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A Cells Unit guide

M W
Where this unit fits in Prior learning
p ? This unit builds on: To make good progress, pupils starting this unit
unit 6B the concepts that living things have processes in common, and that plants and animals need to understand:
t u have structures with specific functions (3B, 5B, 3A, 4A, 5A).
• how to recognise living things and distinguish
The concepts in this unit are: them from things that are not living
^ _ • that plants and animals are made up of
cells. Pupils are introduced to the concept of cells as the basic unit of life. structures, e.g. muscles and roots, that fulfil
ET ET This unit leads onto: specific functions
units 7B Reproduction, 8B Respiration and 8C Microbes and disease. • the functions of a flower (reproduction).

TY PC Framework yearly teaching objectives – Cells


G K •

Describe a simple model for cells that recognises those features all cells have in common and the differences between animal and plant cells.
Explain that some living organisms are only one cell but that others are multicelled.
• Explain that growth means an increase in the size and number of cells.
• Explain that similar specialised cells can be grouped together to form tissues, that tissues can form organs, and that these do not all develop and
grow at the same time; use this to explain why and how some organisms care for and protect their offspring.

Expectations from the QCA Scheme of Work


At the end of this unit …
… most pupils will … … some pupils will not have made so … some pupils will have progressed
much progress and will … further and will …
in terms of scientific enquiry NC Programme of Study Sc1 1c; 2a, c, d, e, h, j, k, o
• describe some earlier ideas about the • relate drawings to observations made using a • explain how evidence from microscope
structure of living things and relate these to microscope and describe what they found out observations changed ideas about the
evidence from microscopic observations during their investigation. structure of living things
• make observations using a microscope and • estimate sizes of specimens viewed under the
record them in simple drawings microscope and justfy the sample chosen in
• suggest a question about pollen tubes that an investigation of pollen tubes.
can be investigated and use an appropriate
sample
• present results in an appropriate graph and
explain what these show.
in terms of life processes and living things NC Programme of Study Sc2 1a, b, c, d, e
• identify and name features of cells and • recognise that all organisms are made from • recognise that viruses are not cells
describe some differences between plant and cells • describe how some cells in an organism are
animal cells • name some parts of a cell. specialised to carry out particular functions.
• explain that growth occurs when cells divide
and increase in size
• describe how cells are grouped to form tissues.

Suggested lesson allocation (see individual lesson planning guides)


Direct route
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Organs, cells, tissues Building blocks Cells and growth Scaling up and Flower cells
down: Think about
scales
Extra lessons (not in pupil book)
A1 Organs, cells, tissues. A2 Building blocks. A5 Investigate: What Review and assess
Extra lesson may be Extra lesson may be makes pollen tubes progress(distributed
needed depending on needed depending on grow? appropriately)
choice of main activities. choice of main
acitivities.

Misconceptions
Pupils often do not relate the 2D diagrams to a 3D shape, so work with models is essential. They think of cells as unmoving and unchanging, which
does not help them understand that cells are the basic unit of life. They often think that bacteria and yeast are not cells. They often think that plant
cells do not have a cell membrane, because of the presence of the cell wall.
Additional information
Some schools have experienced difficulties with the pollen tube investigation suggested in the QCA SoW. Activity A5c has therefore been designated
as a planning investigation activity. There will be other opportunities in the course to discuss sampling.
Health and safety (see activity notes to inform risk assessment)
Microscopes should not be used with sunlight as the light source. Pupils should wash their hands after handling any biological material.

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Lesson planning
A1 Organs, cells, tissues guide

M W
Learning objectives
p ? i Living things contain structures, called organs, with specific functions; examples of these, e.g. leaf.
ii Organs are made up of tissues and tissues are made up of cells.
iii A tissue is made up of cells that are very similar.
t u iv The parts of a microscope.
Scientific enquiry
^ _ v Prepare a simple slide and observe it using a microscope. (Framework YTO Sc1 7d)
vi Scientists in the past had different ideas about the structure of living things to those we hold today and these changed because of observations
UG made using microscopes. (Framework YTO Sc1 7a)

Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Introduce the unit Share learning objectives Word game (1) Word game (2) Capture interest
Unit map for Cells. • Find out what organs and Pelmanism on the Wordsearch on microscope Pupils use a milk-bottle
tissues are made of. characteristics of life. key words. top magnifier.
• Be able to use a microscope to
look at cells. (Sc1)

Suggested alternative main activities


Activity Learning Description Approx. Target group
objective timing
see above C H E S
Textbook A1 i, ii and iii Teacher-led explanation and questioning OR pupils work individually, in 20 min R/ G R S
paris or in small groups through the in-text questions and then onto G
the end-of-spead questions if time allows.
Activity A1a vi Looking at small objects Pupils use magnifying glass/microscope to 20 min ✓ ✓
Practical observe objects. They do some magnification calculations.
Activity A1b Paper iv The parts of the microscope Pupils identify and label diagram of 10 min ✓ (✓)
microscope.
Activity A1c Paper vi Robert Hooke Reading/comprehension activity on the work of Robert 15 min ✓ ✓
Hooke.
Activity A1d i, ii, iii and v Looking at plant tissue Pupils prepare a slide of onion cells, view it 25 min ✓
Practical under a microscope and draw what they see.
Activity A1e v Looking at animal cells If local regulations allow, pupils should make 10 min ✓
Practical their own slide of cheek cells, or use a pre-prepared slide.
Activity A1f i Support animation with immediate feedback about animals and plants 10 min ✓
Catalyst Interactive containing structures with functions.
Presentations 1

Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Sharing responses Group feedback Word game Looking ahead
Show a cross-section Whole-class discussion of Groups of pupils compare Pupils work in pairs and Pupils suggest what cells
through a leaf to review responses and feedback on and discuss their drawings carry out a card sort. are made of, if organs are
key words from lesson. Activities looking at cells of the onion cells from made of tissues and tissues
A1a, A1d and A1e. Activity A1b. are made of cells.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils will … Some pupils, making less progress will … Some pupils, making more progress will …
• review knowledge that humans and • know that humans and flowering plants • also learn that tissues can be identified with
flowering plants contain structures with contain structures with specific functions (e.g. specific names and be able to give at least one
specific functions muscle, leaf) and that humans and flowering example (epidermis)
• have learnt that these structures are plants are made up of cells • also explain how using microscopes has changed
called organs (and be able to give • learn to use a microscope to aid observation. scientists’ ideas about the structure of living
examples), that organs are made up of things.
tissues and that each tissue is made up
of many similar cells
• be able to use a microscope to aid
observation

Key words Out-of-lesson learning


microscope, organ, tissue, cell, magnifies, red only: multicellular, Homework A1
unicellular organisms, palisade cells, mesophyll cells, epidermis Textbook A1 end-of-spread questions

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Lesson planning
A2 Building blocks guide

M W
Learning objectives
p ? i Cells contain a nucleus, cytoplasm and a cell membrane.
ii How images and diagrams of a cell relate to a 3D representation.
iii Functions of the nucleus and the cell membrane.
t u iv Differences between animal cells and plant cells.
v Cells can be specialised, including having specific structures, and these structures allow the cell to fulfil its function (red only).
^ _ Scientific enquiry
vi Pupils use and evaluate models to aid creative thinking in understanding cells. (Framework YTO Sc1 7a, h)
UG

Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Recap last lesson Share learning objective Problem solving (1) Problem solving (2) Capture interest
Organ pictionary. • Find out the main differences Jigsaw puzzle of the leaf. Pupils write questions for Show dramatic photos of
between plant and animal cells. the answers provided. cells.
• Be able to use a model to Catalyst Interactive
understand cells. (Sc1) Presentations 1

Suggested alternative main activities


Activity Learning Description Approx. Target group
objective timing
see above C H E S

Textbook A2 i, ii, iii,iv Teacher-led explanation and questioning OR pupils work individually, in 20 min R/G G R S
and v pairs or in small groups through the in-text questions and then onto
the end-of-spread questions if time allows.
Activity A2a i, iii and v Making model cells Pupils build models of animal and plant cells and 30 min ✓ ✓ ✓
Practical evaluate the models.
Activity A2b i, iv and v Looking at cells Pupils colour code diagrams of different cells. 10 min ✓ ✓ ✓
Paper
Activity A2c i, ii and iv My journey through a cell Pupils search for sites that allow virtual 20 min ✓ ✓
ICT reality cell exploration.

Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Sharing responses Group feedback Word game Looking ahead
Pupils classfy diagrams of Whole-class discussion of Groups of pupils share Play ‘hot seat’ game. Pupils suggest how we as
numerous cells as either responses to Activity A2a. evaluation of Activity A2a. humans grow in size.
plant or animal cells.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils will … Some pupils, making less progress will … Some pupils, making more progress will …
• know that cells are 3D structures with a • know that all cells have some features in • also know that the nucleus contains information
nucleus, cytoplasm and a cell surface common and be able to name some of these and that the cell membrane controls what goes
membrane features in and out of the cell
• know that plant cells have, in addition, • know that plant cells and animal cells are • know that plant cells have a vacuole and that
a cell wall and that some plant cells also different. some cells have special features that help them
have chloroplasts. fulfil their function.

Key words Out-of-lesson learning


nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, chemical changes, cell wall, animal Homework A2
cells, plant cells, chloroplasts, vacuole, cellulose, chlorophyll, Activity A2b or Activity A2c could be set, provided resources were made
microscopic red only: electron microscope, specialised, cilia, ciliated available
epithelial cells, palisade cells, viruses Textbook A2 end-of-spread questions

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Lesson planning
A3 Cells and growth guide

M W
Learning objectives
p ? i Cells make new cells by dividing.
ii Growth occurs because new cells are made and increase in size.
iii Cell division begins with the division of the nucleus.
t u iv It is essential that each new cell gets a complete copy of the nucleus because the nucleus contains all the instructions and information that the
cell needs to function. (red only)
^ _ Scientific enquiry
v Using microscopes. (Framework YTO Sc1 7d)
UG

Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Recap last lesson Share learning objective Problem solving Capture interest (1) Capture interest (2)
Show • Find out how growth occurs. Pupils put stages of the Ask questions about how a Show an animation of
photomicrographs of • Be able to observe cells human life cycle in order. baby grows into an adult in cells dividing. Pupils
different animal and dividing using a microscope. terms of cell numbers. describe what they see.
plant cells. Pupils pick (Sc1) Catalyst Interactive
out the features that Presentations 1
identify them as
animal or plant cells.
Catalyst Interactive
Presentations 1

Suggested alternative main activities


Activity Learning Description Approx. Target group
objective timing
see above C H E S

Textbook A3 i, ii, iii and Teacher-led explanation and questioning OR pupils work individually, in 20 min R/G G R S
iv pairs or in small groups through the in-text questions and then onto
the end-of-spread questions if time allows.
Activity A3a i, ii and v Growing yeast Pupils observe yeast cells that have been grown for 25 min ✓ ✓
Practical different times using a microscope.

Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Sharing responses Group feedback Word game Looking ahead
True/false game on growth. Whole-class discussion of In groups, pupils prepare In pairs, pupils formulate a Suggest what conditions
observations from Activity an explanation of how written definition of cell cells need to grow and stay
A3a to back up an things grow. division. alive.
explanation for growth.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils will … Some pupils, making less progress will … Some pupils, making more progress will …
• know that cells increase in number by • know that cells divide to make more cells. • also know that the cell’s nucleus always divides
division (into two) first and understand that this is to ensure that
• know that the cells are smaller after each new cell gets a complete copy of the
division and then increase in size instructions it needs to function.
• know that growth occurs by a
combination of these two mechanisms.

Key words Out-of-lesson learning


growth, cell division Homework A3
Textbook A3 end-of-spread questions

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Lesson planning
A4 Scaling up and down – Think guide
about scales
M W
Learning objectives
p ? i An image or diagram can be to scale and it can be larger or smaller than the real object.
ii Calculate scale factors using ratios.
The structure of this lesson is based around the CASE approach. The starter activities give concrete preparation. The main activities move away from the
t u concrete towards a challenging situation, where pupils need to think. The extended plenary gives pupils time to discuss what they have learnt, to
negotiate a method to commit to paper and express their ideas verbally to the rest of the class.
^ _
Scientific enquiry
UG iii Application of ratios in a scientific context (developing analytical skills). (Framework YTO Sc1 7g part)

Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Bridging to the unit Setting the context Concrete preparation (1) Concrete preparation (2)
Show a photomicrograph of a cell Introduce scaling up and scaling Pupils put things in order of size. Pupils answer questions about a
with a scale showing the down. Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1 passage from Alice in Wonderland.
magnification.
Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1

Suggested main activities


Activity Learning Description Approx. Target group
objective timing
see above C H E S

Textbook A4 i and ii Teacher-led explanation and questioning OR pupils work individually, in 30 min R/G G R S
pairs or in small groups through the in-text questions and then onto
the end-of-spread questions if time allows.
Activity A4a ii and iii Scale factors Diagrams of objects and their real sizes. Pupils work out 10 min ✓ ✓
Paper scale factor.
Activity A4b i and ii Support animation for pupils who find the numeracy content very 20 min ✓
Catalyst Interactive alienating and difficult.
Presentations 1

Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Group feedback Bridging to other topics
Pupils discuss, write down or display their explanation of how to work Ask pupils to think of instances where scaling up or down could be used
out a scale factor. in other contexts, e.g. medicine.
Also refer to Unit 8D, which covers quadrats.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils will … Some pupils, making less progress will … Some pupils, making more progress will …
• have an appreciation of scale factors • know that an image or diagram can be to scale • be able to work out scale factors independently,
and, with guidance, work out the scale and that it can be larger or smaller than the without reference to a method.
factor of a diagram. real object.

Key words Out-of-lesson learning


scale diagram, scaling up, scaling down, scale factor Textbook A4 in-text/end-of-spread questions
Activity A4a

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Lesson planning
A5 Flower cells guide

M W
Learning objectives
p ? i The parts of a flower.
ii Organs, tissues and cells make the life process of reproduction possible.
iii Fertilisation in a flowering plant is when the nucleus of the pollen grain joins with the nucleus of the egg cell.
t u
Scientific enquiry
^ _ iv Using microscopes. (Framework YTO Sc1 7d)

UG
Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)
Recap last lesson Share learning Problem solving (1) Problem solving (2) Capture interest
objectives
Show a photomicrograph of a • Find out how Pupils make pollen grains Pupils label a diagram of a Dissect a flower and sort
pollen grain with a scale and fertilisation takes place following one of two flower to recap prior the parts into male,
discuss by how much it is in a flower. design briefs: for wind- knowledge from Key female and neither.
magnified. • Be able to observe pollinated or for insect- Stage 2.
Catalyst Interactive pollen tubes growing. pollinated flowers.
Presentations 1 (Sc1)

Suggested alternative main activities


Activity Learning Description Approx. Target group
objective timing
see above C H E S
Textbook A5 i, ii and iii Teacher-led explanation and questioning OR pupils work individually, in 20 min R/G G R S
pairs or in small groups through the in-text questions and then onto
the end-of-spread questions if time allows.
Activity A5a i, ii and iii Plant fertilisation Pupils use existing knowledge to sequence a series 20 min ✓
Paper of annotated diagrams that describe process of pollination and
fertilisation.
Activity A5b iv Growing pollen tubes Pupils observe the growth of pollen tubes. 25 min ✓
Practical

Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Sharing responses Group feedback Word game Looking ahead
Pupils write a series of Whole-class discussion of In groups, pupils write a Check progress using a Pupils revise and
sentences on the growth of responses to Activity A5a. sequence of sentences ‘word splat’ of the key consolidate knowledge
the pollen tube. Sentences describing pollination and words in the unit. from the unit.
are mixed up for another fertilisation.
group to put into order.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils will … Some pupils, making less progress will … Some pupils, making more progress will …
• know that fertilisation in flowering • know that fertilisation is necessary to make • be able to explain how the organs, tissues and
plants is the joining of a pollen grain new plants and that this happens when part of cells of a flower work together to achieve
nucleus with an egg cell nucleus the pollen grain joins with the egg cell. reproduction.
• understand that structures in the flower
make reproduction possible.

Key words Out-of-lesson learning


carpel, stamen, petal, anther, stigma, style, ovary, pollen tube, pollen Homework A5
grains, egg cells, pollination, fertilisation, red only: reproduction, embryo Textbook A5 end-of-spread questions
plant, seed, fruit

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Lesson planning
A5 Investigate: What makes pollen guide
tubes grow?
M W
Learning objectives
p ? i Planning an investigation, based on a familiar KS2 context.
ii Pollen grains are not identical.

t u Scientific enquiry
iii Plan an investigation, discussing how to improve the quality of the results by e.g. repeating values, and increasing the sample. (Framework YTO
^ _ Sc1 7b, c, e)

UG
Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)
Setting the context Introduce the Safety Brainstorming (1) Brainstorming (2)
apparatus
Remind pupils of pollen tube Demonstrate how to set up Discuss safety hazards with The variables in the The need for a fair test,
growth and its role in a slide for pollen tube the class. investigation. the need to repeat
fertilisation. growth. measurements and the
need to do a preliminary
investigation.

Investigation
Activity Learning Description Approx. Target group
objective timing
see above C H E S
Activity A5c i, ii and iii What makes pollen tubes grow? Pupils read through information 30 min ✓ ✓
Discussion Paper about planning an investigation and discuss in pairs. Plans are taken in
and checked. Each pair is asked by teacher to prepare feedback on one
aspect of their plan.

Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Group feedback
Teacher-led review of the main planning issues in the investigation. In groups, pupils discuss their predictions and justify them.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils will … Some pupils, making less progress will … Some pupils, making more progress will …
• be able to describe their investigation • be able to describe the steps in the • also be able to explain why increasing the
and know that living things are not investigation in the correct order sample size would improve the quality of their
identical • explain how they would try to carry out a fair results.
• describe what measures they would take test.
to obtain good quality results despite
this problem, e.g. taking the pollen
from one flower, repeating values.

Key words Out-of-lesson learning


plan, predict, range, variable, values, sample If more time is needed pupils could finish their plan

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues Starters

M Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Introduce the unit Share learning Word game (1) Word game (2) Capture interest
p ? objectives
Unit map for Cells. ● Find out what organs and Pelmanism on the Wordsearch on Pupils use a milk-bottle
t u tissues are made of. characteristics of life. microscope key words. top magnifier.
● Be able to use a
^ _ microscope to look at
cells. (Sc1)
UG LP
Introduce the unit
● Either draw the outline of the unit map on the board ➔ Unit map
then ask pupils to give you words to add, saying where
to add them. Suggest some words yourself when
necessary to keep pupils on the right track.
● Or give out the unit map and ask pupils to work in
groups deciding how to add the listed words to the
diagram. Then go through it on the board as each
group gives suggestions.

Share learning objectives


● Ask pupils to write a list of FAQs they would put on a
website telling people about organs, cells and tissues.
Collect suggestions as a whole-class activity, steering
pupils towards those related to the objectives. Conclude
by highlighting the questions you want them to be able
to answer at the end of the lesson.

Word game (1)


● Pupils work in pairs and place all the cards from the ➔ Pupil sheet
pupil sheet face down. They take it in turns to turn
over two cards and look at them. If they have a word
and its correct definition, they keep the pair. If not,
they put the cards back face down. They need to
remember where the cards are so that they can turn up
a word and its definition together later. The person
with the most correct pairs when all the cards have
gone is the winner.

Word game (2)


● Ask pupils to do the wordsearch on the pupil sheet. ➔ Pupil sheet
● Show the answers as an OHT for them to check their ➔ Teacher sheet
answers. Use the words on it to introduce the lesson.

Capture interest
● Use aluminium bottle tops and make a small hole in
them (about 1 mm across). Tell pupils to place one
water droplet onto the hole, and to look through the
droplet at their fingertip. The droplet acts as a
magnifier, and they should be able to see quite a bit of
detail. Ask them to draw their fingerprint.

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A Cells Unit map

p ? Tissues and organs


t u
Plant and animal Scaling up and down
^ _
UG LP

TN

Cells

Pollination and Cell division


fertilisation and growth
Flowers


Copy the unit map and use these words to help you complete it.
You may add words of your own too.

anther organ
carpel ovary
cell membrane palisade cells R
cell wall palisade mesophyll R
cellulose petal
chlorophyll pollen grains
chloroplasts pollen tube
ciliated epithelial cell R pollination
cytoplasm seed
egg cells specialised R
electron microscope R stamen
epidermis R stigma
fertilisation style
magnify R tissue
microscope vacuole
nucleus
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A1 Organs, cells, tissues Starters

M Word game (1)


p ? Cut out the cards below. With a partner, place them all face down.

t uTake it in turns to turn over two cards. If you have a word and its
correct definition, keep the cards. If not, turn them face down again.
^ _
Remember where the cards are so that you can match them later.
UG LP
The person with the most correct pairs when all the cards have gone
TN is the winner.


growth  nutrition

Getting food Getting bigger

Going from one place


movement
to another

Detecting changes using sight,


Making new living things
hearing, smell, touch, taste

respiration Releasing energy from food

sensitivity reproduction

excretion Getting rid of waste

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues Starters

M Word game (2)


p ? All these words are connected with a microscope. See how many of
them you can find in the wordsearch.
t u

^ _
lens magnify eyepiece
UG LP magnification
TN TS

objective focus
slide coarse

stage fine
mirror

L R E A C D E A E G J V D
E F N V H G D V D M G M E
N O I T A C I F I N G A M
S C F S F T R R L S D G V
R U D S C I R G S R T N V
D S B E E O N T T J D I B
D E J S R Z A E G T F F K
L B D G M G G R F S L Y U
O A A D E N P P S B D M S
A A E C E I P E Y E S S A

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues Starters

p ?

t u
Word game (2)
^ _
UG LP
L R E A C D E A E G J V D
TN PS
E F N V H G D V D M G M E
N O I T A C I F I N G A M
S C F S F T R R L S D G V
R U D S C I R G S R T N V
D S B E E O N T T J D I B
D E J S R Z A E G T F F K
L B D G M G G R F S L Y U
O A A D E N P P S B D M S
A A E C E I P E Y E S S A

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A2 Building blocks Starters

M Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Recap last lesson Share learning Problem solving (1) Problem solving (2) Capture interest
p ? objectives
Organ pictionary. ● Find out the main Jigsaw puzzle of the leaf. Pupils write questions for Show dramatic photos of
t u differences between the answers provided. cells.
plant and animal cells. Catalyst Interactive
^ _ ● Be able to use a model Presentations 1
to understand cells. (Sc1)
UG LP
Recap last lesson
● Pupils work in threes to play organ pictionary. One ➔ Pupil sheet
pupil takes a card and tries to describe the organ
pictured on the card without using its name. One of
the other pupils tries to guess the name, while the third
pupil times for 1 minute.

Share learning objectives


● Ask pupils to write a list of FAQs they would put on a
website telling people about animal and plant cells.
Collect suggestions as a whole-class activity, steering
pupils towards those related to the objectives. Conclude
by highlighting the questions you want them to be able
to answer at the end of the lesson.

Problem solving (1)


● Ask pupils to cut out the pieces of the leaf jigsaw puzzle ➔ Pupil sheet
on the pupil sheet and fit them together.
● Tell pupils to label a cell and a tissue, and to name the
organ, having stuck down the completed jigsaw puzzle.

Problem solving (2)


● Ask pupils to write a question for each answer opposite. Answers
● Ask individual pupils for their questions and discuss cell, tissue, organ
these with the class. Are any other answers possible?

Capture interest
● Show dramatic photos of a variety of animal and plant ➔ Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1
cells and discuss how pupils can tell they are cells.
● Explain what the photos show.

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A2 Building blocks Starters

M Recap last lesson


p ?

t u

^ _
UG LP
TN

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A2 Building blocks Starters

M Problem solving (1)


p ?

t u

^ _
UG LP
TN

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A3 Cells and growth Starters

M Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Recap last lesson Share learning Problem solving Capture interest (1) Capture interest (2)
p ? objectives
Show photomicrographs ● Find out how growth Pupils put stages of the Ask questions about how Show an animation of cells
t u of different animal and occurs. human life cycle in order. a baby grows into an dividing. Pupils describe
plant cells. Pupils pick ● Be able to observe cells adult in terms of cell what they see.
^ _ out the features that dividing using a numbers. Catalyst Interactive
identify them as animal microscope. (Sc1) Presentations 1
UG LP or plant cells.
Catalyst Interactive
Presentations 1

Recap last lesson


● Show a series of photomicrographs of different plant ➔ Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1
and animal cells. Ask pupils to name the features that
help them decide whether each one is a plant cell or
an animal cell.

Share learning objectives


● Ask pupils to write a list of FAQs they would put on a
website telling people about cells and growth. Collect
suggestions as a whole-class activity, steering pupils
towards those related to the objectives. Conclude by
highlighting the questions you want them to be able to
answer at the end of the lesson.

Problem solving
● Ask pupils to cut out the pictures at the bottom of the ➔ Pupil sheet
pupil sheet, and to stick them in the correct places on
the diagram to show the human life cycle.

Capture interest (1)


● Show the diagram of a fertilised egg as an OHT and ➔ Pupil sheet
point out that this grows into a person. Write up two
‘challenge questions’:
How many cells does a person contain? (Estimate 50
million million.)
Are the cells in an adult person bigger than the cells in
a baby?
● Ask pupils to discuss these questions in pairs. Take
feedback after their discussions.

Capture interest (2)


● Show an animation of cells dividing. Ask pupils to ➔ Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1
describe what they see happening.

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A3 Cells and growth Starters

M Problem solving
p ?

t u

^ _
UG LP
TN

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A3 Cells and growth Starters

p ?

t u
Capture interest (1)
^ _
UG LP
TN

fertilised egg

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A4 Scaling up and down – Starters


Think about
M

p ? Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Bridging to the unit Setting the context Concrete preparation (1) Concrete preparation (2)
t u
Show a photomicrograph of a Introduce scaling up and scaling Pupils put things in order of size. Pupils answer questions about a
cell with a scale showing the down. Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1 passage from Alice in Wonderland.
^ _ magnification.
Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1
UG LP
Bridging to the unit
● Refer back to the photos of cells in the pupil book and
discuss how much bigger they show cells than they
really are (on page 2 of the Red book, approximately
1500 for the cheek cells and onion cells).
● Show a photomicrograph of a cell with a scale and ➔ Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1
discuss what this means in terms of magnifying and
scaling up.

Setting the context


● Discuss maps, which are scaled down from real life.
● Discuss other applications such as cinema screens that
show images scaled up from real life.
● Discuss why it is useful and necessary to scale up and
scale down.

Concrete preparation (1)


● Show the photos of a map, a slide for viewing under a ➔ Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1
microscope, an electron micrograph and a photo of real
people.
● Ask pupils to put these in order of size of the real object
represented in the picture, biggest first. Ask them to
compare their orders in groups.
● Ask pupils to estimate the sizes of the real objects, and
to estimate how much bigger or smaller each one is
than the others. Introduce the terms ‘scale up’ and
‘scale down’.

Concrete preparation (2)


● Read out the text from the pupil sheet or leave pupils ➔ Pupil sheet
to read it to each other in groups.
● Pupils answer questions based on a passage from Alice Answers
in Wonderland. This acts as an introduction to scaling 1 six times smaller or one-sixth the height
up and down. Less able pupils may need more help 2 4.16 cm (4.2 cm or 4 cm)
with calculating changes in size.

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A4 Scaling up and down Starters

M Concrete preparation (2)


p ?

t u
before,’ said
rt ai n ly was not here
^ _ e table, (‘whic
h ce ‘DRINK
b o tt le o n th er la b el , w it h the words
little ap ing
Alice found a k o f th e b ottle was a p d to ta ste it, and find
UG LP und the n ec Alice ven tu re
pine-
Alice,) and ro te d o n it in large letters. o f ch er ry -t art, custard,
lly pri n ixed flavou r hed it off.
TN ME’ beautifu , in fa ct, a sort of m sh e v ery soon finis
(it h ad to as t, ) pe.’
it very nice, to ff ee , an d hot buttered u tt in g u p like a telesco
rkey , sh
apple, roast tu ; ‘I must be d her face
rio u s fe el in g!’ said Alice n in ch es [2 5 cm] high an ugh the
te
‘What a cu
d ee d : sh e w as now only e ri g h t size for going tho
in w th tes to
And so it was o u g h t th at she was no w ai te d fo r a few minu
p at the th however, sh e is; ‘for it
brightened u lo v el y g arden. First, a li tt le n er vous about th
to th at lt
little door in rther: she fe g out altoget
her, like a
as go in g to shrink any fu , ‘in m y g o in the
see if she w lf
o w ,’ sa id Alice to herse d sh e tr ie d to fancy what
ou k n A n ber
might end, y at I sh o u ld be like then?’ t, fo r sh e co uld not remem
candle. I won
der wh is blown ou
is li k e af te r the candle
flame of a ca
nd le g into
a th in g . ed , sh e d ec ided on goin
en su ch en he
ever having se th at n o thin g more happ o t to th e d o or, she found
After a while,
finding when she g r it, she
; b u t, al as fo r poor Alice! w en t b ac k to the table fo
the garden at
once d when she e plainly thro
ugh the
th e li tt le g olden key, an ld se e it q u it as too
had forgotten cou table, but it w
o t p o ss ib ly reach it: she e le g s o f th e
found she co
uld n one of th thing sat
ie d h er b es t to climb up it h tr y in g , the poor little
e tr erself out w
glass, and sh e had tired h
h en sh arroll
slippery; an d w
W o n d er land by Lewis C
down and cr
ied. dventures in
from Alice’s A

1 At the start of this passage, Alice was 150 cm high. How many
times smaller did she become after drinking the bottle?

2 Imagine Alice shrinks by the same amount again. How tall is she
now?

3 If Alice had managed to get into the garden, she would have had
a very different view from normal. Describe what you think she
might have seen on opening the little door.

4 Imagine Alice grows 20 times taller than her usual size. Describe
three ways in which her view of the world would be different.

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A5 Flower cells Starters

M Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Recap last lesson Share learning Problem solving (1) Problem solving (2) Capture interest
p ? objectives
Show a photomicrograph ● Find out how fertilisation Pupils make pollen grains Pupils label a diagram of a Dissect a flower and sort
t u of a pollen grain with a takes place in a flower. following one of two flower to recap prior the parts into male,
scale and discuss by how ● Be able to observe pollen design briefs: for wind- knowledge from Key female and neither.
^ _ much it is magnified. tubes growing. (Sc1) pollinated or for insect- Stage 2.
Catalyst Interactive pollinated flowers.
UG LP Presentations 1

Recap last lesson


● Show a photomicrograph of a pollen grain with a scale ➔ Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1
on it. Discuss by how much the pollen grain is
magnified.
● Calculate with the class the actual size of the pollen
grain.

Share learning objectives


● Ask pupils to write a list of FAQs they would put on a
website telling people about fertilisation in a flower.
Collect suggestions as a whole-class activity, steering
pupils towards those related to the objectives. Conclude
by highlighting the questions you want them to be able
to answer at the end of the lesson.

Problem solving (1)


● Pupils design artificial pollen grains in response to a ➔ Pupil sheet
design brief. Divide the class into groups of two or
three. Give half the class brief 1 and the other half
brief 2.

Problem solving (2)


● Ask pupils to label the diagram of a flower on the pupil ➔ Pupil sheet
sheet to recap knowledge from Key Stage 2.

Capture interest
● As a demonstration, or as a class dissection, dissect Equipment
several simple flowers. several simple flowers
scalpel with guard
● Ask pupils to sort the structures into groups that look
white tile
similar (e.g. petals in one group, stamens in another),
sticky tape
and to use sticky tape to attach them to a piece of
piece of white paper
paper.
● Ask pupils to name the parts they can identify. Discuss
which flower parts are male, which are female and
which are neither male nor female. Ask pupils to add
the labels ‘male’, ‘female’ or ‘neither’ to each part.

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A5 Flower cells Starters

M Problem solving (1)


p ? Your teacher will tell you which design brief to use.

t u Read the design brief and discuss in your group what features your
pollen grain would need to have.
^ _
UG LP
Design brief 1
TN
Design a pollen grain that will be easily carried through the air by the
wind.

You can choose what shape and size to make your structure.

To help you, think about things that easily fly through the air. What
features do they have that help them to move quickly, and to stay up
in the air?

Design brief 2
Design a pollen grain that can be easily carried through the air by
an insect.

You can choose what shape and size to make your structure.

Think about how the structure will attach itself to the insect, and
what shapes and sizes of structure the insect will easily carry.

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A5 Flower cells Starters

M Problem solving (2)


p ? Label the diagram of the flower using the words below.

t u

^ _
stigma style ovary
UG LP petal

TN

stamen sepal

................................

................................

................................ ................................

................................

................................

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A5 Investigate: What makes Starters


pollen tubes grow?
M

p ? Suggested alternative starter activities (5–10 minutes)


Setting the context Introduce the Safety Brainstorming (1) Brainstorming (2)
t u apparatus
Remind pupils of pollen Demonstrate how to set Discuss safety hazards The variables in the The need for a fair test,
^ _ tube growth and its role up a slide for pollen tube with the class. investigation. the need to repeat
in fertilisation. growth. measurements and the
UG LP need to do a preliminary
investigation.

Setting the context


● Remind pupils of pollen tube growth and its role in
fertilisation.
● Point out that pollen tubes do not always grow after
pollination, and explain that this investigation will
focus on the factors that affect pollen tube growth.

Introduce the apparatus


● Demonstrate how to set up a slide for pollen tube
growth, as detailed in Activity A5cde.

Safety
● Ask pupils to work in pairs to list the hazards involved
in this investigation.
● Pupils then decide how to minimise the danger
presented by each hazard.
● Pairs report back to a class discussion during which a
final set of safety procedures is listed on the board.

Brainstorming (1)
● Ask pupils to discuss in groups what the variables are in
the investigation.
● Ask them to decide what variable should be changed
(input variable) and what should be measured during
the investigation (outcome variable).
● Ask individual pupils for their ideas. Use class
discussion to finalise details of the two dependent
variables.

Brainstorming (2)
● Ask pupils to work in groups to consider the questions Questions
opposite. What needs to be done to make this a fair
test?
● Use answers from individual pupils to initiate class
Will the experiments need to be repeated?
discussion about fair testing and reliability of results.
Why?
Will a preliminary investigation be needed?
Why?

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Teacher
A1a Looking at small objects activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils look at small objects with a magnifying glass and microscope to compare them, Core, Extension
p ? and to understand magnification.

t u
Running the activity
^ _ It is likely that even if pupils have encountered a microscope before they will need
instructing in its use. Demonstrate this before attempting the rest of the activity.
UG LP There are three relevant skill sheets for this lesson, detailed below. These should
allow able pupils to work independently, allowing you more time with those who
TC need more support. You will need to establish group size in relation the numbers of
microscopes available.
Core: The sheet gives instructions for looking at objects under a magnifying glass and
a microscope, and introduces the concept of making scientific drawings from the
field of view. Pupils do a simple magnification calculation – Skill sheet 2:
Magnification will help with this.
Extension: Pupils are introduced to the concept of measuring objects under the
microscope and also to calculating the size of the field of view. Skill sheet 3:
Microscope magnification will help with this. The numeracy content can be difficult
and you may wish pupils to work together.

Other relevant material


Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope
Skill sheet 2: Magnification
Skill sheet 3: Microscope magnification

Expected outcomes
Core: Pupils use a microscope to observe an object, perhaps for the first time, and
begin to develop competence in using a microscope and an understanding of
magnification. They make observations using a microscope and record them in
simple drawings.
Extension: Pupils also learn about field of view and how this changes with
magnification. They estimate the size of an object under the microscope.

Pitfalls
Warn pupils to remove only their own hair and not that of others!
Take care on sunny days that magnifying glasses are not used to burn objects.

Safety notes
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far and
smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that need
daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror as they
may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.

Answers
Core:
1 It made them look bigger.
2 It made them look bigger and clearer.
3 the microscope
4 The magnification of the microscope is greater.
5 3.5  10  35 mm (Emphasise units in marking feedback.)
Extension:
1 the microscope
2 It is greater.
3 approximately 0.1 mm at this level of accuracy (0.05–0.2 mm would be acceptable)
4 No, the size of the object remains the same.

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Technician
A1a Looking at small objects activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils look at small objects with a magnifying glass and microscope to compare them, Core, Extension
p ? and to understand magnification.

t u
Other relevant material
^ _ Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope

UG LP Skill sheet 2: Magnification


Skill sheet 3: Microscope magnification
TN
Equipment
For each group:
● a magnifying glass (hand lens or other suitable small lens)
● a microscopes
● two microscope slides
● small pieces of newsprint and tissue paper torn by hand (not cut)
● a slide with a scale marked in 0.1 mm divisions (for Extension)

For your information


Running the activity
It is likely that even if pupils have encountered a microscope before they will
need instructing in its use. Demonstrate this before attempting the rest of the
activity. There are three relevant skill sheets for this lesson, detailed below. These
should allow able pupils to work independently, allowing you more time with
those who need more support. You will need to establish group size in relation
the numbers of microscopes available.
Core: The sheet gives instructions for looking at objects under a magnifying glass
and a microscope, and introduces the concept of making scientific drawings from
the field of view. Pupils do a simple magnification calculation – Skill sheet 2:
Magnification will help with this.
Extension: Pupils are introduced to the concept of measuring objects under the
microscope and also to calculating the size of the field of view. Skill sheet 3:
Microscope magnification will help with this. The numeracy content can be
difficult and you may wish pupils to work together.

Expected outcomes
Core: Pupils use a microscope to observe an object, perhaps for the first time, and
begin to develop competence in using a microscope and an understanding of
magnification. They make observations using a microscope and record them in
simple drawings.
Extension: Pupils also learn about field of view and how this changes with
magnification. They estimate the size of an object under the microscope.

Pitfalls
Warn pupils to remove only their own hair and not that of others!
Take care on sunny days that magnifying glasses are not used to burn objects.

Safety notes
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far
and smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that
need daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror
as they may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.

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Activity
A1a Looking at small objects Core

M W You are going to use a magnifying glass and a microscope to Take care! If
look at some everyday objects more closely. ! you hit the
p ? thin glass slides
when you focus the
t u microscope they will
Equipment break.
^ _ Never use a
● a magnifying glass microscope where
UG LP ● a microscope the Sun’s rays could
reflect off the mirror.
TN TC ● two glass microscope slides
● one of your own hairs
● small pieces of newspaper and tissue paper

Obtaining evidence
1 Using the magnifying glass look closely at the strand of your hair
and the small pieces of newspaper or tissue paper.
2 Place the strand of hair between two microscope slides, trying
not to put any fingerprints on the glass.
3 Carefully focus the microscope using the low power lens first.
Then look more closely using the high power lens.
4 Look at the pieces of newspaper or tissue paper under the
microscope in the same way.
5 Choose one of the objects that you have looked at and make
careful drawings of what you could see using the magnifying
glass and the microscope. Label your drawings.

Considering the evidence


1 How did the magnifying glass help you observe the objects?
2 How did the microscope help you observe the objects?
3 Which one helped you look more closely at the objects?
4 What does this tell you about the magnification of the
microscope?
5 The width of a capital M on this page is 3.5 mm. How big will it
look through a microscope lens of magnification 10?

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Activity
A1a Looking at small objects Extension

M W You are going to use a magnifying glass and a microscope to Take care! If
look at some everyday objects more closely. ! you hit the
p ? thin glass slides
when you focus the
t u
Equipment microscope they will
● a magnifying glass break.
^ _ ● a microscope Never use a
microscope where
UG LP ● two glass microscope slides the Sun’s rays could
reflect off the mirror.
● one of your own hairs
TN TC
● small pieces of newspaper and tissue paper
● slide scale

Obtaining evidence
1 Using the magnifying glass look closely at the strand of your hair
and the small pieces of newspaper or tissue paper.
2 Place the strand of hair between two microscope slides, trying not
to put any fingerprints on the glass.
3 Carefully focus the microscope using the low power lens first.
Then look more closely using the high power lens.
4 Look at newspaper or tissue paper under the microscope in the
same way.
5 Choose one of the objects that you looked at and make careful
labelled drawings of what you could see using the magnifying glass
and the microscope.
6 Place a scale slide (like a tiny ruler) under the objective lens at low
power and work out the size of the field of view. Do the same for the
high power lens. Your teacher may give you a Skill sheet to help.
7 Calculate the magnification of your microscope at low and at high
power. Copy and complete the table below.

Magnification Number of divisions Size of field of view

low power lens

high power lens

Considering the evidence


1 Which helped you look in more detail at the objects, the magnifying
glass or the microscope?
2 What does this tell you about the magnification of the microscope
compared with the that of magnifying glass?
3 Using the scale slide, estimate the width of one of your hairs.
4 You have measured the size of the field of view at both magnifications,
high and low. Should this affect your estimate of the width of your hair?
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Teacher
A1b The parts of the microscope activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Paper Pupils label a diagram to reinforce learning of the parts and function of a microscope. Core (Extension)
p ?

t u Running the activity


Core: This is a simple labelling activity. The pupils work either individually or in
^ _ groups. Note that this Core activity uses the worksheet as a write-on disposable
sheet.
UG LP
Extension: There is an optional Extension question at the foot of the Core sheet,
which can be cut off if not required. This asks pupils to write their own labels to
explain the function of each microscope part.

Other relevant material


Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope

Answers
Core:
1 A coarse focus
B fine focus
C mirror
D eyepiece lens
E tube
F objective lens
G stage
Extension:
2 A to get the slide roughly in focus before using the fine focus
B to focus clearly on the slide
C to send light up through the slide
D a second lens that focuses the image/magnifies the image more
E to carry the light from the objective lens to the eyepiece lens
F the first lens that magnifies what’s on the slide
G to hold the slide

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Activity
A1b The parts of the microscope Core

M W A microscope is very useful for looking at living things. You are Never use a
going to label a diagram to help you learn the parts of a ! microscope
p ? where the Sun’s rays
microscope. could reflect off the
t u mirror.
1 Use the words below to label the parts of the microscope on the
^ _ diagram.
UG LP
eyepiece lens tube
TN
stage objective lens

coarse focus mirror fine focus

D ............................................

A ............................................

E ............................................
B ............................................
F ............................................

G ............................................

C ............................................


Extension

2 Write a short explanation of what each part does.

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Teacher
A1c Robert Hooke activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Paper Pupils carry out a reading and comprehension activity to emphasise earlier ideas about Core, Help
p ? living things and relate this to evidence from microscopic observations.

t u
Running the activity
^ _ Pupils read the passage about Robert Hooke, which is the same on both Core and
Help sheets, or the passage could be read aloud to the class or by volunteers in
UG LP groups.
Core: Pupils then answer the questions.
Help: The questions provide a basic writing frame for the answers to the Core
questions. This could be used as a write-on sheet or as a guide.

ICT opportunities
Searches for Robert Hooke on the internet bring up a wealth of material.
Compiling a fact file or biography on him could be a useful extension or
homework activity.

Answers
Core and Help:
1 Robert Hooke
2 It had three lenses instead of two or it made a clearer image.
3 insects, small living things, feathers, cork
4 cells
5 He saw what it was made up of or realised that he could see new things.

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Activity
A1c Robert Hooke Core

M W You are going to read the description of the life and work of
Robert Hooke and then answer some questions.
p ?

t u
y. One of his
^ _ scie nt ists of the 17th centur
best
was one of the icroscope.
Robert Hooke w as a new kind of m
UG LP most famous in
ve nt io ns
e it had three glass
lenses to
op es be ca us age of
en t from earlier microsc th at yo u get a clearer im
TN It was di ff er
two. This m ea ns
th e ob ject, rather than scope.
m agni fy
ca lled th e compound micro ing over
the object. It w
as
ffer en t from modern ones, be
ed very di the same
icroscope look oom is based on
Although this m e in yo ur cl as sr
ll, the microscop
half a metre ta
ople had
design. ke to ob serve things pe
er t H oo ny living
ne w m ic ro sc op e allowed Rob gs in cl ud in g insects, other ti
This many thin
re. He looked at
never seen befo
things and feat
hers. noticed was
a slic e of cork which he
ptio n of ded him
m os t fa m ou s for his descri ‘c el ls ’, beca use they remin
He is ch he call ed
all sections whi
divided into sm ry.
s or ce lls in a monaste graphia.
of th e ro om
at io ns in a bo ok called Micro
serv
recorded his ob til then scientis
ts had
Robert Hooke t be ca us e un
ry importan gs that
ob serv at io ns of cork were ve el y yo u coul d see new thin
His ings cl os
by looking at th
not realised that , such as cells.
ul d no t be se en at a distance
co

1 Who invented the compound microscope?


2 How was the compound microscope different from earlier
microscopes?
3 What kind of things did Robert Hooke look at?
4 What did Robert Hooke call the structures in cork that no one
else had seen before?
5 Why were his observations of cork so important?

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Activity
A1c Robert Hooke Help

M W You are going to read the description of the life and work of
Robert Hooke and then answer some questions.
p ?

t u
y. One of his
^ _ scie ntis ts of the 17th centur
best
was one of the scope.
Robert Hooke w as a new kind of micro
UG LP most famous in
vent io ns
e it ha d three glass le
nses to
opes be ca us e of
t from earlier microsc at yo u ge t a clearer imag
TN It was di ff eren
two. This mea ns th
th e ob ject, rather than scope.
m agni fy
ca lled th e compound micro ing over
the object. It w
as
ffer en t from modern ones, be
ed very di the same
icroscope look oom is based on
Although this m e in yo ur cl as sr
ll, the microscop
half a metre ta
le had
design. ke to ob se rve things peop
ert H oo living
w m ic ro sc op e allowed Rob in cl ud in g insects, other tiny
This ne many thin gs
re. He looked at
never seen befo
things and feat
hers. noticed was
a sl ic e of cork which he
ion of ded him
m os t fa m ou s for his descript ‘c el ls ’, be ca use they remin
He is ch he call ed
all sections whi
divided into sm ry.
s or ce lls in a monaste aphia.
of th e ro om
ns in a bo ok called Microgr
servat io
recorded his ob til then scientis
ts had
Robert Hooke t be ca us e un
ry importan gs that
ob serv at io ns of cork were ve el y yo u co ul d see new thin
His ings clos
by looking at th
not realised that , such as cells.
uld no t be se en at a distance
co

1 ......................... ......................... invented the compound microscope.


2 It was different from earlier microscopes because it had

........................ ........................ instead of .........................

3 Robert Hooke looked at lots of things including

..............................................................................................................................................................

4 He called the structures he saw in cork ........................ .

5 His observations of cork were important because he noticed

..............................................................................................................................................................

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Teacher
A1d Looking at plant tissue activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils prepare and observe slides of onion cells to practise using a microscope and Core
p ? reinforce knowledge of cells.

t u
Running the activity
^ _ First of all use a sprouting or flowering onion (or a diagram of one) to show pupils
that this is an organ, then demonstrate dissection of a bulb to obtain (epithelial)
UG LP tissue.
TC Pupils work in pairs. The activity sheet gives a method for carrying out the
practical, along with analysis questions at the end. A microscope could be linked
to a video camera (e.g. Flexicam) to display slides to the whole class.

Other relevant material


Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope

Expected outcomes
Pupils produce a labelled drawing of plant tissue as seen under the microscope.

Pitfalls
Some pupils may need help with peeling a thin layer of onion skin.
Pupils should take care to avoid introducing air bubbles under the coverslip.

Safety notes
Iodine is harmful. Pupils should be shown how to cut the onion safely, perhaps
under water to avoid tears! If in doubt, the pieces of onion could be cut ready for
them.
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far
and smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that
need daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror
as they may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.

Answers
1 Pupils should see small boxes/sections/compartments. Onion tissue is made
up of small sections.
2 The iodine acts as a stain, making more structures in the cells visible.
3 Green parts use light to make food. Onion bulbs are underground so receive
no light.

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Technician
A1d Looking at plant tissue activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils prepare and observe slides of onion cells to practise using a microscope and Core
p ? reinforce knowledge of cells.

t u
Other relevant material
^ _ Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope

UG LP
Equipment
TN For the class:
● a large Spanish onion
● a video camera, e.g. Flexicam (optional)
For each pair:
● a craft knife or scalpel
● a white tile
● forceps
● a microscope slide
● iodine drop bottle
● a coverslip
● a mounted needle
● a microscope

For your information


Running the activity
First of all use a sprouting or flowering onion (or a diagram of one) to show pupils
that this is an organ, then demonstrate dissection of a bulb to obtain (epithelial)
tissue.
Pupils work in pairs. The activity sheet gives a method for carrying out the
practical, along with analysis questions at the end. A microscope could be linked
to a video camera (e.g. Flexicam) to display slides to the whole class.

Expected outcomes
Pupils produce a labelled drawing of plant tissue as seen under the microscope.

Pitfalls
Some pupils may need help with peeling a thin layer of onion skin.
Pupils should take care to avoid introducing air bubbles under the coverslip.

Safety notes
Iodine is harmful. Pupils should be shown how to cut the onion safely, perhaps
under water to avoid tears! If in doubt, the pieces of onion could be cut ready for
them.
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far
and smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that
need daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror
as they may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.

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Activity
A1d Looking at plant tissue Core

M W You are going to look closely at some plant tissue using a Take care! If
microscope. ! you hit the
p ? thin glass slides when
you focus the
t u microscope they will
Obtaining evidence break.
^ _ Never use a
1 Carefully cut a small piece of onion. Peel off a piece of the inner microscope where the
UG LP surface. This should be very thin and look like tissue paper. Sun’s rays could
reflect off the mirror.
TN TC Take care – sharp knife.
Iodine solution is
harmful and it can
stain your skin and
clothes.

2 Put this thin piece of onion onto a slide.


3 Add two drops of iodine solution to stain the cells.

4 Lower a coverslip gently onto the slide using a mounted needle.

5 Place the slide on a microscope stage.


6 Focus using the low power lens first and then make it look bigger
by using the high power lens.
7 Draw a small area of the tissue.
8 Label your drawing.

Considering the evidence


1 Write a sentence about what you could see under the microscope.
What do you think this tells you about onion tissue?
2 Why do you think you added the iodine solution? What does it do?
3 Many parts of a plant are green. Why is this tissue not green?

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Teacher
A1e Looking at animal cells activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils look at pre-prepared animal cell slides using a microscope. Core
p ?

t u Running the activity


Pupils work in pairs. The activity sheet gives a method for carrying out the
^ _ practical, along with some questions. A microscope could be linked to a video
camera (e.g. Flexicam) to display slides to the whole class.
UG LP

TC Other relevant material


Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope

Expected outcomes
Pupils produce a labelled drawing of animal cells as seen under the microscope.

Safety notes
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far
and smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that
need daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror
as they may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.
Cheek cell sampling can be done using cotton buds from a newly opened pack.
The inside of the mouth, around the gums, is swabbed with a clean cotton bud,
smeared onto a slide, stained if required and topped with a coverslip. Used cotton
buds, slides and coverslips should be placed into a freshly made 1% sodium
chlorate(I) (hypochlorite) solution.

Answers
1 Pupils should be able to see individual, irregular-shaped cells with
membranes and sometimes a nucleus, otherwise not many features are
visible.
2 No, because animal cells do not have cell walls.

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Technician
A1e Looking at animal cells activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils look at pre-prepared animal cell slides using a microscope. Core
p ?

t u Other relevant material


Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope
^ _
UG LP Equipment
For the class:
TN ● a video camera, e.g. Flexicam (optional)
For each pair:
● pre-prepared slides – pupils own cheek cells may be used unless prohibited by
local rules. It is possible to use the epithelial cells from the trachea of a pig or
sheep, obtained from a local butcher. Alternatively, place a piece of Sellotape
onto a wrist, pull off and stick onto a slide.
● a microscope

For your information


Running the activity
Pupils work in pairs. The activity sheet gives a method for carrying out the
practical, along with some questions. A microscope could be linked to a video
camera (e.g. Flexicam) to display slides to the whole class.

Expected outcomes
Pupils produce a labelled drawing of animal cells as seen under the microscope.

Safety notes
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far
and smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that
need daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror
as they may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.
Cheek cell sampling can be done using cotton buds from a newly opened pack.
The inside of the mouth, around the gums, is swabbed with a clean cotton bud,
smeared onto a slide, stained if required and topped with a coverslip. Used cotton
buds, slides and coverslips should be placed into a freshly made 1% sodium
chlorate(I) (hypochlorite) solution.

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Activity
A1e Looking at animal cells Core

M W Like plants, animals are made of tiny building blocks called cells. Take care! If
You are going to look closely at some animal cells using a ! you hit the
p ? thin glass slides
microscope. when you focus the
t u microscope they will
break.
^ _ Obtaining evidence Never use a
microscope where
UG LP the Sun’s rays could
reflect off the mirror.
TN TC

1 Your teacher will give you a slide that has already been set up.
Put this slide on your microscope stage.
2 Focus using the low power lens to find the cells.
3 Draw a diagram of one of the animal cells that you can see under
the low power lens. Label the parts of the cell that you can see.
4 Now look at your slide using the high power lens.
5 Draw a diagram of one of the cells and label the parts that you
can see.

Considering the evidence


1 Describe what the animal cell looks like under the microscope.
2 Would you expect to see a cell wall? Explain your answer.

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Teacher
A2a Making model cells activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils make models of plant or animal cells and discuss their model with another Core, Help, Extension
p ? group. This introduces the idea of a model, and helps them realise what each part of
the model represents.
t u

^ _ Running the activity


Pupils work in groups, each group producing either a plant or animal cell. You
UG LP may decide to direct groups to make certain models. Their finished models can be
displayed in the classroom. It may be best to pair up groups working on animal
TC and plant cells from the same level of pupil sheet.
Core: Pupils follow the instructions to build the model, then discuss and share
with another group, drawing a labelled diagram and answering questions to
reinforce their understanding and evaluate the models.
Help: As for Core, but pupils are told more explicitly how to use the apparatus,
and build their models from diagrams.
Extension: Pupils are given the apparatus and have to select the best material to
represent each part of the cell. They then build a further solid model of each type
of cell before evaluating the models.

Other relevant material


A range of textbooks, Microsoft ® Encarta or the internet could be used to find
pictures of cells.

Expected outcomes
Each group should produce models of cells which can be used for display
purposes. This should enable pupils to view the cell as a three-dimensional object
rather than just a two-dimensional drawing.

Pitfalls
It would be easier to plan the groups at different levels before the lesson. The
activity can be messy. Have plenty of paper towels ready in case of wallpaper
paste being spilled.
Some pupils may have difficulty in visualising the cell as a three-dimensional
object and may need help in building their models.

Safety notes
Warn pupils to clear up any liquid spilled on the floor to avoid accidents.
Wallpaper paste contains fungicide – wash hands thoroughly after use.

Answers
Core:
1 Check pupils’ diagrams.
2 cell membrane (plastic bag) – clear and thin; nucleus (round object: ball or
Plasticine) – has the right size and shape; cytoplasm (thick liquid) – jelly-like
3 as above plus: chloroplasts (green Plasticine) – right colour; cell wall (box) –
rigid; vacuole (smaller plastic bag) – thin and clear; liquid in vacuole (water) –
watery substance
4 Yes, because they show cells in 3D and give an idea of size. You can touch
them. Accept any other reasonable suggestion.

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Teacher
A2a Making model cells (continued) activity notes

M Help:
1 Check pupils’ diagrams contain the following labels:
p ? Animal cell: cell membrane; nucleus; cytoplasm.
Plant cell: as animal cell plus chloroplasts; cell wall; vacuole; liquid inside
t u vacuole.
2 Check pupils’ diagrams.
^ _ 3 It is bigger/simpler/easier to see. Accept any other reasonable suggestion.
UG LP Extension:
1 Check pupils’ diagrams.
TC 2 Animal cell: cell membrane (plastic bag) – clear and thin; nucleus (round
object: ball or Plasticine) – has the right size and shape; cytoplasm (thick
liquid) – jelly-like; plant cell: as for animal cell plus: chloroplasts (green
Plasticine) – right colour; cell wall (box) – rigid; vacuole (smaller plastic bag) –
thin and clear; liquid in vacuole (water) – watery substance.
3 Yes, because they show cells in 3D and give an idea of size. You can touch
them. Accept any other reasonable suggestion.
4 They are bigger, 3D, you can touch them, structures are clearer.
5 In a leaf (or stem): they must be exposed to light because they have
chloroplasts or make food.
6 Not every section through a cell would contain all the structures, e.g. some
slices don’t have any nucleus in them.

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Technician
A2a Making model cells activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils make models of plant or animal cells and discuss their model with another Core, Help, Extension
p ? group. This introduces the idea of a model, and helps them realise what each part of
the model represents.
t u

^ _ Other relevant material


A range of textbooks, Microsoft ® Encarta or the internet could be used to find
UG LP pictures of cells.

TN Equipment
For each group:
● two clear plastic bags (cell membrane)
● green Plasticine (chloroplasts)
● a shoe box (cell wall)
● red Plasticine (nucleus)
● small balls or other spherical shapes (nucleus)
● a smaller plastic bag (vacuole)
● thick liquid, e.g. wallpaper paste (cytoplasm)
● water (sap)
● a plastic knife for slicing Plasticine
● a board to work Plasticine on
Additional for Extension:
● various colours of Plasticine

For your information


Running the activity
Pupils work in groups, each group producing either a plant or animal cell. You
may decide to direct groups to make certain models. Their finished models can be
displayed in the classroom. It may be best to pair up groups working on animal
and plant cells from the same level of pupil sheet.
Core: Pupils follow the instructions to build the model, then discuss and share
with another group, drawing a labelled diagram and answering questions to
reinforce their understanding and evaluate the models.
Help: As for Core, but pupils are told more explicitly how to use the apparatus,
and build their models from diagrams.
Extension: Pupils are given the apparatus and have to select the best material to
represent each part of the cell. They then build a further solid model of each type
of cell before evaluating the models.

Expected outcomes
Each group should produce models of cells which can be used for display
purposes. This should enable pupils to view the cell as a three-dimensional object
rather than just a two-dimensional drawing.

Pitfalls
It would be easier to plan the groups at different levels before the lesson. The
activity can be messy. Have plenty of paper towels ready in case of wallpaper
paste being spilled.
Some pupils may have difficulty in visualising the cell as a three-dimensional
object and may need help in building their models.

Safety notes
Warn pupils to clear up any liquid spilled on the floor to avoid accidents.
Wallpaper paste contains fungicide – wash hands thoroughly after use.

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Activity
A2a Making model cells Core

M W A microscope lets us see cells clearly. Sometimes making models Take care not
of things can help us understand them. You are going to make a ! to spill liquid
p ? on the floor. If you
large model of a cell. Your teacher will tell you which type of cell do, clear it up
t u to make, animal or plant. straight away.
Wash your hands
^ _ Equipment after the activity.

UG LP ● clear plastic bags ● a smaller plastic bag


TN TC ● green Plasticine ● thick liquid
● a shoe box ● water
● red Plasticine ● a plastic knife
● small balls ● a board

Make a model animal cell


1 Decide on a round shape (a ball or some red Plasticine)
and put it in a large plastic bag.
2 Put some thick liquid in the plastic bag and tie a knot in
the top.

Make a model plant cell


3 Decide on a round shape (a ball or some red
Plasticine) and put it in a large plastic bag.
4 Cut the green Plasticine. Make marble-sized balls
and flatten them into sausage shapes. Put them
into the bag.
5 Take a smaller plastic bag and put some water in
it. Tie a knot in the top and put this bag into the
larger bag.
6 Add some thick liquid and tie a knot in the top.
7 Put the bag into a shoe box.

Considering the evidence and evaluating


8 Join up with another group who made a different type of cell from you.
Show them your model and answer the following questions together.

1 Draw a diagram of each model. Label the cell parts with their names
and the material you used to make them, for example:
red Plasticine = nucleus.
2 For each part used in the animal cell model, write down why the
material is well suited to represent that part of the cell.
3 Do the same for the plant cell model.
4 Do you think these are good models? Write a sentence explaining your
answer.
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Activity
A2a Making model cells Help

M W Sometimes scientists use models to help them understand Take care not
things. You are going to use models to help you learn about
! to spill liquid
p ? on the floor. If you
cells. do, clear it up
t u straight away.
Equipment Wash your hands
^ _ after the activity.
● clear plastic bags (cell membrane)
UG LP
● green Plasticine cut into small sausage-shaped pieces
TN TC (chloroplasts)
● a shoe box (cell wall)
● small balls (nucleus)
● a smaller plastic bag (vacuole)
● thick liquid (cytoplasm)
● water (liquid in vacuole)

Make a model animal cell


1 Use this diagram to help you make an animal cell model.

Make a model plant cell


2 Use this diagram to help you make a plant cell model.

Considering the evidence and evaluating


3 Join up with another group who made a different
cell. Show them your model. Answer the questions
together.

1 Draw a diagram of each model. Use the equipment list to label


what each part of the models represents in a real cell.
2 Label which diagram is a plant cell and which is an animal cell.
3 How is your model different from a real cell? (Is it bigger, for
example?)

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Activity
A2a Making model cells Extension

M W We often look at cells using a microscope to make them look Take care not
bigger. You are going to make large models of cells to help you ! to spill liquid
p ? on the floor. If you
learn about these building blocks of life. Make either an animal do, clear it up
t u or a plant cell. straight away.
Wash your hands
^ _ Equipment after the activity.

UG LP ● clear plastic bags ● small balls ● a box


TN TC ● Plasticine in various colours ● thick liquid ● water

Make a model animal cell


1 Decide what you will use for the cell membrane.
2 Choose a nucleus and place this inside the cell membrane.
3 Decide what you will use as cytoplasm. Add this to your model.

Make a model plant cell


4 Decide what you will use for the cell membrane.
5 Choose a nucleus and place this inside the cell membrane.
6 Decide what you will use to make chloroplasts.
7 Decide how you will show the vacuole. Think what it should look like.
8 Decide how you will make the cell wall to complete your model.

Make a section through a cell


9 Make a small, solid model of a plant and animal cell using
Plasticine only for the different parts.
10 Cut slices of these models. Does each slice contain a section of
the nucleus?

Considering the evidence and evaluating


11 Join with another group who made a different type of cell. Show
them your model and answer the following questions together.

1 Draw a diagram of each model. Label the cell parts with their
names and the material used to make them.
2 For both models, write down why the material you used was well
suited to represent each part.
3 Do you think these are good models? Explain your answer.
4 How are your cell models different from how cells would look
under a microscope?
5 The plant cell model has chloroplasts. In what part of a plant
might this cell be found? Why do you think this?
6 Explain what your solid models have shown you about taking
sections (slices) of cells.
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Teacher
A2b Looking at cells activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Paper Pupils colour-code drawings of different cells to consolidate learning about cells. Core, Help, Extension
p ?

t u Running the activity


Pupils work individually or in pairs. Note that all three activities use the
^ _ worksheets as write-on disposable sheets.
UG LP Core, Help: Pupils colour-code the key first. They will need six colours including
green. They colour each diagram, identifying each part of the cell. Pupils doing
the Core activity then decide whether each is an animal or plant cell.
Extension: This has diagrams of more specialised cells and the questions begin to
relate form to function. The Extension activity also requires access to resources
such as suitable books or CD-ROMs for pupils to identify each type of cell.

Other relevant material


For Extension: books or other resources for identifying cells.

ICT opportunities
For Extension: CD-ROMs for identifying cells.

Answers
Core:
1 Check pupils’ diagrams correspond with their key.
2 A animal, B plant, C plant, D animal
Help:
1 Check pupils’ diagrams correspond with their key.
Extension:
1 Check pupils’ diagrams correspond with their key.
2 A animal, B plant, C animal, D plant, E animal (protozoan), F animal
3 A cheek cell, B leaf (palisade) cell, C nerve cell, D root hair cell, E amoeba, F
sperm cell
4 A round, largely unspecialised, B contains lots of chloroplasts for
photosynthesis, C long, insulated, D shape gives a large surface area, E able to
change shape or flow, F has a tail for movement

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Activity
A2b Looking at cells Core

M W You are going to complete some colour-coded diagrams of cells.


This will help you learn about all the structures inside cells.
p ?

t u 1 Colour in the key using six different colours, including green.


Then colour each diagram using your key.
^ _
UG LP cell membrane cell wall
TN
cytoplasm chloroplasts

nucleus vacuole

A B

C D

2 Write next to each cell whether it is an animal cell or a plant cell.

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Activity
A2b Looking at cells Help

M W You are going to complete some colour-coded diagrams of cells.


This will help you learn about all the structures inside cells.
p ?

t u 1 Colour in the key using six different colours, including green.


Then colour each diagram using your key.
^ _
UG LP cell membrane cell wall
TN
cytoplasm chloroplasts

nucleus vacuole

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Activity
A2b Looking at cells Extension

M W You are going to complete some colour-coded diagrams of cells.


This will help you learn about all the structures inside cells.
p ?

t u 1 Colour in the key using six different colours, including green.


Then colour each diagram using your key.
^ _
UG LP cell membrane cell wall cytoplasm
TN
chloroplasts nucleus vacuole

A B

C D

E F

2 Write next to each cell whether it is an animal cell or a plant cell.


3 Using textbooks or any other sources of information, try to find
out what each type of cell is and label it.
4 We say that some cells are adapted to their function. Can you
explain how each of these cells is shaped to carry out its job well?

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Teacher
A2c My journey through a cell activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


ICT Pupils search the internet to find animations and more information on cells to help Core, Help
p ? them write a creative account titled ‘My journey through a cell’.

t u
Running the activity
^ _ You may wish to browse the internet before the lesson to establish some useful,
current websites. Very little of the material available on cells is at the basic level of
UG LP Key Stage 3. There is a cell animation provided on the Catalyst Interactive
Presentations 1 CD-ROM at an appropriate level.
Pupils will come across all the cell’s organelles. Skill sheets 4: Web searches and
19: Writing frame: Research encourage pupils to be selective with information
gained and use only information that they understand. You may wish to direct
individual pupils regarding the depth to which they should research information.
After a period of time to gather information, the final writing could be set as a
useful out-of-class activity.
Core: Pupils are asked to search the internet and write a story. A few ideas are
given to get them started.
Help: The sheet provides a tailored writing frame for pupils who would find the
literacy demand difficult, but allows mixed-level groups to use computers
together.

Other relevant material


Skill sheet 4: Web searches
Skill sheet 19: Writing frame: Research
Catalyst Interactive Presentations 1

ICT opportunities
The activity gives opportunities for well-targeted internet research. At the time of
writing a good selection of material is available at:
Cells Alive website
Biology4Kids website

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Activity
A2c My journey through a cell Core

You are going to do some research and then write a story about
M W
being tiny enough to travel through one cell at a time. Be as
p ? imaginative as you can but remember that you need to describe
things that you really do find in cells.
t u

^ _ 1 Search for information on the internet about cells. Try to find out
what it would be like if you were small enough to walk into a cell.
UG LP ● Try ‘cell animations’ + ‘education’.
TN ● Your teacher may show you other places to find information.
● You may find information on ‘organelles’. These are smaller parts
of cells that do particular jobs.
● Make a note of any information that you feel that you understand.
2 Use your research to help you write a story with the title ‘My journey
through a cell’. Choose an animal or plant cell. Try to include all the parts
of the cell in your story. The ideas below might help you get started.
As I came up to the cell it looked like …
I touched the cell membrane. It felt like …
As I walked through the cell I came across …
© Harcourt Education Ltd 2003 Catalyst 1
This worksheet may have been altered from the original on the CD-ROM. Sheet 1 of 1


Activity
A2c My journey through a cell Core

You are going to do some research and then write a story about
being tiny enough to travel through one cell at a time. Be as
imaginative as you can but remember that you need to describe
things that you really do find in cells.

1 Search for information on the internet about cells. Try to find out
what it would be like if you were small enough to walk into a cell.
● Try ‘cell animations’ + ‘education’.
● Your teacher may show you other places to find information.
● You may find information on ‘organelles’. These are smaller parts
of cells that do particular jobs.
● Make a note of any information that you feel that you understand.
2 Use your research to help you write a story with the title ‘My journey
through a cell’. Choose an animal or plant cell. Try to include all the parts
of the cell in your story. The ideas below might help you get started.
As I came up to the cell it looked like …
I touched the cell membrane. It felt like …
As I walked through the cell I came across …
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Activity
A2c My journey through a cell Help

M W You are going to do some research and then write a story about
being tiny enough to travel through one cell at a time. Be as
p ?
imaginative as you can but remember that you need to describe
t u things that you really do find in cells.
^ _ 1 Search for information on the internet about cells. Try to find out
UG LP what it would be like if you were small enough to walk into a cell.
● Try ‘cell animations’ + ‘education’.
TN
● Your teacher may show you other places to find information.
● You may find information on ‘organelles’. These are smaller
parts of cells that do particular jobs.
● Make a note of any information that you feel that you
understand.
2 Use your research to help you write a story called ‘My journey
through a cell’. Choose an animal or plant cell. Try to include all
the parts of the cell in your story. Use the ideas below to help get
your story in the right order. You can add other things if you
want to.

As I came up to the outside of the cell its shape was .........................................................................

I pushed against the cell membrane with my hand. It was like ......................................
and my hand went through.

I took a deep breath and walked through the cell membrane into the inside of
the cell.

This main part is called the ............................................. . It was a bit like .............................................

I could see lots of tiny bits floating in the cytoplasm. I thought that these could be

......................................................................................................................................................................................................

A little way off I could see a large, dark blob. I thought that this could be the
.......................................

Its job is .................................................................................................................................................................................

I made my way over to the nucleus. Getting there was quite ....................................................

The nucleus looked like ............................................................................................................................................

I left the cell at the other side. I felt ................................................................................................................

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Teacher
A3a Growing yeast activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils sample and count yeast cells from cultures started and left to divide for different Core, Help
p ? lengths of time to make direct observations of growth and practise graph-drawing and
concluding skills.
t u

^ _ Running the activity


Pupils work in groups. The practical instructions on the sheets are the same at all
UG LP levels so that you can discuss or demonstrate the method to the whole class.

TC You may wish to set a time limit on making the observations, as graph drawing
can be a lengthy process. Plotting a line of best fit is not mentioned specifically on
the pupil sheets, but you can choose to direct individuals or small groups to do
this. Alternatively, you can take the opportunity to instruct the whole class in this.
Core, Help: The Help sheet gives assistance with drawing the table and graph, and
could also be used as a hint sheet for pupils struggling with the Core activity.

Other relevant material


Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope
Skill sheet 5: Drawing charts and graphs
Skill sheet 6: Interpreting graphs

ICT opportunities
Results could be collected in a spreadsheet and graphs drawn from that.
A sample set of results could be set up in advance for group discussion or for
groups who fail to gain satisfactory results.

Expected outcomes
Each pupil should have a clear table of results with times in sequence. Pupils plot
a graph showing an increase in number of yeast cells (y-axis) over time (x-axis).
Core: Some pupils will be able to use the prompts to draw conclusions and
evaluate their equipment.

Pitfalls
Ensure the yeast solutions are thoroughly suspended (agitate frequently).
Ensure pupils use separate clean pipettes for each solution (you may wish to have
them in different locations in the laboratory).
If pupils experience difficulty counting yeast cells you could suggest they use a
higher magnification.

Safety notes
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far
and smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that
need daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror
as they may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.
Pupils should wash their hands after handling yeast.
Warn pupils of the dangers of getting liquid on electrical appliances.

Answers
Core:
1 Relate to pupils’ graphs: they should show an increase in number of yeast cells
over time.

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Teacher
A3a Growing yeast (continued) activity notes

M 2 Growth increases over time.


3 Relate to pupils’ predictions.
p ? 4 1

t u 5 no
6 Accept any sensible comments, ideally repeat results.
^ _ Help:
UG LP 1 increases
2 Relate to pupils’ predictions.
TC 3 no
4 Accept any sensible comments, ideally repeat results.

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Technician
A3a Growing yeast activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils sample and count yeast cells from cultures started and left to divide for different Core, Help
p ? lengths of time to make direct observations of growth and practise graph-drawing
and concluding skills.
t u
Other relevant material
^ _ Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope
Skill sheet 5: Drawing charts and graphs
UG LP Skill sheet 6: Interpreting graphs
TN
Equipment
For the class:
● A yeast culture needs to be set up in optimal conditions and split equally five
ways. Leave it to grow in these conditions for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 minutes and
stop each by adding ethanol and putting on ice. Label the flasks to show which
culture is which. Thoroughly re-suspend the yeast just before use.
For each group:
● a microscope
● five clean pipettes
● five slides and coverslips

For your information


Running the activity
Pupils work in groups. The practical instructions on the sheets are the same at all
levels so that you can discuss or demonstrate the method to the whole class.
You may wish to set a time limit on making the observations, as graph drawing
can be a lengthy process. Plotting a line of best fit is not mentioned specifically on
the pupil sheets, but you can choose to direct individuals or small groups to do
this. Alternatively, you can take the opportunity to instruct the whole class in this.
Core, Help: The Help sheet gives assistance with drawing the table and graph, and
could also be used as a hint sheet for pupils struggling with the Core activity.

ICT opportunities
Results could be collected in a spreadsheet and graphs drawn from that.
A sample set of results could be set up in advance for group discussion or for
groups who fail to gain satisfactory results.

Expected outcomes
Each pupil should have a clear table of results with times in sequence. Pupils plot
a graph showing an increase in number of yeast cells (y-axis) over time (x-axis).
Core: Some pupils will be able to use the prompts to draw conclusions and
evaluate their equipment.

Pitfalls
Ensure the yeast solutions are thoroughly suspended (agitate frequently).
Ensure pupils use separate clean pipettes for each solution (you may wish to have
them in different locations in the laboratory).
If pupils experience difficulty counting yeast cells you could suggest they use a
higher magnification.

Safety notes
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far
and smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that
need daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror
as they may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.
Pupils should wash their hands after handling yeast.
Warn pupils of the dangers of getting liquid on electrical appliances.
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Activity
A3a Growing yeast Core

M W You are going to count yeast cells under the microscope. Yeast is a Take care! If
single-celled organism – each cell is one living thing. You will be ! you hit the
p ? thin glass slides
given yeast samples which have been growing for different lengths when you focus the
t u of time. You are going to find out how yeast grows over time. microscope they will
break.
^ _ Never use a
microscope where
UG LP Predicting the Sun’s rays could
reflect off the mirror.
TN TC 1 Which sample will have the biggest number of cells? Why do you Wash your hands
think this? Write down your ideas. after handling yeast.

Obtaining evidence
2 Draw a results table with two columns headed ‘Time in minutes’
and ‘Number of yeast cells’.
3 Set up a microscope on your bench.
4 Using a clean pipette, put two drops of one of the yeast cultures
onto a clean microscope slide. Cover it carefully with a coverslip.
5 Focus the microscope carefully using the lowest power objective
lens until you can see the yeast cells clearly.
6 Count how many yeast cells you can see. Record this number.
7 Repeat for the other cultures of yeast that have been left to grow
for different times. Record your results. Make sure that you use
the same magnification for counting each time.

Presenting the results


8 Display your results as a line graph. Put time in minutes along the
x-axis and the number of yeast cells you counted up the y-axis.

Considering the evidence


1 Explain what pattern, if any, your graph shows.
2 What does this tell you about the growth of yeast over time?
3 Was your prediction correct?

Evaluating
4 How many observations did you make of each yeast culture?
5 Do you think this was enough to make a firm conclusion about
the growth of yeast?
6 Are there any things that you would change about your method
if you did this experiment again?

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Activity
A3a Growing yeast Help

M W You are going to count yeast cells under the microscope. Yeast is a Take care! If
! you hit the
single-celled organism – each cell is one living thing. You will be
p ? thin glass slides
given yeast samples which have been growing for different lengths when you focus the
microscope they will
t u of time. You are going to find out how yeast grows over time. break.

^ _ Never use a
microscope where
Predicting
UG LP the Sun’s rays could
reflect off the mirror.
1 Which sample will have the biggest number of cells? Explain why.
TN Wash your hands
after handling yeast.

Obtaining evidence Time in Number of


2 Copy this table to record your results. minutes yeast cells
3 Set up a microscope on your bench.
4 Using a clean pipette, put two drops of one of 10
the yeast samples onto a clean microscope slide. 20
Cover it carefully with a coverslip.
5 Focus the microscope carefully using the lowest 30
power objective lens until you can see the yeast
40
cells clearly.
6 Count how many yeast cells you can see. Record 50
the number in your table.
7 Repeat for the other samples of yeast that
have been left to grow for different times.
Number
Make sure that you use the same of yeast
magnification for counting each time. cells
(decide on
8 Draw a graph on graph paper using axes a scale – ask
your teacher
like this: for help if
necessary)

Considering the evidence


1 Look at your graph. Copy and complete this 10 20 30 40 50
sentence about your graph and what happens Time (mins)

to the number of yeast cells over time.


The number of yeast cells ...................................... as time goes on.
2 Copy and complete these sentences about your results and prediction.
Before the experiment my prediction about the number of yeast cells was …
My prediction was the same as/different from my results.

Evaluating
3 Do you think that counting the cells in each sample once gives you enough
information to make a firm conclusion?
4 What could you do to make it more certain?
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Teacher
A4a Scale factors activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Paper Pupils practise calculating scale factors. Core, Extension
p ?

t u Running the activity


This activity provides more practice at calculating scale factors as described in the
^ _ Red book spread.
UG LP Core: A table is provided to help pupils with the calculations.
Extension: The sheet gives a brief reminder of the formula for a scale factor, then
pupils calculate, showing their own working. They decide whether the scale
factors give enlargements or reductions. Finally, they use a scale factor to calculate
the real size of a millipede.

Answers
Core:
2 3

Object Real size Picture size Scale factor


cup 10 cm 1 cm 10
daffodil 5.5 cm 2.25 cm 2
car 3m 0.03 m 100

Extension:
2 3

Object Real size Picture size Scale factor


(real size ÷ picture size)
cup 10 cm 1 cm 10 (reduction)
daffodil 5.5 cm 2.25 cm 2 (reduction)
car 3m 0.03 m 100 (reduction)
ladybird 3 mm 12 mm 0.25 (enlargement)

4 The millipede is 19 mm long in real life.

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Activity
A4a Scale factors Core

M W You are going to practise calculating scale factors.

p ? 1 Look at the pictures of objects. Their real sizes are shown, along

t u with the sizes of the pictures.

^ _ real size 10 cm
UG LP picture size 1 cm
cup
TN

real size 5.5 cm


picture size 2.25 cm
daffodil

real size 3 m
picture size 0.03 m
car

2 Copy the table below. Complete the first two columns with the
real size and the picture size for each object.

Object Real size Picture size Real size ÷ Scale factor


picture size

cup

daffodil

car

3 Then calculate the real size divided by the picture size in the third
column. This will give you the scale factor to write into the fourth
column.

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Activity
A4a Scale factors Extension

M W You are going to practise calculating scale factors.

p ? real size
Remember: scale factor 
t u picture size

^ _ 1 Look at the pictures of objects. Their real sizes are shown, along
UG LP with the sizes of the pictures.
TN
real size 10 cm
picture size 1 cm
cup

real size 5.5 cm


picture size 2.25 cm
daffodil

real size 3 m
picture size 0.03 m
car

real size 3 mm
picture size 12 mm

2 Calculate the scale factor for each one. Show your working.
3 Say which pictures are a reduction from real size and which are
an enlargement from real size.
4 The picture shows a millipede with its scale factor. Measure the
length of the drawing between the two lines and calculate the
real length of the millipede.

millipede 3

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Teacher
A5a Plant fertilisation activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Paper Pupils order diagrams and text to consolidate the sequence of events in plant Core
p ? pollination and fertilisation.

t u
Running the activity
^ _ Pupils match the text labels to the pictures to help them work out what the
pictures show, and then to put them in order. They write a description of what is
UG LP happening.
Lower ability pupils could be allowed to cut up the picture boxes and stick them
down with the correct text label instead of sketching the pictures and writing
their own labels.

Answers
B A bee visits the flower to collect nectar and brushes against an anther.
A The bee visits another flower and pollen brushes off its body onto the stigma.
C A pollen grain sticks to the stigma.
E A pollen tube grows.
D The pollen grain nucleus reaches the ovary and joins the egg cell nucleus.

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Activity
A5a Plant fertilisation Core

M W You are going to describe the sequence of plant pollination and


fertilisation in diagrams and words.
p ?

t u 1 Look carefully at all the labels and diagrams. Work out which text goes
with each picture.
^ _ 2 Decide which order they go in to show how a bee pollinates a flower
UG LP and how fertilisation happens. Sketch the diagrams in the correct order.
3 Write a sentence or two to go with each diagram describing what is
TN
happening. You can use the text to help you.

A pollen tube A bee visits the The pollen The bee visits A pollen grain
grows. flower to grain nucleus another flower sticks to the
collect nectar reaches the and pollen stigma.
and brushes ovary and joins brushes off its
against an the egg cell body onto the
anther. nucleus. stigma.

A B

stigma

anther

nectary

C D E
pollen grain
pollen
tube

pollen
egg cell grain
nucleus

pollen egg cell


grain
nucleus

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Teacher
A5b Growing pollen tubes activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils use a microscope to observe the growth of a pollen tube and reinforce Core
p ? understanding of plant reproduction.

t u
Running the activity
^ _ Pupils work in pairs. They prepare a slide of pollen grains in sucrose solution.
These must be left in a warm place for 30 minutes before being observed under
UG LP the microscope. The pollen grains could be incubated before the lesson if time is
short. Pupils observe and record the growth of the pollen tube during the lesson.
TC
Other relevant material
Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope

Expected outcomes
Pupils observe the growth of the pollen tube over 10-minute periods using a
microscope, and draw a flow diagram to record their observations.

Safety notes
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far
and smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that
need daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror
as they may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.
Students should wash their hands after handling plant material.
Plant pollens may cause allergic reactions in asthmatics and those who suffer
from hay fever. Teachers need to check for any students at risk before the activity.

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Technician
A5b Growing pollen tubes activity notes

M Type Purpose Differentiation


Practical Pupils use a microscope to observe the growth of a pollen tube and reinforce Core
p ? understanding of plant reproduction.

t u
Other relevant material
^ _ Skill sheet 1: Using a microscope

UG LP
Equipment
TN For each pair:
● a flower (e.g. lily or buttercup)
● a cavity slide
● sucrose solution (10%) and dropping pipette
● a coverslip
● a mounted needle
● a microscope
● access to a warm area for incubating pollen (25–30 °C)
● a fine art brush (optional)

For your information


Running the activity
Pupils work in pairs. They prepare a slide of pollen grains in sucrose solution.
These must be left in a warm place for 30 minutes before being observed under
the microscope. The pollen grains could be incubated before the lesson if time is
short. Pupils observe and record the growth of the pollen tube during the lesson.

Expected outcomes
Pupils observe the growth of the pollen tube over 10-minute periods using a
microscope, and draw a flow diagram to record their observations.

Safety notes
Pupils should be warned about winding the microscope objective down too far
and smashing the coverslip and slides. They should not use microscopes that
need daylight illumination anywhere where direct sunlight can strike the mirror
as they may suffer permanent retinal damage or even blindness.
Students should wash their hands after handling plant material.
Plant pollens may cause allergic reactions in asthmatics and those who suffer
from hay fever. Teachers need to check for any students at risk before the activity.

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Activity
A5b Growing pollen tubes Core

M W After the pollen lands on the stigma, a pollen tube grows down Take care! If
the style. This pollen tube grows into the ovary and then enters ! you hit the
p ? thin glass slides
the ovule until it reaches the egg cell. The pollen grain nucleus when you focus the
t u passes down this tube to join with the egg cell. microscope they will
break.
^ _ You are going to observe the growth of the pollen tube. Never use a
microscope where
UG LP the Sun’s rays could
reflect off the mirror.
TN TC Do not eat the
plants.
Tell your teacher if
you suffer from
asthma or hay fever
before you handle
the pollen.

Obtaining evidence
1 Place a few drops of sucrose solution onto a cavity slide.
2 Place some pollen grains in the solution, either by shaking the
flower or using a fine paintbrush.
3 Lower a coverslip over the slide.
4 Leave the pollen grains for about 30 minutes in a warm place
(about 25–30 °C).
5 Place the slide onto the microscope stage.
6 Observe the pollen grains every 10 minutes.
7 Record your observations about the growth of the tubes.
8 Draw a flow diagram showing what happens when the pollen
tube grows.

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Teacher
A5c Investigate: What makes activity notes
pollen tubes grow?
M

p ? Type Purpose Differentiation


Paper Pupils plan an investigation into the growth of pollen tubes in sucrose solutions of Core, Help
t u different concentrations. Resource

^ _
Running the activity
UG LP If pupils have not carried out Activity A5b, you may wish to demonstrate the
basic procedure for observing pollen grains growing in sucrose solution. You
could also have an example slide of germinated pollen grains so that pupils can
see what they will be looking for in their investigation.
Core: Pupils read the Resource sheet and write down the statements they agree
with. They then plan their own experiment.
Help: Pupils read the Resource sheet and colour in the statements they agree with.
If you want to keep the Resource sheet for later re-use, instruct pupils to write out
the statements rather than colouring. Pupils follow the guided instructions to
develop their plan, filling in their answers on the sheet to reduce the writing
burden.

Other relevant material


A5c Resource sheet

Answers
These will be personal to the pupils for all the questions. Aim to guide them to
the idea that they need to make observations of about 20 pollen grains over about
four or five different concentrations. Some pupils will struggle with the concept of
choosing 20 grains and recording how many are germinated from them; instead
they may plan to look for 20 germinated grains.

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Activity
A5c Investigate: What makes Core

pollen tubes grow?


M W
When a flower has been pollinated, the male pollen grain grows a tube What safety
p ? to reach the female egg. You are going to plan an investigation to find ! rules do you
need to follow?
t u out the best concentration of sucrose solution for pollen tubes to grow. Check with your
teacher to see if
^ _ Ideas about pollen tubes you’re right.

UG LP 1 Read the ideas on the Resource sheet.


2 Write down which statement in each pair you think is more correct.
TN 3 Check your ideas with your teacher.

Equipment
● a microscope ● a teat pipette ● pollen
● cavity microscope slides ● a flower with anthers ● sucrose solutions
● coverslips ● scissors (10%, 8%, 6%, 4%, 2%, 0%)
● a mounted needle ● a paintbrush

Planning Hint:
for a reliable
4 Write down the aim: the question your investigation is trying to
graph you need
answer. at least three
5 Discuss how many different sucrose concentrations you should points.
use to get a reliable result. Write down your decision.
6 Discuss how many pollen grains you would use. Think about this
carefully. Ten is probably not enough for reliable results, but if you
use too many, counting them will be difficult and time-consuming.
7 Discuss how you will get the pollen into the sucrose solution. Hint:
(One way is to brush pollen grains off anthers using a paintbrush, for example,
will all flowers
and shake them onto a microscope slide with a drop of the sucrose and their pollen
solution on it.) be identical?
8 Will any variables other than sucrose concentration affect your
results, such as temperature? If so, you must include in your plan some
way to keep them the same. Are there any variables you can’t control?
9 Decide how you will organise your results. Where will you write them?
10 Decide how you will present your results.
11 List the equipment you will need. The list above will give you some ideas.
12 Finish your plan. Make sure it says:
● what you are going to change (input or independent variable)
● what you will measure or observe (outcome or dependent variable)
● what you will keep the same to make it a fair test
● the number of measurements you will take
● whether you will repeat the measurements, and why.
13 Check your plan with your teacher.

Predicting
14 What do you think the result of the investigation will be? Fill your
prediction in on your plan.
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Activity
A5c Investigate: What makes Help

pollen tubes grow?


M W
When a flower has been pollinated, the male pollen grain grows
p ? !
What safety
a tube to reach the female egg. You are going to plan an rules do you
need to follow?
t u investigation to find out the best concentration of sucrose Check with your
solution for pollen tubes to grow. teacher to see if
^ _ you’re right.

UG LP Ideas about pollen tubes


TN 1 Read the ideas on the Resource sheet.
2 Colour in the statements you agree with from each pair.
3 Check your ideas with your teacher.

Equipment
● a microscope ● a teat pipette ● pollen
● cavity microscope slides ● scissors ● sucrose solutions
● coverslips ● a paintbrush (10%, 8%, 6%, 4%, 2%, 0%)
● a mounted needle ● a flower with anthers

Planning and predicting


4 Discuss each point below in your group. Fill in the gaps as you go.

A Aim: The question we want to answer is .....................................................................................................

B Input variable: we will change the concentration of sucrose.


We will use ......................... different sucrose solutions.
(Hint: you need enough results to draw a good graph, at least four.)
C Outcome variable: we will see how many pollen tubes grow in each sucrose solution.
We will measure/observe (one thing only) ................................................................................................

D Fair test: we will keep these variables the same (make a list):
......................................................................................................................................................................................................

E Equipment we will need: (The list above will give you some ideas.)
......................................................................................................................................................................................................

F Reliable results: The number of pollen grains we will use is .........................


(Hint: you need more than 10 for a fair test, 25 would be too many to count.)
G Predicting: When we change ...............................................................................................................................

we think what will happen to ..............................................................................................................................

is .................................................................................................................................................................................................

We think this because ................................................................................................................................................

5 Check your plan with your teacher.


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Activity
A5c Investigate: What makes Resource

pollen tubes grow?


M W

p ? Ideas about pollen tubes


t uSome pupils in Class 7p were going to carry out an investigation to
find out what conditions were best for growing pollen tubes. Here
^ _
are their ideas.
UG LP

TN
I think
we need to use a No, I
microscope to look think a hand
at the pollen lens will be good
grains. enough.

We’ll We could
need two different be more certain
concentrations of about what the results
sucrose solution – mean if we used more
a strong one and than two different
a weaker concentrations.
one.

I think that we
should count the same
We should number of pollen grains
check as many each time and work out
pollen grains as we how many of the grains
can see to get the grow a pollen
most results. tube.

We should No, we
look at them should give the
immediately. pollen tubes
time to grow.

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues Plenaries

M Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Sharing responses Group feedback Word game Looking ahead
p ?
Show a cross-section Whole-class discussion of Groups of pupils compare Pupils work in pairs and Pupils suggest what cells
through a leaf to review responses and feedback on and discuss their drawings carry out a card sort. are made of if organs are
t u key words from lesson. Activities looking at cells of the onion cells from made of tissues and tissues
A1a, A1d and A1e. Activity A1b. are made of cells.
^ _
UG LP Review learning
● Show a cross-section through a leaf. Ask pupils to ➔ Pupil sheet
identify the tissues and cells present.
➔ Interactive Presentations for Catalyst 1
Sharing responses
● Ask pupils to name one thing that the use of a
microscope has allowed them to observe first hand.
● Discuss the usefulness of a microscope compared with a
magnifying glass to view cells.

Group feedback
● Pupils compare and discuss their drawings of the onion
cells. Carry out a class scan and identify two or three
pupils’ work to transfer onto an OHT slide.
● Discuss the OHT drawings with regard to size of cells,
grouping of cells and shape of cells. The pupils’ work
needs to allow discussion and clarification of the fact
that the choice of size may be different between the
examples but that each cell in a given example is
uniform in size (this leads onto the scale lesson). Each
cell is completely surrounded – no gaps. Cells have a
uniform shape so that should be consistent across the
three examples.

Word game
● Give out a set of cards to each pair of pupils. Pairs put ➔ Pupil sheet
each card into one of three piles: examples of cells,
examples of tissues or examples of organs. Cards that
pupils are unsure about are left to one side.
● Each pair then discusses their decisions with another
pair. At this point they may decide to regroup the
cards. Carry out a class scan during this activity and
note any ideas that need to be followed up in the
whole-class discussion.

Looking ahead
● The question can be set for individuals to consider and Question
suggest answers to. They then share responses with How are cells made up, if organs are made
other pupils. Make it clear that they may not know the of tissues and tissues are made of cells?
answer and need to suggest their ideas and predictions.
● Suggestions can be summarised and recorded in pupils’
books to reconsider after further lessons.

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues Plenaries

M Review learning
p ?

t u

^ _
UG LP

TN

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues Plenaries

M Word game
p ? Group the cards so that you have three groups:

t u
Organs Tissues Cells
^ _
UG LP



TN

sperm egg

heart lung

ear leaf

brain root

bone blood

outer layer
pollen
of skin

muscle nerve

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A2 Building blocks Plenaries

M Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Sharing responses Group feedback Word game Looking ahead
p ?
Pupils classify diagrams of Whole-class discussion of Groups of pupils share Play ‘hot seat’ game. Pupils suggest how we as
numerous cells as either responses to Activity A2a. evaluation of Activity A2a. humans grow in size.
t u plant or animal cells.

^ _
Review learning
UG LP
● Pupils sort diagrams of cells into plant cells or animal ➔ Pupil sheet
cells.

Sharing responses
● Individual pupils demonstrate on an OHT/PowerPoint
copy of the Activity sheet what they coloured and why,
for each of the cell examples. Ask pupils to describe
what clues or evidence they looked for to help them
decide.

Group feedback
● Encourage pupils to talk about their models to the
group.
● Guide pupils to identify the strengths and weaknesses
of their models and to suggest how they might be
improved.

Word game
● Identify one pupil and place them in the ‘hot seat’. ➔ Pupil sheet
Hand the pupil a card with a type or part of a cell
Questions
written on it. Allow only this pupil to see the card. Ask
Are you a tissue/cell/organ?
the class to direct questions to the pupil in the ‘hot
seat’ to determine what was written on the card. Are you found in a plant/animal?
(narrows search down to plant or animal
● The pupil in the ‘hot seat’ can only respond by saying related cell, tissue, and organ)
yes or no. Challenge the class as to how few questions
can they use to identify the contents of the card. Do you contain information? (narrows
answer down to nucleus)
● The kinds of questions you might want to prompt the
pupils to ask are shown on the right:

Looking ahead
● Set the context for the next lesson on cell division. Question
Elicit pupils’ ideas and misconceptions in relation to How do you think we as humans grow in
how living things grow. Keep a note of these to allow size?
you to address them in the next lesson.
● The question can be set for individuals to consider and
suggest answers to. They then share responses with
other pupils. Make it clear that they may not know the
answer and need to suggest their ideas and predictions.
● Suggestions can be summarised and recorded in pupils’
books to reconsider after further lessons.

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A2 Building blocks Plenaries

M Review learning
p ? Classify these diagrams of cells as either plant or animal cells.

t u

^ _
UG LP

TN

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A2 Building blocks Plenaries

M Word game
p ?



t u

^ _
sperm egg heart
UG LP

TN

lung ear leaf

brain root bone

outer layer
blood pollen
of skin

muscle nerve plant cell

cell
animal cell nucleus
membrane

cell wall vacuole cellulose

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A3 Cells and growth Plenaries

M Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Sharing responses Group feedback Word game Looking ahead
p ?
True/false game on Whole-class discussion of In groups, pupils prepare In pairs, pupils formulate Suggest what conditions
growth. observations from Activity an explanation of how a written definition of cell cells need to grow and stay
t u A3a to back up an things grow. division. alive.
explanation for growth.
^ _
UG LP Review learning
● Display each scenario on an OHT so that pupils can ➔ Pupil sheet
decide if statements on growth are true/false.
● Then ask pupils to give reasons for their true/false answers.

Sharing responses
● In pairs, pupils decide on one observation from Activity
A3a that backs up the explanation of growth they have
learned.
● Share a number of these ideas with the class and make
sure that all the key evidence is highlighted.

Group feedback
● In groups, pupils write an explanation of how things grow.
● Ask a pupil to read out what they have written.
● Ask other groups to offer their responses and state if
their thoughts support or challenge the first response.
● Remain impartial to the suggestions offered and help the
pupils to summarise the key evidence.
● Each pupil could then write a two- or three-line
summary.

Word game
● Individually, pupils identify key phrases/ideas that a
working definition of cell division must include.
● Pupils then work in pairs to formulate a written definition.
● Ask pairs to share their ideas. Select a definition for all
pupils to record in their books.

Looking ahead
● Pupils need to realise that an individual cell also has the Question
characteristics of living things. Pupils may recognise and What conditions do cells need to grow
accept that the organism itself, be it a plant or animal, and stay alive?
will need food, water etc. but may not recognise that
these needs are a consequence of what is required at
cellular level.
● The question can be set for individuals to consider and
suggest answers to. They then share responses with other
pupils. Make it clear that they may not know the answer
and need to suggest their ideas and predictions.
● Suggestions can be summarised and recorded in pupils’
books to reconsider after further lessons.

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A3 Cells and growth Plenaries

M Review learning
p ? Which of these statements about growth are true and which are
false? Give reasons for your answer.
t u

^ _ 1
UG LP

TN
One cell gets bigger and bigger.

One cell divides into five cells, then


each of those cells divides into five.

One cell divides into two identical cells, and then


each of these cells divides into two.

Each cell grows another cell that breaks away from it.

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A4 Scaling up and down – Think Plenaries


about
M

p ? Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Group feedback Bridging to other topics
t u
Pupils discuss, write down or display Ask pupils to think of instances where
their explanation of how to work out scaling up or down could be used in
^ _ a scale factor. other contexts, e.g. medicine.
Also refer to Unit 8D, which covers quadrats.
UG LP
Group feedback
● Pairs or trios of pupils have 5–10 minutes to discuss,
write down or display their explanation of how to work
out a scale factor.
● Take feedback from five pairs/trios and display all the
methods.

Bridging to other topics


● Pupils work in groups to decide where scaling up and
down could be useful in other contexts. Examples are:
To show real structures that are too small to deal with,
e.g. microscopes scale up cells.
To model structures that are too big, e.g. scaling down
the solar system in an orrery, or models of buildings.
Giving appropriate doses of medicine to adults and to
young children
Adapting a recipe to produce a sponge cake for twenty
people instead of for four people
Designing false limbs for people.
● Tell pupils they will need the skill of scaling up and
down in future units, e.g. in Unit 8D when dealing
with quadrats.

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A5 Flower cells Plenaries

M Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Sharing responses Group feedback Word game Looking back
p ?
Pupils write a series of Whole-class discussion of In groups, pupils write a Check progress using a Pupils revise and
sentences on the growth responses to Activity A5a. sequence of sentences ‘word splat’ of the key consolidate knowledge from
t u of the pollen tube. describing pollination and words in the unit. the unit.
Sentences are mixed up for fertilisation.
^ _ another group to put into
order.
UG LP
Review learning
● Working in pairs, pupils write a series of sentences on
strips of paper to describe the growth of the pollen tube.
They need to keep their sentences as concise and few in
number as possible. Ask pupils to do this from memory
without reference to the lesson materials.
● Sentences can then be mixed up and given to another
group to put in order.

Sharing responses
● Ask a pupil to identify the correct order for the diagrams
and then to read out his or her description.
● Ask other pupils to add any extra detail to the description.

Group feedback
● Pupils work in pairs and each pair is given one of the
following aspects of a flower’s reproductive process to
describe in their own words: pollination, growth of a
pollen tube or fertilisation.
● Each pair then meets up with two pairs who worked on
the other stages and together they put their sentences
into the correct sequence of events.
● Ask a group to read their sequence out. The class can
identify the strengths of statements in terms of accuracy
and use of appropriate scientific language

Word game
● Initiate a ‘word splat’ by asking pupils to devise questions Words
that can be answered by pointing to the key words for organ, tissue, plant cell, animal cell,
the lesson. The key words should be written on the growth, factor of 10, pollen
board/OHP.
● Divide the class into two groups and a pupil from each
group should be invited to stand close to the board/OHP.
● Choose a pupil to ask a question. The pupils by the
board/OHP must each say the word and try to point to it
first. The loser chooses another member of his or her
group to stand at the board/OHP.

Looking back
Pupils revise and consolidate knowledge from the unit. ➔ Unit map
They can use the Unit map, Pupil check list, or the Test
➔ Pupil check list
yourself questions.
➔ Test yourself
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A5 Investigate: What makes Plenaries


pollen tubes grow?
M

p ? Suggested alternative plenary activities (5–10 minutes)


Review learning Group feedback
t u
Teacher-led review of the main planning In groups, pupils discuss their predictions
issues in the investigation. and justify them.
^ _
UG LP Review learning
● Discuss the decisions pupils made on sucrose
concentration and how many pollen grains to use.
● Discuss what other variables they identified in the
investigation that needed controlling and how they
decided to do that.
● Discuss what method they used to get the pollen grains
into the sucrose solution. Suggest other alternatives.
● Ask pupils to say how they laid out their results tables.

Group feedback
● In groups, pupils discuss the predictions they made.
Ask them to justify why they made them.
● Ask them to discuss any differences in the predictions
in the group.

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues Specials

M W 1 Cross out the wrong words. Underline the right words.


p ? Every living thing is made up of tiny units called
t u cells / tissues / organs .
^ _ A cell / tissue / organ is made up of lots of the same
UG LP kind of cell.
TN An cell / tissue / organ is made up of different tissues.
These tissues work together to do a job.

2 Here is a word list of some organs and tissues.


Use the words to fill in the gaps.

leaf h
roots stomac

heart
muscle nerve

a This organ pumps blood around my body.


.......................................

b This tissue moves my bones. .......................................

c This organ makes food for the plant. .......................................

d This tissue carries information between my


brain and body. .......................................

e This organ starts to break down my food so


my body can use it. .......................................

f These organs get water from the soil for the


plant. .......................................

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues (continued) Specials

M W 3 Here are some pictures of organs, tissues and cells.


p ?
leaf heart
t u

^ _
UG LP
TN

roots skin cell

muscle tissue stomach

plant cell outer skin tissue

a Colour the organs in red.


b Colour the tissues in blue
c Colour the cells in yellow.

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A2 Building blocks Specials

M W
1 Use these words to label the diagrams. You may use
p ? words more than once.
t u cell membrane cell wall chloroplasts
^ _
vacuole cytoplasm nucleus
UG LP

TN
an animal cell

a plant cell

2 a Which cell parts are in both plant and animal cells?


List them here.
.......................................................................................................................................................

b Which cell parts are only found in plant cells? List


them here.
.......................................................................................................................................................

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A2 Building blocks (continued) Specials

M W
3 Cut out these jigsaw pieces. Then match the cell parts to
p ? the jobs they do. When you’re sure, stick them down.
t u

^ _ cell
UG LP membrane g
in
y th eus
TN
v er e nucl
e d
o ls insi
r
o nt ens
c p
h is hap
T at ll.
th e ce t h e cell.
d s
th i s s u rroun ove in
Th i n gs m
t h
It let s
o f t h e cell.
ut
and o
A sp
a
cell wall liqu ce fille
id dw
in p . It is
lant only ith a
cell fou
s. nd vacu
ole

lasm r
t o p o lou
cy n c t
e
re plan
f g
e t s o p the
ck el
Pa ich h od.
wh ke fo h ere ges
w
ma u id chan
iq l
A l mica
e
ch pen.
p
A tou ha
g
plant h wall aro
c un
the c ells. It sup d
ell. ports pl asts
ch loro

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A3 Cells and growth Specials

M W
1 Use these words to fill in the gaps. You may use words
p ? more than once.
t u
two
^ _ divide smaller
UG LP

TN
grow
bigger

All living things ............................................ .


They start small and get ............................................ .
To grow, the cells need to ............................................ .
One cell splits into ............................................ cells.
The new cells are ............................................ but they will get bigger.

2 The pictures show an animal cell dividing.

A B C D E F

a How many cells are there in picture A? .............


b How many cells are there in picture B? .............
c How many cells are there in picture D? .............
d How many cells are there in picture F? .............
e How many times has cell A divided? .............
f What is the difference between the cells in B and C?
.......................................................................................................................................................

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A3 Cells and growth (continued) Specials

M W
3 These pictures show how a plant cell divides.
p ? They’re all mixed up! Cut them out. Put them in order.
When you’re sure, stick them down.
t u

^ _
UG LP

TN

The nucleus starts to divide. Two new plant cells.

A plant cell. The nucleus has divided.


A new cell starts to form

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A4 Scaling up and down Specials

M W
1 Look at these drawings. The actual sizes are written
p ? beside them.
t u
actual size ⫽ 0.03 mm
^ _ a plant cell
drawing size ⫽ ......................................
UG LP

TN actual size ⫽ 1.5 cm


a sugar cube
drawing size ⫽ ......................................

actual size ⫽ 3 m
a car drawing size ⫽ ......................................

actual size ⫽ 30 cm
a box of cornflakes
drawing size ⫽ ......................................

actual size ⫽ 2 cm
a postage stamp
drawing size ⫽ ......................................

actual size ⫽ 1 cm
a fly
drawing size ⫽ ......................................

a Use your ruler to measure the size of each drawing.


Write it on the line.
b Which drawings are smaller than the actual size?
....................................................................................................................................................

c Which drawings are bigger than the actual size?


.......................................................................................................................................................

d Which drawings are the same as the actual size?


......................................................................................................................................................

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A4 Scaling up and down (continued) Specials

M W
2 Look at these pictures of the same cell.
p ? They have been drawn using different scale factors.
t u

^ _
UG LP

TN

A B C D E

a Which picture has been drawn with Use your


ruler if you’re
the biggest scale factor? ............. not sure.

b Which picture has been drawn with


the smallest scale factor? .............

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A5 Flower cells Specials

M W
1 Look at this picture of a flower.
p ? a Draw a line to match the name of each part
to the picture.
t u
b Colour to match each part to the job it does.
^ _
UG LP petal The male sex cells from a
TN different plant stick to this to
pollen grain pollinate it.

The female sex cell.

stigma Makes the male sex cells.

The male sex cell.


stamen
Makes the female sex cells.

ovary Attracts insects to the plant


to take the pollen to another
egg cell flower.

2 Match the words to their meanings.

The male sex cell in


fertilisation a flower.

The female sex cell in


pollination
a flower.

When pollen lands


pollen grain
on the stigma.

What living things do to


egg cell
make more of themselves.

When a male sex cell joins with a


reproduction
female sex cell to make a new life.
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A5 Flower cells (continued) Specials

M W
3 a Look at the pictures below. They show one way that
p ? flowers can be pollinated.
t u b Read the captions. Match them to the pictures.
^ _
1
UG LP

TN The bee f
lies to an
flower, ca other
rrying the
pollen wit
h it.

e b e e la n ds on a
Th om the
P o ll e n f r
flower.
ks to it.
stamen stic

3
A tube grows fr
om the
pollen grain to
the
ovary. The nucle
us
moves down it
and
fertilises an egg
cell.
This turns into
a seed.

m t h e bee
fr o
Pollen e s t i g ma.
to th
sticks

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A Cells Specials answers

M A1 Organs, cells, tissues A5 Flower cells


1 Every living thing is made up of tiny units
p ? called cells.
petal

A tissue is made up of lots of the same kind of


t u cell. pollen grain
An organ is made up of different tissues. These
^ _ tissues work together to do a job.
2 a heart b muscle c leaf
UG d nerve e stomach f roots stigma
3 a Organs coloured red – leaf, heart, roots,
stomach.
b Tissues coloured blue – muscle tissue, outer stamen
skin tissue.
c Cells coloured yellow – skin cell, plant cell. ovary

A2 Building blocks egg cell


1 Animal cell labels, top to bottom – cell
membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm. 1 petal – Attracts insects to the plant to take the
Plant cell labels, clockwise from top left – pollen to another flower.
nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, chloroplasts, pollen grain – The male sex cell.
cytoplasm, vacuole. stigma – The male sex cells from a different
2 a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane – in any plant stick to this to pollinate it.
order. stamen – Makes the male sex cells.
b cell wall, chloroplasts, vacuole – in any order. ovary – Makes the female sex cells.
3 cell membrane – This surrounds the cell. It lets egg cell – The female sex cell.
things move in and out of the cell. 2 fertilisation – When a male sex cell joins with a
nucleus – This controls everything that happens female sex cell to make a new life.
inside the cell. pollination – When pollen lands on the stigma.
cell wall – A tough wall around plants cells. It pollen grain – The male sex cell in a flower.
supports the cell. egg cell – The female sex cell in a flower.
vacuole – A space filled with a liquid. It is only reproduction – What living things do to make
found in plant cells. more of themselves.
cytoplasm – A liquid where chemical changes 3 1 – The bee lands on a flower. Pollen from the
happen. stamen sticks to it.
chloroplasts – Packets of green colour which 2 – The bee flies to another flower carrying the
help the plant make food. pollen with it.
3 – Pollen from the bee sticks to the stigma.
4 – A tube grows from the pollen grain to the
A3 Cells and growth ovary. The nucleus moves down it and fertilises
1 grow, bigger, divide, two, smaller an egg cell. This turns into a seed.
2 a 1 b 2 c 4 d 8 e 3
f The cells in B are smaller than in C or the
cells in C are bigger than in B.
3 Correct order – A plant cell. The nucleus starts
to divide. The nucleus has divided. A new cell
starts to form. Two new plant cells.

A4 Scaling up and down


1 a Measurements from top to bottom – 2.7 cm
or 27 mm, 1.5 cm or 15 mm, 3 cm or 30 mm,
1.7 cm or 17 mm, 2 cm or 20 mm, 1.8 cm or
18 mm.
b car, cornflakes
c plant cell, fly
d sugar cube, postage stamp
2 a D
b A

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues Homework

M W HELP
p ? 1 a Stick down the wordsearch. Find the seven organs listed below.
t u
heart stem leaf muscle
^ _
UG LP
stomach root
TN eye

b Copy the table below. Write the words you found in the
wordsearch in the correct columns.

Animal organs Plant organs

c Copy and complete the table below. It is about the functions of


the organs in the wordsearch.

Organ Function
heart
to support leaves and flowers and hold them up in the light
root
muscle
stomach
to receive light so that you can see

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues (continued) Homework

M W CORE
p ? 2 Look at the diagram of a microscope. Write a list of labels for
parts A to F.
t u

^ _
D
UG LP
TN

F
A

3 Copy and complete these sentences about the parts of a


microscope.
a We use a slide to …
b The job of the two lenses is to …
c We need both a coarse focus and a fine focus because …

4 a Explain the difference between:


i a cell and a tissue
ii a tissue and an organ.
b Is skin a tissue or an organ? Explain your answer.
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A1 Organs, cells, tissues (continued) Homework

M W EXTENSION
p ? 5 The answers to some unknown questions are given below. For
each answer, make up a question for which the answer given is
t u
the only possible correct answer.
^ _
a epidermis
UG LP
b cell
TN
c tissue
d palisade mesophyll
e skin cell
f palisade cell

6 Write down the name of each tissue A to D.

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues (continued) Homework

M W HELP D E E Y E U S I S A P E
p ? Wordsearch C O P E X T Y F A T G O
t u N C I L M T A Y E H E Z
^ _ K P U Q R R C R O O T M
UG LP L E H A N P H E L P Q J
TN F R E D D Y T W L A R D
P H L O L S T O M A C H
C R I M C E L L N O T E
A M U S C L E F I B U E
R O M E T E R N A O L X
D R O N E A A N D N P E
S E M L O F S C I E N C

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A1 Organs, cells, tissues (continued) Homework

HELP D E E Y E U S I S A P E
Wordsearch C O P E X T Y F A T G O
N C I L M T A Y E H E Z
K P U Q R R C R O O T M
L E H A N P H E L P Q J
F R E D D Y T W L A R D
P H L O L S T O M A C H
C R I M C E L L N O T E
A M U S C L E F I B U E
R O M E T E R N A O L X
D R O N E A A N D N P E
S E M L O F S C I E N C

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A2 Building blocks Homework

M W HELP
p ? 1 a Copy the diagram of a plant cell below.
t u

^ _
UG LP

TN

b Add labels to name each part shown.


c One very important part of the cell has been missed off the
diagram. Draw it in and label it.
d One part of the cell looks green under a microscope.
i Which part looks green?
ii What makes it look green?

CORE
2 a Copy and complete the table below to compare plant cells and
animal cells. (Do not include stored food.)

Structures found only in plant cells Structures found in both plant


and animal cells

b Write sentences to explain the function of the following parts of


a cell:
i cell membrane
ii nucleus.

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A2 Building blocks (continued) Homework

M W EXTENSION
p ? These questions are about how microscopes have helped to develop
our modern understanding of how living things work. Read the
t u
passage, and then answer the questions about it.
^ _ into the lens an
d
on th e m icroscope stage,
UG LP thought r eye.
ee nt h century, people to be ev entually into ou lieden and
In the earl y se ve nt
t ha d to be co mplete te en th ce nt ur y, Matthias Sch animals
TN that an animal
or plan it in water In the nine hundreds of
u cu t of f a fl ower and stood ive. This Theodor Schwann looked at were all made
alive. If yo longer al found that they
ample, it was no and plants and ann also discovered that cells
in a vase, for ex talism. We do not believe this w at
idea was called
vi
ro sc op es have from cells. Sch ake new cells. This showed th
beca us e m ic too could di vi de to m w as
idea now, partly parts of living things that are vitalist theory
e s are al ive, so the old stated a
enabled us to se
h the nake d ey e. ce ll
d. In 18 58 , R udolph Virchow ry
wit disprove ry says: ‘Eve
small to be seen n eo ry . Virchow’s theo a sum of its vital
nt on i vo ne w th
man called A e ant) appears as e
In 1670, a Dutch e a microscope with just on animal (and pl ch bears in itself the complet
ho ek m ad e legs of ch of w hi
Leeuwen such as th units, ea
look at objects Scientists characteristics
of life.’
lens. He could h it. ,a
fly w in gs w it ars s later, in 1932
flies and butter onderful invention. A few ye d Nearly one hundred year st Ruska built the first
aw t Hooke adde er called Ern
thought it was ist called Rober pound German engine ons instead
later a B ri tish sc ie nt
fi rst co m m ic rosc op e. This uses electr fications.
so making th e electron ni
a second lens, ni fy th in gs ev en t, an d ca n reac h very high mag lls to look
s could mag ade of ligh right inside ce
microscope. Thi ed him to see that cork is m N ow it is possible to see s they contain and
lo w e il of the part
better, and it al which he called cells. All thes at the fine deta
tiny bo xe s, be ca use th ey em work.
from
op es ar e ligh t microscopes, sp ec im en which make th
micro sc ugh th e
g a light up thro
work by shinin

3 What makes a compound microscope different from the one built


by Antoni von Leeuwenhoek?
4 Why does a specimen need to be thin to see it under a light
microscope?
5 Who discovered that cells can reproduce to make new cells?
6 Why do you think that Robert Hooke is considered to be an
important figure in the world of animal and plant science?
7 Rudolph Virchow talked about ‘vital units’ in his theory. What do
you think we would call these ‘vital units’ today?
8 After Robert Hooke invented the first compound microscope, it
was another hundred years or so before scientists stated a new
theory about cells. Suggest two reasons why it might have taken
them so long.
9 A light microscope has an eyepiece lens of 10 magnification,
and three objective lenses of 10, 50 and 100. Calculate the
magnification produced by each combination of eyepiece and
objective lenses. Show your working.
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A3 Cells and growth Homework

M W HELP
p ? 1 a Copy and complete these sentences by choosing from the
words below.
t u

^ _ smaller big bigger grow division


small
UG LP

TN
All living things ...................................... , which means they start

...................................... and get ...................................... . They grow by the

process of cell ...................................... .

b These sentences are in the wrong order. Copy them out in the
correct order to explain what happens during cell division.
A The cell starts to divide into two.
B The nucleus divides into two.
C The cell finishes dividing and two new cells have been
produced.
D There are two copies of the nucleus in the same cell.

CORE
2 Cell division happens in three main stages, which are:
1 The nucleus divides.
2 The cell divides.
3 The new cells grow.
a Draw a diagram for each of these three stages, showing what
the cell or cells might look like under a microscope.
b Suggest a reason why, after the cell divides, each new cell
grows before it can divide again.
c Only stage 3 increases the size of an organ. Suggest what
might happen to the size of the organ if all the cells in it
completed stage 3 at the same time.

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A3 Cells and growth (continued) Homework

M W EXTENSION
p ? Read the passage about the cell division of cholera bacteria, and then
answer the questions about it.
t u

^ _
Some illnesses
are caused by ba
UG LP example is chol
era, which affe
cteria, which m
ultiply very qu
ct s people who ar ickly. One
unsanitary cond e crowded toge
TN country after an
itions, such as
you might find ther in very
earthquake. Cho in a refugee ca
lera bacteria ar mp or in a hot
drinks contamin e swallowed w
ated water or ea hen a person
where the cond ts contaminated
itions are just ri food. In their di
it is not treated ght, the choler gestive system
a bacteria multi ,
very quickly, ch ply prolifically
olera causes de . If
ath within a fe
w hours.

3 The passage says that cholera bacteria can multiply ‘prolifically’.


Use a dictionary to write a definition of the word ‘prolific’.

4 In the digestive system, a cholera bacterium can divide every hour.


Suppose you swallowed some water containing 1000 cholera
bacteria. Assuming that none of them died, how many would be
in your digestive system:
a after 1 hour?
b after 5 hours?
c after 12 hours?
Show your working for each one.

5 Cholera is passed from one person to another when bacteria from


the digestive system get into water that the second person drinks.
Suggest how this might happen easily in a crisis situation like a
refugee camp or after an earthquake. (Hint: think about any
pictures of these events that you may have seen and remember that
the answer is pretty unpleasant.)

6 Write a sentence or two to explain why it is very important, during


cell division, that the nucleus always divides first.

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A5 Flower cells Homework

M W HELP
p ? This question is to help you remember things you learned about flowers when you were
in Year 5 or Year 6.
t u
1 Copy and complete these sentences by choosing from the words below.
^ _
petals
UG LP egg cell fertilisation
n
TN pollinatio
in
pollen gra stigma
stamen nucleus carpel

a A flower has ...................................... to attract insects.

b The male sex cell in a flower is called the ...................................... ...................................... .

c The female sex cell in a flower is the ...................................... ...................................... .

d During ......................................, the male sex cell becomes stuck onto the ......................................
of another flower.

e During fertilisation, the ...................................... from the pollen cell must


join with the nucleus in the egg cell.

CORE
2 a Stick down the flower diagram. petal stigma

b Complete the labels using these words.


stamen
c Draw a circle in red round the label of the male sex cell.
d Draw a box in green round the label of the female sex cell.
pollen gra
in
e Underline the name of the male sex organ in red.
f Underline the name of the female sex organ in green.

3 These sentences are in the wrong order. Copy them out in the correct
order to explain fertilisation in a flowering plant.
A The nucleus of the pollen grain joins with the nucleus of the egg cell.
B The pollen tube grows into the ovary, then into the egg cell.
C Having landed on the stigma, a pollen grain grows a pollen tube
down the style, taking the pollen nucleus with it.
D Fertilisation has now occurred.
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A5 Flower cells (continued) Homework

M W EXTENSION
p ? These questions are about the wider aspects of pollination in plants.
They are designed to make you think a bit. You will not find the
t u
answers in your textbook.
^ _
4 Grass does not have pretty flowers. Its flowers are small, green and
UG LP
not very obvious. Insects do not pollinate grass flowers. Suggest
TN how grass might be pollinated, and why grass needs to produce
very large amounts of pollen. (Hint: hay fever sufferers are often
very badly affected by grass pollen during early May.)

5 Some pollen grains are quite sticky. Others have tiny hooks or
spikes all over their surface. How would these special features of
pollen grains help plants to pollinate successfully?

6 Sugar is a very important nutrient because it provides a very quick


source of energy. Energy is needed for cells to divide or to grow.
Suggest why the stigmas of most flowers contain quite a lot of
sugar.

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A5 Flower cells (continued) Homework

CORE
M W
Flower diagram
p ?

t u

^ _
UG LP

TN

style
anther carpel
ovary
filament containing
egg cells

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A5 Flower cells (continued) Homework

CORE
Flower diagram

style
anther carpel
ovary
filament containing
egg cells

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Homework
A1 Organs, cells, tissues mark scheme

M W HELP
Question Answer Mark
p ?
1 a
t u D E E Y E U S I S A P E
C O P E X T Y F A T G O
^ _ N C I L M T A Y E H E Z
UG LP K P U Q R R C R O O T M

HM L E H A N P H E L P Q J
F R E D D Y T W L A R D
P H L O L S T O M A C H
C R I M C E L L N O T E
A M U S C L E F I B U E
R O M E T E R N A O L X
D R O N E A A N D N P E
S E M L O F S C I E N C

All correct, five marks; deduct one mark for each error up to five. 5
b Animal organs: heart, muscle, stomach, eye
Plant organs: stem, leaf, root 3
All correct, three marks; deduct one mark for each error up to three.
c Heart: to pump the blood around the body 1
Stem: to support leaves and flowers and hold them up in the light 1
Root: to anchor the plant and take in water 1
Muscle: to move the body 1
Stomach: to digest food 1
Eye: to receive light so that you can see 1
Underscores show answers; other text copied by pupils. Accept equivalent answers.
Total for Help 14

CORE
Question Answer Mark
2 A lens (or objective lens); B slide; C stage; D lens (or eyepiece lens);
E coarse focus; F fine focus 3
Deduct half a mark for each error up to three marks.
3 a We use a slide to hold or support the object. 1
b The job of the two lenses is to magnify the object or make it look bigger. 1
c We need both a coarse focus and a fine focus because the coarse focus alone is
not accurate enough to give a clear image of very small objects. 1
Accept equivalent answers.
4 a i A cell is the unit that makes up living things;
a tissue is a collection of cells that are alike and have the same function. 1
ii A tissue is a collection of cells that are alike and have the same function;
an organ is part of an animal or plant that carries out a function or is made
up of different tissues. 1
b The skin is an organ, because it is made up of several different tissues. 1
Total for Core 9

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Homework
A1 Organs, cells, tissues (continued) mark scheme

M W EXTENSION
Question Answer Mark
p ?
5 a For example: What is the name of the outer tissue in human skin? 1
t u b For example: What is the small unit that makes up all organisms? 1
c For example: What is a group of similar cells that have the same function? 1
^ _
d For example: What is the tissue that carries out photosynthesis in a leaf? 1
UG LP e For example: What sort of cells make up the epidermis of skin? 1
f For example: What sort of cell makes up the palisade mesophyll? 1
HM
6 A upper epidermis; B palisade mesophyll; C spongy mesophyll;
D lower epidermis
All correct, three marks; three correct, two marks; one or two correct, one mark. 3
Total for Extension 9

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Homework
A2 Building blocks mark scheme

M W HELP
Question Answer Mark
p ?
1 a, b Clockwise from top: chloroplasts, cytoplasm, vacuole, cell membrane, cell wall 3
t u All correct, three marks; four correct, two marks; two or three correct, one mark;
one correct, no marks.
^ _ c Nucleus drawn in the cytoplasm and labelled 1
d i Chloroplasts 1
UG LP
ii Chlorophyll 1
HM Total for Help 6

CORE
Question Answer Mark
2 a Structures found only in plant cells: chloroplasts, vacuole, cell wall
Structures found in both plant and animal cells: cytoplasm, cell membrane,
nucleus
Deduct one mark for each omission up to three. 3
b i The cell membrane lets things or substances such as water and dissolved gases
in and out of the cell. 1
ii The nucleus controls everything that happens in the cell.
Do not accept ‘the brain of the cell’. 1
Total for Core 5

EXTENSION
Question Answer Mark
3 A compound microscope has two lenses or more than one lens;
Leeuwenhoek’s had only one. 1
4 So that light can pass through it (and reach the viewer’s eye) 1
5 (Theodor) Schwann 1
6 He was the first to describe cells or his microscope allowed people to start
observing inside very small objects. 1
7 Cells 1
8 Two from: tools for slicing tissues had to be developed or improved; lenses
became higher powered or more perfect; methods for preserving tissues or
tissue slices or sections improved. 2
Accept sensible suggestions.
9 10 objective  10  10  100 magnification 1
50 objective  10  50  500 magnification 1
100 objective  10  100  1000 magnification 1
Deduct one mark from the total if no working is shown.
Total for Extension 10

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Homework
A3 Cells and growth mark scheme

M W HELP
Question Answer Mark
p ?
1 a All living things grow, which means they start small and get bigger.
t u They grow by the process of cell division.
Underscores show answers; other text copied by pupils. Deduct one mark for each
^ _ error up to three. 3
b B The nucleus divides into two.
UG LP D There are two copies of the nucleus in the same cell.
A The cell starts to divide into two.
HM C The cell finishes dividing and two new cells have been produced.
One mark for B somewhere before D; one mark for D somewhere before A;
one mark for A somewhere before C. 3
Total for Help 6

CORE
Question Answer Mark
2 a Stage 1: diagram shows one cell with nucleus splitting. 1
Stage 2: diagram shows one cell dividing with a nucleus in each half; total size
similar to that of original cell. 1
Stage 3: diagram shows two separate cells, each very like the original in shape and size. 1
b If new cells did not grow, they would eventually run out of contents or
cytoplasm to share between the two new cells. 1
Accept equivalent answers or suitable alternatives.
c It would suddenly grow or double in size. 1
Total for Core 5

EXTENSION
Question Answer Mark
3 Producing many offspring or making more quickly 1
Accept suitable alternatives giving idea of abundance.
4 a 1000  2  2000 bacteria 1
b After 5 hours 1000 has doubled 5 times  32 000 bacteria 1
c After 12 hours 1000 has doubled 12 times  4 096 000 bacteria 1
Deduct one mark from the total if no working is shown.
5 Cholera causes uncontrolled sickness/diarrhoea. 1
Contents of the digestive systems of affected people go into rivers or other
water sources. 1
The only water available for drinking is contaminated by contents of digestive
system. 1
Accept equivalent answers.
6 The nucleus controls the cell or contains all the information to make sure
the cell runs properly or every new cell needs a nucleus with a complete
set of instructions. 1
Total for Extension 8

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Homework
A5 Flower cells mark scheme

M W HELP
Question Answer Mark
p ?
1 a A flower has petals to attract insects.
t u Underscores show answers; other text copied by pupils. 1
b The male sex cell in a flower is called the pollen grain. 1
^ _ c The female sex cell in a flower is the egg cell. 1
UG LP d During pollination, the male sex cell becomes stuck onto the stigma of
another flower. 2
HM e During fertilisation, the nucleus from the pollen cell must join with the
nucleus in the egg cell. 1
Total for Help 6

CORE
Question Answer Mark
2 a, b Clockwise from top: pollen grain, petal, stigma, stamen 3
c ‘Pollen grain’ circled in red 1
d ‘Egg cells’ boxed in green 1
e ‘Stamen’ underlined in red 1
f ‘Carpel’ underlined in green 1
3 C Having landed on the stigma, a pollen grain grows a pollen tube down the
style, taking the pollen nucleus with it.
B The pollen tube grows into the ovary, then into the egg cell.
A The nucleus of the pollen grain joins with the nucleus of the egg cell.
D Fertilisation has now occurred. 3
One mark for C somewhere before B; one mark for B somewhere before A;
one mark for A somewhere before D.
Total for Core 10

EXTENSION
Question Answer Mark
4 Grass pollen is blown by the wind onto another grass stigma 1
so lots of pollen is needed to ensure grass flowers are pollinated. 1
Accept equivalent answers.
5 Pollen sticks or catches onto an animal, 1
which moves and puts the pollen on another flower. 1
6 The pollen grain needs energy to grow its pollen tube.
Accept an argument based on attracting insects. 1
Total for Extension 5

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A Cells Test yourself

M 1 Which of these are true about all living things? Underline the true ones.

p ? A They think.

t u B They have muscles.


C They grow.
^ _
D They chew.
UG
E They are made of cells.
TN
2 Complete these sentences by crossing out the wrong words.
a Magnification means to make a specimen look bigger/smaller.
b The magnification of your eyepiece lens is 10.
The magnification of your objective lens is 10.
The total magnification is 10/100.

3 Label the diagram of the animal cell and plant cell using these words.

nucleus cytoplasm cell wall

ne vacuole
chloroplast cell membra

........................................... ...........................................
...........................................
...........................................
...........................................

...........................................

...........................................

........................................... ...........................................

animal cell plant cell

4 Draw lines to match each feature to its function (job) in a cell.


Feature Function
nucleus ● ● chemical changes happen here
cytoplasm ● ● makes food using light
cell wall ● ● controls what happens in the cell
chloroplast ● ● supports the cell
vacuole ● ● lets things in and out of the cell
cell membrane ● ● contains liquid to keep the cell firm
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A Cells (continued) Test yourself

M 5 In the box, write ‘A’ if it’s an animal organ and ‘P’ if it’s a plant
organ. Then draw lines to match each organ to its function (job).
p ?
A or P Organ Function
t u
heart ● ● takes in water and anchors the plant
^ _ male and female
● ● moves the body
UG organs in flower
muscle ● ● pumps blood around the body
TN
leaf ● ● makes the plant’s food

tooth ● ● make seeds for reproduction

root ● ● breaks up food

6 Complete these sentences by crossing out the wrong words.


a A tissue is made of lots of cells/organs.
b An organ is made of lots of tissues/keys.
c The outer layer of skin (epidermis) is a tissue/an organ.
d The heart is a cell/a tissue/an organ.
e A leaf is a tissue/an organ.

7 New cells are made by cell division. Which part of the cell divides
first during cell division? Circle the correct letter.
A cytoplasm B nucleus C cell membrane

8 Complete these sentences using


these words. You may use words pollen grain tube style
once, more than once or not at all.

stigma egg cell pollen cell nucleus

a Pollination happens when a pollen grain lands on the ............................... of another plant.

b The pollen grain grows a ............................... which grows down through the style to the
ovary.

c The pollen grain ............................... moves down the pollen tube into the ovary.

d When fertilisation happens in plants, the nucleus of a ............................... ...............................


joins together with the nucleus of an ............................... ................................

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Test yourself
Answers
A Cells
M 1 Which of these are true about all living things? Underline the true ones.

p ? A They think.

t u B They have muscles.


C They grow.
^ _
D They chew.
UG
E They are made of cells.
TY
2 Complete these sentences by crossing out the wrong words.
a Magnification means to make a specimen look bigger/smaller.
b The magnification of your eyepiece lens is 10.
The magnification of your objective lens is 10.
The total magnification is 10/100.

3 Label the diagram of the animal cell and plant cell using these words.

nucleus cytoplasm cell wall

ne vacuole
chloroplast cell membra

nucleus
...........................................
vacuole
...........................................
cell wall
...........................................

cytoplasm
...........................................
cell membrane
...........................................

cytoplasm
...........................................
nucleus
...........................................

cell membrane
........................................... chloroplast
...........................................

animal cell plant cell

4 Draw lines to match each feature to its function (job) in a cell.


Feature Function
nucleus ● ● chemical changes happen here
cytoplasm ● ● makes food using light
cell wall ● ● controls what happens in the cell
chloroplast ● ● supports the cell
vacuole ● ● lets things in and out of the cell
cell membrane ● ● contains liquid to keep the cell firm
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Test yourself
Cells (continued) Answers
A
M 5 In the box, write ‘A’ if it’s an animal organ and ‘P’ if it’s a plant
organ. Then draw lines to match each organ to its function (job).
p ?
A or P Organ Function
t u
A heart ● ● takes in water and anchors the plant
^ _ male and female
P ● ● moves the body
UG organs in flower
A muscle ● ● pumps blood around the body
TY
P leaf ● ● makes the plant’s food

A tooth ● ● make seeds for reproduction

P root ● ● breaks up food

6 Complete these sentences by crossing out the wrong words.


a A tissue is made of lots of cells/organs.
b An organ is made of lots of tissues/keys.
c The outer layer of skin (epidermis) is a tissue/an organ.
d The heart is a cell/a tissue/an organ.
e A leaf is a tissue/an organ.

7 New cells are made by cell division. Which part of the cell divides
first during cell division? Circle the correct letter.
A cytoplasm B nucleus C cell membrane

8 Complete these sentences using


these words. You may use words pollen grain tube style
once, more than once or not at all.

stigma egg cell pollen cell nucleus

a Pollination happens when a pollen grain lands on the ...............................


stigma of another plant.
tube
b The pollen grain grows a ............................... which grows down through the style to the
ovary.
nucleus moves down the pollen tube into the ovary.
c The pollen grain ...............................

pollen ..............................
d When fertilisation happens in plants, the nucleus of a ............................... grain
egg
joins together with the nucleus of an ............................... cell
................................

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End of unit test
A Cells Green

M 1 The drawing shows a pond. Fish and


waterweed live in the pond.
p ?
Write out the two things below that
t u
both fish and waterweed do.
^ _ ● They both reproduce.
UG SS ● They both grow.
MS ET ● They both make their own food.
● They both eat. 2 marks

2 Farmer Giles wants his crop plants to reproduce more, and he


wants them to make more food. He waters them every night.

a Where are the plant organs that are involved in reproduction? 1 mark

b Which plant organ is involved in making food? 1 mark

c Through which organ does water enter a plant? 1 mark

d Insects carry pollen from one flower to another and leave it on


the stigma. Which of these words describes this process? 1 mark

n fertilisation excretion
pollinatio nutrition

3 a Jane drew this diagram of the body, but forgot


to finish labelling it. List each organ below with
its correct letter. 4 marks

skin stomach
muscle heart B
C

b Tissues are made up of cells. The diagram below A


shows a cell from an animal. List each part D
below with its correct letter. 3 marks

E
nucleus
cytoplas
m

F
brane
G cell mem

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End of unit test
A Cells (continued) Green

M 4 Scientists from the Natural History Museum


A B
spent 1996 in the Gobi Desert in Mongolia.
p ?
They found a group of fossilised cells, which
t u are shown in the picture opposite.
^ _ a Are these plant or animal cells? Explain
how you know this. 2 marks
UG SS
b Which part of the plant or animal might
MS
TN ET
these cells have come from? Explain your
answer. 2 marks
c Which group contains some cells that
have just divided? Explain how you
know. 2 marks
d Why do cells divide? 1 mark

5 a Colin was using a microscope. His teacher told him


that each space on this scale slide was equal to 0.1 mm.
i How many spaces are there across the scale slide? 1 mark
ii If each space is 0.1 mm, how many millimetres
does this scale slide measure across? 1 mark
not to scale
b Colin made this slide using the skin from inside an onion.
He stained it using iodine.
i How many cells does the black line cross? 1 mark
ii The black line measures 1 mm across. Estimate
the width of one onion cell. 1 mark
iii Why did Colin use iodine to stain the cells? 1 mark
not to scale

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End of unit test
A Cells Red

M 1 a Jane drew this diagram of the body, but forgot


to finish labelling it. List each organ below with
p ?
its correct letter. 4 marks
t u
skin stomach
^ _ muscle heart

UG SS B
C
b Tissues are made up of cells. The diagram below
MS ET shows a cell from an animal. List each part
A
below with its correct letter. 3 marks D

E
nucleus
cytoplas
m

F
brane
G cell mem

2 Scientists from the Natural History Museum A B


spent 1996 in the Gobi Desert in Mongolia.
They found a group of fossilised cells, which
are shown in the picture opposite.
a Are these plant or animal cells? Explain
how you know this. 2 marks
b Which part of the plant or animal might
these cells have come from? Explain your
answer. 2 marks
c Which group contains some cells that
have just divided? Explain how you know. 2 marks
d Why do cells divide? 1 mark

3 The drawing opposite shows a palisade cell from


a leaf. cellulose cell wall
cell membrane
a What is the function of a palisade cell? 1 mark
chloroplast
b Why does a palisade cell have: (contains
i chloroplasts? chlorophyll)
ii a cellulose cell wall? 2 marks vacuole
c Palisade cells are tall and thin. Explain why it is
nucleus
better for palisade cells to have this shape cytoplasm
rather than being short and fat. 1 mark
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End of unit test
A Cells (continued) Red

M 4 Bacteria and viruses can both cause diseases.


The diagrams show a bacterium and a virus.
p ?
Although the bacterium has no nucleus, it is
t u still called a cell because it has most of the
other features that cells have.
^ _
a Do you think the virus is a cell? 1 mark
UG SS
b Explain your answer. 1 mark virus
MS ET
bacterium

5 a Colin made this slide using the skin from inside an onion.
He stained it using iodine.
i How many cells does the black line cross? 1 mark
ii The black line measures 1 mm across.
Estimate the width of one onion cell. 1 mark
iii Why did Colin use iodine to stain the cells? 1 mark
not to scale
b In part a above the cells are at 100 magnification.
These are the same cells at a higher magnification.
The black line now measures 0.25 mm across.
i How many times bigger are the cells now? 1 mark
ii What is the magnification of the cells now? 1 mark

not to scale

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End of unit test
A Cells mark scheme

Green (NC Tier 2–5)


M
Question Answer Mark Level
p ?
1 They both reproduce. 1 2
They both grow. 1 2
t u
2 a In the flower 1 3
^ _ b Leaf (or stem) 1 3
c Root 1 3
UG SS
d Pollination 1 3
MS ET 3 a Stomach A 1 3
Heart B 1 3
Muscle C 1 4
Skin D 1 4
b Cytoplasm E 1 4
Nucleus F 1 4
Cell membrane G 1 4
4 a Plant cells 1 4
They have a cell wall or vacuole or chloroplasts. 1 4
b Leaf (or stem) 1 4
They have chloroplasts (to make food). 1 4
c Group A 1 5
Some cells are half the size of the others or smaller than the others. 1 5
d For growth or to repair tissues 1 5
5 a i 10 1 3
ii 1 mm 1 3
b i 10 1 4
ii 0.1 mm 1 4
iii To make them more visible 1 4

Scores in the range of: NC Level


4–7 2
8–13 3
14–17 4
18–25 5

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End of unit test
A Cells mark scheme

Red (NC Tier 3–6)


M
Question Answer Mark Level
p ?
1 a Stomach A 1 3
Heart B 1 3
t u
Muscle C 1 4
Skin D 1 4
^ _
b Cytoplasm E 1 4
UG SS Nucleus F 1 4
Cell Membrane G 1 4
MS ET 2 a Plant cells 1 4
They have a cell wall or vacuole or chloroplasts. 1 4
b Leaf (or stem) 1 4
They have chloroplasts (to make food). 1 4
c Group A 1 5
Some cells are half the size of the others or smaller than the others. 1 5
d For growth or to repair tissues 1 5
3 a To trap sunlight to make food 1 4
b i To make food 1 5
ii To support the cell 1 5
c The tall thin shape allows many cells to fit in a leaf.
Accept equivalent answers. 1 5
4 a No 1 6
b The virus does not have cytoplasm or a cell membrane or a nucleus. 1 6
(Two are required for the mark.)
5 a i 10 1 4
ii 0.1 mm 1 4
iii To make them more visible 1 4
b i Four times 1 5
ii 400 1 5

Scores in the range of: NC Level


4–8 3
9–14 4
15–18 5
19–25 6

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A Cells Pupil check list

M
Learning outcomes I can do I can do I need to
p ? this very this quite do more
well well work on this
t u

^ _ I can describe what a cell is.

UG I can describe the difference between


organs and tissues using my ideas of cells.

I can name at least three examples of


organs and tissues in plants and animals.

I can use a microscope to view cells.

I can identify and describe the main


differences between plant and animal cells.

I can name and recognise at least three


different types of cells.

I can describe how growth occurs by cells


dividing and increasing in size.

I can carry out a simple scaling-up or


scaling-down task.

I can plan an investigation into the growth


of pollen tubes and name the variables
I am working with.

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A Cells Glossary

M
Word Definition
p ?
animal cells A group of different tissues that work together to do a
t u job.
anther
^ _ carpel
A device that is used for looking at very small objects.
UG Tiny building blocks that make up all living things.
cell division
A group of similar cells that carry out the same job.
cell membrane
The job that something does. R
cell wall
A living thing, that carries out the processes of life. R
cells
A living thing that is made up of more than one cell is
cellulose
multicellular. R
chemical change
A living thing that is made up of only one cell is
chlorophyll unicellular. R
chloroplasts The cells in a leaf where photosynthesis takes place. R
cilia R The tissue in a leaf where the palisade cells are. R
ciliated epithelial cell R The outer tissue of human skin, or the upper and lower
layer of cells in a leaf. R
cytoplasm
To make something look bigger. R
egg cell
The building blocks that make up all animals. Animal
electron microscope R
cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus.
embryo plant R
The building blocks that make up all plants. Plant cells
epidermis R have a cell membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus, and
fertilisation also a cell wall, chloroplasts and a vacuole.

fruit R A thin layer that surrounds the cell and controls the
movement of substances in and out of the cell.
function R
A jelly-like substance found inside cells.
growth
A change that makes a new substance. Many chemical
magnify R changes are irreversible.
microscope The part of a cell that controls everything the cell
microscopic R does.

multicellular R The parts of a plant cell that carry out photosynthesis.

nucleus A green substance that is needed for photosynthesis.

organ A tough box-like wall around plant cells.


A tough stringy substance found in plant cell walls.

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A Cells (continued) Glossary

M Word Definition
p ? organism R A bag inside plant cells that contains a liquid which
t u keeps the cell firm.
ovary
^ _ A microscope that uses electrons instead of light. It
palisade cells R
makes things look very much larger. R
UG palisade mesophyll R
Something that can only be seen with a microscope is
petal microscopic. R
plant cells A cell that is adapted to carry out a particular function
pollen grains is specialised. R

pollen tube Tiny hairs on the outside of some types of cell. R

pollination A specialised type of cell with cilia on its surface. R

reproduction A group of microorganisms that are not made of cells


but reproduce inside other cells. Viruses cause disease.
scale diagram R
scale factor Increase in size. Organisms grow by increasing the
scaling down number of cells and increasing the size of the cells.

scaling up A cell splits into two to make more cells.

seed The female sex cell in an animal or plant. The egg cell
joins with the male sex cell in reproduction.
specialised R
A drawing that shows something bigger or smaller
stamens
than it really is.
stigma Making something bigger.
style Making something smaller.
tissue A number used in scale drawing. You multiply by the
unicellular R scale factor to scale something up. You divide by the
scale factor to scale it down.
vacuole
The part of the stamen in a flower that makes the
viruses R
pollen.
The male organs in a flower, that produce the pollen.
The female organ in a flower, that produces the egg
cells.
The part of a flower that is often colourful and attracts
insects.

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A Cells (continued) Glossary

M Definition
p ? The female organ in an animal or a plant, that makes
t u the egg cells.

^ _ The part of the carpel where the pollen grain lands.

UG The part of the carpel that holds up the stigma.


To make more organisms of the same species.
The male sex cell in a plant. A pollen grain joins with
an egg cell to make the seed.
The transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma in
plant reproduction.
A tube that grows from the pollen grain on the stigma,
down the style to the ovule, so that the pollen grain
nucleus can reach the egg cell.
In an animal, a sperm joining with an egg to make a
baby. In a plant, a pollen grain joining with an egg cell
to make an embryo plant.
A structure made in a flower, that contains the new
plant and a food store.
A new plant inside a seed ready to grow. R
A structure made in a flower, that contains the seed. It
is formed from the ovary. R

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A Cells Key words

M animal cells epidermis R pollen grains


anther fertilisation pollen tube
p ?
carpel fruit R pollination
t u cell division function R reproduction
cell membrane growth scale diagram
^ _
cell wall magnify R scale factor
UG cells microscope scaling down
cellulose microscopic R scaling up
chemical change multicellular R seed
chlorophyll nucleus specialised R
chloroplasts organ stamen
cilia R organism R stigma
ciliated epithelial cell R ovary style
cytoplasm palisade cells R tissue
egg cell palisade mesophyll R unicellular R
electron microscope R petal vacuole
embryo plant R plant cells viruses R
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A Cells Key words

animal cells epidermis R pollen grains


anther fertilisation pollen tube
carpel fruit R pollination
cell division function R reproduction
cell membrane growth scale diagram
cell wall magnify R scale factor
cells microscope scaling down
cellulose microscopic R scaling up
chemical change multicellular R seed
chlorophyll nucleus specialised R
chloroplasts organ stamen
cilia R organism R stigma
ciliated epithelial cell R ovary style
cytoplasm palisade cells R tissue
egg cell palisade mesophyll R unicellular R
electron microscope R petal vacuole
embryo plant R plant cells viruses R
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A Cells Book answers

M A1 Organs, cells, tissues Red


a The cell membrane controls what goes in and
Green
p ? a Heart
out of the cell.
b The cell wall and the vacuole.
b Leaves c A is an animal cell. It does not have a vacuole,
t u c i skin cell it does not have chloroplasts, it does not have a
ii skin
^ _ iii hand
cell wall; it does have cilia. B is a plant cell. It
has a large vacuole, it has chloroplasts and a
iv human
UG 1 Plants have many organs including stems,
cell wall.
1 a Similarities: cell membrane, nucleus,
leaves and roots. Each organ is made of layers cytoplasm.
called tissues. Each tissue is made up of cells. b Differences: vacuole, cell wall, chloroplasts.
The cells in a tissue are alike and do the same 2 a nucleus
job. b cell wall
2 Human, skin, outer layer of skin, skin cell. c vacuole
d chloroplast
Red e cell membrane
a i Various: lung, breathing; liver, controls f cytoplasm
tissue fluids; kidney, regulates water; etc. 3 a i Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which
ii Various: stem, support; petal, attracts traps light energy to make food for
insects; stigma, landing for pollen; etc. plant cells.
b The organ is the overall basic structure which ii Cilia are tiny hairs which help animal
provides a place to live; tissues are the parts cells to move.
making the organ, as the walls and roof; cells 4 Viruses have to be made inside a cell from
are like the bricks and roof tiles. another organism.
1 a An organ is made up of tissues. 5 Individual answers.
b A tissue is made of cells which are all alike.
c A cell is the basic living structure which
makes up tissues. A3 Cells and growth
2 a Organism, organ, tissue, cell.
b Plant, leaf, palisade mesophyll, palisade cell. Green
3 a Any seven from: skin, teeth, heart, kidney, a Twice
liver, lung, muscle, leaf, stem, stamen, b Cell division.
anther, stigma, ovary, root, style, petal. c It would disappear/die.
b Epidermis, upper epidermis, palisade 1 All cells are made from other cells. This is
mesophyll layer, spongy mesophyll layer, called cell division. Growth happens when
lower epidermis. more cells are made and the cells divide.
2 a two
b nucleus
A2 Building blocks c smaller
d they grow
Green 3 B, C, A
a i The cell membrane lets things in and out
of the cell. Red
ii The nucleus controls everything that a 8
happens inside the cell. b About 0.85 mm; width about 0.80 mm; both
b cytoplasm  0.05 mm.
c cellulose c The cell wall
d They contain chlorophyll. d It would disappear/die.
1 All cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm 1 a N, O, M
and a large nucleus. Plant cells also have a cell b Plant cells. The cell walls are easily visible.
wall and a large vacuole. Green plant cells c The nucleus
also have chloroplasts. d The nucleus contols the cell and contains all
2 a P and A b P the information to make sure the cell runs
c P and A d P and A properly.
e P f P e To make the parts of the cells more clearly
3 a nucleus seen.
b cell membrane f The cells grow in size.
c cytoplasm 2 a 32, 64, 128.
4 Individual answers. b 64
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A Book answers

M A4 Scaling up and down


Green
p ? a Individual answers.
b Name Picture height Real height
t u  scale factor in cm
Mrs Beetroot 4  40 160
^ _ Nick 3  40 120
Aileen 2  40 80
UG c Individual answers.
d Name Real height Scale factor Real height  Picture height
in cm scale factor in cm
Mrs Beetroot 160 20 160  20 8
Nick 120 20 120  20 6
Aileen 80 20 80  20 4
1 a Object Real measurement Picture measurement Scale factor
in cm in cm
length of car 300 10 30
length of pencil 20 2 10
b Object Real measurement Picture measurement Scale factor
in cm in cm
height of car 150 5 30
height of bicycle 80 4 20
2 Individual answers.

Red
a Individual answers.
b Name Picture height Real height
 scale factor in cm
Mrs Beetroot 4  40 160
Nick 3  40 120
Aileen 2  40 80
c Individual answers.
d Name Real height Scale factor Real height  Picture height
in cm scale factor in cm
Mrs Beetroot 160 20 160  20 8
Nick 120 20 120  20 6
Aileen 80 20 80  20 4
e Object Real height Picture height Real height  Scale factor
in cm in cm picture height
science book 30 3 10 10
house 800 40 20 20
TV 60 12 5 5
1 50  5 = 10
2 Object Real measurement Picture measurement Scale factor
in cm in cm
length of car 300 10 30
length of pencil 20 2 10
width of garden 600 12 50
3 Individual answers.

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A Book answers

M A5 Flower cells Red


a Bee or butterfly.
Green
p ? a i The anther makes pollen grains.
b Pollination is the process which puts pollen
grains on the stigma. Fertilisation is when the
ii The ovary makes egg cells. nucleus of a pollen grain joins with the nucleus
t u b Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from of an egg cell.
the anther of one plant to the stigma of another
^ _ plant.
c From photosynthesis in the leaves.
1 plant → bee → pollen grain → stamens →
c Bee or butterfly. pollination → carpel → pollen tube → egg cell
UG d A pollen tube. → fertilisation → embryo.
e In the ovary. 2 a Egg cells form the embryo plant. Pollen
f The nucleus of the male sex cell with the grains are the male sex cells.
nucleus of the female sex cell. b They join together to form a ‘full-sized’
1 anther – makes pollen grains nucleus.
ovary – makes eggs 3 After fertilisation, the ovule forms a seed with
petal – attracts bees the embryo plant inside it.
stigma – landing platform for pollen 4 The seed protects the embryo plant and
style – holds up stigma contains a food store for the plant.
2 Insects and wind.
3 The pollen grain grows a pollen tube. The
nucleus from the pollen grain travels down the
pollen tube to the ovary.

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