What is HDL?

 hardware description language describes hardware of digital systems in textual form.  One can design any hardware at any level

the

 Simulation of designs before fabrication  With the advent of VLSI, it is not possible to verify a complex design with millions of gates on a breadboard, HDLs came into existence to verify the functionality of these circuits.

Most Commonly used HDLs
 Verilog
 Verilog HDL is commonly used in the US industry.

Major digital design companies in Pakistan use Verilog HDL as their primary choice.  most commonly used in the design, verification, and implementation of digital logic chips
 VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware
description language)  VHDL is more popular in Europe.  commonly used as a design-entry language for field-

programmable gate arrays. Field-Programmable Gate Array is a type of logic chip that can be programmed.

Verilog Simulator
There are many logic simulators used for Verilog HDL. Most common are: Xilinx Veriwell Model Sim For Beginners Veriwell is good choice and is very user friendly. Xilinx and ModelSim are widely used.

Levels of Abstraction
There are four different levels of abstraction in verilog:
Behavioral /Algorithmic Data flow Gate level Switch level.

We will cover Gate level, Data flow and Behavioral Level modeling

Getting started…
A verilog program for a particular application consists of two blocks
Design Block (Module)
Testing Block (Stimulus)

Design Block
Design Methodologies:
Two types of design methodologies  Top Down Design  Bottom Up Design

inputs

Design Block

outputs

Top Down Design
In Top Down design methodology, we define the top level block and identify the sub-blocks necessary to build the top level block. We further divide the sub-block until we come to the leaf cells, which are the cells which cannot be divided.

Bottom Up Design
In a Bottom Up design methodology, we first identify the building blocks , we build bigger blocks using these building blocks. These cells are then used for high level block until we build the top level block in the design

EXAMPLE
FOUR BIT ADDER (Ripple carry adder)

Module Representation
Verilog provides the concept of module
A module is a  Basic Building block in Verilog  Basic Building block in Verilog  It can be a single element or collection of lower design blocks

A verilog code starts with module Syntax: module <module-name>(inputs, outputs); //Define inputs and outputs Every verilog program starts with the ………… keyword module and ends with the keyword ………… endmodule ………… endmodule

Input Output Definition
 Once the module is defined at the start the inputs and

outputs are to be defined explicitly. e.g.
 input a , b

//means there are 2 inputs of one bit each

 If input or output is more than 1 bit i.e. two or more bits,

then the definition will be:
input [3:0] A, B; output [3:0] C; //4 bit inputs A3-A0 and B3-B0

Levels of Abstraction

Gate Level Modeling
In gate level modeling a circuit can be defined by use of logic gates. These gates predefined in verilog library. The basic gates and their syntax is as follows: and gate_name(output, inputs); or gate_name(output, inputs); not gate_name (output, inputs); xor gate_name(output, inputs); nor gate_name(output, inputs); nand gate_name(output, inputs); xnor gate_name(output, inputs);

Data Flow Modeling
Continuous assignment statement is used. Keyword assign is used followed by = Most common operator types are
Operator Types Operator Symbol Arithmetic * / + ~ & | ^ ^~ or ~^ >> << {} Operation performed Multiply Divide Add Subract Bitwise negation Bitwise and Bitwise or Bitwise xor Bitwise xnor Shift right Shift left Concatenation Number of Operands Two Two Two two One Two Two Two two Two Two Any number

Bitwise Logical

Shift

Concatenation

Conditional

?:

Conditional

three

Examples
1. assign x = a + b;

2. assign y = ~ x ;
3. assign y = a & b; 4. assign w = a ^ b;

5. assign y = x >> 1;
6. assign y = {b, c};

// y=x’ // y= ab //y= a b //shift right x by 1 //concatenate b with c

e.g. b = 3’b101, c =3’b 111 y = 101111 assign {cout , sum} = a + b + cin; //concatenate sum and cout 7. assign y = s ? b : a // 2×1 multiplexer when s = 1 , y = b when s = 0 , y = a assign y = s1 ? ( s0 ? d : c ) : ( s0 ? b : a ); // 4×1 MUX

Module Instantiation
 Module instantiation is a process of connecting one module to another.  For example in a test bench or stimulus the top level design has to be instantiated

Testing Block (Stimulus)
 In order to test your circuit a test bench code is to be written which is commonly called Stimulus.  The design block has to be instantiated/called  It displays the output of the design based on the inputs.

Example
2- Input AND Gate

The Design and Stimulus blocks will be as follows:

Design Block
1)Gate Level Modeling
module practice (y, a, b); //module definition input a, b; // inputs(by default it takes 1 bit input output y; // one bit output and gate_1(y, a, b) ; endmodule

2) Data Flow Modeling
module practice (y, a, b); input a, b; output y; assign y = a & b; endmodule //module definition // by default it takes 1 bit input // one bit output

Stimulus Block
module stimulus; reg a, b; wire y; //Instantiate the practice module practice p0(y, a, b); initial begin a=0; b=0; #5 a=1; b=1; #5 a=0; b=1; #5 a=1; b=0; #5 a=1; b=1; #5 $stop; // stop the simulation #5 $finish; // terminate the simulation end initial begin $display("|%b| and |%b| = ", a, b); $monitor ($time, "|%b |" , y); end //initial //$vw_dumpvars; // display the
simulation in the form of timing diagram

endmodule

4 bit ripple carry adder

Example #2:

Full Adder

Bottom Level module
//Define a full adder module fulladder (sum, c_out, a, b, c_in);
//I/O Port declaration

//full adder logic configuration xor ( s1,a,b); and (c1,a,b); xor (sum,s1,c_in); and (c2,s1,c_in);
or (c_out,c2,c1); endmodule

output sum, c_out; input a, b, c_in;
//Internal nets wire s1, c1, c2;

TOP LEVEL MODULE
//Define a 4 bit 4 adder module toplevel_fa(sum,c_out,a,b,c_in); //I/O port declaration output [3:0] sum; output c_out; input [3:0] a, b; input c_in; //internal nets wire c1,c2,c3; //Instantiate four 1-bit full adder fulladder fa0(sum[0],c1,a[0],b[0],c_in); fulladder fa1(sum[1],c2,a[1],b[1],c1); fulladder fa2(sum[2],c3,a[2],b[2],c2); fulladder fa3(sum[3],c_out,a[3],b[3],c3); endmodule

Test Bench (stimulus)
//define stimulus toplevel module module stimulus;

reg [3:0]a,b; //set up variables reg c_in; wire [3:0] sum; wire c_out;
//Instantiate the toplevelmodule(ripple carry adder) call it tl toplevel_fa tl(sum,c_out,a,b,c_in);

//stimulate inputs initial begin a = 4'b0000; b = 4'b0010; c_in = 1'b0; #1 $display (“ a = %b, b = %b, c_in = %b, sum = %b", a, b, c_in, sum);
a = 4'd1; b = 4'd2; c_in = 1'b1; #2$display (“ a = %b, b = %b, c_in = %b, sum = %b", a, b, c_in, sum); a = 4'hf; b = 4'ha; c_in = 1'b0; #2$display (“ a = %b, b = %b, c_in = %b, sum = %b", a, b, c_in, sum); end endmodule

Verilog Keywords
 Verilog uses about 100 predefined keywords. All the

keywords are represented in colored font (either green, blue or red). if it is not shown in a colored font it means there must be some typing error. semicolon(;) except for the statements (keywords) like initial, begin, always, if, for, while etc… lower case.

 All the verilog statements are terminated with a

 Verilog is case sensitive i.e. the keywords are written in

Continued……
 Most common keywords are

module, endmodule input, output wire, reg $display, $print, $monitor always, for, while, if initial, begin and, or, not, xor, xnor, nard, nor posedge , negedge, clock, reset, case $vw_dumpvars, $stop, $finish  Single line comment is given by // ( two consecutive slash) and multi-line comment is given by /*……… */ for e.g // This is the first session of verilog /* this is the first session of verilog*/

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful