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Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

𝜎𝑦 𝑜𝑟 𝑢
𝜎𝑑 =
𝐹𝑆

Cylindrical

Figure Section:Stress Formula With Joint Efficiency


Longitudinal Section:
(Transverse, Girth, 𝑃𝐷 𝑃𝐷
Hoop, Circumferential, 𝜎𝑡 = 𝜎𝑑 =
Radial, Tangential 2𝑡 2𝑡𝜖
Stress)
Diametral, Transverse
Section: 𝑃𝐷 𝑃𝐷
Longitudinal Stress 𝜎𝑡 = 𝜎𝑑 =
4𝑡 4𝑡𝜖

Spherical

𝑃𝐷 𝑃𝐷
𝜎𝑡 = 𝜎𝑑 =
4𝑡 4𝑡𝜖

Elliptical

Long
𝑃𝐷𝑑 𝑃𝐷𝑑
𝜎𝑡 = 𝜎𝑡 =
2𝑡(𝐷 + 𝑑) 2𝑡(𝐷 + 𝑑)𝜖

𝑃𝐷 𝑃𝐷
𝜎𝑡 = 𝜎𝑡 =
4𝑡 4𝑡𝜖

𝜋𝐷𝑑 2
∗ 𝑉 𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑝𝑠𝑒 =
6
Max. amount of like CO2 in mass can a vessel support at a given pressure:
P is Absolute
If English: °R = °F + 460
Members in Compression Columns

𝐿𝑒
Slenderness ratio, 𝑆𝑅 =
𝑟

Le – 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ = 𝑘𝐿, where L – actual length of the member/distance between support

𝐼
𝑟 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑦𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = √
𝐴

End Fixity, k, or End Restraint Coefficient


Ends k

P-P 1.0

F-F 0.5

F-P 0.7

F-FR 2.0

P, pinned F, fixed FR, free


𝐿𝑒
Category I, < 30
𝑟

Failure Profile Formula

𝐹
Strength 𝜎𝑑 = 𝜎𝑐 =
𝐴

𝐹𝐿
Deformation 𝛿=
𝐸𝐴

𝐿𝑒
Category II, 𝑟
> 30

Failure Profile is BUCKLING

𝐿𝑒
SHORT if < 𝐶𝑐
𝑟

𝜎𝑦 𝐿𝑒 2
𝐹𝑐𝑟 = 𝜎𝑦 𝐴 [1 − ]
4𝐸𝜋 2 𝑟 2
𝜎𝑦 𝐿𝑒 2
JB Johnson Formula = 𝜎𝑦 𝐴 [1 − ( ) ]
4𝐸 𝜋𝑟
𝜎𝑦 𝑆𝑅 2
= 𝜎𝑦 𝐴 [1 − ( ) ]
4𝐸 𝜋

𝐿𝑒
LONG if 𝑟
> 𝐶𝑐

𝜋 2 𝐸𝐴
Euler 𝐹𝑐𝑟 =
𝐿 2
( 𝑒)
𝑟

2𝜋 2 𝐸
𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡, 𝐶𝑐 = √
𝜎𝑦
𝐶𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑, 𝐹𝑐𝑟 = 𝐹 ∙ 𝐹𝑆
𝐹 = 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
Least radius of gyration, r
Solid cylinder
𝑑
𝑟=
4

Hollow cylinder
√𝐷 2 + 𝑑2
𝑟=
4
Impact Loading

Free-falling body

2𝑘ℎ
𝑃 = 𝑊 [1 + √1 + ]
𝑊

A. Axially Loaded
Members
(Tensile or Compression)

𝑃𝐿 𝐸𝐴
𝛿= 𝑘=
𝐸𝐴 𝐿

B. Transversely Loaded
Member
Cantilever Member (Load at the
free-end)

𝑃𝐿3 3𝐸𝐼
𝑀 = 𝑃𝐿 𝛿= 𝑘=
3𝐸𝐼 𝐿3

Simply Supporting Member


(Load at the center)

𝑃𝐿 𝑃𝐿3 48𝐸𝐼
𝑀= 𝛿= 𝑘=
4 48𝐸𝐼 𝐿3

Member of Fixed Ends


192𝐸𝐼
𝑃𝐿 𝑃𝐿3 𝑘=
𝑀= 𝛿= 𝐿3
8 192𝐸𝐼