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Andrew Lee- Political Philosophy

Page 1 of 3, Hobbes
4/7/04- Hobbes- Foundations of Liberalism
1) Liberty is more fundamental to human beings than obligation
2) Government is limited in its scope/purposes. Liberty is fundamental in time/obligation, restraint. Derivative:
Prior act of human liberty
• Book III- Aristotle’s Politics: Sophist Licaphron: Protoliberal: 1. Defense; 2. Contracts
• Plato, Aristotle & Aquinas ~→ separating church/state
• Pg. 2- Religion-L, Sword-R= Unified; Ch. 111- Seeds of Religion
• Modern world is plagued or cursed by separation/tradition in politics- “5th, but 1st. the priests.”
• S. Thesis- Religion in the Prince
• Why problem? A2: 1) Broadest history, Christianity presents itself as an alternative authority ot the political society; 2)
1648- Waves of Religion; Pillars of politics, Treaties of Westphalia
• Locke: literally liberal, Toleration: Religion & Politics. Liberal solution: Tolerate all religions. Forbid necessity.
• Despot (Ch. 1-9)- Prepared by Machiavelli, prepare Hobbesian approach. Desire, loath, want , or abhor. Passions are the
key to human natures. Understand in their generality. ~the objects of the passions. Passion of hunger is well-known
• Mere nature w/ bad nature/world indeed. Life of man is solitary, poor nasty, brutish, and short. Foundation of order
always does of with more or less success in accordance with more nature.
• Strongest passions ~ desire to live/ Fear of Death, Fear of Violent Death. Fear of violent death= force of work/ problems.
• Eternal damnation vs. Changing world/imminent death- Religion is defined as a passion. Superstition, fear of a true power,
true religion. Eternal salvation vs. Eternal damnation.
• 3rd 4th party= Christian commonwealth. Thomas Hobbes ~ Thomas Aquinas- Greater fear→ religious freedom the greater
• 1st chapter- Human Nature; Natural science approach to human beings. Perception, Imagination and thinking. Materialist
→ deduction from natural science/ Ordinary introspection. ~ Reductively, Conveying semester to the object, categorize
• ~ Content, problem/relations. Inspect in yourself. The objects of change, but your laws are an absolute passion. ~
Machiavellian physics.
• Pg. 61- Table, Both lead to human affairs. Initial religion and political scientific divisions.

4/9/04- Hobbes- Naturalistic Approach

• Aristotle fully aware of passions; Practical reason/desire; you don’t act unless there is a passion involved.
• If you look at passions of humans, they win out much more above reason.
• The good that people seek is a consequence of their passions.
• Passions of humans differ- the good is too variable to be the basis for any argument as to how one should live.
• Hobbes proposes to look elsewhere for the good.
• Chaps. 10-13: We live in political orders and thus the solution will rest on passion but you find this solution only through
• Fundamental difference between Hobbes and Aristotle: Man is by nature a political animal; not true according to Hobbes
• Hobbes- Ch. 13- state of nature (Pg. 89)- Hobbes says nature dissociates man (the opposite of Aristotle)→ he looks at
human beings along with politics and political communities
• Hobbes is an innovation: Hobbes suggests that men by nature are enemies, not fellow citizens. The other alternative is
what interests Hobbes.
• Human beings are constantly plotting against one another. The new mechanistic science is to resolve things into their
simplest elements and then try to compose it once again into its complicated whole- and in hopes of better understanding
• Hobbes approach: Deconstruct the political structure so that one would ask: How could one build a political community
by breaking it down to its parts. The various holes of each part are unsatisfactory.
• For Hobbes, nature gives you a solitary life, etc.→ You want to conquer and overcome nature. Lens example, conquest of
nature (Hobbes) or remedying the shortcomings (Aristotle).
• Ch. 10- Power (the topic of politics?). On one hand, your power rules but on the other hand that is why political science is
less scientific.
• What is power? Present means to obtain some future greater good. $ is power, so are friends, reputations, nobility
• If you look to economics as more scientific there is no impressive method of methodically categorizing political science.
Andrew Lee- Political Philosophy
Page 2 of 3, Hobbes
• What is the greatest human power? When many people unite and coordinate together to make something. Whatever you
may want, we all pursue power for that sake.
• Power emerges as the central concept; the notion of honor is directly influenced by power. Pg. 66- “nor does it alter the
case of honor.” Hobbes evokes ancient polytheism; aggress with much- if you fail, they will hate you, but if you succeed,
they will obey, etc.
• Ch. 11- Differences of manners; manners or morals (picking your teeth); the big stuff- qualities of mankind that concern
their living together in peace and unity.
• Pg. 70- “the felicity of life…” know can there be a final good or highest good. Complete response, there is no end;
continual movement from one thing to the other.
• To aim for an unlimited amount of power is madness; when you are dad, you have zero power. Zero power= death=
greatest evil.

4/16/04- Hobbes Solution to Ch. 13

• Ch. 13- Passions dominate over rational considerations; equality to bodily faculties and equality of minds
• ~Highest good of decathlon, forget about good and talk about highest evil. Capacity to murder=equal. Great difference in
strengths. Greatest of powers- uniting under one will. Thus, we are equal.
• Mental capacity (Descartes’ discourse on method); prudence from experience/time. ↑equal= vain conceit. Men=
witty/eloquent learned. Wit at hand at a distance.
• Competititon= diffidence→ fear from equality, deepest problem with Hobbes. We could allg et along→ peaceful anarchy.
Contemplating acts of conquest.
• Honor- be the case for mere defense and security. Anarchic egalitarian peace, war of all against all.
• War of all against all- ~justice/~injustice: War of all against all. Combo of certain passions to peace, accumulation of
property. Laws of nature. Combo of certain passions to peace, accumulation of property. Laws of nature.
Hobbes Classics
Liberty- free to do by Right Jus Droit
Obligation- general Law Lex Loi
precept found by reason
→ Preserve life; law of
• General Rule (92)- Endeavor peace, all helps/advantage of war. Only hope of attaining peace.
• Hobbes- good→ peace= preservation
• Basic thing= limited government; State of nature= equal rights→ Peace; Limit/restrict those rights, surrender rights= must
have all do it correctly & must make it equal
• Keep promise= oaths; make or break the work, oaths ~ sufficient- keeping agreements with covenants. Agreement=
perform fist→ problem.
• Get out of war= exchange of rights= afford covenants. Power dedicated to enforcing covenants. Initial covenant by power
→ CH. 17.
• Ch. 17- Legislative principal- prior covenant makes invalid a later covenant. Sovereignty, first covenant that can bind.
Covenant= legal fictitious problem (Pg. 120), brand= power enforcing real power.
• Artificial will- natural individual, Assembly= natural individual. If you are sovereign, enforce covenants→ Leviathon.
Sovereign= judge best.
• Covenant with each other→ monarch; ~ covenant with monarch. Sovereign ~ monarch. Sovereign only has power given
by nature. Sovereign ~ do any injustice to you because under obligation under god and to you.

4/14/04- Natural Law

• Hobbes/Aristotle= politics/morality are inseparable. Politics= act, morality= way to act.
1) Hobbes- Natural ~ Laws in a strict sense. By nature ~ enforcement= ~laws. Theorem of Reason, honoring
surpassing beyond out grasp.
2) In state of nature, outght to do? Obey the law of nature? Leviathon- King over all children w/ pride. ~ Higher than
position. Promote peace & unity over humankind. Self-interest to obey the law. Duty & interest= synthesis.
• 4th Natural law= gratitude, keeping covenants, give someone something. Hobbes- moral point of view.
• 9th law against pride- Ch. 15 (Pg. 107)- appeals to our sense of inequality. Teaches you how to live. Steals out above the
ordinary. ~Natural inequalities. Notice of excelling. Every man acknowledges his equality by nature.
Andrew Lee- Political Philosophy
Page 3 of 3, Hobbes
• Aristotle- “Man by nature political.” Hobbes- “Man ~poltiical.” Aristotle transcends political- higher states by which we
judge political orders. ~ Begin political order. Entirety=subordinated.
• Only for sake of political outcome. Blameworth pride. Desperately needs to be political. Levels of excellence achieved.
• Political unity= enforcement. 1) Sovereign creation; 2) Disorder & ~Unity= order; enforcement
• Sovereign= natural person? Three vs. 6- democracy, aristocracy.
• Ch. 18- Rights of sovereign. Several kinds of commonwealth by institution.
• Acting well- two meanings, obliged under God to enter laws of society. Why pass unnecessary laws?
• Rights of sovereignty- Promote unity & peace, avsence of x= union.
• Difference of doctrine= sovereign present problems
• Inalienable rights- 5th amendment right. Right to self-preservation.
• Pgs. 147-148- Liberty= laws pass over. Liberty→ predeteminate- buy and sell, dictator and trader alike. Left unregulated
by sovereign.