''ui 'tu'l¿u'ds-making
p'ototots)' rlgu1e.1-8 illustrates the relation-
trilij market dri"Ji;" ';ttá
ourelv
il ;"n inte r f ac e s, p ro to c óh' and c omp atib ility- to software' and
";
For every pot"'-tiiui tu'd*ure to hardware' 'oft*u'" to be one or more
there is likely
hardware to software interface imaginable,
of the protocols employed in a
possible protocols Jp;;;;'1h" s'um
of all
protocol
particular computer is sometimes referred to as tÉat comPuter's
suppor't9d 1
il;i.-*.."rri"[v determining which protocols -]:t l"
possible in a complicated
which instances for the muititride of intlrfaces in a LAN
LAN design is likely i"L" in" difference between ir'.""tt or failure
t*o[ffi1t:Íl?"t*orr interfaces
l- analyst possibly keep track of a' potential
rt att i^X-attacheá devices? what is
and their associated protocols between
organize the various potential interfaces
needed is a framewort ir-, which lo
¡e
designs' More than one
and protocot, lr-, ,tiÁ lomplicated ilternetwork
¡o
AT
suchframework,otherwiseknownaScommunicationsarchitectures,exists.
Twoofthemostp.p"r"'""".'municationsarchitecturesaretheT-layeroSI
model'
protocols
model and the +-fuy'et Internet suite of

Solution: The 0SI Model


to employ tomeet the require-
Determining which technology and protocols
yielded from the netrvork
ments determined ;;il'i.gil"l network
design,
a structirreá methodology of its
orr_n.
rtt- layer of the top-down mode"l, requires
networking technology and proto-
Fortunately, u tru-"-o'k for organizing
Chapter One Local Area Networks: ABusiness Perspective

Hardware-to-Hardware I nterf ace

the serial port


The serial cable is compatible w¡th

lmplementing
mutuallY suPPoried
protocols allows
interfacing
Thisgaph hardware and/or
software technologY
to communicate,
therebY ensuring
compatibility.

'91 '92 93 94 '95 '96

rt i"rosoft Excel graphic within a


Microsoft Word document
ilIp**l

I I
I Ethernet 10 Base-T
I
I Network lnterface
I
E Card (NlC)
I

Figure 1-8 Interfaces, Protocols' and Compatibility


The Top-DownModel a9

col solutions has been developed by the International Standards Organiza-


tion (ISO) and is known ur th" open systems Interconnection
(osl) model'
The OSI model is illustrated in Figure 1-9'
The OSI model divides the communicationbetween any two
networked
Network analYsts literally
computing devices into seven layers or categories.
talk in teims of the OSI model. \Atrhen troubleshooting LAN problems,
(layer 1)
inevitably the sawy network analyst starts with the physical layer
before
and ensures that protocols and intérfaces at each layer are operational
tech-
moving up the o I model. The osl model allows data communications
to talk aborrt the inter-
,,otog1iaÉrr"lopers as well as standards developers
connection of two networks or computers in common terms
without dealing
in proprietarY vendor jargon.
g.l
These
,,com*on tárrir" are the result of the layered architecture of the
&i
:i seven layer osl model. The architecture breaks the task of
two computers
!,1
tasks, each repre-
ii:, .o*rrrr.rrri.uting to each other into separate but interrelated
the top layer (Iayer 7)
:ri sented by its oín layer. As can be sóen in Figure 1-9,
1

:l running on each
.1
,i
."pr"r"r,i, the servic-es required by the apphcátion Program
'I !
li
.t
OSI Model LaYer Functionality Automob¡le AssemblY Line
'i I

e.i 7: Application User application Programs Dealer-installed options: options


interact and receive services desired by users are added at the
dealership

Ensures reliable session Painting and finish work: the


5: Presentation
transmission between vehicle is Painted and trim is
applications; takes care of applied
differences in data representation

5: Session Enables two aPPlications to lnterior: seats and dashboard


communicate across the network are added to Passenger
compartment

4: Transport Ensures reliable transmission Electrical: electrical sYstem and


from end to end, usuallY across compartments are added
multiple nodes

3: Network Sets up the Pathways or end-to- Body: passenger comPartment


end connections, usuallY across a and fenders are attached to the
long distance, or multiPle nodes chassis

Puts messages together, Engine/drive train: engine and


2: Data Link
attaches proper headers to be transmission comPonents Provide
sent out or received, ensures the vehicle with ProPulsion
messages are delivered between
two points

1: Physical Concerned with transmitting bits Chassis/frame: steel is fabricated


of data over a PhYsical medium to form the chassis on which all
other comPonents will travel

Figure 1-9 The OSI Model


20 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

:ffi it'r#.ll*;f;:q#'$m*x*#3i"*::n#t''ii'ffi
r"-áitrit-tg layers (2 through 6) may not be as obvious but, nonetheless, rep-
resent a sufficiently distinct logical gfoup of functions required to connect
two computets, as to justify a separate layer. As will be seen later in the text,
some of the layers are divided into sublayers.
To use the OSI model, a network analyst lists the known protocols for
each computing device or network node in the proper layer of its own seven-
layer OSI model. The collection of these known protocols in their proper lay-
it-r krtown as the protocol stack of the network node. For example, the
"ri
physical media employed such as unshielded twisted pair, coaxial cable, or
liber-optic cable would be entered as a layer 1 protocol, whereas Ethernet or
Token Ring network architectures might be entered as a layer 2 protocol.
Technically speaking, the electrical and mechanical specifications of the
selected media type are the actual layer 1 protocols. The media itself is some-
times referred to as Iayer A.
The OSI model allows network analysts to produce an accurate inventory
of the protocols present on any given network node. This protocol profile rep-
resents a unique personality of each network node and gives the network ana-
lyst some insight into what protocol conversion, if any, may be necessary in
order to get any two network nodes to communicate successfully. Ultimately,
the OSI model provides a structured methodology for determining what hard-
ware and software technology will be required in the physical network design
in order to meet the requirements of the logical network design.
Perhaps the best analogy for the OSI reference model which illustrates
its architectural or framework purpose, is that of a blueprint for a large office
building or skyscraper. The various subcontractors on the job may only be
concerned n ith the "Iayer" of the plans that outlines their specific job speci-
fications. Horvever, each specific subcontractor needs to be able to depend
on the work of the "lower" layers' subcontractors just as the subcontractors
of the "upper" layers depend on these subcontractors performing their func-
tion to specification.
similarty, each layer of the osl model operates independently of all
other layers, while depending on neighboring layers to perform according to
specification while cooperating in the attainment of the overall task of com-
munication between two computers or networks.
The OSI model is neither a protocol nor group of protocols. It is a stan-
d.ardized, empty framework into which protocols can be listed in order to
perform effective LAN analysis and design. As will be seen later in the text,
ño*"t et, the ISO has also produced a set of OSI protocols that correspond to
some of the layers of the OSI model. It is important to differentiate between
the OSI model and OSI protocols.
The OSI model will be used throughout the remainder of the text as the
protocol stacks of various network operating systems are analyzed, and in
the analysis and design of advanced LAN connectivity alternatives.
The ToP-Dorm \'Iodel 2L

Solution: The Internet Suite of Protoeols Model


any OSI protocol' iust
Although the OSI model is perhaps more famous than
if1Jffiri " could be said for a'model and known associated protocols known as
as the TCP/IP protocol
the Internet suite of pr"i"."r, model. Also
architecture takes its
suite, or TCp/Ip arÁitecture, this communications
protocol)' the
name from TCP/IP tiru,t,-lttion control protocol/Internet
internetworking. As can be
de facto standard protocols for open systehs
seen in Figure 1-10, Tcp and IP aré
just iwo of the protocols associated with
this model'
communications
Like the OSI model, the TCP/IP model is a layered
architectureinwhich"op*layersusethefunctionalityofferedbytheproto-
are able to operate indepen-
cols of the lower tayers.'Eachiuy"r', protocols
protocols on a given
dently from the protÁ.orc of otÉt layers' For example'
to change all other proto-
ül"r'."" U" upd'ated or modified without having version of IP known as
cols in all other layers. A recent example is
the new
was developed in
Ipng (Ip next generation), or lpv6 [É version 6) which is pos-
."rp-o"t" to a p"ending shártage of IP addresses' This ptgPoj:1:lange communi-
in the TCP/IP
sible without the neá to chuig" all other protocols
The exa"ct mechaniis of how TCP/IP and related
cation architecture.
pr"it.tft work will be explored in greater depth Chapter 8'
in "Unix'
TCP /IP, and NFS."
Figure 1-10 compares the f9q:-l-ayer lnternet suite
of protocols model
architecture could
with the seven-layer osl model. Eithór communications
between networks. In the
be used to analyze ur"rJ a"rig" communications
case of the lnternet ,-.rit" of irotocols model,
the full functionality of inter-
)
rather than seven' Some
network.omm.irlicutions is ái"ia"a into four layers
e networkanalystsconsiderthelnternetsuiteofprotocolsmodelsimplerand
i- more practical than the OSI modei'
d

Solution: The I-P-0 Model


more computers or networks
Once the protocols are determined for two or
11
the next step is to determine the type of technol-
lo that wish to communicate,
ft-
'gy."q"i*atodelivertheidentifiedirrternetworkingfunctionalityandpro-
tocols.
of networking
n- In order to understand the basic function of any piece
between the character-
to equipment, o.t" ,t""Jot-tly und"erstand the differences
isticsofthedatathatcamelNandthedatathatwentOUT.Thosedifferences
equipmeni being
to identified were pRóCESSed by the data communications
en analyzed.
This Input-Processing-OutPut or I-P-O Model
is another ker. model
a wide.varietv of netirork-
he used throughout the textb"ook in order to analyze
The I-p-o model provides a Éramerrork -i'.
in ñ;q"lp#rrt ur-raopportunities. that came into a paiii"-u-::
which to focus on thé áiff"r".,." between the data
22 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

TELNET
FTP
Messages TFTP
Application or SMTP
Streams SNMP
CMOT
MIB

Transport Transport TCP


or Protocol UDP
Host-Hosl Packets

lP Diagrams

Figure 1-10 Internet Suite of Protocols vs. OSI

networked device (I) and the data that came out of that same device (O). By
defining this difference, the processing (P) performed by the device is docu-
mented.
Although at first glance the I-P-O model may seem overly simplistic, it is
another valuable model that can assist network analysts in organizing
thoughts, documenting requirements, and articulating needs.

ffi GETTING STARTAD MTH BUSINESS-ORIENTED tAN


NATYSIS AND DESIGN

Figure 1-4 lists examples of high-level business perspectives and needs


that might lead to local area network solutions. Following is an example of
how high-level business needs and perspectives can serve as a starting
point for business-oriented LAN analysis and design. In compliance with
the top-down model as an overall guide to LAN analysis and design,
investigation of application, data, network and technology issues must
occur in addition to this business-layer analysis. While the business-layer
issues will be further analyzed here, the remaining layers of the top-down
model will be more thoroughly investigated and analyzed throughout the
remainder of the text.
Getting started with Business-oriented LAN Analysis and Desigrt 33

Business Actiúties Should Support Business Needs

The business activities listed in Figure 1-11 are more precisely the
informa-
tion systems or networking-relateá business activities identified as possiblr-
and perspectives' Obviousiy' the
suppórting the expressed iusiness needs
defined to include sales, inven-
teiÁUus¡iess qctiaitiescould be more broadly
tory control, marketing, research and development, accoultllg, payroll'
and
,.r.t. tt business activities in these other areás were listed, they shouid still
fulfill one or more of the identified business needs'
In order to ensure consistency within the top-down business model and
compliance of business activities with stated business needs, a
grid such as
thatin Figure L-11 can be employed. For each network-related activity that
check off which strategic
must be sirpported in the eventuál network design,

o
a
o
0)
(d

o

a o
(ú Y
o
C C)
6)
.E =
b
.9
(d 'o .cq)
o
E a o
o
.= c)
o
to
-E o o
(s -c o
o
c)
E
f p o a
! (ú (ú o o
o
c (s
o oa (d f
lv
o
'E c o ! E
c)
=
c .E 5 o o
c oE o@(ú c)a(ú -o o o
q)

o- o) o
o o c) c) o a o
o o () (ú (ú
a c 5
dJ cú E
É. Ul LU

15

:tg Printers

'-c(d Communication Links


-c FAXs
U)
o Modems
o
=
o
o
o Application Sharing
cc
Distributed Data networks
ds
Shared Databases
rof
a
ing c
o Micro/mainframe links
ith o(Ú
o.9 Wide area links
F, C-
o- MAC integration
ust XF
UJE Web/lnternet Access
]-er O Electronic Commerce
11\Tl.

the
Figure 1-11 Network-related Business Activities should support Busines-'
\eeis
24 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

business perspective is being satisfied. Any proposed network activities that


do not support a strategic business need or perspective should be reevalu-
ated. Modify the grid as necessary, substituting your own business needs
and/ or activities, and evaluating accordingly.
The reason for the assurance at this point that possible network-related
business activities fulfill specific, stated business needs is to avoid seeking
technical local area networking options or features that either do not support
orl even worse/ contradict stated overall business needs. As stated earlier in
the chapter, senior management is seeking business solutions, not technol-
ogy solutions.
Once the initial merit of the business activities has been assured by com-
pleting an evaluation grid (see Figure 1-11), substantially more detailed data
iegarding these netu¡ork-related business activities must be gathered before
proceeding with the investigation of technical options through application,
data, netu'ork and technology layer analysis.

Role of the Nehvork Analyst as a Business/Technology Intermediary

These information systems-related business activities are often expressed by


nontechnical business management people either directly or through inter-
views. It is important to understand that these listed activities are general in
nature rather than technically specific. Don't expect business management to
be able to articulate technical specifications.
Armed with these general business needs, the network analyst prepares
a series of business analysis questions to learn more about the information
system-related business activities in order to ensure that the eventual net-
working proposal will adequately support the required business activities.
Subsequent analysis by the network analyst of available technology
through interaction with vendors and technical specialists creates a role as
intermediary for the network analyst. On the one hand, the network analyst
must be able to understand the business needs and activities of an organiza-
tion, while at the same time understanding the technical specifications of the
networking hardware and software that will ideally meet the organization's
business needs.
Furthermore, the successful network analyst must be able to handle con-
stant change. Change is constantly occurring not just in technology, but also
in the architectural design of networks and information systems required to
deliver business solutions. Technical skills must be constantly updated in
response to the demands of the job market.

Business Analysis Questions Dig Deeper

Possible business analysis questions for Local Area Networking solutions


are listed in Figure 1-12. Notice that these questions "dig deeper" into the
Getting started with Business-oriented LAN Analysis and Design 25

more general previously listed business activities. These questions would be


directád towárd end users and business management and are centered
around what the network must eventually do, rather than how it wiil do it'
The how questions will be more technical in nature and will be dealt wiih
further down this trip through the top-down model'
The list of business analysis questions in Figure 1-72 is not meant to be
exhaustive or all-encompassing. The questions listed are a direct result of the
business activities and needs from the top-down model used in this chapter
as

User lssues
How many users?
What are their business activiiies?
What is the budgeted cosVuser?
Comprehensive cost of ownershiP?
What are the security needs? (password protection
levels, suPervisor Privileges)
What are the support issues?
Local Communication
Required speed?

Resource Sharing
How many CD-ROMs, printers, modems, and FAXs
are to be shared?
What is the greatest distance from the server to each
service?
File Sharing
ls printer/queue management requ¡red?
How many simultaneous users?
Application Sharing
Wnat ¡s the number and type of required applications?
S
Are E-mail services required?
,t Distributed Data Access
t-
Where will shared data files be stored?

e LAN ManagemenVAdministration
\ Will trainiñg be required to manage the network?
How easy ¡s the network to use?

I- Extended Communication
How many MACs will be part of the network?
o How many mini/mainframe connections are needed?
:o (and what tYPe, lBM, DEC, UNIX based?)
in Will this be an lnter-LAN network? (LAN-LAN
concerns. Which NOS? Must other protocols be
considered? Are the connections local or remote
(long-distance)?)
What are the needs for electronic commerce?
What are the needs for access to/from the
lnternetANorld Wide Web?

n5
he Eigure 1-12 LAN Business Analysis Questions
Perspective
26 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business
as necessary' Two
an example. Add, modify'
or d'elete questions from this list are:
r;;"ín;Juuo.rt list of business analysis questions
*y
important things,"
sys-
into the required information
1. The questions should dig deeper
temslrelated business activities'
should provide sufficient insight
as
2. The answers to these questions
toenable *""titgu'tio" of possible technical solutions'
'i*
Eachofthecategoriesofbusinessanalysisquestionsisexplainedbriefly
below.
imple-
key to any successful network
UserIssues User satisfaction is the be thoroughly under-
mentation. I" "'d";;;;;;;u
t"""' ihóir ;e;dá must
qi.*t¡i;ilHo* many users must the network
stood. Bevond,n" lJlt'""t
sur:port?,,arethemoreinsightfulquestionsdealingwithspecificbusiness
iti*t of indii idual users'
".rii
times of day?
1. Do users require large file transfers at certain
the day?
2. Do users process many short transactions throughout day
be done at certain times of
3. Are there certain activities thatmust
of elapsed time?
or within a certain amount
between employees?
How fast must files be transferred
4.
of net-
These questions are important
in.order to establish the amount
levels of secu-
indiviáual users. Required
work communication required by
ritY should also be addressed'
network?
L. Are payroll files going to be accessed via the
security measures
2, \A4ro should have access to these files and what
will ensure authorized access?

3. What is the overall technical ability of the users?


4. Will technical staff need to be hired?
organization?
5. Can support be obtained locally from an outside

BudgetRealifThemostcomprehensive'well-documented'andresearched the means of the


value #ú l"to are beyond
networking p"P;;il; ;f [ttle networking
Initial research into possible
funding orgurriiu"rior,-á, trrirr"rr. option reports
the pul[cation of feasiLility
solutions i, ort"r, ?ollowed by ranges' senior man-
of varying price
that outline porriur" network designs based on finan-
deserrré ntítit"t study
agement trr"r, ¿i.tut"s which options
cial availabilitY'
Getting Started with Business-Oriented LAN Anatysis and
Design 27

project
In some cases, senior management may have an approximate
This accepiable
budget in mind that could be sha"red with nétwork analysts.
user/ serves as a
finaiciat range, sometimes expressed as budgeted cost per
are explored. In this
frame of reférence for analysts as technicaioptions
sense,budgetaryconstraintsareiustanotheroverall'high-levelbusiness
;;J;t p"irp".íirr" that helps to shape eventual networking proposals'
5 and not
Localcommunication Because these are business analysis questions
how fast their net-
technical analysis questions, users really can't be asked
second have little
tly work connections ,r't.rrt U". Éit, p"' '"to'-'d or megabits per
or-rro-"uningformostusers'Ifusershavebusinessactivitiessuchas
or
Manufacturing)
CAD/CAM (Compuier Aided Design/Computer Aided
accessing the network'
other 3-D modeling or graphics softíare that will be
large consumers of net-
)le-
the network analyst rná"td be aware that these are
ier- workbandwidth.
ork Bandwidthrequirementsanalysisaswellasthebandwidthofferedby
the text' It is suffi-
€SS various networking alternatives will be explored later in
business
cient at this point to document those information system+elated
á.iirriti", thai may be large consumers of networking bandwidth'
for
Resouree sharing The resource sharing business analysis questions
LANs are similar to the business analysls questions for peripheral/printe-r
sharing devices outlined previously' It is important
duy to identify which
resources and how *uny uri to be sháred: printers'
modems' faxes' cd-roms;
distance
ur,i ,n" preferred locatións of these shared resources. The required
between shared resources and users can have a bearing on acceptable techni-
net- cal options.
>ecu- versions of soft-
File Sharing and Application Sharing In many tu?9t: l"T?rk
cost less than multiplé individual licenses of the same
ware packáges may
analyst is
,oi*ár" pulkugu fár individual personal computers. The network
that r't'ill
trying at ihis pJir,t to com91l9llisting of all applications Programs
are available in net-
lfes bZ sháred by users. Not ali PC-based áoftware packages
work versións and not all PC-based software packages allow
simultaneous
access by multiPle users.

to perfLlrr1
1. Which programs or software packages will users need
l their jobs?
2. \zVhich programs are they currently using?
arched 3. Which new products must be purchased?
; oi the
ha-'been !tr¡nplieted'
orking Once a list of required shared application programs
or the net-
reports it is important to investigate both ihe availabilit]- and capabi'i¡'
producti'e
rr man- work versions of these [rogru*, in order to err<u¡e -ati-.ried.
l finan- users and the successful áttainment of business needs'
28 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

users cannot be expected to be


database
Distributed Data Aceess Although to determine which
be asked in ordei
analysts, sufficient o"""io"' riust users are located' This
data are to U" ,tlurJá;ñ;á;"u"J -ft"t" these
Drocessjsknownasdatádistributionanalysis.Themajorobjectiveofdata for the
5ffiñi,;;;;il; ;;;;,"rr1ine the beít tocation on thethenetwork
one closest to
is usually
stofage of various iJ" irl";. That
best location
that data'
iügi""i*, number of the most active users of or
shared' especially in regionalized
Some data files that are typically files, and inven-
customer files,-employee
multi-location companies, inclu-de users
data access is even more of a concern when the
tory files. Distributed must share the data via
sharing the data
t"*r-t of a LAN and
"t;;;;Jin"
n"t*o'ki¡t"g'I"f""t"t-a,good starting point f:l th: network ana-
wide area forms
a"9ne totpá'itott of the business
Iyst might U" to ust''"Hu' *yo'l* 1
thatareusedinther'ariousregionalan¿brarrc¡officestodeterminewhjch
data need to be sent across the
network?

ErtendedConrmunicationsTheabilityofcertainlocalareanetworkingsolu-
area network remains a key differen-
tions to .o-*rr.i.J" U"yo'ra the loóal
alternatives Y:": should be able
tiating fucto, u,oon!';".j;:;;*"tri"g
tevond the LAN' The accomplish-
to articulate connectivity requirements
of the network analyst'
ment of these requir"-""t' is tne 1oU
ár communications might include
Some possibb';;;;ú; il""q"a
communicatio,'" to á"oiñer LAN' In
this case' the network analyst must
LAN in order to
investigate th"-¿;nlll.ut specifications of this target compati-
"ll "f local LAN' An example^of such a
determine compatiüility *itr't
'f'tá an Apple N'iAC network to a PC-
bilitv issue would be the need to connect
local (within the s19e building) or
il,Ju ""?*;;i. ril;;;l"ir-Áx may be world)' LAN to LAN connection is
remote (across to*''' o? around the
studied in depth in Chapter L3.
known as internetw;;kid and will be hás led to a tremendous
The explosive growtñ of mobile computing home'
corporate infoimation systems from
need. for users to ue able to access willbe explored
hotels, and even uirplarrer. nemote
computing
automobiles,
in dePthin CHrt::tii be the necessity for
extended communications may
LANuserstogainaccesstominicomputersormainfrámes,eitherlocallyor to' and
remotely. eguh1, ;;*;*" o"ty u't'"d-inot they need connectionsjob to figure
where tltose.or^,,'J¡.,, must óccur;
it is the network analyst's
function'
otfihowto make those connections

IANNlanagementandAtlministrationAnotherkeydifferentiatingfactor
among lnN atternail""' i' tn" level
of sophisticatiol l:q"it"d to manage
and administer ihe network. If the
L,{N ,"qnit"r a full-time, highly trained
manager, rnu",nui'
shouldte considered as palt of the pur-
"^ug"';ttulury cost of the proposed
chase cost u, *ufiurine Sp"rutionut lAN
the users may have requirementJ for certain management or
Second,
bL present ly*pl": light be'user-ID
administratior-t f*1t'"' tliat must
of átc"ss to files or user directories'
creation o, *u"^-g"*i""'-tt, o' to''ttot
Getting Started with Business-Oriented LAN Analysis
ar-ld Design 29

.,.:t:a::,
ACCURATE AND CONIPTETE BUDGETS
ARE A MUST
?

n DetailedandaccuratecostprojectionisaVelyimportantskillfornelrr-ork
of a financial nature
.-q :':lPr:ádlcal Advice analysts. Management does nót appreciate surprises
a f.:ráliil Information due to unanticiPated costs' it is
re In order to ensure that all necessary costs have been determined, user,
generators). Thorough
!o essential to identify all user needs (the cost
needs identification is the goal of the business lnalysis questions Phase ot
0f the top-down model.
n-
immediate in nature'
IIS Anticipated Growth Is Ke,v User needs are not always
These needs can vary dramutically over time.
In order to design networking
;ia
Ia- solutionsthatwiltnotbecomeobsoleteinthenearfuture,itisessentialto
anticipated growth in user demands might be'
m5 ;;; ; ,"rrr" of whatofthe to manage-
ich i-ugin" the chagrin the network analyst who must explain
cannot be expanded and
ment that the network which was installeá last year
,""tt Uu replaced due to unanticipated growth of network demand' networking
¡lu- one method of gaining the neceséary insight into.future
set of busi-
€n- ,"qrrir"-".tts (illustra'ted iJrigure 1'-12), .i; to ask users the to three years
same
two
rble ."á, u.ulysls questions with irojected time horizons of
Lsh- and five y"urr. kt.r"dible as ii may seem' five years is about the maximum
iif",t*" for a given neiwork architecture or design. Of course,
;;#ili necessary information or
ude there are exceptions. Eniusers may not}rave the
be very helpful in
nust üo-f"ag" to make inur" pto¡""tions' Management can if the com-
lr to in" ur.u íf projected gro*tir urrd ir-rfor*utionál needs, especially
irr lr-ry sort of formalized strategic planning methodology'
fati- O""t n* "rigug"a
PC'
g) or
¡n is
The Logical Netw-ork Design
,dous
[ome/ At this point, a network analyst slroul{. n1v9 a fairly clear picture of the busi-
,1,ored
nessnetworkingrequire-"''tt'identifiedthroughtheuseofthetop-down
model. Because t".h";1";t-specific issues have
iotbeen covered as yet'only
have been discussed. All
tr- for the logical or functionaillp"'.r, of network design
and software considera-
úh or of the numerorm ut.t ir"ctüre, topology, hardwaie'
of the text'
¡. and iions will Ue explored in the remaining chapters
tigure As each area of ,re* t"chnotogy áltert-rutives is discussed, that technol-
ogy *ni.n meets logical networkáesign requireT"."q
*i+,!: l"""stigaied
for possible iicl.rsio.r in a physi-cal neiwork design. The physical nei-
i.|in", technology that
tactor
work design is a map of the actual irardware and software
mnage
gui;-i-pf";ented and through which the data physicallyflow-,tl: remainder
úained As physical network aeJlgn alternatives aie óxplored i"
pur- and determined in this chap-
of the text, the business requirám"r-rts analyzed
he
philosoph;" of the tcp-
ter will be referenced less'frequently. If tire overall
nent or logical nehvork desisr
down model has been adheredto, tkre now complete
u-ser-ID
shouldensuleachievementoftheagreed-uponbusinesslar-errequire...e:.:s
s.
t

30 Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

KeY Question
What do we hoPe to accomPlish?

How can our information systems help us reach our


goal(s)?

How can our data be organized and distributed in


order to maximize the effectiveness of our
information sYstems?

What must our network do in order to support our


distributed database and applications?

What available networking technology components


must be integrated in order to implement a network
that will delivLr the network performance and
functionality outlined in the logical network design?

FigureT-l3PhysicalandLogicalNetworkDesignsSupporiBusinessRequirements

Itshouidfollowthen,asFigurel-l3illustrates,thataslongasthe-physical
network a"rij" (Technolo[y layer) supports the logical network
deslgn
the íád i-pl"me"t"d network should support the
(Networkffirj, tn""
strategic business tequirements-lthe ultimate goal of the top-down
approach to LAN analysis and design'

,,SIJMMARY :r,l'tr::, :-, .

Perhaps the most significant conclusion that


must ensure that technology investments will
shoulá be drawn from this chapter is that net-
yield desired productivity increases or other
working analysis in general, and local area tusiness objeitives. In addition, the analysis
networl analysis in particular, must yield and design methodology must have some
business solutions, not technology solutions'
way to déd with the myriad of possibilities
Given a knowledge of what a LAN is and
forihe combinations ofhardware and soft-
how a LAN is implemented, the challenge of ware protocols yielding compatibility
between communicating computers or net-
the network analyst is to produce a docu-, -
mentable, justifijble network design capable
works. The use of standardized models
of delivering stated business objectives' The
would seem to be essential to a successful
key to succe-ss in this endeavor is the use of a outcome of the LAN analysis and design
process. Adhering to the structure and associ-
stiuctured methodology for LAN analysis
and design. That structured methodology át"d upptouch of the top-down model should
Reviett Ques:--:'-' 31

assure that the implemented physical net- nication, either the OSI model or the Internet
work design will support strategic business suite of protocols model (TCP/iP modelr
objectives. In order to apply some structure to should óff"t u suitable framework for r-erifi-
thé analysis of complex internetwork commu- able analysis and design.

I{EYTARMS

logicai network design protocols


business Process
network interface card queue management
client
network oPerating system reengineering
compatibility
hub NIC SCTVCfS

OSI model shared media LANs


rrts I-P-O modei
physical network design TCP/IP
r€rk interface
productivity Paradox top-down model
Internet suite of Protocols
an7
LAN protocoi conversion
local area network protocol stack

rsical REYIEW.QUBSTIONS
esign
rt the l4 In simple terms, what is the difference
1. What is a loca1 area network?
betweén an operating system and a network
Con'n 2. What are the advantages of a local area net-
work as opposed to a group of stand-alone operating sYstem?
PCs?
15. What other'technology must a NIC be able to
interface with in a compatible fashion?
3. What are the potentiai disadvantages or nega-
ti.ve aspects of a locai area network?
76 What other technology must a hub be able to
interface with in a compatible fashion?
4. How would a business know when it needed
17. What is the function of a client PC operating
a LAN?
system?
5. What are the most popular business uses of a
18. Whut it the function of a client PC network
LAN?
6. What i.s the difference between file transfer operating sYstem?
19. Fiow do ilient and server versions of the
and file sharing?
same network operating system differ?
ts rvill What types of hardware and software tech-
20. What is the difference in terms of usage and
¡ther nology áre required to support fiie sharjnS?-
function between client and server PCs?
8. Whai resourcés other than printers are LAN-
Llvsis 21 What other technology must network media
attached comPuters likely to want to share?
3-te be able to interface with in a compatible fash-
ities
9. What is meant by the term media-sharing ion?
LAN?
¡rtt- 22. Why is it i.mportant for a network analyst to
10. Are all LANs media-sharing LANs? Explain'
understand. management's business needs
11. Simply speaking, what hardware and soft-
and perspectives?
net- ware iechnology components are required to
; implement a LAN? 2.1, What are some examples of management
business needs and PersPectives?
itul 12. What is the function of a network interface aÁ Give examples of the potential impact t'i
card?
3n management's business needs a¡t1 p-1s::'-
associ- i3. What is the function of a hub or wiring cen-
tives on network anah'sis and ¡i'es-='
should ter?
JZ Chapter One Local Area Networks: A Business Perspective

What is the relationship between the terms


25. What is the importance of a structured, docu- J+
interface, protocols, and compatibility?
mentable methodology for network analysis
35. Whát is meant by the term protocol stack in
and design?
terms of its importance to internetwork
26 What are some typical business views of tech-
design?
nology held bY senior management?
36. Diffáentiate between the following protocol-
27. What is the ProductivitY Paradox?
related terms: open, proprietary, de facto'
28. What is the top-down model and why is it
37. Describe the importance of the OSI model'
important?
38. \{4rat is the relaiionship between the layers of
29. Wñat is business process reengineering and
the OSI model?
what is its relationship to the top-down
39 \44rat is the difference between the OSI model
model?
and OSI protocols?
30. What is the overall relationship between the
+0. Comparé and contrast the OSI model with the
layers of the toP-down model?
Internet suite of protocols model'
31. If ihe top-down model is used as intended,
11. Descri.be the lypes of skills (technical, per-
what can be assumed about implemented svs-
sonal, business) required of a successful net-
tems?
What is the difference betr'veen logical and
work analyst.
32
42. Describe tire impact of the accelerating rate of
physical network desiSn?
technoiogical chattge in the networking field
JJ. WÁy is it important to ailorr logical and phys-
on networking Personnel.
ical netr,r'ork designs to vary independently?

{CTIAUBS

nent facts from the article in the appropriate


Prepare a chart outlining advantages, disad-
layers of the top-down model. Examine your
,rurliug.t, and current pricing in terms- of cost
reiults. What questions do you have?
p"r.t*. for various LANs and LAN alterna-
Prepare a paPer on a variety of companies
tives.
network administrator, a network that have attempted business process reengl-
2. Interview a
neering. Has there been a variable rate of suc-
analyst, a network technician, and a director
cess in"these efforts? Is there a right way and
of M.I.S. Compare and contrast their perspec-
a wrong way to do BPR?
tives on business vs. technical orientation of
9, Prepare a chart with examples lndu$11S .
their responsibilities.
employed protocols for each of the following
Investigáte and report on the possible w-ays in
types ót inierfaces: hardware/hardware, soft-
which Macs can communicate with DOS or
wáre / soffware, hardware / software'
Windows-based PCs.
10. Prepare a chart listing as many protocols
as
Prepare a chart outlining the level of training
possible and categorize them as: open/ ProPrr
and^ technical expertise required to implement
etary, officialiy sanctioned, or de facto'
and manage various LANs and LAN alterna-
11. Fill in a copy of the OSI model with as many
tives.
OSI protocols as you can find. In another OSI
Interview senior nontechnical business
model, list alternatives to the OSI protocols'
administrators from a variety of companies
and report on their views of the impact of 12 Interview networking personnel as to how
technology on their oPerations' they use the OSI model or Internet suite of
protocols model' Explain your resulfs'.
Investigate and prepare a paper or presenta- -P.uput"
t.l. a chart listing the types of ski11s
tion on the ProductivitY Paradox'
Find a description of an implemented net- required of successful network analysts and
7.
work in a professional periodicai' Place perti- thé intended source of those skills'
1t
Case Sludr-

CÁSE..STUDY

M31ming lt'g Ttgr'k* shl p in the Shi -pni*g


s-i-q

and disPatch suPPort PeoPle IndustrY analYsts saY this


For UPS-a comPany that has uoorouéh is starting to lose
to each site," he saYs'
built its rePutation on sPeedY ru.l.rr becarrse hundreds of
packaqe áeliverY-sPend ing The suPPort PeoPle would
"*ottths to distribute install the in-house software management softwate star-
ihr"" tups aie rushing i¡to the mar-
on Windows NT machines at
software within its own net- ket to Provide individual
each of the sites. The software
work was unaccePtable' functions at a lower cost'
It used to take that long, helps UPS track the Packages
it ships around the countrY'
"Most of the innovation
but now UPS can deliver soft- these daYs is in the Point
ware to thousands of its PCs
Nów software is distrib-
uted and installed electroni- tools," saYs ]ohn McConnell'
and servers in three to five oresident of McCon¡ell Asso-
cally from a central data center '.iute, in Boulder, Colo' He
business daYs.
To achieve this acceleration'
orr"t u frame relaY network to
locations throughout the U'S' adds that many users can get
Atlanta-based UPS last Year value from looselY couPled
installed a software distribu- The comPanY has Performed
more than 30,000 distributions
systems from different ven-
tion aPPlication from Tivoli as dors.
part óf-a management frame- since last August.
While UPS won't saY how "We framework vendors
work that includes software kind of do ourselves a disser-
much it is saving bY using the
for remotelY controlling and vice in leading with the
monitoring sYstems'
Tivoli software, BartY saYs'
"We're huPPY with our return framework rather than lead-
UPS has made its move at a ine with the solution"'
on investment."
time when so-called "fiame- ac"knowledges Leo Cole'
work" management software The imPlementation isn't
perfect, hówever' UPS still director of network manage-
lrom vendori such as Tivoli ment at Tivoli. DePloYing and
needs to uPgrade to the latest
and ComPuter Associates is monitoring software are func-
version of Tivoli EnterPrise to
coming .tt der increasing fire tions that users can derive
f
for beág exPensive and diffi-
set two critical f unctions'
Éur.y ,uYt. One is the abilitY real value from-and that
cult to imPlément' Part of the should be the focus'
reason UPS went with the to distribute software to "The fact that there maY be
''¡
ng
AS/400s. The other is a much
rfi- software is that the comPanY agent a framework [to those func-
found that the software had a
leaner management shouldn't care
that takes uP onlY 250K bYtes tions], You
-
s runction UPS could benefit about," Cole saYS' "When
on end stations.
':ri- ff om: software distribution' vou're cloing an ROI analr
sis
PreviouslY, UPS would áo it on a function basis
"
n1 uodate software across its FRANiIEWORK VS. FUI{CTION
f>I a huge sneaker-
- ]zoo sites via
I

net, saYs Glen BarrY, Project The software distribution GI\¡ING UPS A BOOST
ieader of the Tivoli imPle- function fits into the Tivoli
EnterPrise framework, which Other functions in the ll;-::':¿-
n"Lentation at UPS'
unitei manY network and sYs- work that L IS u-e: ::"-' -'-=
"We would create more
tems management features monitoring serr''¿l: :: l:
rhan 1,000 uPgrade CDs, send man\' :ltes. : ::' :
rnd
ihem to regional tech suPPort'
under a common umbrella'
34 Chapter One Local Area \etu-orks: A Business Perspective

troi software to take o\¡er com- But with the framework in


agers are able to keeP an el'e
on performance Problems puters remotelY via the net- place, UPS is hoPing it can
and ar-ailable disk sPace/ work and fix any problems. easily plug in new aPPlica-
Barrr- sar-s. Once the man- "The frameworks tend to tions. Barry saYs UPS will
agers understand and correct have value for large organi- extend its use of Tivoli soft-
zations, rather than smail ware next year with the ven-
anr- problems occurring at
one site, theY can ProPagate ones," McConnell saYs. A dor's new Cross-Site
corrections to other sites, large company such as UPS product. Cross-Site lets users
can benefit from the tools send data securelY through a
ensuring that the Problems
don't crop up there, as well. being consolidated in one firewall over an oPen net-
Barry saYS going with place. work such as the Internet.
Tivoli also helPed UPS As for the criticism that While Cross-Site is intended
because the comPanY has framework-based manage- for use between businesses
many different kinds of sYs- ment software is difficult to that are partners in a suPPlY
tems to manage-including implement, BarrY saYs his chain, UPS plans to use it to
mainframes, IBM ASl400 implementation went off send updates of salesforce
mid-range comPuters, Unix wiihout a hitch. Howevet automation software to its
UPS went through a method- sales executives on the road.
boxes, NT servers and OS/2
ical process of testing that Based on the success with
desktops. With Tivoli soft-
ware, UPS can monitor and started in June 1'997. ImPle- Tivoli so far, UPS Plans to
manage all these disParate mentation began in ]anuarY implement Tivoli software for
systems using the same tools. 1998, and deploYment was- its entire worldwide oPera-

UPS' technical suPPort staff n't completed until August tion by 2004.
also uses Tivoli's remote con- 1998.
,,Managing the Tightest ship in the shipping Biz," Netzoork world, vol. 76, no' 19 (May 10, 1999)' p' 57'
source: Jeffcaruso,
Copyright Network World. Reprinted with permission'

BUSINBSS CASB STUDY QUESTIONS. .

2. What was the productivity impact of the


Activities
implemented solution?
1. Complete a top-down model for this case by
3. Wñy do you think UPS won't say how much it
gleaning facts from the case and placing them
is saving by using their Tivoli investment?
i"n the pioper layer of the top-down model'
4. How long did the deployment of the soffware
After having completed the top-down model,
take?
analyze and detail those instances where
5. How many locations are currently being man-
requirements were clearly passed down from
aged by the Tivoli framework?
upper layers to lower layers of the model and
6. By when does UPS anticipate having Tivoli
where solutions to those requirements were
passed up from iower layers to upper layers o{
dóployed over their worldwide network?
the model. Application
2. Detail any questions about the case that may 1. How did UPS conduct software distribution
occur to yo.t fot which answers are not clearly prior to purchasing the Tivoli software?
stated in the article' 2. What business function did the application
Business software that was being upgraded serve?
1. What was the business motivation or problem 3. What is the problem with ihe framework ap-
that initiated the search for the implemented proach to enterprise network management
solution? software?
Business Case StudY Questions 35

of com-
but 3. What are some of the different types
A
What is the alternative to the all-inclusive puting Platforms used bY UPS?
expensive frameworks? 'Cun tfi"y allbe monitotéd fto^ a single appii-
that UPS is 4.
5. What are some new applications cation?
i.*"ai"g to use the Tivoli framework for?
TechnologY
Data What was the key function of the
network
cul- 1.
1. What key functionalities are not being - *u.ug"*..tt framework that UPS was most
UPS to upgrade?
.""iit ".rt,, thereby forcing interested in?
:
2. Whai are Point Products?
in the 2. Wnut *ut the traditional negative
opinign
; á,. Wh;i ;*;"t"" of tt"tu other functions about enterprise network management frame-
I framework used bY UPS? works?
-
Network 3. iiiá Üps agree or disagree with this traditional
b.
1. What type of network is used for
the electronic view? WhY or whY not?
d
software distribution?
5 2. V\rhat operating system was the
software
ty installed on?
fo
ce
Lts

1.
úh
to
[or
ta-

51.

rhit
I
iiare

nan-

ñ
I

Eon

ion
2
k aP-
É:nt