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NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES #13

1. Single-Wire And Wireless Electric Power Transmission. N.V. Kosinov and others (Ukraine)
2. The possibility of almost complete transformation of thermal energy into mechanical one. S.N.
Doonaevsky (Russia)
3. Inventor Club. Review. Vector Propulsion Engine (Electromagnetic Version). A. S. Tukanov (Russia)
4. Inertial Dynamic Generator. S.N. Schmidt (Russia)
5. Latent Potential Energy of Electrical Field. V.D. Dudyshev (Russia)
6. News
7. Energy from Air. M.P. Beshok (Russia)
8. A Parade of Gravitational Aircrafts. V.A. Chernobrov (Russia)
9. Energy from vacuum. Review
10. Meeting of Nobel Prize Laureates in Saint Petersburg
11. Perpetual Motor With Magnetic Control Elements. Review
12. Who Needs The Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion? I.B. Kalugin (Russia)
13. Fuel cells. Edwin Cartlidge (USA)
14. Free Energy. Thomas F. Valone (USA)
15. Secrets of Nicola Tesla’s Experiments. S.S. Makukhin (Russia)
16. Alternative Cold. Review
17. High-Efficiency Technology of Magnetic Cooling. E.N. Tishina (Russia)
18. News
19. Interference Disc Electric Generator. Alan L. Francoeur (anonce of the future article) (Canada)
20. Howard Johnson and his Motor. Review
21. Bogomolov's Centrifugal Generator. V.I. Bogomolov (Russia)
22. News
23. Magnetic Motor. A.V. Vydrin (Russia)
24. Anomalous Hydrogen Reactor “Omega”
25. Gravitational Shielding. Harald Chmela (Austria)
26. Conception of Magnetic Gas
N.V. Kosinov, V.I. Garbaruk, Ukraine
E-mail: kosinov@unitron.com.ua

Single-Wire Electric resistor (L) of 2~5 MOhm to the transmission line


Power Transmission does not cause any considerable changes in
operation of the circuit [1]. In the article [2] the
The idea of single-wire electric power transmission authors assume that the efficiency of the device
has become especially attractive to many depends on the material which is used for the
researchers after a demonstration of single-wire AC windings of a generator (M ). Therefore they
transmission made by S.V. Avramenko [1] at the believe it is necessary to check expediency of
Moscow Scientific-Research Institute of Electrical using nickel, iron, lead, etc. wires to make the
Engineering. Editor’s: We have already written windings. At the same time, one of the authors of
about similar investigations in our previous issues. the article [2] considers their line to be
The story began more than 100 years ago with superconducting [3, 4].
Tesla’s experiments.

Our Experiments on Single-Wire


Electric Power Transmission

The authors of this article carried out a number


of experiments on power transmission using
Fig. 1 single-wire lines. To that end we developed a new
single-wire power transmission circuit. In our
Single-wire power transmission circuit circuit there was no “Avramenko plug”. Instead
by Avramenko[1] of an “Avramenko plug” we used an ordinary
bridge circuit. In our experiments the bridge
At the heart of the device there is “Avramenko plug” circuit turned out to be much more efficient than
representing two sequence semiconductor diodes “Avramenko plug”. Moreover, we made some
(Fig.1). If the plug is connected to a wire under AC other changes into Abramenko’s circuit. Our
voltage, then after a time in a discharger P there is circuit is presented in Fig.2. The transmitting unit
observed a run of sparks. The time gap from consists of a generator and a transformer. The
connection to discharging depends on the values circuit diagram of the transmitting unit is shown
of capacity (C), voltage, frequency of pulsation and in Fig.2 (to the right of the transformer).
the size of the air gap (P). The connection of a

Fig. 2

Single-wire power transmission by a new circuit


Figures in the circuit diagram (Fig.2) denote the transmission line can considerably affect the degree
following: 1 – Generator, 2 – Extender of spectrum, of glow of the lamp. Our circuit of single-wire
3 – “Antenna”. The general view of the device is power transmission has two independent lines
shown in Fig.3. with different frequency spectra. The first line has
a narrow-band frequency spectrum and the second
line – a wideband one. In the first line the circuit
closes at the free end of the secondary winding of
the transformer through an antenna (3) (Fig.2). The
capacitor, spectrum expander and incandescent
lamp form the second line.

Fig. 3 Experiments with Burnt-Out


Incandescent Lamps
General view of the device to demonstrate
single-wire power transmission Both good and burnt-out lamps glow in the above-
described experiments on single-wire power
Electric energy is supplied to the device from a DC transmission. Results of the experiments with the
power source B5-47 providing voltage of 0-30 V. burnt-out lamps are presented below.
An incandescent lamp of 220 V, 25Wt serves as
load. The generator and transformer are enclosed There is a break of a filament of the incandescent
into a dielectric casing. The components of a power lamp (Fig. 5). This photo was taken while the device
receiver (diodes, capacitor, lamp, elements 2 and was switched off.
3) are placed in a plastic casing under the lamp
(Fig.3). The power receiver is connected to the
transformer with one wire.

The intensity of glow of the lamp depends on the


generator power. The lamp of 220 V, 25Wt is almost
fully incandesced when high output voltage of the
power supply is within the range of 16~18 V (Fig.4).

Fig. 5

Fig. 4 A burnt-out lamp of 220 V, 60 Wt before the experiment

Glow of the lamp at high voltage of power supply B5-47 Fig. 6 is a photo taken during the experiment.
in the single-wire power transmission line You can see a glowing filament and a bright
spark in the break point of the filament. Neither
The key points in increasing the efficiency of our connection of a resistor to the transmission line
circuit in comparison with Avramenko’s circuit are nor using a conductor of high specific resistance
that we used an entire standard bridge circuit and as the transmission line could considerably
not just a half of it. Besides there was used a reduce the incandescence of the filament. The
spectrum expander. The load does not impede full degree of incandescence of the filament
charging of the capacitor since the spectrum depends substantially on the size of a gap in the
expander was used in the circuit. Neither break point of the filament. The experiments
connection of a resistor to the transmission line nor revealed that there was an optimal size of the
using a conductor of high specific resistance as a burnt-out section when the incandescence of the
residual filament was maximal integrity of the filament the lamp had been
glowing on before the circuit broke in one more
point. This phenomenon occurs in most cases
when incandescent lamps burn out in the circuit
of 220V and 50Hz.

For one of the experiments we connected


standard incandescent lamps of 220V, 60Wt to
the secondary winding of a step-up transformer.
At idle running voltage of the transformer was
about 300V. In the experiment there were used
20 incandescent lamps. It turned out that the
incandescent lamps burn out mostly in two or
more points. Moreover, not only the filament, but
also the conductive wires inside of the lamp were
burnt out. In addition, after the first break in
Fig. 6 circuit the lamps went on glowing for a long time
and even more intensively than before the
Glow of a burnt-out incandescent lamp of 220 V, 60 Wt burnout. A lamp had been glowing on up to the
moment when one more subcircuit burnt out. The
Practically each of us meets the glow of burnt-out internal circuit of one of the lamps in our
lamps even without knowing it. For that it will be experiment was broken in four points! Moreover,
enough just to examine a burned-out lamp closely. the filament burnt out in two points and, in
Rather often you can notice that the internal addition to the filament, the both electrodes
circuit of an incandescent lamp burns out in more inside the lamps were burnt out as well. Results of
than one point. It is obvious that probability of the experiment are presented in Table 1.
burnout of the filament of a lamp in several points
at a time is negligible. It means that on losing the

Table 1
Quantity of Quantity of Quantity of Quantity of Quantity of Quantity of
lamps used lamps with lamps with lamps with lamps with lamps with
in the one burned- two burned- three burned- four burned- five burned-
experiment out point out points out points out points out points

20 8 8 3 1 0

Experiments on Wireless Electric receiver and contained an electronic unit and a DC


Power Transmission electric motor IDR-6. In Fig. 7 you can see the general
view of our wireless power transmission device.
Many scientists all over the world work at solution of
the problem of wireless power transmission. Mostly
there are studied microwave fields used for the
purpose of wireless power transmission. However,
the applied microwave systems are not harmless to
the man [5]. We present the information on our
experiments on realization of wireless power
transmission without using the microwave field. We
studied probability to transmit power to an electric
motor without use of wires.

The system, which consisted of a power supply B5-47, Fig. 7


a generator and a transformer, was used in our
experiments as a transmitter. A special receiving unit General view of the device for demonstration of wireless
for wireless power transmission served as a power power transmission
The electric motor is mounted onto a conductive the motor was sharply rising, if the electric motor
platform, which in its turn stands on a casing made was in hands of two experimenters.
of insulating material (Fig. 8). There is an electronic
unit inside the casing.

Fig. 10

Acceleration of rotation of the motor

Fig. 8
Experiments that demonstrate
Receiver for demonstration of wireless how an incandescence lamp can
power transmission glowin the experimenter’s hand

The electronic unit fills little space inside the casing It is a common phenomenon when a gas-
of the receiver and it is made on a printed board. discharge lamp glows in the researcher’s hand at
In Fig. 9 there is presented the interior part of the using of alternating electromagnetic field. It is
receiver. It is designed for wireless power unusual that an incandescent lamp can glow in
transmission. the investigator’s hand when only one wire is
connected to the lamp. Undoubtedly, a glowing
filament of the lamp, which an experimenter
holds in hands, can excite interest only in the case
when there are no two wires connected to the
lamp. It is known that Nicola Tesla demonstrated
a glowing lamp that he was holding in his hand.
We have not managed to find a description of
that experiment, so we have developed our own
designs. We have carried out experiments that
show how an incandescence lamp can glow in
the experimenter’s hand. The results of these
experiments are presented below. In Fig.11a and
Fig.11b you can see variants of the device for
demonstration of glow of a 220V incandescent
Fig. 9 lamp.

Interior part of the receiver for demonstration of


wireless power transmission

When the transmitter switched on there was


observed rotation of the electric motor, which
the experimenter held in his hands. Neither the
electric motor nor platform was connected to
the transmitter. And there were no power
supplies inside the casing where the platform and
motor were enclosed. When the distance
between the receiver and transmitter diminished
the speed of rotation of the electric motor Fig. 11 a
increased. In Fig.10 you can see a fragment of the
experiment when the frequency of rotation of
Fig. 11 b Fig. 13

In the experiments demonstrating how an Glow of an incandescence lamp of 220V, 25Wt


incandescent lamp glows in the researcher’s hand
we used neither “Avramenko plug” nor receiving In the lower part of the photos (Fig. 12 and
units for demonstration of single-wire and wireless Fig. 13) you can see a conductor, which is
power transmission. The lamp in the connected to the generator with one wire. Only one
experimenter’s hand glows due to applying contact of the lamp cap touches the conductor. The
electronic units and due to design philosophy of other contact remains non-connected. Thus the
the devices. lamp and the generator are connected with a single
wire.
Fig. 12 and 13 represent close-up photographs
where you can see glowing of the lamps of 220V,
15Wt and of 220V, 25Wt that the experimenter
holds in his hands. At that the lamps are not
connected to the closed circuit. The higher voltage
supplied to the generator, the more intensive was
the glow. For the sake of the experiment’s safety
we supplied to the generator voltage that made
lamps glow at about their half incandescence.

Fig. 14

Authors while making ready their experiment


on single-wire power transmission

Fig. 15
Fig. 12
Authors while making ready their experiment on
Glow of an incandescence lamp of 220V, 15Wt wireless power transmission
Perhaps experiments on power transmission by References
Nicola Tesla were somehow similar to the
experiments carried out by us. At any rate the 1. “Avramenko Resonance”
experiments prove that single-wire and wireless http://www.skif.biz/energy/arhiv1-3.shtml
power transmission has real perspectives. 2. N.E. Zaev, S.V. Avramnko, V.N. Lisin,
“Conduction Current Test, Activated by
Polarization Current”. Magazine of Russian
In Fig. 14 you can see a photograph of the authors Physical Thought #2,1991.
while making ready the experiment on single-wire 3. IR (“Inventor and Rationalizer” Magazine) #10,
power transmission. 1994, pp. 8-9.
4. http://ufo.knet.ru/proekt/00500/00100.htm
In Fig. 15 you can see a photograph of the authors 5. N.V. Kosinov. “Vacuum Energy”.
while making ready the experiment on wireless “Future Century Energy” Magazine #1, 1998,
power transmission. pp. 28-31

Samuil N. Doonaevsky, Russia


Email: sn_doonaevsky@mail.ru

There is a description of thermodynamic cycle of a heat motor with heterogeneous working body. This cycle
allows completely transforming a thermal energy into mechanical one. The proof of existence of the cycle
and its characteristics is a logic consequence of the first law of thermodynamics. By means of realizing of
the cycle it will be possible to create new types of heat motors, which have qualitative advantages in
comparison with the known ones. The said advantages are possibilities either to almost completely transform
high-temperature heat, which appears as a result of combustion of fuel, to the useful work or to do such
work by transforming free heat, which is taken off the matter of environment.

Introduction • efficiency of these processes is less than that


of Carno cycle for a used temperature interval;
The main method to transform thermal energy
into energy of other types is using of heat motors • these processes can not be applied for
(engines), which implement any of closed transformation of free heat, which is contained
thermodynamic processes (cycles). For in the ambient matter.
functioning of such devices the presence of two
thermal vessel s with different temperatures of the Use of the invention under the Russian Federation
heater and the cooler of a working body of a heat patent [1] will allow to implement the process of
motor is required. transformation of heat, which is free from
specified restriction. Federal Institute of the
In all known heat motors ambient matter is used industrial property (FIIP) has included the
as a cooler. Therefore the doing of a useful work invention in the list of p rospective Russian
by known methods is possible only as a result of projects [2].
transformation of high-temperature heat which
is created by combustion of fuel. There is offered the method to do useful work by
means of realization of the closed thermodynamic
The main features of known thermodynamic cycle, wherein at some stages matter of the
processes, used for the transformation of heat into working body changes its aggregative state
other types of energy are as follows: creating heterogeneous system, consisting of
equilibrium of liquid phases and saturated law of thermodynamics.
vapor.
Let us note that this proof reveals the
In the offered method the working body does contradiction which exists between the first
useful work in the process of adiabatic law of thermodynamics and some known
expansion from initial state in the cycle at formulations of the second law. At that there is
temperature of the heater up to achieving the revealed the logical incompatibility between
state with minimum temperature of the cycle (at both laws and necessity to explain this
this temperature density of the liquid phase of a incompatibility. As the first law of
working body is equal to initial one). The thermodynamics, being the law of conservation
processes of return of some parts of the working of energy, should not be called in question (as
body into an initial thermodynamic state are well as all its consequences), then there is a
various for matter of each phase: conclusion on the necessity to improve some
formulations of the second law and to accept
• The matter of liquid phase has to be the fact that these formulations have the
returned in an initial state in the process of restricted domain of applicability. The
isochoric heating, by transferring heat from question how to resolve the contradiction
the heater to the matter; remains unclosed and does not concern the
essence of the invention (the offered method).
• The matter of vapor phase has to be
returned in an initial state by the adiabatic Realization of the possibility to make the device
compression up to achievement an initial which can do useful work by using
temperature, by restitution the heat exchange (conversion) heat energy taken off the matter
between compressed matter and the heater, of environment will allow to create new kind
by the isothermal compression up to an of sources of free mechanical energy which are
initial density at transferring of heat from the the most economical and ecologically safe.
matter to the heater.
The advantages of such devices before other
Such realization of the cycle excludes any contact known sources of free energy (hydraulic, wind,
of working body with the cooler (with solar, geothermal etc.) are as follows:
environment) as well as transferring heat from
the working body to it. Due to that, the complete • greater specific power (per unit of volume);
quantity of heat, received in the described cycle
by working body from the heater, equals the done • working capacity does not depend on
work and is non-zero. Thus realization of this external conditions (geographical, weather,
cycle will ensure transformation of heat into time etc.).
mechanical work with some output which is
theoretically equals 1. The obtained estimations of achievable useful
power give the reason to consider it
The offered cycle can be realized in a appropriate to use the offered devices in
temperature interval, which upper bound will different fields of engineering. Each user by
be in the region of temperatures, which are using these devices to satisfy demand for
lower than temperature of matter of the energy or heat will get the possibility either to
environment. It will take place, if some matter reduce consumption of energy carriers in 2-3
of low critical temperature is used as a working times or totally remove such consumption.
body. In this case matter of environment can
serve as heater and be a source of thermal Mass application of the invented devices can
energy, which will be conversed into useful several times reduce requirements of
mechanical work. economics in natural energy carriers and
therefore to create the possibilities for radical
Thus there are qualitatively new results which solving of problems which appear because of
will be got by using this invention. Among these scantiness of fuel-energy resources and
results we can mention possibility to converse nonecology of the general used heat sources.
thermal energy into mechanical work with high
efficiency as well as possibility to use thermal The construction diagram of the simplest
energy taken off the matter of environment for pattern of the said engine is shown in Fig.1.
doing useful mechanical work. The proof of
these possibilities is a consequence of the first The parts of the drawing present: 1 and 2 working
Fig. 1

cylinders wherein movable pistons 14 are placed. body. This matter has temperature of the heater and
The pistons are connected by the crank shaft 3 with intermediate density.
the fly-wheel 4. 5, 6, 7 are reservoirs filled with
matter of the working body. 8 is the reservoir filled The matter in housing 2 is in the state of thermal
with matter of the heater. 9 is the heat conductor equilibrium with matter of the heater which is in
transferring heat from the heater to the matter of the reservoir 8. All details of the device have
the working body, which is placed in the reservoir adiabatic heat insulation which provides keeping
6. 10 is the pump, which is set in motion by the shaft of required temperature conditions.
3 and is used for swapping of matter of the liquid
phase of the working body from reservoir 5 to the The thermodynamic cycle begins when piston of
reservoir 6. 11 are pipelines. 12 are the valves (they the housing 1 is in the uppermost point. The valve
are marked on the figure by letters), which provide A is opening in this moment and matter of the
one direction movement of matter of the working working body from the reservoir 6 begins to fill the
body along the pipelines. 13 is the valve, which working volume of the cylinder.
regulates the size of heat flow through the heat
conductor 9. Some time later the valve A closes and after this in
the cylinder there takes place the process of
The reservoir 5 contains heterogeneous matter of adiabatic expansion of the working body from the
the working body at the chosen minimum initial thermodynamic state. The process results in
temperature of the realized thermodynamic cycle. separating of the expanding matter into
The reservoir 6 contains a homogeneous matter of equilibrium phases of liquid and saturated vapour.
the working body with initial values of The process continues until the piston reaches the
thermodynamic characteristics. The reservoir 7 lowermost point. The valve B opens in this moment
contains a homogeneous matter of the working and the heterogeneous matter with minimal
temperature in the cycle is displaced in the density of the compressed matter is equal to the
reservoir 5 while the piston moves back. The initial one the valve E opens and compressed
displacement continues until the piston reaches matter is displaced into the reservoir 6. The
the uppermost position and valve B closes. At the displacement continues until the piston reaches
repeated motion of the piston from the the uppermost point. After that the valve F closes
uppermost point the saturated vapour is absorbed and the cycle of the processes repeats in the
into the working volume of the cylinder from the cylinder 2.
reservoir 5 through the valve C. When the piston
reaches the uppermost point the valve C closes Stability of the device is provided by swapping the
and when the piston moves back there is the matter of the liquid phase of the working body
process of adiabatic compression of the matter of from the reservoir 5 into reservoir 6 by means of
vapor phase. the pump 10 and valves G and H. By means of
movement of the pump piston from the
When the temperature of the compressed matter uppermost point the working volume is filled with
becomes equal to that of the heater, the valve D liquid from the reservoir 5 through the valve G. At
opens and compressed matter is displaced in the the backward movement of the piston the liquid
reservoir 7. The displacement is over when the is displaced through the valve H into the reservoir
piston is in the uppermost position. At that valve 6.
D closes and the cycle of working processes
repeats in the housing 1. The initial temperature of the working body in
the working cycle of the described device can be
The processes in housing 2 are organized in a like chosen either greater or less than temperature of
manner: the working volume is filled through the the environment. If we choose the first variant
valve E when the piston of the cylinder is in the then it is necessary to hold temperature of the
uppermost point. While the piston moves the matter of the heater at rather high level. It can be
matter is absorbed into the working volume from achieved by use of high-temperature heat, which
the reservoir 7. The absorption is over when the is produced as a result of fuel combustion and is
piston is in the lowermost position, then the valve transferred to the heater by means of some
E closes. At that the backward movement of the known heating apparatus.
piston is accompanied by isothermal compression
of the matter in the working volume. When

Fig.2
The main qualitative advantage of the device is its • by temperature difference in a flow of
greater efficiency (achievable output), which can environment matter at the inlet and outlet of the
not be achieved in the processes of functioning of heat exchanger.
known heat engines.
Let us accept the values equal to S = 0.25 m2 and “T
The realization of the second case, wherein the = 10 î C for these parameters, then we get an
initial temperature of the working body is less (or estimation of power capacity equal to ~ 107 kWt.
equal) than that of the environment, will allow to
use the matter of environment as a heater and to
convert the heat, which is partaken from it, into Conclusions
useful work. In that case the described device will
represent a new kind of early unknown sources of 1. There are received the estimations of an
free mechanical energy. The possible variant of achievable useful power capacity of the devices
such source is represented in the Fig. 2. which are designed for effective conversion of heat
into work. These estimations allow to suppose wide
The heater 8 is made as heat exchanger, which is use of these devices in different fields of technique
connected with the end of the heat conductor 9. as possible and expedient.
The ambient matter is pumped through the heat
exchanger by means of propeller 12. The cylinder 2. Each user by using these devices to satisfy
2 and the reservoir 7 can be in the state of thermal demand for energy or heat will get the possibility
equilibrium with the environment. either to reduce consumption of energy carriers in
2-3 times or totally remove such consumption.
Below there are some estimates of parameters of
the concrete variant of proposed thermodynamic 3. The economy, which can be achieved as a result
cycle to illustrate technical capabilities of the of reduction of systematic coasts on purchasing of
described heat engine: fuel, will quickly cover a cost of the invented
devices.
• nitrogen (N2 ) is chosen as a matter of the
working body; 4. The qualities of the devices (high efficiency,
autonomy, ecological compatibility) will ensure
• the minimum and the initial temperatures of high and stable income to those businessmen who
the working body are taken equal; will organize sufficiently considerable production
and realization of these devices.
• 73 oC and -123o C (100 and 150o K);
The investors are invited to participate in
• the initial pressure of the working body is realization and commercial use of the invention.
taken equal to ~ 500 bar;

• the temperature of the heater is supposed to References


be ~7 o C (the value is close to average
temperature of environment); 1. The Russian Federation patent N 2101521
(Int. Clas. 6F02B 75/02). The official journal of
• the specific quantity of heat (which the Russian patent and trade mark agency, M., 1998,
#1, p. 337 (in Russian)
working body gets from environment matter in
2. “The prospective inventions” #1, Ì., 2000,
the cycle and which is converted into useful IEC of Rospatent (in Russian)
work) is equal to ~ 63 cal/mole; 3. Z.B. Shumilin “Inventor and rationalizer”
magazine (Izobretatel I ratcionalizator) #1, 2001,
• if the working volume of the cylinder 1 and p. 10 (in Russian)
duration of the cycle are taken equal to 4. A.I. Veinic “Thermodynamics of real
V ~1 litre and t ~0.02 sec, then achievable power processes” Minsk, Nauka I Tehnika, 1991 (in
capacity of the device is ~130 kWt. Russian)
5. N.E. Zaev “New energy technologies” #
The achievable power capacity of the device 2(5), 2002, p.6.
represented in Fig. 2 is defined by two 6. E.G. Oparin “Physical foundations of fuel-
less energetics. Limitation of the second law of
parameters:
thermodynamics”, M. 2003, Urss (in Russian).

• by cross-sectional area S of the heat exchanger,


through which environment matter is pumped;
Review by our correspondent Alla Pashova

Inventors are interesting people. This opinion is apply them. The Club’s “Intellectual Property
shared by common people as well as by journalists, Online Shop” is of much use for the inventors in
for whom modern “Kulibins” are a reliable source this case. “Russian online market of intellectual
of sensational information. And the inventors property does not practically exist,” – Tukanov
themselves will also say: “Our creations are of no claims. – Extreme imperfection of Internet in Russia
analogues and we themselves are noteworthy”. is a drag of its development. The Americans tried
However, as Mark Twain said: “The man with a new to cooperate, but failed. In Moscow, for instance,
idea is a crank until the idea succeeds”. But the the Internet does function at a decent speed, but
success of ideas of Russian innovators or, in other to download a web page created somewhere in
words, practical application of these ideas requires Irkutsk will take about twenty minutes. That is why
investments. It has turned out that attracting we may say our Shop is quite unique. The offers
investors’ attention is much easier when the presented at the web site spark great interest. For
creators are united and promote their ideas to the example, about fifty people have responded to the
market by common effort. offer to build a magnetic motor-generator. Among
them there is even a clergyman, Father Sergiy”.
One of such unions is “Inventor’s Club of
Russia” situated in Kronshtadt (Russia) The following system to apply inventions, available
(http://zavclub.chat.ru/zcp.html). Information in the USA, seems to be reasonable to Alexander S.
from all over Russia as well as from neighbouring Tukanov: “Have you heard about “Arthur de Little”,
countries (Byelorussia and Moldova) concentrates an American company that applied the penicillin?
in this quiet town near St. Petersburg, right in the It has over 200 branches in different countries.
home computer of Alexander S. Tukanov (Head of “Arthur de Little” uses the following scheme. First
the Club). of all it signs a one-year contract with the inventor
and gets a detailed description of the invented
In his time Alexander S. Tukanov graduated from device. After that the patent searching follows and
Machine-Building Institute of Kurgan, but he the invention is patented. Then they find a
worked little by his profession. As early as in Soviet company that makes a prototype model and carries
times, instead of attending to tractors and trucks, out practical research work. Eight of one hundred
he took a great interest in computer technologies. inventions applied in such a way make profit and
In 1996 Tukanov moved from Naberzhnye Chelny two of them make excess profit that covers all the
to Kronshtadt. Naturally, being engaged in expenses. In addition “Arthur de Little” has full
invention for all his life, he wanted concerned insurance against all the financial risks that it takes
people to get to know about his achievements. For while applying every innovation. Such a business is
that purpose in the end of 1998 Tukanov created regarded to be so much profitable that State
his own web site in the Internet and invited Pension Fund of the USA places its capital in
interested people to join the project. Y.A. Nechaev, innovations.”
specialist in electronics, became the first member
of the Club. Then he and Tukanov evolved the idea “There is only one confusing point in this system,
of connecting the telephone and Internet lines to – says Tukanov in addition, – there is no
the common power grid of 220V. Tukanov still prepayment”. However, Russian investors promise
considers the idea to be promising, but at that time to prepay neither. “Every investor in our country
it was not realized: there were nor material considers himself to be an expert and insists on
resources no investors. detailed explanation of the invention, as if he were
a patent attorney. Many investors in Russia have
Bit by bit new people joined the Club. They had criminal past in business. Such people want to get
interesting inventions, but no opportunities to their surplus profit served an apple on a silver
platter. However nothing venture, nothing have! They demand multiplying this figure by 10. And
It takes from 5 to 8 years to grow the tree before the myth of unlimited intellectual potential of
the apple ripens. An apple tree gives only 4-6 Russia will be destroyed soon. It is impossible to
apples of its every hundred flowers and the rest make someone invent: money cannot buy
are barren flowers. But these barren flowers are creation”.
not useless and the tree spends its energy for them
too. There are no useless actions in nature. The Editor’s: Below we publish a description of an
idea of skimming the cream off is of no new and experimental device designed by Alexander S.
ends up with failure or crisis. According to Marx, Tukanov, and an article by Sergey N. Schmidt, one
any profit over 25 % is a criminal profit. And in of the permanent members of the Club.
Russia even a profit of 250% attracts no investors!

Vector Propulsion Engine


(Electromagnetic Version)

Alexander S. Tukanov, Russia


Email: sandr@mail.spbnit.ru
http://zavclub.chat.ru/zcp.html

The device is designed to generate unidirectional force which influences the whole
construction. The design is based on the principle of unbalancing within the circular
path of movement of mass of the weight. This path is limited by a sector located
between two poles of an electromagnet (EM). Two electrical motors rotating in
different directions generate centrifugal force. There is a weight (G) made of m-
metal. It is mounted between two friction disks. The weight (G) is in oscillatory
motion. It moves from one pole of the magnet to the other by the circular path.
The generated centrifugal force is cyclic in nature and imparts propulsive force to
the whole device. We can control it by increasing the number of rotations of the
motor. We can change the direction of movement by turning the electromagnet
together with the weight relatively to the entire device.

Fig. 1

The centrifugal force changes from zero to maximum and back to zero. Its direction is invariable
notwithstanding that the direction of movement of the weight does change.

We can both increase and decrease the propulsive force by specifying mass of the weight, number of
rotations of the motor and magnetomotive force of the magnet.
Sergey N. Schmidt, Russia
http://invent.by.ru
Email: mehanik@kmtn.ru

At the heart of a new experimental device called “Karusel” (carrousel) there is a “motor - unbalanced
flywheel – generator” system. Sergey N. Schmidt has carried out an experiment that shows the generation
of excess power or excess torque, which accelerates the rotor and the flywheel of electric machines. Moreover,
during the experiment it has been observed that the generated power is increasing and power consumption
of the motor is decreasing. “Karusel” is just a reduction of a prospective industrial inertial dynamic generator
(IDG). The IDG enables to convert the kinetic energy of the Earth’s movement and to apply it for doing
useful work.

Working model of the IDG quantity of lamps is seven. Under such


conditions the resistance in the circuit of the
The device is the simplest prototype of the generator rises and it results in decreasing the
inertial dynamic generator. It consists of a motor current and the moment of resistance.
and a DC generator, which has no exciting coils.
The motor and generator are mounted coaxially. The motor starts accelerating that, in its turn,
leads to raising the voltage on the generator
On the shaft of the “motor-generator” system terminals and increasing the current and the
there is an unbalanced flywheel, which is generated power.
mounted to convert the energy of rotation of the
Earth. The generated excess torque sets in At the moment of connection of all the seven
rotation the system consisting of rotors of lamps the rate of input voltage will be equal to
electric machines and the flywheel. 14 V (as well as in the first case). In this mode
of operation there have been registered the
The motor of the device is connected to a stabilized following data:
power supply of 14 V. In order to provide fail-safe
operation there is a ballast resistance, which is Power in circuit of the generator:
connected in series to the motor. The generator is W g1 = 0.17 x 11.66 = 1.98 W
connected with a load of lamps in series.
Power of the motor: Wd1 = 1.21 x 9.81 = 11.87 W
When the device operates with one lamp in the
circuit of the generator there have been registered Power consumed from the power supply: W1
the following data: = 1.21 x 14 = 16.94 W.

Power in circuit of the generator: As is obvious, the increase in power generation


Wg0 = 0.34 x 2.51 = 0.85 W has caused the decrease in power consumption.
Power of the generator and power consumed
from the power supply have not risen, but they
Power of the motor: Wd0 = 1.55 x 7.69 = 11.92 W have been even considerably reduced. The
energy balance has been upset. We can
Power consumed from the power supply: unambiguously state that the system receives
W0 = 1.55 x 14 = 21.7 W. excess energy.

Then we are connecting lamps to the Certain pessimists will try to consider the
generator. For this design the maximum process taking into account the redistribution
of energy loss in the power source. However the oscillations that is able to “resonate” at a certain
author has carried out experiments with many combination of speeds of rotations of the
different power sources including chemical flywheels.
ones and in all the cases there has been
observed acceleration of the unbalanced The effect of resonance is quite undesirable for
flywheel. our investigation of the “unbalanced pulse”,
but we have to take it into consideration.

Prospect application of
“unbalanced pulse”: from
prototype to industrial generator

If we irrefutably prove that behaviour of


elements in a loop system is tightly connected
with parameters of movement of the system we
will be able to control such processes. It clears
the way to creation of motors and generators
of a new type, independent systems of
navigation and to many other applications.

I assert that in all these cases the “unbalanced


pulse” does arise in a mechanical loop system
and it does cause changes in the speed of
rotation of the unbalanced flywheel, which Fig. 1
moves with steady speed relatively to a
gravitational object (the Earth, the Mars etc). If we impart alternating torque to one of the
motors (e.g. the motor D1) then the arms Pk1
The idea of using the “unbalanced pulse” for and Pk2 of the “carrousel” will start oscillating.
converting kinetic energy of the Earth first
came on carrying out the first experiments and The system is very sensitive to changes in the
it was “provoked” by mass breakdowns and cut- parameters, so the registration of the
offs of electric energy in the Far East. It is “unbalanced pulse is based on this feature.
impossible to remain indifferent watching
entire cities freeze out. As a result the problem The flywheels of the physical model are driven
of developing of a fundamentally new source by the motors at steady speed of their rotation.
of energy becomes the most urgent.To study Appropriate gauges control the process.
these processes I have developed an Magnetic clutches make the flywheels rotate at
experimental device named “Karusel”, which “real” speed resulting from the influence of the
is able to demonstrate all the possibilities of “unbalanced pulse”.
using the “unbalanced pulse”, including the
motor and generator modes of operation, In addition the pendulum arms will start moving
navigation and registration of geotectonic and we will be able to register the movement with
processes. measuring devices. The arms of the “carrousel”
will begin oscillatory movements and the gauges
In Fig.1 you can see a mathematical model of will register them as well.
the device. It consists of flywheels (M1, M2 and
M3) that are driven by motors (D1, D2 and D3). At a certain combination of the parameters of
On the flywheels M1 and M2 there are rotation, moments of inertia and rigidity of the
pendulum arms (MR) with springing elements springing elements we can observe “self-
(Ue). The motors (D1 and D2) are mounted on acceleration” of the flywheels, which will
arms (Pk1 and Pk2), which are hingedly indicate that the installation has switched to a
connected with the flywheel (M3) and have generator mode.
springing elements (Ue).
At that time it will be enough just to register
At the initial moment the pendulum arms are decreasing in the current power that is
motionless and their oscillating around the consumed by the electric motors. Switching to
hinges is limited by the springing elements the full generator mode presupposes some
(springs). The prototype is a system of forced problems of technical nature. The most
important of them is the reducing of the generator should integrate several flywheels,
coefficient of friction in the supports – it should which rotate on the same shaft and have
be less than 0.001. controllable linkage with it (clutches). The
clutches will regulate the top speed of
Preliminary calculations demonstrate a higher acceleration of the flywheels and the takeoff
coefficient of friction, but “unforeseeable power. It is necessary to work up a circuit of
consequences” should be taken into account as automatic regulation that depends on the load.
well. For instance, let us take a device, which
provides the generator mode, and consider the So the device starts resembling a computer hard
dependence of its mechanical output from the disk. But, unlike the later, the generator disks are
width of the area, which is represented by linear unbalanced. If the disks rotate at the same speed
speed of motion of points of the earth surface. and we manage to design an appropriate bearing
unit, then power density of the generator per a
High-precision bearings create the necessary mass unit can be very high!
conditions, but we should also take into account
certain peculiarities of operation of the device.
The “unbalanced pulse” produces alternating
loads to the bearing units. As a result of it the The idea of converting mechanic
coefficient of friction increases. It is necessary to energy of oscillation of the
mount magnetic supports that would be able to pendulum arms directly into
take both radial and axial loads. In that case we electric energy using piezoelectric
could considerably decrease the coefficient of cells seems to be very promising.
friction in many times.
There is an interesting question: is it possible
We can register operation of the device in the to create a generator of 5 kWt/kg, i.e. of the
motor mode by the degree of deviation of the size of a common hard disk? (Only the
arms of the “carrousel”. We will learn the value accelerating unit is meant here.) For that one
of “propulsive” force by means of piezoelectric should swing a pendulum (weight is 1 kg,
dynamometers, which are mounted between the length is 0.1 m) up to the speed of 10000 rpm
arms and stationary construction of the and make it brake within 1 second:
“carrousel”.
E=V2 /2=(2π·0.1·10000/60)2/2= 4.93 [kJ/kg]
Operation in the generator mode is based on
oscillating of the pendulum arms in the hinged Editor’s: The author also offers a device, which
joints (bearings). The idea of converting combines unbalanced disks with non-linear
mechanic energy of oscillation of the pendulum dynamics and an electric machine.
arms directly into electric energy using
piezoelectric cells seems to be very promising.
Physical model of the inertial
The “touchy” point of converting mechanical dynamic generator
energy of the pendulum arms is the use of rather
low efficient ordinary electric generators. We can The “carrousel” and flywheel are driven with
use a “looped” mode of power takeoff of the DC motors (capacity is 20-30 Wt, voltage is
generator to overcome this impediment. 12 V). The speed of rotation should be
continuously regulated within the range
At first the flywheel is accelerated with an from 0 to 1500 rpm. The shafts of the
“unbalanced pulse” up to critical speed of rotation flywheel and electric motor are connected
(the maximum permissible speed, which depends with a dirigible electromagnetic clutch (or
on structural features of the materials). Then it is with permanent magnets).
connected to an electrodynamic generator and
braked down to the minimal speed in the “self- The shafts of the “carrousel” and the electric
acceleration” mode. motor are connected by a drive-down with an
electromagnetic clutch (or drive belting). All
After that the electrodynamic generator switches the parameters of operation of the motors
off and the flywheel spins up to the maximal speed (current, voltage, power consumption, speed
again. of rotation) should be monitored with high
accuracy.
Most probably, the device of an industrial
displacement of the arms in
relation to the radial direction
must be also controlled with high
accuracy. Methods to control the
angular displacement are not
regulated. It may be an optical or
a contact electric system with
resistance control. In the later case
it is necessary to take into account
the changes in temperature
occurring on the contact surface
during long-term operation.

At the same time the contact


electric system is much simpler and
enables to bias resistance range at
controlling the position of every
arm. So we may display all the
graphs of oscillations of the arms
Fig. 2 simultaneously. We can also easily
output tabular data in a discrete
The carrousel consists of a two-armed rocker, on the ends of time interval.
which there are mounted flywheels with drives. The arms of
the rocker are connected hingedly with the driven disk of the The required control interval is to
“carrousel”. The reach of the arms is 0.2-0.4 m. be 1-100 microseconds. We are to
get tabular data of control of
The radial stress inside the hinge must be controlled, as well displacement of the arms in
as the tangential forces of each arm (moment of action) to relation to the radial direction at
the driven disk of the carrousel. The control is realized with the current moment of time. In
piezoelectric transducers in the mode of current time taking addition there must be made
into account spatial orientation of the arm in relation to the marks of orientation of the
supporting platform of the “carrousel” (See Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and flywheel in relation to the arm and
colour cover pictures). the support platform.

The power unit contains


separated power channels to
supply the electric motors and the
electronics. The motors may have
one common neutral. The neutral
of electronics is isolated as an
independent line. Supply voltage
of motors of the flywheels is 12 V,
one of the electronics – 5-6 V. The
voltage of electric motor of the
carrousel is not regulated.

For each arm of the flywheel in


the control unit there is a
channel leading from the
variable brush resistor and a
double channel from the
piezoelectric transducers. Each
flywheel requires a twenty-
Fig. 3 wire line. Meanwhile the
piezoelectric transducers may be
There are 6 oscillating arms mounted on each flywheel. not used, so there will be only an
Controlled springing elements (springs) with piezoelectric eight-wire line (Fig. 4).
stress control are mounted between the arms. Angular
Fig. 4

Energy and safety

How safe are the present methods of power 4. Photocells


generation? Let us consider and compare all the 5. Nuclear energy sources: atomic power stations,
known devices and technologies that provide the isotopic cells
humanity with electric power: 6. Water-hydrogen energy converters
7. Non-linear dynamic generators.
1. Wind energy conversion devices: wind motor
integrated with the electric generator Their comparative appraisal can be based on the
2. Devices made to convert energy of falling following parameters:
water: hydroelectric power stations, tidal power 1. Environmental impact
stations 2. Safety
3. Devices made to convert heat energy, which is 3. Service life
generated in combustion process: heat power 4. Efficiency
stations 5. Probability of disastrous effects

Comparative parameters
Device
1 2 3 4 5

1. Wind None Medium Medium Low None

2. Hydro High (-) High High High Extremely high

3. Heat High (-) Medium Medium Medium Medium

4. Solar None Low Low Low None

5. Nuclear High (-) Medium Low Low Maximal

6. Hydrogen Low Medium Medium High Medium

7. Non-linear Dynamic (+) High Medium High None


As for the general level of safety the non-linear generators merely optimize the production
dynamic generators rank the first place. The and consumption of energy resources. It will
wind and solar devices follow them. The be possible to shut down the most hazardous
nuclear power stations and hydroelectric objects of power engineering and to turn
stations are the most hazardous. Potential down building new “doubtful” objects.
disastrous effects of nuclear explosions,
earthquakes or dam breakdowns bring to The advent of personal computers has not
naught all the assurances in their safety. The caused mass dismissals of technicians-and-
humanity has already faced such catastrophes. engineers. Neither the application of inertial
dynamic generators will entail mass
The disastrous impacts of the hydroelectric unemployment. On the contrary, many
power stations include not only possible enterprises and hundred thousands of people
destruction of dams, but also excitement of will be engaged in the field of the production
geotectonic processes as a result of operation and maintenance of inertial dynamic
of hydroelectric generators in the infrared generators. Cheap energy will let many
mode of oscillations. industries develop and thereby millions of
people will get jobs.
The non-linear dynamic generators can exert
positive influence over the environment by It is important to notice that the new
creating oscillations of certain frequency. This technology will help science and engineering
makes possible to turn radioactive isotopes into to get out of a “depression” and thus, naturally,
a stable state without upsetting the energy will entail creation of new working places.
balance. Furthermore, the non-linear
oscillations are able to reduce geotectonic
stresses and to prevent catastrophic
earthquakes.

Of course, the non-linear oscillations can be


used for destruction as well, but it is not easy to
find an algorithm to control such processes and
it is even more difficult to make an appropriate
device for it. That is why we can say for sure that
it is really practicable to exercise an effective
control over such attempts. Moreover, mass
application of low-powered non-linear
generators will practically eliminate the
possibility of careless use of this technology.
The system will start working in autosafety
mode and neutralizes dangerous impacts.
Fig. 5

New technologies and employment


Application of the inertial dynamic generators
will not lead to mass unemployment in the
domain of production and processing of
natural energy resources. It is essential to
understand that the inertial dynamic
generators cannot yet solve the problem of
usage of mineral oil at transport. Neither the
heat power plants will be shut down at once.
The process of changing over the inertial
dynamic generator will take no less than 10
years and it will give rise to competition, which
will force owners of the heat stations to reduce
prices as well as pay attention to the safety and
ecological compatibility of their heat power Fig. 6
plants. One may say that the inertial dynamic
Valery D. Dudyshev, Russia
Email: ecolog@samaramail.ru
http://www.dudepd.narod.ru

The present article makes energy is. And the less perfect technical devices
an attempt to solve many of are, the more power they consume.
the most critical problems in
Power Engineering and Civilization needs clean and inexhaustible
Mechanics. The author energy very much, because, as a matter of fact,
presents and thoroughly mankind has already come into a global energy
substantiates a new and ecology crisis. Scientists and engineers do
prospective trend in Energy not yet know exactly what Energy is and for the
Science, namely Electrical moment determine it just as the capacity of a
Field Power Engineering matter for doing work. At present the science
and Mechanics. The author’s particular operates with laws of conservation of only
inventions illustrate a new efficient technology known kinds of energy.
that generates kinetic and electrical energy of the
potential energy of electrical field. The scientist On this vague theoretical basis official science
hopes that the article will arouse keen interest often rejects any concepts of devices that use
of wide circles of readers and will contribute to the latent energy of matter with high efficiency
the progress of power engineering and ecology. (with an output over 100%). At the same time
science is tolerant towards the heat pump with
its extremely high energy datum. It is of
SOCIAL AND ENERGY PARADOXES common knowledge that a heat pump uses and
converts lowgrade ambient heat with an
The process of evolution in the world power efficiency of 200300 % [8].
engineering has resulted in a rather paradoxical
and contradictory situation: on the one hand, Is there a way out of this psychological and
the modern civilization has a dire need for energy deadlock of the civilization and where
clean and cheap energy, on the other hand, exactly does it lie? The simplest answer is the
nature and civilization themselves are under following: for that we should go back to the
the threat of dyingout due to increasing beginnings and revise our basic knowledge and
energy and ecology crises. That is why it is time fundamental principles of power engineering
to break this energy deadlock. Many farseeing and technology. But first of all we will have to
and enlightened people fully appreciate it. answer several seemingly easy questions.

But do we try hard enough? Scientists and What is energy?


specialists know well that much valuable
information on new energy technologies and Energy is determined as the capacity of forms
energy saving has already been accumulated in of matter to do work and as the general
the world, however, in fact, this information is measure of motion of the matter [10]. However
hardly ever applied. The reason is that a drastic Energy is much wider and yet unknown notion
and fast progress in power engineering and and phenomenon, because science is yet far
energy consumption technologies may be from being fully aware what Matter is.
unfavourable for many of the world Experimental data form the basis of scientific
monopolies. Their profit depends directly on knowledge. However imperfect past
imperfections of this system. The less efficient experiments go out of date and new unusual
the power engineering is, the more expensive and sensational experiments of modern

20 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


scientist take their place [1, 3, 7, 8, 9]. Thus all of the energy of the Sun, wind, rivers and seas.
the known laws of energy conservation, And then you will reply nevertheless: “No, all
formulated on the base of outdated these nonconventional energy technologies
experimental data, are of rather limited use and are not yet perfect and they are far from
require correction. Moreover, many of the covering the shortage of required power”. But
latest experiments break the existent laws of in this case, is there an effective and easy way
energy conservation, so it is time to widen the out of Energy deadlock at all?! It does exist and
notion of Energy and the formula of its lies in the following:
conservation laws.
• at first it is necessary to radically improve
Under the impression of incontestable results all the energy converters and thereby steeply
of a number of tests and experiments (such as decrease fuel and energy consumption for
experiments on cold thermonuclear fusion, doing useful work;
vortex heat generation in water and others
[8, 9]) more and more serious and objective • we need to learn how to generate, convert
scientists become supporters of the Aether and use the latent energy of matter and the
Theory. In particular, the experiments by renewable Energy of ambient space in an
N. Tesla and his followers show that Aether efficient and easy way.
(being more subtle a matter than the known
material world) is also full of energy and ready Where is the generated energy spent nowadays
to supply it to us [10]. and why are all the energy consumers
so imperfect?
But are we ready to take it and in what way will
it be easier to do? In view of these new The simple answer is the following: at present
experimental data, to my mind, we have over a half of all chemical energy of
reached the point where it is necessary to revise nonrenewable energy carriers (e.g. different
the fundamental notions of modern science, kinds of fuel) is spent on heat loss and toxic
namely the notion of Energy and the law of emission. It happens because the energy
conservation of Energy. The first attempt to converters and consumers have yet extremely
amend these basic concepts of physics is low output for they use and consume primary
presented below. fuel and (or) electrical power to convert it into
work (e.g. in motor transport) and into other
Energy is the reciprocal motion of all the kinds of useful energy (e.g. for lighting) in a
known particles of matter one relatively to quite inefficient way.
another, as well as the motion represented by
transmutation of these particles (elementary Let us consider output of an electric power
‘bricks’ of matter) from one form of matter to device as the ratio of the useful work to the
another, as well as the rotation of elementary expended primary energy (the chemical
particles of matter. energy of fuel and of energy carriers) it
becomes obvious that the existent power
Universal Law of Conservation of Energy engineering is extremely inefficient indeed.
(ULCE) should be interpreted as a constant of For instance, the real output of modern heat
this total momentum. There is a possibility to machines (including internalcombustion
use and convert latent energy of electrical fields engines) does not exceed 30%.
into real useful Energy and this is an important
practical consequence of the ULCE. But how The output of heat power plants during power
can it be put into practice? Let us tell about it generation is no more than 40%. The output of
b e l o w. electrical light devices is quite low as well, e.g. one
of an incandescent lamp is just 57%! The output
Why do we need energy carriers at all? of urban systems of heat generation, transmission
and distribution is no more than 50% and they are
This question seems to be simple only at first utterly unsafe, etc.
sight  “to generate other kinds of useful energy:
kinetic energy, electrical energy, as well as heat, That is why we must urgently and efficiently
cold and light” – you will answer. That is right. improve the energy converters and carries in
But then the next question follows: is it possible order to alleviate the energy crisis of the
to get all these secondary kinds of energy civilization. But how can we do it? There can
without burning fuel at all? This will remind you help my inventions in the sphere of energy

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 21


conversion as well as new methods of those coulombs of electricity can be found in
application of the latent energy of matter, in abundance. And what will be the amount of
particular, new technology of using the the repulsive force of two electrical charges
potential energy of electrical field. (1 coulomb each)?

Two identical bodies, which have a charge of


BASICS OF ELECTROPOTENTIAL 1 coulomb and are initially set apart at a distance
POWER ENGINEERING of 1 meter, repulse one another with the force
of 10 10 N (one can find the formula of Coulomb’s
Doing useful work requires energy and force. Law in any physics textbook). The paradox is in
As for the definition of energy it has become the following fact: it is common knowledge that
more or less clear. And what is force? Force is Coulomb forces are incredibly immense, but in
the measure of action of a field (e.g. of fact they have not been used in power
mechanic, electrical and other fields). In this engineering till present times.
particular case it is essential that any force is
able to do work. These forces are the most powerful forces in
Nature, second only to nuclear forces. Coulomb
The notions of field and force are not yet clearly forces arise everywhere, where there are
determined in science at all. However electrical charges and the task is to extract such
everybody knows how to generate an electrical forces from bodies and make them work for the
field and Coulomb forces. All we have to do is mankind.
figure out how to use this force for common
benefit. Power input to generate potent Coulomb forces
can be minimal. It is amazing that the generation
Mysterious Coulomb force and useful work of such huge forces requires neither high charges
of electrical field nor high power consumption. Hence to
generate electrical charges of necessary amount
Free electrical charges and powerful electrical we will need practically no electrical energy and,
forces of their interaction (e.g. thunderstorm of course, no high currents. In this case we deal
phenomenon) exist in Nature regardless of with electrostatics and that is the explanation
whether we want it or not. The electrical forces why the use of Coulomb forces seems to be so
generate electrical charges and electrical fields advantageous in practice.
and these forces are enormous. As everybody
knows from high school, Coulomb’s law (one We can vary Coulomb forces by adjusting the
of the fundamental laws of physics) states that amount of the electrical charges.The ability of
the force between two electrical charges like charges to repulse one another using
depends only on the amount of the charges and Coulomb force is the most promising and
the distance between them, but does not valuable for the new electropotential power
depend on weight of a body. engineering. It means that the effect of electrical
breakdown between two charged bodies is
The potential Energy of electrical field as well excluded and the charge will not drain from
as huge Coulomb forces can be used for doing their surface.
work without fuel and at minimal energy
consumption. For doing work in this case we Mechanical motion and mechanical work
can use just a single electrical potential. So the created by Coulomb forces of repulsion
proposed method may be regarded as a new
method of Electropotential Power As everybody knows from high school, works
Engineering. is calculated by multiplying the length of the
path by the component of the force acting
Physical substantiation of realizability and along the path and like charges attract one
efficiency of new Electropotential another.
Power Engineering
The mentioned Coulomb’s Law traditionally
One coulomb is defined as the quantity of determines the effect of force interaction of
electricity transmitted by a conductor (e.g. by electrical charges. These facts are well known to
a filament of an incandescent lamp) in one everyone, however few people surmise that
second at a current of one ampere. Even in Coulomb forces can be immense at certain
the electrical supply network of an apartment conditions.

22 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


These forces are quite able to do useful work current source of electrical field – an electret, an
at minimal electrical power consumption for oscillatory circuit (of various types) and at least
they can make charged bodies move. one energy storage device) [1].

Let us explain it by the following example. It In Fig. 1 you can see the simplest model of an
is plainly understood that if a high electrical electropotential motor of oscillatory type with
potential is supplied instantaneously through opposing springs. This device demonstrates the
a single conductor to two bodies, which are principle of converting the potential energy of
initially in contact, the bodies will immediately electrical field into work by means of Coulomb
be charged with electricity and start repulsing forces of repulsion.
one another.
We supply a high electrical potential (roughly
These powerful forces of electrical repulsion 20kV) from an electrical field source (1) to two
make the charged bodies move in the opposite tightly fastened plates (3, 4) (Fig.1). Practically
directions.Consequently, Coulomb forces (for immediately the plates 3 and 4 get like charges
example, repulsive forces) of like charged and then Coulomb forces make them repulse
bodies are able to do useful work at practically one from another. After that the plates start
zero power consumption by converting the moving apart rapidly till they touch charge
energy of electrical field of a single potential collecting pins (9).
into the kinetic energy of motion of the bodies.
Let us once again emphasize that for such
...t h e r e i s a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n
conversion of the potential energy of electrical
for the engines, which consists in
field and charges into the kinetic work of the
using the potential energy of
bodies we will need only one electrical
electrical field and powerful
potential. That is why this type of energy is
Coulomb forces.
called Electropotential Energy.

At the same time springs (5, 6) contract and


EXAMPLES OF CONVERTION OF thereby acquire the potential energy of
THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF contraction. Coulomb forces vanish at the
ELECTRICAL FIELD INTO moment when the plates are discharging to the
KINETIC ENERGY chargecollecting pins (9) that are mounted on
an earthing platform (10). The contracted
It is traditionally accepted that doing useful work springs push the plates back from the reversal
requires much energy. In particular, all the points (31 and 41) to the initial position till
modern engines (both heat and electric) still have the moment of their contact. Then we repeat the
high energy expenditure (they consume much procedure. Let us mention that to actuate this
heat and electrical energy while their output is at reciprocating electrical motor with low energy
most 30%). expenditure we will need just one electrical
potential. The electrical charge of the plates (3,
The development of energy storage devices is 4) needs constant renewing, though Coulomb
one of the key open problems of the day. It has forces in the motor are rather high even at
to do, for example, with making efficient minimal electrical charging rate of the plates.
electrical vehicles that could run long distances However, it is possible to make the design even
without frequent recharge of their storage more economical. For that we can either
batteries. But there is another possible solution recuperate the given total charge back to the
for the engines, which consists in using the plates (3, 4) or to shield the charges while they
potential energy of electrical field and powerful return to the plates. For example, the plates (3,
Coulomb forces. 4) made of electrets can be shielded at their
return motion.
The author of this article presents new methods
to convert the potential energy of electrical field So while the plates are moving back to their
into other forms of energy and uses them to initial position, for example, under the action of
design ordinary electropotential motors, which the contracted spring, such shielded charges will
output is over 90% [1]. not impede their return. As the given bodies
(plates) come together, the shield must be taken
The design of the motors contains an electrical off one more time and the like charged bodies
field source (e.g. a highvoltage changer or a no will repulse each other again.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 23


The electrical motor (Fig.2) consists of a case (1)
with two stationary stator electrets (2, 4), which
are fixed on the ends of the case, as well as of a
moving electret rotor (3), which is supplied with
lifting mechanisms (810) and two shielding
blinds (5, 6). The electret rotor (3) oscillates
between the stationary electrets (2) and (4).

In Fig.2 you can see that the electret (3), being


under the action of electrical repulsive forces,
moves from the electret (2) to the stationary
electret (4), which is shielded by a blind. At the
same time the blind (5) starts going down with a
rocker (7) driven by gears (8, 9, 10) and thereby
shields the electret (2). The shielding blind (6), on
Fig. 1 the contrary, goes up and open the second
stationary electret (4). The electret rotor (3) stops
The simplest electropotential motor with return springs and, in consequence of the electrical repulsive
forces of the electrets (3) and (4), starts its return
1 – high voltage source; 2 – conducting current motion to the electret (2). Then the cycle of
collector (spike); 3 – conducting plate (31 – movement of the rotor is automatically repeated.
return point); 4 – conducting plate (41 – return As a matter of fact, the given device is a “perpetual”
point); 5 – spring (insulated from the plate); oscillatory electrical motor that uses the potential
6 – spring (insulated from the plate); 7 – left stop energy of the electrical field of the electrets (2),
of the spring; 8 – right stop of the spring; (3) and (4) and the electrical forces of repulsion
9 – chargecollecting devices (pins); 10 – earth. of like charges, i.e. Coulomb forces.

Once induced electrical charges of the bodies can “Perpetual” reciprocal electret motor with
be repeatedly used to set them in return motion. selfoscillating electromagnetic circuit
That is why the electropotential mechanics is very
economical.

Totally nocurrent “perpetual” electrical


motor of electretmechanical type
with blinds

Fig. 3

Design of the electrical motor

Fig. 2 Fig. 3 shows design of such a motor. It includes


a freerunning pistonrotor, which is made of
Perpetual mobile using the potential energy a charged monoelectret. Inside of a hollow
of electrical field chamber there are disks of an electrical

24 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


condenser. The chamber has the form of a hollow cylinder. The disks of the electrical air
condenser are mounted on the inner buttends of the cylinder (Fig.3). These conductive disks
are connected electrically to the terminals of a highvoltage changer with adjustable amplitude
and frequency (a voltage inverter). An electrical inductance is connected in parallel to the
terminals of the disks (Fig.4). The electrical condenser (capacitance) inside the motor and the
mentioned inductance form an electromagnetic oscillatory circuit. Generative inductance can be
coiled onto the given cylindrical chamber that is permeable to the magnetic field.

Fig. 4

As a matter of fact the proposed design is an (acceleration) of the electret rotor and the
original electromechanical oscillatory system that frequency of its oscillations between the
combines a resonance electromagnetic oscillatory condenser disks depends on the charge of the
circuit and an electret mechanical oscillatory electret rotor and on value of the high voltage
circuit. The principle of operation of this initially supplied to the disks, as well as on the
reciprocating (oscillatory) motor consists in cycle parameters of the oscillatory circuit. Since the
polarity changing of the electrical charge on the electrical currents in the circuit are low and as the
disks of this inner condenser. condenser and the inductance interchange their
energy, then the energy loss is also very low and
As a result of the action of powerful Coulomb the performance index of this device that converts
forces the electret rotor accelerates and starts energy of electrical field into propulsion and
moving inside the chamber towards an unlike electrical power is close to 1.
charged disk.
The output can be even more than 1 if only the
When voltage sign and the charge of the disks power line supply but not the energy of electrical
change, it starts moving with acceleration to the field is regarded as the electrical power input.
opposite electrode. Let us note that as the electret
accelerates in the chamber, an emf arises inside Hybrid electrostatic motorgenerators
the inductance coil.This emf automatically (Fig. 5, 6)
changes the polarity on the condenser disks.
Consequently, when the electret rotor approaches It is astonishing, but using the potential energy
an unlike charged electrode, at first it decelerates. of electrical field we can generate both kinds of
energy at the same time (both kinetic energy of
Then, at the moment when the charge of the motion, e.g. energy of rotation, and concurrently
electrode changes its polarity to the opposite one, electrical energy). The amount of the kinetic
the rotor starts moving to the opposite electrode energy and electrical energy, which are
inside the chamber. The repulsive force generated in the load from the potential energy

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 25


of electrical field, is regulated by changing the by the proportion of the design factors of the
intensity of initial or induced electrical field and device and the parameters of the electrets. The
the amount of charge. Let us consider some emf of generated voltage is proportionate to the
devices of the kind. speed of rotation of the disks and to the number
of segments of the electrets. As a result of rotation
Electret motorgenerator of rotary type of the disks and changes in the electrical field
intensity, unlike electrical charges are cyclically
induced on the electrode (3) and AC electrical
power is generated in the load (4). Fig. 5 shows
the electrical load that has the form of a glowing
bulb (4) and is connected into the circuit
“electrode (3) – electrical load – earth”

Motorgenerator set of linearrotary type

Fig. 5

In Fig. 5 you can see even more original variant


of the “perpetual” rotational electret motor
generator created by the author. The design of
such an unusual generator comprises two (or
more) paired segmental electret disks of free
rotation (1), (2) and two (or more) charge
collecting plates (3) that are positioned parallel
to these disks at a minimal gap. To start the
generator it will suffice to begin rotating the disks
in the opposite directions.

For the sake of simplicity the second charge Fig. 6


collecting plate with electrical load is not shown
in the picture. An analogous device has been In Fig.6 you can see a simplest multifunctional
already functioning in France and there is an “perpetual” motor generator. It consists of a
article describing it [6]. Unlike its analogue [6], this rotating segmental electret disk (8, 10) and two
electrostatic generator is made of more advanced electrets (3, 4), which are mounted in a vertical
highperformance electret materials and has a shaft (1). When the stationary electret (4)
considerably improved design. Thanks to high repulses the moving electret (3), the latest starts
electrical intensity and charge density of the moving back and forth. Thereby it provides
electret, the capacity of this generator increases continuous rotation of the segmental electret
in many times comparing to the device [6] with disk (8, 10) using a transmission gear (9) that
similar speed of rotation and dimensions. reminds a children’s toy – whirligig. Rotation
of the electret disk results in an emf of electrical
After forced spinup of the disks (1) and (2) to induction and electrical energy generation.
the opposite directions, these segmental electret
disks go on rotating spontaneously. It results The generator circuit is similar to the circuit in
from power interaction of electrical charges of Fig. 5, therefore it is not shown here. By
the electrets between the disks. The electrical changing parameters of the device and
field induces an emf onto a stationary flat parameters of the initial electrical field we can
electrode (3). The speed of rotation is determined regulate the parameters of moving electrets,

26 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


which are generated by the electrical field, as order to increase the dielectric rigidity of the
well as the amount of kinetic energy of motion work chamber of this low expenditure
of these bodies. The devices (Fig.5, 6) have been electropotential motor, we fill the chamber with
tested in working models and have proved insulating gas, which has extremely low
their efficiency. viscosity.

In Fig.7 you can see a variant of the design of low At the website http://www.dudepd.narod.ru
expenditure electrofield motors as applied to you can see an animation film that demonstrates
electric vehicles. A crank gear converts the kinetic the operation of this original low expenditure
energy of backandforth motion of the electrical electromotor (Fig. 7).
(or electret) rotor of this unusual low
expenditure electrofield motor into ordinary
rotation of a distribution crankshaft of an electric EXAMPLES OF OTHER EFFICIENT
vehicle. DEVICES OF LOW EXPENDITURE
ELECTROFIELD POWER
ENGINEERING

In his previous articles [35] the author proposed


and described new technologies of application
of potential energy of electrical field, in
particular, the technology for pollutionfree
combustion devices, fuelless orbit cosmonautics
and the low expenditure technology of
hydrogen generation from water.

Above in this article we have already mentioned


a number of efficient methods and devices for
generation of kinetic energy of motion and
electrical energy.

Let us cite some other examples of the simplest


efficient devices of this new electrofield
mechanics. Potent Coulomb forces of repulsion
of like charged bodies can be successfully
applied in the nearest future, e.g. to bearings.

Perpetual contactless electret bearings

Bearings are a base and a movable support of all


moving and rotating devices. However
mechanical bearings are wearing parts and not
reliable enough in service, for they require
Fig.7 regular control and maintenance (lubrication),
besides, their service life is limited.
Electrofield engine
Levitation of bodies in electrostatic field
The work chamber and contacting parts of the
mechanism (e.g. its rod) are insulated with Coulomb forces of repulsion of like charges can
special metalceramics. In order to prevent be applied to bearings of new a generation. The
draining of electrical charges from working author presents a new type of contactless
plates of the electrical condenser we should bearings. It is made on the base of electrostatic
regulate the propulsion, torque of the shaft and (electret) suspension of the inner and outer
rpm of this electromotor not by increasing rings of a bearing.
electrical current (like in ordinary electrical
motors), but by changing voltage of the power There can be many variants of such contactless
source and, as a consequence, by changing the levitation (suspension) using Coulomb forces.
amount of electrical charge on the plates of the The simplest way to realize it is either to use
electrical condenser with constant polarity. In triboelectric effect or to apply new polymeric

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 27


materials i.e. monoelectrets [3]. Electrets have with such electret films is able to bear dynamical
been serially produced since long ago. Electrets stress up to 23 tons.
are manufactured in the form of a thin
polymeric film with an electrical charge of These films are sprayed onto the inner surface
certain density “trapped” into it. The charge can of the groove of the outer bearing ring and onto
be stored in the film for arbitrary long time. outer surface of the inner ring with just a
1 mm gap. The author has carried out
Currently electret film is widely used in electromechanical simulator study of the CLRB
microphones and telephones. But it can be used using special PC program and test operation.
for electrostatic suspension of bodies as well. In
particular, it will be expedient to apply this film It has been proved that the application of
to our new type of “perpetual” contactless modern electret materials for CLRBs provides
electrostatic bearings. their safe performance at much higher dynamic
stresses comparing to ordinary mechanical
Electrical repulsion force in such a bearing bearings of the same dimensions.
is millions of times more potent than magnetic
repulsive force in a magnet bearing of the
same dimensions and same masses of charge
carriers. These contactless electret bearings are
the future.

In Fig.8 you can see a contactless support


electrodynamic suspension of bodies. It is based
on the principle of repulsion of two nocurrent
sources of electrical field (electrets) that are
tightly connected with levitated bodies.

Fig.8

Fig.9 shows a “perpetual” contactless electret


bearing of rotary type. The work surfaces of Fig.9
grooves (3, 5) and balls (4) have electret
covering. The electret bearings are highly Contactless electret bearing
resistant to dynamic stress thanks to their special
sulcate design and small gaps. Electrostatic accelerators
of solids and liquids
The design of this rotary bearing is rather simple:
in order to provide such electrostatic levitation Potent Coulomb forces can efficiently
of the rings one inside another it is enough to accelerate solids and liquids in one direction.
cover its work surfaces with an electret film. The author has already tested in practice such
As a result a contactless rotary bearing (CLRB) physical effects of this low expenditure

28 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


process of electrical acceleration of bodies in (e.g. diesel oil) is poured to a tube of small
electrical field. diameter (about 13 mm) and a strong electrical
field is supplied to it instantaneously.
In Fig.10 you can see a simple experimental The liquid ejects from the tube with
device that is used to generate an electrically acceleration. Two electrodes of a lowpower
charged jet of potential energy of electrical field. voltage changer generate an electric filed in the
Power inputs for generation of such an electrical column of initially motionless liquid. The
jet are just 510 W at the speed 50100 m/c. The electrical field arises in a certain direction
experiment is described below. depending on the polarity of an electrical
potential inside the liquid.

The effect of acceleration of the liquid is most


pronounced (evident) when one of electrical
potentials is supplied into the liquid itself that
is poured in a bent tube and another potential
is located at a certain distance from the cut of a
tube. The nature and principle of operation of
such an electrical liquid accelerator are clear
enough. Under the action of even one electrical
field potential in dielectric liquid, all the liquid
gets an electrical charge of a certain polarity.
Molecules and clusters of the liquid become
polarized and long chains of interconnected
and polarized molecules are formed. When the
second potential is supplied to the cut of the
tube, there arises potent electrostatic energy of
the attraction between these molecular chains
and an outer electrical potential (ring
electrode).

In order to raise the pressure in the tube electrical


field should be supplied to the liquid
instantaneously at the moment of ejection. To
increase the intensity of acceleration of the liquid
jet it is expedient to take off field potentials right
at the moment of ejection.

Pressure measurement of the liquid shows that


when the electric filed is supplied
Fig.10 instantaneously to the liquid, the pressure on the
cut of the tube rises (roughly 1050
Electrical water jet atmospheres) at the moment of jet detachment
and the speed is about 100 m/c depending on
1 – positive electrode; 2 – glass tube; 3 – rubber applied high voltage (1035 kW). When this
plug; 4 – glass vessel; 5 – air; 6 – water or other occurs the energy inputs for polarization and
liquid; 7 – negative electrode; 8 – high voltage acceleration are insignificant. It could be
changer; 9 – storage battery. explained by the fact that in this case there is no
current circuit of discharge of voltage supply.
Experiments on electrical acceleration of
liquids in capillaries by means of a pulse (To our mind, the mentioned method can be
successfully applied to ordinary contactless fuel
The author of this article revealed and electrostatic highpressure pumps, e.g. in
experimentally studied the effect of high automobile injection motors).
acceleration (ejection) of dielectric liquids in
capillaries under the action of Coulomb forces We could continue citing examples of efficient
in a strong electrical field (about 1020 kW). The electrofield devices that could be built on the
technical realization of the method is rather base of the author’s inventions, if we were not
simple and can be as follows: a dielectric liquid limited by the frames of this article.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 29


Constructive responses to this publication will “New Energy Technologies” magazine, #1, 2003
be greatly appreciated. The author is also 4. V.D. Dudyshev New Effect of “Cold” Evaporation
interested in comprehensive creative and Dissociation of Liquids Based on Capillar
discussion of his article and in mutually Electroosmosis // “New Energy Technologies”
magazine, #1, 2003
beneficial cooperation with companies that
5. V.D. Dudyshev New Fuelless Space Power
would put his numerous new technologies and
Engineering // “New Energy Technologies”
devices into practice. magazine, NovemberDecember #6, 2002
6. G.A. Luscheykin Polymeric electrets. Moscow,
Chemistry, 1986.
References 7. Testatika. Electrostatic energy generator //
“New Energy Technologies” magazine, #1, 2003
1. V.D. Dudyshev Method of Electromechanical 8. Y. Potapov Rotation Energy. Moscow, 2000
Energy Conversion. Patent of Russian Federation 9. Ph.M. Kanarev, T. Mizuno (Japan) Cold Fusion
#98122340, 1998, Federal Institute of Industrial by Plasma Electrolysis of Water //
Property. “New Energy Technologies” magazine, #1, 2003
2. “New Energy News” magazine, May 1994 (p.14) 10. Big Encyclopedic Dictionary, Vol.2, p.699,
3. V.D. Dudyshev New Electric Fire Technology // Moscow.

Fuel energy companies invest money in alternative power engineering

http://www.eco.com.ua/cgibin/index.cgi?id=1577
http://www.shell.com/home/Framework?siteId=hydrogenen

The giant BritishDutch oil company Royal Dutch/Shell Group has announced its intention to put
annually from 500 million to one milliard US dollars into alternative power engineering. Shell Group
has already founded an independent company that specializes in hydrogen technologies. As a number
of other oil giants, Shell is getting ready in advance for hard times when exploitation and extraction of
hydrocarbon raw materials will make no commercial profit. One of the latest projects of Shell in the
field of hydrogen power engineering is the first hydrogen refuelling station in Tokyo that provides
special transport with liquid hydrogen. The practical realization of the project belongs to Showa Shell
Seikyu KK (Show Shell), which is a Japanese company 50 per cent owned by the Royal Dutch/Shell
Group of Companies (Shell).

The concern British Petroleum, London competitor of Shell, is also interested in problems of alternative
power engineering as well. As soon as by 2007 BP expects to get no less than 1 milliard dollars from
selling electrical energy generated by solar cells. Companies engaged in motorcar industry have their
developments in this sphere as well. In 2003 the Japanese company Honda Motor starts line production
of FCXV4, a hydrogen cellpowered vehicle. However the company prefers not to enter into a
partnership with other companies that have a concern in industrial application of hydrogen fuel and
plans to begin mass production of pollutionfree motor vehicles no sooner than in 2015 for the new
technology is still very expensive.

It is evident that transnational corporations do not want to lose their control over the world economy.
Foreseeing a collapse of the traditional system of energy carriers and a changeover to alternative
energy sources, fuel and motorcar industries appropriate promising developments, attract necessary
specialists into their laboratories and form packages of patents for key technologies ahead of time.
One may expect that the development of alternative power engineering will accelerate thanks to
efforts of large manufacturers.

30 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


Mikhail P. Beshok, Russia
338-110 Lunacharsky Str., Saint Petersburg, 195265
Tel.: +7-812-532-3803, +7-812-311-3931
E-mail: beshok@rambler.ru

Air is considered to be one of the alternative In order to explain this phenomenon let us divide
sources of energy. As a rule, the energy of air flows the plate into a great number of equal elements and
is meant here. Meanwhile as everybody knows consider one of them (Fig.1c). For the sake of
from the molecular-kinetic theory of gases the simplicity hereinafter we will use some of the terms,
molecules of air move at speed 500 m/sec (no which are accepted in geodesy.
matter what the speed of an air flow is). The
weight of one cubic meter of air is over 1 kg. It is
easy to calculate that the Earth’s atmosphere
contains huge amount of energy. Usually methods
of using this energy are not discussed. Molecules
move in the air absolutely chaotically and, as is the
convention, in such a medium the energy can be
only absorbed or dissipated and this process is
irreversible. Indeed, within the usual frames of
space and time the molecules move quite
chaotically, their quantity is tremendous and the
process that is accompanied by the increase of
entropy is most possible. Nevertheless, the motion
of a molecule in the interval between collisions
seems to be ordered and predictable. The average
distance that a molecule passes within this time is
dozens of nanometers. Lately appeared
nanotechnologies enable to manipulate the Fig. 1a
matter at this level. Let us try to take advantage of
it.

Let us take a plate both surfaces of which are


absolutely smooth and have surface areas S1 and S2
(Fig.1a). Both sides of the plate are under the action
of forces. The forces are normally directed to the
plate and numerically equal to total pulses. These
pulses are imparted to the each side by the colliding
molecules of air. As the total pulses are in
proportion to the surface areas of the sides and
S1=S 2, then F1=F2 .

Let us assume that side 1 of the plate is not


absolutely smooth surface. Let it be somehow relief
(e.g. riffled, see Fig.1b). The contact area of the plate
with air from side 1 enlarges. Correspondingly, the
number of collisions against side 1 increases. Fig. 1b
However the balance of forces F1 and F2 is not upset.
Let us designate the following: slope angle is a, length of one free path of the molecule l) then there
distance between the peaks is d, surface area of the is arises a factor, which upsets the mentioned
slopes is S’1 and S”1 (side 1) and surface area of the balance of the forces (Fig.1d).
element is S2 (side 2). The picture and the given
proportions show that as the surface area of the When d >l of free path, on colliding with the plate
plate from the side 1 extends and as the number of each of the molecules goes back to its original
collisions against this side increases, so the absolute medium. But when d ≤ l of free path some of the
sum value of the forces acting from side 1 grows as molecules will hit the plate more than once before
well. However the vector sum remains normally they return to their medium.
directed to the plate (later on to the ‘background’
surface) and equal to the force which acts from side Thereby the plate gets additional pulses. The
2. resolution of their sum vector will give a non-zero
component that is normal to the background
surface. Hence on side 1 there appears an
additional force and the balance of forces is upset.

The effect shows up on the elements of surface


where the relief has the profile of a cavity and the
distance between the slopes is ≤ l of free path in
any of the directions. The effect is a maximum
where the surface profile has similar parameters in
all the directions, i.e. where it has the shape of a
funnel or a crater.

A plate one side of which is “sown” with such


craters can be used in energy generation devices.
Normal air pressure is 105 N/m 2 and pressure
difference of 1 % is already quite considerable.
Preliminary and very rough calculations show that
the pressure difference can be dozens of percents
though.

Fig. 1c

If the collisions of the molecules and the plate were


absolutely inelastic, then the given balance would
be invariable for all shapes and sizes of the relief,
because any of the elementary surfaces of relief
(being oriented at some angle to the background
surface) in direction, which is normal to the
background surface, is under the action of a force,
which is equal to the force that acts on the
background surface. However the collisions of the
molecules and the plate are elastic. Therefore if the
relief of the surface is small enough (in this
particular case, when d is less than the average Fig. 1d
Vadim A. Chernobrov, Russia
“Kosmopoisk”, Nagatinskaya str. 19-a, Moscow, 115533
E-mail: chernobrov@kosmopoisk.org

Gravitational Aircrafts are aircrafts that use The scientist published results of his calculations
gravitation forces for movement in space and and they rouse no censure of the specialists. G.R.
consist of two interattracting masses. This Uspensky created his own theory and designed
definition reflects a fixed scientific notion for that his own gravitational aircraft.
type of apparatus. But in different publications the
term “gravitational aircraft” is usually regarded in During the flight of a solar probe near the Sun
general, namely as a device that controls gravitation the researcher planned to define more
by any manner. precisely some aspects of the gravitation
theory in order to test the efficiency of
There are two complementary, but not quite gravitational propulsion devices. According
interchangeable common explanations of to him, in the end of 2001 there were
gravitation, plus a multitude of alternative and obtained most encouraging results!..
little-known interpretations that are not in
question here. Isaac Newton, the first physicist, Valeriy Akinin, mechanical engineer and
described gravitation as attraction between two Member of the Academy of Inventors, Men of
masses. The principle of relativity of Einstein Arts and Science, proposes to develop a so-called
General Theory presumes that in fact a mass causes “dumbbell” gravitational aircraft. Let us assume
space-time deformation around it. The both that there is a system of two equal weights with
theories explain why material bodies fall to the a horizontally oriented rigid connection
Earth. between them.

Scientists regard Einstein Theory as being more If the weights are moved apart to a larger
comprehensive, since it also explains why the light distance than the initial one, the whole
(which is weightless) deviates in strong construction will… lose its weight! This fact has
gravitational fields. Such a view on gravitation been already known before.
makes of it something more than just a
characteristic of the Universe. For that reason many Akinin offered not to set the weights apart, but
scientists consider the idea of creation of any to rotate the construction around a horizontal
antigravitational devices as nonsense. Many of axis mounted transversely to the connection. So
them, but not all! the projections of separate gravitational forces
to the axis of the system will change in a proper
way, just as it is required in fact. Theoretically,
Gravitational propulsion devices as the weights we can imagine atomic nuclei,
electrons and so on.
If the densities of two attracting bodies differ
significantly one from another, then the entire However, apart from the classic “two-mass”
system of two mechanically connected masses will gravitational aircraft there is a great number of
start moving towards the body with higher density. other projects, starting from devices that
G.R. Uspensky (Central Scientific-Research “generate gravitational waves using heat flow”
Institute of Engineering, Cosmonautics Faculty of (A. Scheglov) up to black holes harnessed with
Moscow Aeronautical Institute) succeeded in a special torus-shaped bridle (Kazykin (Kaluga),
making the most accurate calculations of the I. Ivanchenko).
effects arising from this phenomenon.
Magnetic gravitational aircrafts There was obtained a small level of propulsion in
these experiments. The author of the present
Magnetic gravitational aircrafts are apparatus in review participated in the experiments, took
which, according to the authors, propulsion or appropriate measurements and a video record and
gravitation control is achieved due to peculiar drew up his own report on physical nature of the
manipulations with magnetic field. propulsion.

For example, such projects have been proposed I.M. Shakhparonov (ex-employee of Kurchatov
by G. Bowhon, G. Johnson (USA) and by Robert Institute) has been also preparing similar
Adams together with G. Aspden (Great Britain). experiments. The scientist has already created a
V.V. Mironov, Director General of “New generator of Kozyrev-Dirak Radiation. Moreover,
Civilisation” Co Ltd, has been working at creation he has analysed consequences of the influence
of a gravitational engine made of heterogeneous of the generator on the matter as well as its
metals with a “Veinik ring” at its heart. capability to generate gravitational waves.

The aim is to find a way of controlling


gravitational field near the Earth and other Shielding gravitational aircraft
cosmic bodies.
A protection shield that transmits gravitational
The American researcher Benneth suggested to waves completely or partially, to some physicists’
get propulsion by means of interaction of mind, could facilitate reaching an
electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Though uncompensated moment and making
at first sight the idea seems to be unrealisable, propulsion for flight.
nevertheless the author obtained two patents for
this project at once. The Corpuscular Theory of Matter and some
other theories presume the possibility of finding
As successful experiments of the kind we can cite methods of gravitation shielding or changing its
experiments on “reveal of abnormal weight loss character (repulsion instead of attraction).
of the falling magnets” by a physicist Kelly.
It is beyond question that in case of complete
gravitation shielding in one direction the
Electric gravitational aircrafts attraction of even very distant stars will inevitably
make a spaceship fly in the opposite direction.
Electric gravitational aircrafts are devices in which, The following research works can be marked out
according to the authors, propulsion or among the projects of the kind.
gravitation control results from peculiar
manipulations with electromagnetic field. In 1996 engineers A.V. Murlykin and
S.A. Mikhalev (MAI, “Amur” Co) proposed an idea,
Physicists V.V. Vasilyev and V.Y. Vasilyev (Obninsk which supposedly provided partial shielding of
Nuclear Power Institute) suppose that gravitation the weight of a device. It was expected that a
can be controled by means of resonant interaction material of a certain density could partially shield
of millimetric electromagnetic waves. Dr. Robert the weight of another material of a different
Hatchings Goddard, one of the founders of density.
cosmonautics, projected electric gravitational
engines as well and in 1920 he was even given a To prove this effect mechanical engineer
priority for one of the engines. N. Sorokin (MAI) made two metal samples, each
of them had high density and weighed 1 gram.
Among successful experiments there are known The samples were shaped as a shell with well-
ones on “abnormal deweighing of adjusted walls and there was a ball enclosed
electromagnetic coils” by Japanese physicist inside.
Yonomata.
At Zigel Scientific Conference in Moscow
Several trustworthy experiments, at which the S. Mikhalev announced that he would
author of this review assisted, were made by E.D. demonstrate “a proof of flight of the flying
Pronin (ex-employee of “Energia” Research-and- saucer”. He made a report and only then he
Production Co) and by physicists S.M. Polyakov demonstrated two balls and promised that two
and O.S. Polyakov (Fryazino, Moscow Region). of his tests (the first one – exact weighing of the
separate balls, the second – exact weighing of
the balls when one was inserted into the other) He designed “an experimental device for studying
would reveal the difference in weight… However antigravitational phenomena” and in 1991-1993
the experiment showed no impressive effect. it was being built at “Askold” plant in Arsenyev. E.
Linevich did not open any details of his invention.
What is especially popular among theoreticians Unfortunately production of the device was not
of the gravitational aircrafts, it is not Newtonian completed for in 1999 the author emigrated to the
Law of Attraction, but the Law of Repulsion, USA.
according to which material bodies are pressed
to the planets under influence of the total Engineer Evgeny D. Pronin, former designer of
repulsive force coming from that part of the radio systems for “Energia” Research-and-
Universe which is not screened by a planet or Production Corp. who has become a violinmaker,
another shield. has been working at designing an antigravitational
radiator since the beginning of the 90s. Evgeny D.
Pronin has the richest experience in designing
Antigravitational aircrafts most sophisticated radio systems.

In 1991 R. Forward (USA, “Nullor” Project) It was him who made one of the first TV sets in
presented the best description of the mode of Moscow, but since the 80s he turned into an
functioning of gravitational aircrafts. Imagine ideological antagonist of using the radio waves “for
two huge massive rings (from 97 to 970 m the reason of ecology” and that was why he took
across diameter) and between them in open up working in the field of gravitation.
space there is cargo bay of useful load.
According to Pronin, he succeeded to create his
The upper ring is made of ordinary superdense own project of a gravitational motor-radiator, a
material and attracts both the cargo bay and the certain “gun” that is able to remotely reduce the
lower ring, while the lower ring repulses both weight of bodies.
the cargo bay and the upper ring.
A. Dobrogaev, one of the experts of Kosmopoisk,
At the same time the entire system is to assisted at testing the antigravitational radiator and
accelerate in one direction and the acceleration confirmed that the irradiated bodies did lose their
is controlled by a simple change of the distance weight, though he doubted that it was a fair
between the rings.However there is an experiment.
impediment – the lower ring is to be made of
hypothetical antimatter. It is not clear how In 1993 a member of French Entomological Society
such a giant ring can be produced of antimatter. V.S. Grebennikov (Krasnoobsk, Novosibirsk
Region) announced successful testing of his
Another big problem is the hazard of contact antigravitational propulsor. According to a number
of the two rings. It may result in a very powerful of publications, he made several piloted flights
explosion or (if the annihilation of the solid aboard a levitating platform. (Editor’s: We also wrote
bodies is far from being so catastrophic as, for about the investigation of this scientist more than
instance, in case of gas clouds) once).
microexplosions on the contact area. The
explosions will destroy the rings and push them The entomologist studied the bodies of insects and
apart. discovered the effect of cavity structures. Since
1988 he had been working at disclosure of the
There are less hazardous projects, which in fact principle of flight of a maybug and noticed that
sound even more hypothetical. In the early 90s many of the chitin shells of the insect had rhythmic
E. Linevich, inventor and ex-employee of an microstructures and volumetric microtraceries. To
aircraft repair and overhaul plant, applied for Grebennikov’s mind, the effect of their structures
about 50 patents, including an application for provided levitation ability of the insect’s body.
a gravitational inertial engine.
Later he put forward an idea of making a
All his projects were rejected “because of violation gravitational propulsor on the base of the
of the known laws of Nature”. In 1991 in his work discovered maybug secrets. He built a wooden
“Antigravitational phenomenon of physical bodies” platform of about 0.5 x 0.5 m in size with a
Linevich proposed a project of a magnetoelectrical substrate of the “maybug material”, a control panel
propulsion system for spacecrafts that is able to run and a handle.
on nuclear industry wastes.
According to Grebennikov, on the night of After the inventor’s death in 1998 his successors
March 18, 1990 he successfully tested his and colleagues began using Dodonov’s devices
antigravitational platform with the mentioned named “Corbio” for medical purposes and did
propulsor and realized an independent piloted rather successfully.
flight aboard the levitating platform from
Krasnoobsk to Academgorodok, then he went to Many times the author of this review participated
Severo-Chemskoy district and - across Zatulinka in person in preparing B. Dodonov’s experiments
district - to Tolmachevo Airport and finely went and he made certain that the suspended rotors
back to Krasnoobsk. inside Dodonov’s stators though slowly, but did
begin rotating.
Afterwards his article “Night Flight Aboard a
Gravitational Aircraft” was reprinted from the As for the explanation of this effect (Dodonov
local newspaper by “Technology to the Youth” expected his experiments with a heliciform
magazine and then some other periodicals cited shield–stator to demonstrate “Newtonian
the article many times. repulsion”) yet the real reason is not quite
understood.
However when the author of this review got in
touch with the inventor, the later could not So far only one possible application of the effect
confirm that information. Since the moment of is more or less obvious. The phenomenon is of
the publication in 1993 V. Grebennikov had been little use for providing propulsion for aircrafts
extremely suspicious towards everybody who because the stator is too heavy (light-weighted
took an interest in his inventions. stators are inefficient), but it can be used in power
plants (in view of the heavy weight of the stator
The scientist did not want to cooperate with such plants could be stationary).
manufacturers nor sponsors under the pretence
that only one threatened species of insects It should be noticed that the projects mentioned
showed that discovered antigravitational ability. above use repulsive forces (for instance, repulsive
In this connection Grebennikov was worried forces of aether wind), but not the forces of
about the destiny of those insects in case if their antigravitation.
secret would be disclosed. As a whole the
invention of Grebennikov makes the impression
of a low-grade disinformation.

Meanwhile engineer M. Holverda and Japanese


physicists T. Hashida and H. Tanaka together with
H. Hayasaku are trying to prove the antigravitation
phenomenon in laboratory environment.

Gravitorepulsive shields

One more type of the aircrafts gets propulsion by


means of shielding pressure forces in some
directions. A.K. Titarenko (Moscow Institute of
Aviation) worked at this problem in the early 90s.
But the work remained uncompleted for in 1993
A.K. Titarenko was killed.

In the 80-90s B.P. Dodonov, physicist and


inventor, carried out experiments on the creation
of heliciform stators and he managed to build
several devices with helical and direct shields.
They were up to 6 m across diameter and made
of wood or metal. Dodonov even got a patent
for creation of such a propulsor (patent
#2005505, 1991 for “a propulsor that uses space
power”).
An experiment by Roman E. Solomyanny
Review is prepared by Editor Olga Leontyeva

Editor’s: You can get in touch with Roman E. Within 3 months the device was showing fail-free
Solomyanny by e-mail: evantarian@fct.ru. operation in the initial mode (at that power was not
totally taken off). The device was running at high
The invention is based on a theory saying that all the power during several minutes and then the crystal
ambient space is filled with virtual particles, which collapsed. It happened because we had used gypsum
come in to being and vanish instantly. As is well known, to make the crystal (the use of more advanced
it requires certain energy to generate a couple of materials such as natural rock crystal or highly refined
particles (particle-antiparticle). According to the gypsum gives higher power output). The active body
above-stated theory, all the ambient space is filled with collapsed because its mechanical oscillations
energy. And the following phenomena can evidence exceeded the ultimate stress.
it: relic radiation and practical impossibility of reaching
the absolute zero temperature. During the operation of the device there were
observed the following side effects: self-cooling (as a
The idea to create such a device came to the author result of it, the active body became brittle) and very
as early as in 2000, but its realization took some intensive high-frequency radiation (neon lamps,
time since he had no necessary materials. That was which were at about one meter from the device,
the reason why the experiment was executed only lighted up).
in summer 2002.
At building the device we had difficulties in making
The device consists of two silver plates (silvered the plates. It was necessary to adjust them with high
copper can be used as well). They supply power to precision so the cost of the project rose. Bad
a resonator and take off excess of generated energy. adjustment leads to excessive harmonics. Therefore if
Between the silver plates there is a quartz plate that we want to reproduce the experiment and improve
forms active body of the resonator. This plate is the device then its components should be custom-
made of natural crystal (it has more ordered built and appropriate materials should be used to make
structure) or rock crystal. In order to provide purer crystals.
vacuum there is used a cylinder vacuum chamber 3
with a vacuum-pump nipple. The device also 1
comprises two permanent Fe-Nb-B magnets (in
order to polarise a little the active body) and bracing
for the active body of the resonator. An experiment
with one quartz plate has turned out to be successful
(see the figure). The explanation is that making a 4
device with several plates requires high preseason 6
adjustment of the parts and it is rather difficult to
fix them. 5
The device starts up by means of a simplest high
frequency pulse generator and a power amplifier. 2
Load in the circuit is a mandatory requirement for 1- silver plates 1
operation of the device. The mode of building-up 2- crystal – resonator
oscillations was the initial one (second to the 3- glass chamber, 3 cm thick
calibration mode). The output capacity of the 4- seal point of the crystal
device after the mode of building up oscillations 5- output to the vacuum-pump
was about 20Wt ±2-3Wt. 6- contacts of energy input/output
Report by our correspondent Alla Pashova

The meeting of laureates of the Nobel Prize Science) expressed regret that good international
“Science and Progress of the Mankind” was held in scientific competition did not exist any more, as it
St. Petersburg from 16 through 22 of June 2003. had been provoked by the Cold War between the
Well-known scientists from Belgium, Great Britain, USSR and the USA.
Germany, the USA, Italy, China, Switzerland and
Japan took part in the meeting. During this week Vice Prime Minister Valentina Matveenko hopes
ceremonies alternated with scientific conferences, that Russia will offer to the world market not its oil
round-table discussions and public lectures. All that and gas, but its ideas, innovations and technologies.
gave occasion to remind once again of the great Moreover, Matveenko appealed to the candidates
contribution of Russian scientists into the world and academicians, engineers and designers to “join
science and to read out an impressive list of the the efforts aimed to make Petersburg an innovative
names starting from Mikhailo Lomonosov to Pyotr capital of Russia”. “Petersburg is open for new
Leonidovich Kapitza. progressive ideas” – Valentina Stepanovna said in
conclusion.

On June 17 within the framework of the meeting


there was held a round-table discussion “Problems
of Power Engineering”. It was dedicated to new
methods of energy commutation, transformation
and generation. The first report reminded of the
recent presentation of “Global Energy Prize” that
had been covered in the previous issue of our
magazine. One of the prizewinners, G.A. Mesyatz,
who specializes in the field of powerful pulse
energy, told how Russian scientists had managed
to solve the problem of high currents.

Academician V.E. Fortov presented an interesting


Jores I. Alferov way of electromagnetic energy accumulation. It
has turned out that if we surround xenon or
There is no doubt that the fundamental science hydrogen with a strong electromagnetic field and
requires equally fundamental PR, which would compress them to a solid state it will be possible
attract necessary investments to this sphere. to accumulate huge amount of energy. On this
However we must not forget that even the most principle there was made a magnetic explosion-
brilliant services of the past years cannot be an generator, which enables to reproduce a stroke of
“indulgence” that grants absolution of scientific lighting in the power transmission lines, to
dogmatism. stimulate production of minerals and to check the
protection of high-end control systems against
The authorities (the federal ones!) try to place the electromagnetic terrorism.
emphasis right on the newness and innovations.
However they do not want to lose possible Professor F.G. Ruthenberg (Institute of Problems
economic benefits because of conformism of the in Electrical Physics, Russian Academy of Science)
traditional science. The “dormant” thought must described a technology of energy generation by
be awakened. Therefore in his speech at the means of burning high-toxic wastes (including
opening ceremony Jores I. Alferov (Nobel laureate pharmaceutical industry wastes) that was worked
and Vice President of the Russian Academy of out by specialists of the Institute. The developed
device enables to generate 5 kWt/h by burning “Solar energy is very scattered. Concentrators
1 kg of wastes. (at least parabolic mirrors) are required to
collect such energy. Besides, there is a need in
The report of Jores I. Alferov was about prospects a device that turns the mirrors to follow the Sun
of the application of renewable sources of as well as an accumulating device that stores
energy. The Nobel laureate sees the future of the the energy during the day and distributes it at
world power engineering exclusively in the night and when the weather is nasty. It would
accumulation of solar energy. The reserves of be reasonable to locate solar power plants in
minerals – coal, oil and gas – will be over in deserts but that would require enormous
couple hundred years. depreciation reserves. Moreover, we should
remember that the world mineral resources are
The nuclear power engineering produces too limited. The extractive industry will not be able
many harmful wastes, besides the reserves of to provide photocells production facilities with
uranium in the Earth’s interior will last no more sufficient supply of gallium and arsenic for the
than a hundred years. Alferov proposes not to synthesis of gallium arsenide.
wait till the next energy crisis but to start
realization of a Russian analogue of the German There is an opinion that if we install a wind
project “1000 Roofs” (1990-1995). Let us remind turbine on every house and solar batteries on
that according to this program photovoltaic every roof (with a storage battery in the
power systems were installed on the roofs of basement), and if we consume electrical energy
private houses in Germany. with German economy, then in 2030 it will be
possible to consider the issue of further
At present times, as Alferov pointed out, the licensing of German atomic power-stations.
application multi-gap solar cells (MGSC) However the German APPs will go on
enables to create solar batteries with the functioning. Germany spends annually 505
efficiency that is roughly equal to 78%. And if tons of single-crystalline silicon, buying it up
we locate them not in the overcast Petersburg, from all the world producers. In 25 years they
but in sunny south it will provide Russia with are going to generate one third of the necessary
great amount of cheap electrical energy. Then energy from the renewable sources. Despite of
the solar energy technology will probably turn all the efforts, most of the energy will be
from a hobby of senescent academicians into generated by heat power plants with CO 2
one of the major branches of the modern power emissions to the atmosphere. To my mind, the
engineering. application of such renewable sources of
energy as solar light or wind will not be able to
We asked A.I. Egorov, leading specialist of solve the energy problem of the mankind”.
Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) to
comment the situation. The scientist considers
ideas of J.I. Alferov rather skeptically, alluding
to the opinion of B.P. Konstantinov (the founder
Raum&Zeit
of PNPI):
EhlersVerlag GmbH,
Geltinger Str.14e,
82515 Wolfratshausen
Telephon: 08171/41 84-76,
Telefax: 08171/41 84-66
Internet:
http://www.raum-und-zeit.com

Institut fur Raum-EnergieForschung (IREF) i.m. Leonard Euler

- Global Scaling Theory - Hydrogen-Helium


Energetic
- Gravitation theory - Information
technologies
- Mathematic Biology - Telecommunication
technologies
- Gravitation energetics - Transport
Anton I. Egorov technologies
Review is prepared according to the Patent #2830575, France

There is a description and principles of operation of the device, which was created and patented by
Mikhail Smeretchanski (France). The principle of operation of such gravitational motors allows to get
considerable useful power (for example, in the form of electrical energy) without use of fuel. The main
advantages of such energy sources are their environmental safety and wide application (from
autonomous supplying of separate
dwellings and settlements with light and
Class F03Â-017/04,
heat to complete supplying of factories
Number of the publication 2 830 575,
and plants with energy). There is also a
Appl. No.: 01 11357
possibility to supply back lands with
Filed 03 September, 2001 electrical energy (in such regions distant
Author: M. Smeretchanski power supply is hampered and isolated
generating plants should be used). Besides
among other advantages of these motors
we can also consider the possibility to
improve them and easily assembling
design.

Motion in the device is realized due to the


difference of buoyancy forces which acts
on the opposite arms of the moving
elements. The difference is achieved by
means of purposefully controlled or
forcedly organized change of volumes of
working body of float mechanisms.

This mechanism demonstrates the


possibility to get energy using buoyancy
forces (the Archimedes force) which act
on a body immersed in liquid. This
invention relates to a device allowing the
mechanical production of energy, using
the variable-volumes elements by the
gravitation and the Archimedes force for
its operation. Variable-volumes elements
will change their volumes according to
position of the masses, in their inner parts.

The device is made up of two wheels (1)


and (2) and of the variable-volumes
elements (see Fig.1), which are immersed
and fixed with the links of a chain (8),
producing the difference (∆F) between the
Archimedes forces (F 1) and (F 2) of the
two dimensions of the device, which will
draw the chain in the direction indicated
on the diagram by arrows (9) and cause the
Fig. 1
rotation of the wheels (1) and (2). The
whole device is immersed vertically.

The change of volumes of the elements will take


place according to the position of the masses
inside. Under the action of gravitation masses will
change the volume of the elements, and the
Archimedes force will produce the rotation of the
wheels (1) and (2), according to the positions of
the elements in relation to the axes of the wheels
(see Fig.1). Additional drawings of sectional view
of float elements are represented in Fig. 2-5.

Fig. 5

At turning of a magnetic float the position of the


control magnetic element changes relatively to the
stator (stator turns over 180°). The working volume
changes under the influence of the opposite
direction of forces. Movable magnetic rotor is kept
in a definite permanent position by means of outer
floats.

Method for calculation


of motor and masses
Fig. 2
Gas springs (gas cylinders, which under pressure
are filled with nitrogen) are used in the device.
By the principle of operation these springs are
identical to the components, which are used in
automobiles to open and support a back door.

Let us assume that lower axle of the wheel is at a


depth of 5.5 m (it is meant the distance between
axles of the upper and lower wheel because the
depth where the upper axle is mounted and the
whole motor do not have vital importance). Gas
springs should be selected according to the
difference between the depths of axles of the
Fig. 3 wheels.

Let us assume that axle of the upper wheel is at the


depth of 3 m. Water pressure at this depth comes
to about 0.3 kg/cm 2 . If weight of the
mass is equal to 100 kg then piston area is
100 kg õ 8 (coefficient)=800 cm 2. Let us add 10 kg
of weight to overcome friction. Thus working
weight of the mass comes to 110 kg. Area of the
piston of the float is 800 cm2 .

At the depth of 3 m the pressure to the piston is


800 õ 0.3=240 kg. The piston presses the arm
transmitting to its end the force equal to 240:2=120
kg. Thus at the end of the arm, i.e. at gas springs, we
have 120 kg (see Fig. 1, point B). Let us add 110 kg
Fig. 4 (weight of the mass), then 120+110=230 kg, which
are directed vertically downward. Thus it is
necessary to use gas springs (there are two of them
in the example), which have force of 115 kg To check this principle of perpetual motion the
each. Mass, which is displaced downward under inventor made the model of the motor. Fig. 6
the action of weight (gravitational force) and represents the model of the perpetual motor with
pressure produced by the piston, will “contract” magnetic control elements. Working model was
gas springs. At that, potential energy will be made according to more simple scheme.
accumulated in contracted springs in the form
of propulsive force. Model test demonstrated principal possibility to
produce perpetual motion. In spite of rather
Travel of mass equals to 50 cm, therefore primitive design of the device there was
piston stroke is 25 cm, whence area of the observed stable rotation of the motor.
piston is 800 cm2 õ 25 cm = 20 000 cm/cubical,
which is equal to 20 liters. This work will be According to M. Smeretchanski, he made sure
made between points A and B (Fig. 1). The that law of conservation of energy does not
volume of the element will be decreased by 20 “work” in the case if there is no clear idea on
liters. the nature and interaction of outer
electromagnetic, gravitational or other
When the element, which we mentioned in possible fields and fluxes of particles with
the beginning of the example, in the process existing matter or operating environment.
of displacement (immersion) will be at the Thus the law should be “closed”, at least, in its
level (or almost at the level) of the axel of modern broad understanding as getting of
the lower wheel on the left side (Fig. 1 point energy. It is possible to offer another
D) at the depth of 8.5 m (5.5 m + 3 m=8.5 m) then formulation: “Any force (or forces) can be
water pressure (of about 0.85 kg/cm2 ) will used to produce energy”, or in other words,
act upon the piston. Thus water pressure “To do useful work it is possible to use any
will come to 680 kg (piston area 800 cm2 õ forces including forces of potential fields.”
0.85=680 kg). Please visit:
http://ingenrw.narod.ru/Andv1/Opi2_1.html
At that, traveling over the lower wheel, the float for more information about the invention.
will turn over 180°. To resist this pressure there
is 110 kg of mass in each spring +
115 kg, whence 115 õ 2 + 110 = 340 kg, which
are directed vertically downward. Taking into
account that the middle of the arm pushes the
piston then it will be influenced by the force
of 340 õ 2 = 680 kg.

Thus equal forces act from two sides. In this


case at upper right the piston will be put down
a little lower than 3 m (water pressure will
increase). At the left below it will be put down
a little higher (water pressure will decrease).

If mass below will increase by 5 or 10 kg


(between points C and D, Fig. 1) then under
the action of mass weight and force of the
springs the piston will move downward
increasing element volume by the same 20
liters.

Certainly to liberate energy it is necessary to


reduce speed of rotation of the device in
order to decrease friction losses in water (it
is known that friction losses at transference
in water is proportional to the traverse Fig. 6
speed).
Model of the device

Test of the motor model


Ivan B. Kalugin, Russia
Email: zainullin@fromru.com, slon105@pisem.net

The problem of energy generation was of interest 3. The winding of an industrial CTF will store the
to mankind since time immemorial. Nowadays it amount of magnetic energy that is equal to 15-20
becomes more and more critical and pressing tons of trotyl. If the magnetic winding breaks down
because power requirement increases while it may result in an explosion!Despite of all these
available fuel reserves are limited within 100-300 technical difficulties CTF is regarded as a
years (depending on the sort of fuel we use). prospective trend because one litre of water
contains so great quantity of deuterium that it can
All the energy problems of mankind can be solved substitute for 300 tons of gasoline. That is why
if we succeed in developing CTF (controlled different countries still go on investigating in this
thermonuclear fusion) of hydrogen isotopes. field, in different aspects and basing on various
principles.
The history of CTF goes back to 1945 when a night-
school student from Sakhalin, known to nobody There is a new method of CTF being developed on
in the scientific world, Oleg Andreevich Lavrentyev recent days, which enables the following
(at that time he served as a sergeant) proposed to
use electrical field to provide thermal insulation of 1. To generate so much energy from 1 litre of
fully ionised gases for the purpose of industrial water to substitute for 30,000 tons of gasoline, i.e.
neutralisation of thermonuclear reactions. Later in 100 times more than by means of a classical CTF
1952 similar ideas were also put forward in the USA reactor.
(L. Spitzer). Since then the leading countries of the 2. Fuel for this device is produced several times
world have been carrying out a great number of easier, faster and cheaper. It is fed to the reaction
experiments using devices of different design. zone continuously and in safe doses.
Though within this period they have spent on 3. The required quantity of copper is no more than
research work over 30 milliard dollars in total, the 5-10 kg (instead of 100,000 tons).
target terms of the industrial application of CTF are 4. Gradual fuel heating up to any preset
constantly postponed and the ultimate aim of CTF, temperature and heat maintenance within any
i.e. energy generation at least by an experimental varied period of time (at present no more than 100
device, has not been achieved. If we presume that million °C and 0.01sec).
by now CTF is ready for industrial application, even 5. Over 7 levels of control over the process of
in this case there are a number of impediments: reaction (in the classical process – at most two
levels).
1. The weight of a copper solenoid of 6. The device can be of any dimensions and weight
commercial nuclear reactors can reach 100 according to customer’s wish and applied
thousand tons. And how many reactors of the kind productive capacity.
will we need? Very likely, because of “copper 7. The cost of this experimental device, which is
famine” we will have to reject magnetic already being built according to finished working
thermonuclear fusion at all. drawings, does not exceed 10 thousand dollars. Let
us notice that a cheapest CTF device will cost from
2. A classical CTF requires tritium and deuterium. 10 to 100 million dollars (The international project
Deuterium is generated of plain water by means of of application of an experimental CTF device will
electrolysis (6 litres of water per 1 gram of cost roughly 9 milliard dollars).
deuterium). Tritium is a very expensive isotope (so 8. The industrial variant of the device will be built
expensive that we can just ignore the cost of of ordinary and cheap materials and its cost will be
deuterium). 3-4 times less than the price of an experimental
device of the equal capacity (roughly 100 kW).
Comparative analysis of two future CTF devices

Academician Velikhov’s device (Russian weekly “Itogi”, February 2003, Thermonuclear ITER national)
is compared to I.B. Kalugin’s device (Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia)

Velikhov’s CTF device Kalugin’s CTF device

The realization of the project requires 5 milliard dollars The cost of the project is 100-200 dollars.
(first cost – 9 milliard dollars).

To start the project it is necessary to get a permission of Five of the seven units of the future device have already
the heads of “Big Eight”. been built and the work goes on.

Since the moment of signing a contract it will take 108 Production terms:
months (9 years) to generate plasma. 5 more years – May 30, 2003 – making of 2 remaining units;
for experimenting and 10 years – for designing and by June 15, 2003 – assemblage and adjustment;
construction. by June 30, 2003 – test operation.

A coalition of several leading countries is required. A working device can be built by the authors’ own
strength.

Capital outlays are great. Atomic power plants are Outlays are negligibly small:
considerably simpler than the CTF devices. Sharing in 1% - capital outlays and 0.001% - fuel.
energy costs:
Heat power plants: 25% - capital outlays, 75% -fuel
APP: 80% - capital outlays, 20% - fuel
CTF: 98% - capital outlays, 2% - fuel.

The cost of electrical energy is comparable to the APP The cost of electrical energy will be dozens and hundreds
product. times lower.

Can CTF replace nuclear reactors for ships and Dimensions and capacity can be any varied. Materials –
submarines? The dimensions of a CTF reactor depend the cheapest and the most available.
on the features of present-day materials.

Cyclic mode of operation: start-stop, etc. Any desirable mode of operation.

Conventionally, from one litre of water it is possible to From one litre of water we can generate the same
generate the same amount of energy as from 300 tons amount of energy as from 30,000 tons of petrol.
of petrol.

If superconductive magnetic windings of a CTF break The risk of explosion is absolutely excluded. If the device
down, it will explode. The explosion is equal to an breaks down, it is roughly no different from the
explosion of 10-15 tons of trotyl. breakdown of an electric motor.

The thermonuclear energy era will come (at best) in 24- As early as in 2003 it will be possible to start mass
30 years. production of cheap CTF reactors of any capacity and
dimensions.

Fuel for CTF (deuterium) is generated by means of water Primary fuel production cost is practically equal to zero.
electrolysis. In order to get 1 litre of deuterium it is
necessary to decompose 6,000 litres of water.

There are two parameters of control. There are two or more parameters of control. That is why
the CTF process can be fully automated in any stages and
any modes.

At present nobody offers a thermonuclear automobile. It is offered to work out a CTF design using deuterium-
tritium cycle with electrical energy output 80% and heat
output 20%. (Electrical energy output of classical heat
power plants and APP is 25%). The technology in
question will enable to apply electrical motors to
automobiles instead of internal-combustion engines.

The systems for heating megapolises with CTF are It is possible to heat any freestanding building. There is
located in the outskirts. an absolute independence from central heating systems.
Tough TCF is such a cheap heat and electrical Editor’s: Currently the authors have been
energy source it will not compete with gas, oil and working at elimination of some imperfections
coal, which significance will even rise. As a result of their experimental CTF device. After that they
of growing needs of mankind, they will be used as are going to apply for a patent on the invention.
sources of raw materials for chemical industry.

Edwin Cartlidge, USA

Institute of Physics Publishing, Dirac House,


Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK
Tel. +44 117 930 1002, Fax +44 117 925 1942
http://physicsweb.org

(Editor: This article was published by Physics say that if hydrogen fuel cells replaced all
World Magazine and it first appeared on of today’s oil and gas-based combustion
http://physicsweb.org/article/news/7/6/10). technologies, such losses would double or
even triple the total hydrogen deposited
Hydrogen fuel cells have been widely into the atmosphere at the Earth’s surface.
touted as an environmentally-friendly
alternative to conventional fossil fuels. By “More or less dramatic scenarios are equally
oxidising molecular hydrogen, the only imaginable, but clearly the potential impact on
direct by-product of their energy the hydrogen cycle is great,” say the researchers.
generation is water, which means they
could significantly reduce pollution and Tromp and colleagues say that the hydrogen
man-made greenhouse gases. But a group would be oxidised when it reaches the
of researchers in the US believes that fuel stratosphere, which would cool the stratosphere
cells could themselves have a detrimental and create more clouds.
effect on the environment.
This would delay the break up of the polar vortex
Tracey Tromp and colleagues at the at the north and south poles, making the holes
California Institute of Technology have in the ozone layer larger and longer lasting. They
used models of the atmosphere to show estimate that the extra hydrogen will lead to a
that the inevitable emissions produced by 5-8% rise in ozone depletion at the north pole
fuel cell technology could substantially and between 3 and 7% at the south pole.
damage the ozone layer (T. Tromp et al.
2003 Science 300 1740). The exact scale of this additional ozone
depletion, however, depends on a number of
A completely efficient system of producing, unknown quantities. In addition to uncertainty
storing and transporting hydrogen should, over the extent of hydrogen emissions in the
in principle, lead to no unwanted future, little is understood about how soil
emissions of the gas. absorbs hydrogen from the atmosphere. The
researchers say it is conceivable that this process
But the Caltech researchers point out that could compensate for all new anthropogenic
such a system would be expensive, and that emissions.
in reality around 10-20% of the hydrogen
would escape into the atmosphere. They
From Tesla’s Wireless Ionospheric Electricity
Thomas F. Valone, USA

Integrity Research Institute


1220 L St. NW, Suite 100232, Washington DC 20005
Email: iri@erols.com

Overview millions of dollars annually due to interregional


transmission congestion. There is no longer any
The W a r d e n c l y f f e T o w e r C e n t e n n i a l ( 1 9 0 3  economic incentive nor any FERC eminent
2 0 0 3 ) is an opportunity to celebrate a domain for states to provide rightsofway,
monument to Nikola Tesla’s visionary genius. besides the lack of Federal compensation to
Recently, a resurgence of interest from utilities to build new transmission lines.
prominent physicists has focused on the
unusual method of pulsing a broadband Tesla
coil at a repetition rate of 8 Hz to resonate with
the Earth’s Schumann cavity [1]. Nikola Tesla,
the father of AC electricity, is responsible for
recognizing that an atmospheric and a
terrestrial storage battery already exists
everywhere on earth, for the benefit of
mankind. This is perhaps the “wheelwork of
nature” that Tesla was referring to ( “ . . . i t i s a
mere question of time when men will
succeed in attaching their machinery to the
very wheelwork of nature.” – Tesla
addressing the Amer. Inst. of Elec. Eng.,
1 8 9 1 ) . A century later, only a handful of
visionary scientists recognize the untapped
renewable reservoir of terawatts of electrical
power (3000 gigawatts) that sits dormant
above us, waiting to be utilized.

Background

In 2001, the Bushmandated National


Transmission Grid Study (NTGS 2001) was
designed to identify the major transmission
bottlenecks across the U.S. and identify technical
and economic issues resulting from these
transmission constraints. With deregulation of
U.S. utilities and the lack of jurisdiction for the Fig. 1
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC),
the U.S. is fighting an electrical energy crisis The 187foot Wardenclyffe Tower in 1903 which
which right now, costs consumers hundreds of stood unfinished for the next 14 years

46 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


H i s t o r i c a l l y, t h e c r e a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c a l In 1940, “the United States prided itself on
utilities was beset with scandal, such as using half the world’s electricity [5].”Since
the six years of Congressional hearings 1980, the U.S. has also doubled its
starting in 1928 in which “thousands of dependence on foreign oil and doubled i t s
pages of testimony revealed a systematic, electrical transmission grid inefficiency.
covert attempt to shape opinion in favor From 31 Quads (quadrillion BTUs)
of private utilities, in which half truths generated, a full 2/3 is totally wasted i n
and at times outright lies presented “conversion losses” with only about 11
municipal systems in a consistently bad Quads (3.7 trillion kWh) delivered to the
light [2].” enduser [6]. Instead of trying to build 2
power plants per week (at 300 MW each) for
Today, US AID funds the U.S. Energy the next 20 years (only to have a total of
Association to train utility representatives additional 6 trillion kWh available by 2020),
from the former Russian states on how to as the BushCheney Administration wants to
reliably monitor electricity usage and collect do, we simply need to eliminate the 7 trillion
money from customers in their respective kWh of conversion losses in our present
countries, while those economically electricity generation modality.
challenged people struggle for sufficient
wages.
History of Tesla’s Wireless
At a Washington DC conference which this Energy
author attended, called “Implementing a
National Energy Strategy: Breaking Down The fateful decision in 1905 by J. P. Morgan
the Barriers” also sponsored by the US to abandon Tesla’s Wardenclyffe Tower
Energy Association (12/01), only the project on Long Island (after investing
depressing news about unresolved US $150,000), was a result of learning that it
electricity headaches were discussed. would be designed mainly for wireless
Editor of Energy Daily, Llewelyn King transmission of electrical power, rather than
f i n a l l y c o n c l u d e d , “ W e a r e u s i n g 1 9 th telegraphy. No more money was forthcoming
century technology for electrical for the project that Morgan initiated, even
transmission.” He then called for a paradigm when the equipment cost alone cost about
shift toward new technology and cited the $200,000. Morgan believed that he would
“monster infrastructure problems” within “have nothing to sell except antennas (and
the U.S. as compared to the developing refused) to contribute to that charity [7].”
countries. A year later (June, 2003) the US
DOE held an emergency meeting with utility Tesla tried and tried for years until in 1917
heads as a natural gas crisis looms from the the U.S. government blew up the abandoned
lack of diversification of new electrical power Wardenclyffe tower because suspected
generation facilities. “Innovation in new German spies were seen “lurking” around it.
technology and renewable sources are With Edison as his willing ally, Morgan even
needed in the long term to improve the publicly discredited Tesla’s name, so that all
environment and meet rising demand,” of the five school textbook publishers of the
summarized an Investors Business Daily time removed any reference to him. Any
editor about the crisis [3]. wonder why even today, 100 years later,
hardly anyone knows who Tesla is?
In November, 2002, the American Council
for the United Nations University called for
wireless energy transmission to circumvent In view of our present fossil
the need for transmission lines as part of fuelcaused global warming,
their “Millennium Project.” In cooperation Tesla seems very prophetic
with the National Science Foundation (NSF), from his vantage point of a
NASA, and the Electrical Power Research century ago.
Institute (EPRI), the beaming of microwave
energy and the creation of a world energy
organization was seen to actively address the The rest of this article will present a physics and
2020 challenges to global electricity supply, electrical engineering argument for a
especially in areas of massive urban subsequently forgotten engineering alternative
concentrations [4]. for energy generation and transmission.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 47


in “rarefied air (International patents, as well as
US patents, are now available online from
http://gb.espacenet.com/espacenet/).”

A s Te s l a s t a t e s , “ T h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n
without wires to any point of the globe is
practical with such apparatus would need
no demonstration, but through a discovery
which I made I obtained absolute certainty.
Popularly explained it is exactly this: When
we raise the voice and hear an echo in reply,
we know that the sound of the voice must
h a v e r e a c h e d a d i s t a n t w a l l , o r b o u n d a r y,
and must have been reflected from the
same. Exactly as the sound, so an electrical
wave is reflected, and the same evidence
which is afforded by an echo is offered by
an electrical phenomena known as a
‘stationary’ wave – that is, a wave with fixed
nodal and ventral regions. Instead of
sending sound vibrations toward a distant
wall, I have sent electrical vibrations toward
the remote boundaries of the earth, and
instead of the wall, the earth has replied. In
place of an echo, I have obtained a
Fig. 2 stationary electrical wave, a wave reflected
from afar [9].”
A s Te s l a e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h a 1 . 5 M W
system in 1899 at Colorado Springs, he was Nikola Te s l a ’ s discovery of pulsed
amazed to find that pulses of electricity he propagation of energy does not resemble
sent out passed across the entire globe the standard transverse electromagnetic
r e t u r n e d w i t h “ u n d i m i n i s h e d s t r e n g t h .” waves so familiar to electrical engineers
He said, “It was a result so unbelievable that everywhere. Many engineers and physicists
the revelation at first almost stunned me h a v e d i s m i s s e d Te s l a ’ s w i r e l e s s e n e r g y
[8].” This verified the tremendous efficiency transmission as unscientific without
of his peculiar method of pumping current examining the unusual characteristics and
into a spherical ball to charge it up before benefits of longitudinal waves, which are
discharging it as a pulse of electrical energy, the zcomponent solutions of Maxwell
a “longitudinal” acoustictype of equations.
compression wave, rather than an
electromagnetic Hertziantype of Tesla wrote, “That electrical energy can be
transverse wave. It was therefore, more akin economically transmitted without wires to
to electrostatic discharge than wave any terrestrial distance, I have unmistakably
mechanics. established in numerous observations,
experiments and measurements, qualitative
Tesla also planned to include a s t a t i o n a r y and quantitative. These have demonstrated
r e s o n a n t w a v e c r e a t i o n g l o b a l l y, w i t h i n that it is practicable to distribute power from
the earthionosphere cavity, as part of the a central plant in unlimited amounts, with a
wireless transmission of power. Examining loss not exceeding a small fraction of one per
the pair of 1900 patents #645,576 and cent in the transmission, even to the greatest
#649,621 each using the same figure on distance, twelve thousand miles – to the
the first page, we find in the first patent opposite end of the globe [10].”
t h a t Te s l a h a s d e s i g n e d a q u a r t e r  w a v e
antenna (50 miles of secondary coil wire Te s l a w a s a n e l e c t r i c a l g e n i u s w h o
for a 200 mile long wavelength). More revolutionized our world with AC power in
importantly is the sphere on the top which a way that DC power could never have
is supposed to be a conductive surface ona accomplished, since the resistance of any
balloon raised high enough to be radiating transmission lines, (except perhaps,

48 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


superconductive ones), is p r o h i b i t i v e for to 10 million horsepower (7.5 billion
direct current. He deserved much better watts), and it is designed to serve for as
treatment from the tycoons of his age, than many technical achievements as are
to spend the last 40 years of his life in abject possible without due expense [12].” Tesla’s
p o v e r t y. H o w e v e r, h e w a s t o o m u c h o f a calculated power levels are conservatively
gentleman to hold a grudge. estimated and recently updated with
contemporary physics calculations by Dr.
Instead, regarding the magnifying Elizabeth Rauscher. For example, Professor
t r a n s m i t t e r, Te s l a wrote in his Rauscher shows that the earth’s ionosphere
autobiography, “I am unwilling to accord to and magnetosphere contains sufficient
some smallminded and jealous individuals p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y, a t l e a s t 3 b i l l i o n
the satisfaction of having thwarted my k i l o w a t t s ( 3 t e r a w a t t s ) r e s p e c t i v e l y , so
efforts. These men are to me nothing more that the resonant excitation of the earth
than microbes of a nasty disease. My project ionosphere cavity can reasonably be
was retarded by laws of nature. T h e w o r l d expected to increase the amplitude of
was not prepared for it. It was too far natural “Schumann” frequencies,
ahead of time. But the same laws will facilitating the capture of useful electrical
prevail in the end and make it a power. Tesla knew that the earth could be
t r i u m p h a l s u c c e s s [11].” treated as one big spherical conductor and
the ionosphere as another bigger spherical
conductor, so that together they have
Tesla’s World System parallel plates and thus, comprise a
“spherical capacitor [13].” Rauscher
Te s l a ’ s “ Wo r l d S y s t e m ” w a s c o n c e p t u a l l y calculates the capacitance to be about
based on three inventions of his: 15,000 microfarads for the complete earth
ionosphere cavity capacitor. In 1952, W.O.
1 . The Tesla Transformer (Tesla coil) Schumann predicted the “selfoscillations”
2 . The Magnifying Transmitter (transformer of the conducting sphere of the earth,
adapted to excite the earth) surrounded by an air layer and ionosphere,
3 . The Wireless System (efficient transmission without knowing that Tesla had found the
of electrical energy without wires). earth’s fundamental frequency fifty years
earlier [14].

“All that is necessary,” says Dr. James Corum,


is that Tesla’s transmitter power and carrier
frequency be capable of roundtheworld
p r o p a g a t i o n . ” I n f a c t , Te s l a ( i n t h e L . A .
T i m e s , Dec. 1904) stated, “With my
transmitter I actually sent electrical
vibrations around the world and received
them again, and I then went on to develop
m y m a c h i n e r y. ” D r. C o r u m n o t e s i n a n
article on the ELF (extremely low
f r e q u e n c y ) o s c i l l a t o r o f Te s l a ’ s t h a t t h e
t u n e d c i r c u i t o f Te s l a ’ s m a g n i f y i n g
transmitter was the whole earth
ionosphere cavity [15].

Corum explains that a mechanical analog of


t h e l u m p e d c i r c u i t Te s l a c o i l i s a n e a s i e r
model for engineers to understand [16].
From a mechanical engineering viewpoint,
the “magnifying factor” can be successfully
applied to such a circuit. “The circuit is
Tesla states, “The first World System power limited only by the circuit resistance. At
plant can be put in operation in nine resonance, the current through the circuit
months. With this power plant it will be rises until the voltage across the resistance
practicable to attain electrical activities up is equal to the source voltage. This circuit

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 49


was a source of deep frustration to Edison http://www.kmeyl.de/DemoSet/
because voltmeter readings taken around body_demoset.html. Enter this link at
the loop did not obey Kirchoff’s laws!” As a www.freetranslation.com for English).
result, Edison claimed such a circuit was
only good for electrocution chairs. Te s l a ’ s knowledge of atmospheric
electricity transduction was so extensive
and reliable that Jim Corum, who has been
Earth’s Renewable Energy f u n d e d t o c o n t i n u e Te s l a ’ s w o r k , r e c e n t l y
told me, “You just have to do exactly what
Te s l a ’ s w o r l d s y s t e m a c t i v a t e s t h e e a r t h ’ s Telsa did and you will consistently get the
renewable electrical storage battery which same results he did [20].”
normally sits dormant except during
lightning strikes. Regarding simply the
electrostatic energy storage capacity of the
ionosphere, Dr. Oleg Jefimenko, author of Tesla’s world system activates
E l e c t r o s t a t i c M o t o r s , explains that during the earth’s renewable electrical
one electric storm, the atmospheric e l e c t r i c storage battery which normally
field dissipates at least 0.2 terawatts sits dormant except during
(billion kilowatts), indicating that the lightning strikes.
entire earth must have even more total
available energy [17].

Furthermore, the power loss experienced After returning from his experiments at
b y Te s l a ’ s p u l s e d , e l e c t r o s t a t i c d i s c h a r g e C o l o r a d o S p r i n g s i n 1 9 0 0 , N i k o l a Te s l a
mode of propagation was less than 5% stated, “I f w e u s e f u e l t o g e t o u r p o w e r ,
over 25,000 miles. Dr. Van Voorhies states, we are living on our capital and
“...path losses are 0.25 dB/Mm at 10 Hz,” exhausting it rapidly. This method is
which often is difficult for engineers to barbarous and wantonly wasteful and
believe, who are used to transverse waves, will have to be stopped in the interest
a resistive medium, and lineofsight o f c o m i n g g e n e r a t i o n s [21].” In view of
propagation modes that can dissipate our present fossilfuelcaused global
10 dB/km at 5 MHz [18]. w a r m i n g , Te s l a s e e m s v e r y p r o p h e t i c f r o m
his vantage point of a century ago.
T h e c a p a c i t i v e d o m e o f t h e Wa r d e n c l y f f e
To w e r, l i k e t h e c o n d u c t i v e b a l l o o n o f
Te s l a ’ s ‘ 5 7 6 p a t e n t , i s a k e y t o t h e High Transmission Integrity
understanding of the longitudinal waves. and Low Loss
D r. R a u s c h e r q u o t e s Te s l a , “ L a t e r h e
c o m p a r e d i t t o a Va n d e G r a a f f g e n e r a t o r. Te s l a s t a t e s , “A s t o t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f
He also explained the purpose of power through space, that is a project
Wa r d e n c l y f f e . . . ’ o n e d o e s n o t n e e d t o b e which I considered absolutely certain of
an expert to understand that a device s u c c e s s l o n g s i n c e . Ye a r s a g o I w a s i n t h e
of this kind is not a producer of position to transmit wireless power to any
electricity like a dynamo, but merely a distance without limit other than that
receiver or collector with amplifying imposed by the physical dimensions of the
q u a l i t i e s [19].” globe. In my system it makes no difference
w h a t t h e d i s t a n c e i s . Th e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e
Only a few great physicists like transmission can be as high as 96 or 97 per
Drs. Elizabeth Rauscher, James Corum, cent, and there are practically no losses
and Konstantin Meyl have realized that except such as are inevitable in the
Tesla was very practical when he proposed running of the machinery. W h e n t h e r e i s
the resonant generation and wireless no receiver there is no energy
transmission of useful electrical power. consumption anywhere. When the
(Professor Konstantin Meyl sells a receiver is put on, it draws power. That
“Demo Set” that is a miniature is the exact opposite of the Hertzwave
dual dome like Tesla patent ‘576, a s y s t e m . In that case, if you have a plant of
wireless longitudinal wave 1,000 horsepower (750 kW), it is radiating
demonstration kit, available at all the time whether the energy is received

50 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


or not; but in my system no power is lost. frequency is very biologically compatible
When there are no receivers, the plant [25]. The authors also look at the present
consumes only a few horsepower 100 V/m earthionosphere field and again
necessary to maintain the vibration; it find that raising it by a factor of 4 to 10
runs idle, as the Edison plant when the will pose no ill effects. (Thunderstorms do
lamps and motors are shut off [22].” it all of the time around the world.)

These amazing facts are explained by I n t e r m s o f e c o n o m i c t h e o r y, m a n y


Corum(s) and Spainol, “…the distinction countries will benefit from this service.
b e t w e e n Te s l a ’ s s y s t e m a n d ‘ H e r t z i a n ’ Only private, dispersed receiving stations
w a v e s i s t o b e c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d . Te s l a , will be needed. Just like television and
a n d o t h e r s o f h i s d a y, u s e d t h e t e r m radio, a single resonant energy receiver is
‘Hertzian waves’ to describe what we call required, which may eventually be built
t o d a y, energy transfer by wireless into appliances, so no power cord will be
transverse electromagnetic (TEM) necessary! Just think: monthly electric
radiation…no one wants to stand in front utility bills from oldfashioned, fossil
of a high power radar antenna. For these, fueled, lossy electrified wiregrid delivery
E and H are i n p h a s e , the power flow is a services will be optional, much like “cable
‘real’ quantity (as opposed to reactive T V ” i s t o d a y. I n t h e 2 1 st c e n t u r y, “ D i r e c t
power), and the surface integral of E x H TV” is the rage, which is an exact parallel
(Poynting vector) is nonzero. of Tesla’s “Direct Electricity.”

The case is not so simple in an unloaded Let us fulfill this prophesy of Tesla, making
power system, an RF transformer with a it a t r i u m p h a l s u c c e s s , by supporting a
tuned secondary, or with a cavity resonator. philanthropic, international wireless
In these situations, the fields are in phase power station installed on a remote island
quadrature, the circulating power is to electrify the whole world. The benefits,
reactive and the average Poynting flux is immediately making direct electricity
zero – u n l e s s a l o a d i s a p p l i e d . They available everywhere, are too numerous to
deliver no power without a resistive load. count. ( C o i n c i d e n t a l l y, in Te s l a ’ s
These are clearly the power systems which homeland, the Electric Power Company of
Te s l a c r e a t e d . T h e p o l y p h a s e p o w e r Serbia raised their monthly rates b y 5 0 %
distribution system was created by him in on the day H a r n e s s i n g t h e W h e e l w o r k o f
the 1880s and inaugurated at Niagara Falls N a t u r e was sent to the publisher, while
in 1895. The RF transformer was invented California is now up to 15 cents per kWh,
and patented by him in the 1890s. double the US average.)
Te r r e s t r i a l r e s o n a n c e s h e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y
discovered at the turn of the century. And, B e c o m e e d u c a t e d a b o u t Te s l a ’ s w i r e l e s s
for the next 40 years he tried to bring energy transmission discovery at
through to commercial reality this global http://users.erols.com/iri/tesla.htm and
p o w e r s y s t e m . To d a y, m i l l i o n s o f u s h a v e h e l p c e l e b r a t e t h e Wa r d e n c l y f f e To w e r
working scale models of it in our kitchens, C e n t e n n i a l a t t h e Te s l a E n e r g y S c i e n c e
while the larger version sits idle [23].” Note Conference, November 89, 2003
for a spherical, electrostatic pulse ( w w w. I n t e g r i t y R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e . o r g ) .
discharge, E is radial and H is helical since
J i s r a d i a l (longitudinal or irrotational
current) [24]. Reference

1. Valone, Thomas, Harnessing the Wheelwork


Biological and Economic Impact of Nature: Tesla’s Science of Energy, Kempton,
Adventures Unlimited Press, 2002
2. Utility Corporations, Document 92, U.S.
A n o t h e r c o m m o n c r i t i c i s m o f t h e Te s l a
Senate, 70 th Congress, 1 st Session, 1928. See
wireless power system is regarding its summary by Ernest Gruening, The Public Pays:
possible biological effects. Calculating the A Study of Power Propaganda, New York,
circulating reactive power, Corum(s) and Vanguard Press, 1931
Spainol find a density of a m i c r o V A R p e r 3. Stavropoulos, William “Natural Gas Woes Won’t
c u b i c m e t e r at 7.8 Hz, which is quite Disappear Unless Government Acts” Investors
small, while it is wellknown that such a Business Daily, Perspective, June 2, 2003

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 51


4. “Wireless Transmission in Earth’s Energy Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla’s
Future” Environment News Service, Nov. 19, 2002, Science of Energy, p. 219
http://ensnews.com/ens/nov2002/200211 16. Corum, James, “Tesla & the Magnifying
1901.asp Tr a n s m i t t e r : A Popular Study for
5. Nye, David Electrifying America, Social Meanings Engineers,” in Harnessing the Wheelwork of
of a New Technology, Boston, MIT Press, 1997, Nature: Tesla’s Science of Energy, p. 198
p. 38 17. Jefimenko, Oleg “Original Electrostatic
6. “National Energy Security Post 9/11” U.S. Energy Energy Resources, Electrostatic Generators,
Association, June, 2002, p. 34 and Electrostatic Motors” Future Energy:
7. H.W. Jones, “Nikola Tesla, Generator of Social Proceedings of the Conference on Future
Change,” Proc. of the Inter. Tesla Symp., 1986, p.1 Energy, May 1, 1999, p. 70
89 1 8 . Va n Vo o r h i e s , Kurt, “Prospects of
8. Nikola Tesla, “World System of Wireless Wo r l d w i d e Wi r e l e s s P o w e r, ” i n H a r n e s s i n g
Transmission of Energy,” Telegraph and Telephone the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla’s Science of
Age, Oct. 16, 1927, p. 457. Energy, p. 151
9. Nikola Tesla, “The Problem of Increasing 19. Rauscher, p. 236
Human Energy,” Century, June, 1900 20. Corum, James, private conversation,
10. Nikola Tesla, “The Transmission of Electrical June 15, 2003.
Energy Without Wires as a Means for Furthering 21. Nikola Tesla, 1900, as quoted in “Great
Peace,” Electrical World and Engineer. Jan. 7, 1905, Scientist, Forgotten Genius, Nikola Tesla” by
p. 21 Chris Bird and Oliver Nichelson, New Age,
11. Nikola Tesla, My Inventions, p. 91 #21, Feb. 1977, p. 42
12. Bird and Nichelson, p.74 2 2 . N i k o l a Te s l a , “ M i n u t e s o f t h e A n n u a l
13.Rauscher, Elizabeth, and W. Bise, “Harnessing Meeting of the AIEE,” May 18, 1917.
the EarthIonosphere Resonant Cavity,” in 23. Corum, James, and M. Spaniol, K. Corum
Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla’s “Concerning Cavity Q,” Proceedings of the
Science of Energy, p. 233 International Tesla Symposium, 1988,
14. W.O. Schumann, Z. Naturforsch, 72, p. 149 p. 315
154, 250252, 1952. (See also Jackson, J.D., 24. Jackson, J.D., p. 222 (See also Section
Classical Electrodynamics, New York, J. Wiley, 7.6 and 7.9 for pulse propagation through
1975, p. 363) a highly dispersive medium like the
15. Corum, James, and Ken Corum, “Tesla’s ELF ionosphere or magnetosphere.)
Oscillator for Wireless Transmission,” in 25. Ibid., p. 316.

About the Author

Thomas Valone received his Master’s


in Physics from the State University of
NY at Buffalo (1984) and his
Ph.D. in General Engineering
from KennedyWestern University
(2003). He taught physics, AC
electricity, microprocessors, digital
logic and environmental science at
Erie Community College in NYS (1982
1987), and is the author of several
books and about 100 articles and
reports. Presently, Dr. Valone is
President of Integrity Research
Institute, a nonprofit organization
dedicated to energy research and
public education.

52 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


Sergey S. Makukhin, Russia
Email: makss59@mail.ru

At the close of the 19th alternatively from one end to another. But even
century the great in this case the water in the hose will not be
scientist Nicola Tesla moving the way we need. So, having pulled the
gave to the whole plugs out, let us try to attach a vessel to each end
world a demonstration of the hose (let the vessels have the form of a
of electrical power cylinder).
transmission using
a single incomplete If we mount a plunger in one of the vessels and
and unearthed wire. keep pushing it down we will make water in the
Nevertheless, the nature hose move from the first vessel to the farther one
of this phenomenon (communicating vessels). Then if we pull the
remains obscure till nowadays. It is also known plunger up, as a consequence of wetting the
that Engineer Stanislav Avramenko succeeded to plunger (water adheres to the plunger), water
repeat the famous experiment. But as far as we from the second vessel will flow through the hose
know, mention of the physical nature of this back to the pump vessel.
phenomenon has been never made. The present
article makes an attempt to explain how “it” If we continue the described manipulation then
works. a water current of alternating direction will arise
in the hose. In case if we manage to mount a screw
At the dawn of electrical science there occurred with vanes (a propeller) inside the hose (in any
the idea of existence of a certain electrical liquid, of its point), it will rotate alternatively to both
which is able under certain conditions to flow directions thereby proving the fact that moving
from one body to another and to be both in liquid carries energy in it. A similar process takes
abundance and in shortage. B. Franklin place when we use a single wire.
introduced at his time the notion of positive and
negative electricity. J.C. Maxwell used in his As you know, the electroscope is an elementary
theoretical investigations the direct analogy device for detecting the presence of an electric
between water movement and electricity charge. The simplest model of it consists of a
movement. glass jar with a plastic cap (an insulator). A metal
stick is inserted into the jar through a hole in
It is common knowledge that the electrical the middle of the cap. Over the cap there is a
current is any movement of electrons (in this ball made of the same material as the stick itself.
particular case – their movement in a metal),
which happens when there is the potential There are lightweight strips of foil attached onto
difference. Is there an explanation of the the lower end of the stick inside the jar and
movement of electrons in a single conductor? hanging one opposite to another. The strips can
easily move attracting or repulsing each other.
As an example let us take an ordinary garden hose Let us remember that if we rub an ebony stick
with some water inside it. Both ends of the hose with a patch of wool, the stick will get charged.
are closed with plugs. How to make the liquid Then if we approach it to the upper part of the
move? The only way is to start rotation of the electroscope (to the ball) the foil strips in the
liquid from one end so that to transmit its rotation jar will immediately move apart forming a
to the other end of the hose. To make the liquid certain angle and thereby proving that the
“move” it is necessary to establish an alternating electroscope has got charged.
current in the hose by moving the liquid
When this procedure is finished, let us place ball or sphere with a charged body, e.g. with a
another uncharged (with drooping strips) rubbed ebony stick. This effect must be
electroscope within the distance of three meters alternating: sometimes by approaching,
from the first one. Let us connect both sometimes by taking the stick aside without
electroscopes with a bared wire, holding its touching the ball.
insulated middle part with our fingers. At the
moment when the wire touches the upper balls Theoretically nothing will change if we rotate
of the both electroscopes we will see that the (e.g. using a small motor) two electret balls of
second (initially uncharged) electroscope will unlike charges located diametrically at the near
immediately “come alive” – its strips will set apart sphere or ball. A current will run in the conductor
(forming a smaller angle than it was initially in from the near ball-capacity to the father one and
the first electroscope) and the strips of the first back. It is viable to use an electrostatic machine
electroscope will go a little down. Now the both (that will divide and accumulate charges of the
electroscopes show the presence of charges that opposite sign) or an electrostatic generator with
have been transmitted from the ball-capacity of line supply that will play the same part. In case if
the first electroscope to the ball-capacity of the we supply alternately plus and minus charges
second one. from the electrostatic generator to the near
sphere (we may obtain such alternation by using
The charges of the both electroscopes have two relays or semiconductor switches), then
equalized. It is clear that in this case electrons electrons in the wire will run from the distant
have flown from one electroscope to another ball-capacity at supplying a plus charge and they
and instantaneous current has arisen in the wire. will run back at a minus charge. We should
If we obtain first charging and then discharging mention that when potential difference arises in
of the first electroscope from one end in constant the wire then the strength of electrical field in
duty, it will be evident that an electrical current our process becomes constant. Now when
of alternating direction will run in the wire electrons have a place where they can flow to (to
between the electroscopes. Let us mention that the balls-capacities) we may excite alternating
the first electroscope is to be charged with one current by applying the method of
sign and discharged with the opposite one. electromagnetic induction. In other words if a
part of the conductor is coiled then forcing it
You can find a description of this process in any dynamically with a magnet will entail the same
of full-length physics textbooks. But they never result. Thus for this purpose one might use a
mention that it is possible to make the process transformer as well. The current can also result
constant or how it can be applied either. It seems from exciting opposite ball-capacities in turns,
to be strange enough that such a problem can i.e. from the both sides. In order to obtain a big
bring many investigators to a nonplus. potential of the ball-capacities (by their direct
charging or using the method of electrostatic
To develop the subject, let us note that we can induction) we may apply a well-known principle
obtain the same continuos process (i.e. single of Van der Waals generator. By means of such a
wire excitation of alternating current) using the generator it is possible to obtain a potential of
well-know method of electrostatic induction millions of volts and, consequently, rather high
(field effect). For that it is enough to excite a near voltage.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Fig. 3

In addition let us remind that lighting strikes Besides, the principle of modulation-
sometimes from clouds (from above), sometimes demodulation can be applied to single-wire
upward from the earth and sometimes between transmission as well. It should be noted that
thunderstorm clouds. This is one more indirect energy and information transmission is viable in
proof of the fact that it viable to transfer AC using case if we induce the magnetic field of the planet
a conductor. Besides it is also worth mentioning from “this” point”.
that alternating current can be transformed into
direct current. We will not dwell on the “torsion” principle of
single wire transmission of electrical energy (in
So if we install appropriate (new) generators to this case both the electrical field and,
electrical power plants then old electrical power correspondingly, electrons rotate from one end
transmission lines will be able to transmit higher to another transmitting this rotation in a wire to
wattages than they transmit today because its opposite end). Maximal length of the wire
transmission of the same amount of power will depends on the amount of a potential on the
require less quantity of wires (the rest of the wires ball-capacity. The capacity itself depends on its
will be released). own radius.

Using the abovementioned method it is possible Let us consider some questions that N. Tesla
to transmit electrical energy in the form of probably never investigated. A hypothesis that
excitation of an electrical field from “this” side may be working – that is to say a viable one – is
to any distant point of the planet. It is related presented below. The author carried out the
with that the Earth is a large conductive globe following experiment. A cylindrical permanent
(and a charged one), besides charges can be magnet was suspended on a thread. When the
divided – polarized to opposite ones. magnet set still, another analogous magnet was
carried to it at a certain distance. The second
On the whole by receiving an initial signal by magnet was oriented towards the first one with
means of an appropriate receiver of the antipodal its opposite pole.
point we have obtained not only a way of power
transfer, but also a way of information At that there was observed a certain deviation of
transmission. As we modulate a signal in one the first magnet. The first suspended magnet was
point, in the other point it is demodulated. fixed from both sides. So the magnet could move
only in one plane, strictly within the arch that abrupt pulse of the magnetic field, this energy
depended on the radius of the suspension. Then may be received on the other end of the
the experimenter struck the field of the second conductor with a magnetic field receiver. If we
intermediate stationary magnet (all the magnets take a solid metal wire and magnetize it so that
were oriented one to another with opposite the field lines are oriented parallel to the field
poles) abruptly with the field of a third magnet. axe, in this case we will also obtain a new
As a result of it the first magnet, which was conductor able to play the mentioned role, that
located on the other side of the intermediate is to transmit a pulse through the magnetic field
stationary magnet, also bounced abruptly aside. of the “wire” from its one end to another.

Most probably, there was a pulse transmitted in We can apply the same principle to like charged
the magnetic fields of these interacting magnets. balls or more precisely to electret (like) balls or
It reminds another well-known effect: if we to an electret (solid) wire. But in this case we will
place ten contacting balls in one line on a have to “strike” with an electrical field from one
horizontal flat surface and hit the outermost side so that to transmit a pulse to the other end.
ball, then nine balls stand still and the last ball
on the opposite end rebounds. The author believes that realization of the idea
described above will entail creation of a new
If it is possible in case with the balls, then why generation of technical devices and that single
should it be impossible with a row of magnets wire transmission of non-mechanical energy is
that are oriented with opposite poles one to viable.
another and are rigidly fixed to a flexible tube?
If we run energy through this new “wire” by
preliminarily exciting one of its ends with an
Review by our correspondent Alla Pashova

Refrigeration is part and parcel of power The wheel is arranged to pass through a gap in the
engineering. It always presupposes that driving magnet where the magnetic field is concentrated.
refrigerating machines require some energy. The As the segment passes through this field, the
power consumption of modern refrigerating gadolinium in the wheel exhibits a large
machines ranges within several dozens of watts to magnetocaloric effect and as a result the segment
thousands of kilowatts. The refrigerating capability heats up. After the gadolinium enters the field,
of large refrigerating plants varies from hundred water is circulated to draw the heat out of the
thousands to several millions of kJ per hour. That metal. As gadolinium leaves the magnetic field, the
means their electrical energy inputs are great. But material cools further as a result of the
what will you say about a refrigerator that does not magnetocaloric effect of the opposite sign.
require electrical power supply? Is it science fiction?
No, it is a reality! A second stream of water is then cooled by the
gadolinium. This water is then circulated through
cooling coils of the refrigerator. The overall result
Achievement of foreign is a compact unit that runs virtually silent and
investigators nearly vibration free, without the use of ozone-
depleting gases, a dramatic change from the
A magnetic refrigerator has been designed and vapor-compression-style refrigeration
built by common efforts of scientists technology in use today.
from Astronautics Corporation of America
(http://www.astronautics.com) and Ames “The permanent magnets and the gadolinium
Laboratory (http://www.ameslab.gov). This working medium do not require any energy inputs
refrigerator has a rotary configuration that to make them work,” – states Professor Karl
consists of a wheel containing segments of Gschneidner, Ames Laboratory leading
gadolinium powder and a high-powered investigator, “so the only energy it takes is the
permanent magnet (Fig.1) electricity for the motors to spin the wheel and
drive the water pumps.”

Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) that lies in the heart


of the magnetic refrigerator was disclosed as early
as 1881. Its essence is in the ability of matters to
heat and cool under the action of magnetic field.
Changes in temperature are caused by energy
redistribution between a system of magnetic
moments of atoms and a system of magnetic
moments of the crystal lattice.

Solid working medium of magnetic refrigerators


serves as a refrigerant (freon or carbon dioxide).
Magnetization and demagnetization are
analogous to cycles of compression and
expansion. A change in entropy per a unit of
volume is seven times higher than in gases.

Theoretically magnetic refrigerators are to be the


same times more compact. But their realization
Fig. 1 requires peculiar materials: high-powered
magnets and sensitive working media. Ames According to eyewitnesses, the demonstrated
Laboratory scientists have been working at their refrigerator did not look like having been finished
creation. Two of their recent developments could by industrial designers. It had the form of a box about
lead to even greater advances on the magnetic 50 cm high and 50 cm wide with tubes and wires
refrigeration frontier. connected to a 6V battery. The sides of the box were
transparent so the audience could watch the device
Gschneidner and fellow Ames Laboratory rotating. There was an electronic thermometer
researchers Sasha Pecharsky and Vitalij Pecharsky connected to the prototype that monitored
have developed a process for producing kilogram refrigeration speed: roughly 2 degrees per minute.
quantities of Gd5(Si2 Ge2 ) alloy using commercial-
grade gadolinium. Gd5(Si 2Ge2 ) exhibits a giant The Ministry of Power Engineering of the USA and
magnetocaloric effect which offers the promise NASA have been financing research work in the field
to outperform the gadolinium powders used in of magnetic refrigeration for 20 years. The
the current rotary refrigerator. demonstrated domestic magnetic refrigerator has
been already called “the most dramatic advance in
When the alloy was first discovered in 1996, the today’s power engineering of the USA”.
process used high-purity gadolinium and resulted
in small quantities (less than 50 grams). However,
when lower-quality commercial-grade Russian projects
gadolinium was used, the magnetocaloric effect
was only a fraction, due mainly to interstitial Russia does not look like joining these engineering
impurities, especially carbon. The new process races. The Russian Minister of Power Engineering is
overcomes the deleterious effect of these far from being enthusiastic about the competition
impurities, making it viable to use less expensive “Who is the First to Built a Magnetic Fridge?» (His
commercial-grade gadolinium to achieve roughly American colleague, conversely, was impressed by the
the same magnetocaloric effect as the original mentioned working prototype). However Russian
discovery. tardiness is not as great as it may seem. The fact is that
our specialists took active part in developing
At the same time, Ames Lab researchers David Jiles magnetic fridges.
and Seong-Jae Lee, along with Vitalij Pecharsky
and Gschneidner, have designed a permanent They investigated concurrently with Ames Laboratory
magnet configuration capable of producing a by means of the same scientific grants. Moscow State
stronger magnetic field. University (Faculty of Physics) still holds the lead in
fundamental investigations in this field. Specialists of
The new magnet can produce a magnetic field the faculty worked out efficient alloys for working
nearly twice as high as that produced by the media of magnetic refrigerators much earlier than
magnet used in the initial refrigerator, an their American confreres.
important advance since the output and efficiency
of the refrigerator is generally proportional to the Moreover, several free-lance experimenters
strength of the magnetic field. The group has filed have been carrying out their own research.
patent applications on both the gadolinium alloy G.M. Kuznetzov (Honoured Inventor) and
process and the permanent magnet. A.N. Zagnetov (Candidate of Technical Sciences)
have been cooperating about eight years.
“These are important advances, but it will require
additional testing to see how much they will They have offered a number of technical projects in
enhance refrigeration capabilities,” Gschneidner the field of power engineering, transport, raw
said. “Progress (in this field) is measured in small materials extraction and processing. At the website
steps and this is just another of those steps. http://re-energy-tran.narod.ru they try to bring
However, we have come a long way since first attention of investors to their engineering solutions:
announcing the giant magnetocaloric alloy five “While many countries of the world are spending
years ago.” dozens of years and dozens of milliards of dollars
on developing technologies of the kind, using
To celebrate another step forward Ames technical equipment and highly qualified
Laboratory scientists used their magnetic personnel of hundreds and thousands of research
refrigerator to demonstrate cooling of a bottle of institutes, the authors have succeeded to create
Champagne to the audience at Big Eight these practically “homemade” devices without
Conference in Detroit. federal, regional or sponsor financing». One of their
developments is an “alternative” refrigerating plant
with output > 100%, that does not require electrical temperature scattered heat into electrical energy”
energy supply. – the authors state. The Table given below
presents comparative analysis of the refrigerator
«Today we have all prerequisites at both “ZIL” and the new model according to some of
theoretical and practical levels that make it viable their specification figures:
to solve the problem of converting low- As it is evident from the Table, the alternative

¹ Specification Model

ZIL New model

1. Refrigeration output 1.0 100.0 and more

2. Power Consumption, W 150.0 6.0

3. Weight of the refrigeration unit, kg 18.0 26.0

refrigerator is rather lightweight and requires refrigerators that require neither expensive nor
practically no power supply to make it exotic materials.
work. The only energy it takes is the electricity
to make it start. The authors promise: if someone Doctor of Technical Sciences V.A. Zysin got his
invests a million dollars in their development, certificate of recognition # 591667 as early as
the project will be realized within a year in 1978. It was a description of his non-drive
and the expenses will be covered within refrigerator that worked using the heat of
eight months. As for magnetocaloric cooled bodies. Zysin’s refrigerators operated by
effect, the Russian leader in its studying is the means of “triangle cycles” invented by him.
company “Advanced magnetic technologies Since 1962 they were manufactured in small
and c o n s u l t i n g ” ( h t t p : / / w w w . n d f e b . r u ) . lots. Their operation did not need any energy
A l e x a n d e r T i s h i n , D o c t o r of Physics and inputs.
Mathematics and chief of the laboratory of
Faculty of Physic (Moscow State University), Standard refrigerating cycles comprise
heads the company. Researchers of the company expansion of refrigerating liquid and
are co-authors of over 70 scientific works in this compression of product vapours followed by
field and holders of five certificates of recognition their condensation. Operation cycles of the
and patents. (Editor’s: Read the article by E.N. kind do require energy inputs. In the upshot
Tishina for more detailed information on the both consumed energy and internal energy of
projects of “Advanced magnetic technologies and the working medium are released outside. This
consulting” Co). disadvantage is partially neutralized when the
working medium is cooled using an advanced
cycle that integrates the following processes:
Concurrent investigations or
original projects? • expansion of refrigerating liquid and doing
work of the expansion,
If Russian physicists do not succeed either in
the application of magnetocaloric effect at the • compression of product vapours followed
international level or in developing Russian by their condensation,
analogue of the magnetic refrigerator, perhaps,
it is expedient to recollect well-forgotten old • rising the pressure of the residuary liquid
projects of Soviet times? It is viable to totally phase up to its condensation pressure,
eliminate energy inputs of standard
refrigerating machines (that use refrigerants) • the liquid phase takes off the heat of the
in case if we do certain technical upgrades cooled medium and heats immediately up to its
(incidentally, such upgrades are invented ages condensation temperature,
ago). So the machines will turn into free-
running refrigerators, or alternative magnetic • the liquid phase is mixed with the liquid
generated as a result of the condensation of expander (1) up to a temperature exceeding the
vapours. temperature of ambient air. The separator (2)
separates a vapour phase out of the generated
V.A. Zysin offered to improve this rather an liquid-vapour mixture. The vapour phase is
uneconomical method. For that it was necessary condensed in the condenser (3). Then it is mixed
to provide more effective use of the heat of up with residuary liquid phase, transferred by
cooled media for doing work. Before cooling in means of the pump (4) and heated in the heat
a refrigerating cycle, the temperature of exchanger (5) without changing its aggregative
working medium dropped down to a state.
temperature exceeding the temperature of
ambient air. In the refrigerating cycle the refrigerant is
expanded using the expander (6). The generated
The released heat was engaged in an auxiliary liquid-vapour mixture is separated with the
expanding cycle with doing work. At the same separator (7). The separated vapour phase is
time the lowest and the highest temperatures of compressed in the compressor (8) and condensed
the auxiliary expanding cycle were kept at a in the condenser (9). The liquid phase is transferred
certain level (so that the sum of output works by means of the pump (10) and heated in the heat
in the both cycles of operation would exceed exchanger (11) without changing its aggregative
the sum of input works in the same cycles). state until its temperature exceeds the temperature
of ambient air. The heated liquid phase is mixed
V.À. Zysin’s refrigerating machine consists of with condensed vapours and the refrigerating cycle
two circuits: a refrigerating cycle and an is repeated once again.
expansion one. The expanding circuit
comprises an expander (1), which outlet is Cooling is effected in the heat exchangers (5, 11)
connected to a separator (2). The vapour line by means of refrigerants. Energy for driving all the
of the separator (2) is connected to the inlet of pressure machines of the cycle (pumps 4, 10 and
a condenser (3). The liquid line is connected to compressor 8) is generated with the expanders (1,
the outlet of the condenser (3) and to a transfer 6). To simplify the device we can replace the
pump (4). The outlet of the pump (4) is expander (6) with a throttle.
connected to a heat exchanger (5). The
refrigerating cycle contains an expander (6) Refrigeration of working medium without energy
connected to a separator (7). The vapour line inputs is viable under the following conditions. In
of the separator (7) is connected to a condenser the expanding cycle output of the expander is 0.65,
(9) through a compressor (8). The liquid line of output of the pump is 0.80 and the output of the
the separator (7) is connected to a heat compressor is 0.85. The expander of the
exchanger (11) through a transfer pump (10). refrigerating cycle is replaced with a throttle. The
temperature of outer working medium drops from
363° Ê down to 283° Ê (while the temperature of
ambient air is 293° Ê). If the lower temperature of
the expanding cycle and the higher temperature
of the refrigerating cycle are kept at the level of 301°
Ê, then output work of the expanding cycle will
exceed the sum of input works of the both cycles.

Hence, it was possible to build refrigerating plants


requiring no energy inputs on the basis of the
scheme offered by V.A. Zysin and his colleagues
from Polytechnic Institute as early as in 1978. If
today’s manufacturers of refrigerating devices do
not dare to finance the application of magnetic
refrigerators, why not they start series production
of free-running refrigerators designed by V.A.
Zysin? It will result in dramatic reducing the
amount of power consumption for domestic and
industrial refrigeration.
Fig. 2

The device operates as follows: in the expanding


cycle refrigerating liquid is expanded using the
Ekaterina N. Tishina, Russia

“Advanced Magnetic Technologies and Consulting” Co Ltd.


Suite 303, 7/1 Debrenevskaya Emb., 115114, Moscow
Tel.: (095)799-56-14, Fax: (095)787-81-78

Up to the present day the problem of magnetic keeps in touch with scientists working in this field
refrigeration is solved in our country only at a level in a number of universities and national laboratories
of research laboratories. Though in the beginning of the USA, Europe and China. At present the
of 90s Russian scientists carried out the first company holds one of the largest collections of
investigations on the theory and practice of works on the magnetocaloric effect (about 500
application of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) to copies of articles, reports, etc). Researchers of the
magnetic refrigerating machines. In particular, the company are co-authors of over 70 scientific works
Faculty of Physics under the direction of A.M. Tishin, in this field and holders of five inventor certificates
Doctor of Physics and Mathematics (Moscow State and Russian Federation patents in this field. A
University) for many years has been searching number of fundamental reviews on the
optimal materials for magnetic refrigeration within magnetocaloric effect and magnetic refrigeration
various temperature ranges. The investigators have have been published abroad in various books and
fulfilled serious analysis of numerous combinations encyclopedias. In 2003 the Institute of Physics
of rare earth and magnetic metals and other (Oxford, UK) is going to publish the following book
substances. It has been found that the alloy of by leading scientists of the company: A.M. Tishin,
rhodium and iron Fe49Rh51 has the maximal known Yu.I. Spichkin, The Magnetocaloric Effect and Its
specific MCE several times exceeding the MCE of the Applications.T he company is also engaged in
materials that are usually used in the investigations development and manufacture of experimental
on magnetic refrigeration. equipment for measuring magnetocaloric
characteristics within the temperature range from
5 to 500 Ê and more. AMT&C employees have
recently applied for 8 Russian Federation patents.

In December 2001 the company got a Russian


Federation patent for the invention of “Working
body for magnetic refrigerators made on the basis
of magnetic polynuclear complexes”.

The invention has to do with refrigerating equipment


and can be applied to magnetic refrigerating
machines operating at temperatures below 20 - 50
K. The inventors offer to use a superparamagnetic
Fig. 1 material based on magnetic polynuclear complexes
of transition metals as a working body in magnetic
Principle of operation of a magnetic refrigerator refrigerators. This material is characterized by a high
http://www.ndfeb.ru capacity to change the magnetic part of entropy
under the action of a magnetic field. It is essential for
One of the major research and development increasing the efficiency of operation of magnetic
activities of Advanced Magnetic Technologies and refrigerators at temperatures below 20 - 50 Ê. The
Consulting Co Ltd (AMT&C) is creation of new working body is a magnetic powder material. Its
magnetic materials suitable for using as working originality consists in using superparamagnetic
bodies in magnetic regenerators. The company polynuclear complexes of transition metals as a
magnetic material for the sake of higher (Moscow State University) for many years. To our
effectiveness. The polynuclear complexes contain regret, Russian scientists have not enough funds for
3d transition metals (such as Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr) and 4f carrying out development work of the kind. Beyond
transition metals (such as the rare-earth metals Nd, any doubt, if federal or commercial structures
Gd, Tb, Tm or their alloys). The mentioned provide their appropriate financial support it will
polynuclear metal complexes are used in a free form be possible to develop such a technology and start
and applied onto a non-magnetic high-porous manufacturing magnetic refrigerators in Russia. To
supporter such as Al2O 3 or SiO2 . Creators of the our mind, in the nearest future all the interested
abovementioned working prototype of a magnetic parties should be engaged in investigations on
refrigerator have been cooperating with researchers magnetic refrigeration.
from Advanced Magnetic Technologies and
Consulting Co Ltd and the Faculty of Physics

Energy generation by using of atmospheric oxygen and


solution of table salt

http://www.regnum.ru/expnews/95069.html,
http://www.cktvvc.ru/start_ielm.asp

Chemical electric power supply of a new kind was As compared with nonreusable galvanic elements
created in the “Uralelement” factory (Russia). It is and different accumulators, which require to be
metal-air current sources (MACS). The main advantage recharged from the electrical supply network,
of the novelty is that there are no electrodes with MACS-batteries are fundamentally new pollution-
oxidants in it, which define electric capacity of the free current sources, which do not require to be
most of batteries. Oxygen of a common air is used as recharged from the electrical supply network. Their
oxidant and solution of table salt is used as electrolyte recharging is realized by mechanical changing of
that provides environmental safety of the invention. anodic plates and simultaneous replacement of the
These current sources do not require to be recharged salt electrolyte, which at discharging consumes
from the electrical supply network and their operation water and is densified by reaction products (they
life comes to 5 thousand hours. According to the are derived at consumption of anodes). Water
estimations of specialists, this invention clears new way solution of table salt serves as electrolyte.
for autonomous power engineering and is very Concentration of salt comes to 120-170 g/liter. It
promising. is possible to use water from any reservoir as well
as seawater.

Positive electrode is gas-diffusion one. It is


nonconsumable and allows using atmospheric
oxygen as oxidant. Negative electrode represents
a plate made of magnesium or special-property
aluminum alloy.

At present, Moscow “Center for commercialization


of technologies” offers different electro-batteries
consisting of MACS to its customers. Such electro-
batteries could be used in private life as home
electric power stations or autonomous power
Fig. 1 sources.
Alan L. Francoeur, Canada
Email: al.f@shaw.ca
http://www.fortunecity.com/greenfield/bp/16/interference.htm

Editor: Read more on the device and experiments by Alan L. Francoeur in the next issue of our magazine.

Interference disc electric generator is an improved version of the Ecklin generators. It seemed logical
that to produce electricity more efficiently the design of the generator had to be altered to rotate less
internal mass with a balanced rotor disc. At the same time it has to allow for a collapsing magnetic field
within the coils without rotating the magnets or the coils.

Using more powerful neodymium magnets and amorphous coils, the system was designed in such
a way as to allow the flux to circulate in a magnetic loop while incorporating magnetic shielding.
Some simple experiments with magnetic shielding were performed. At that iron strips, ceramic
magnets and small transformers were used. The magnets and the transformer were positioned
stationary opposite of each other with an air gap between the magnet and the transformer.

Once the apparatus was assembled the author proceeded to move the metal strips in and out of
the air gap between the magnet and the transformer which has produced an AC pulse in the
stationary coil. Using this principal and refining the design there was built a mechanical device
incorporating magnetic shielding into the design. It was named the Interference Disc Generator
being that the metallic thin iron disc interrupted the magnetic field in the air gap (neutral zone)
between the coils and magnets.

This method is unique in that it produces electricity with greater efficiency due to both the magnets
and coils being stationary, brushes and a commutator in this design are not needed and it requires
very little startup torque.
Howard Johnson Motor
Review prepared by our correspondent Alla Pashova

In April 1979 Howard Johnson patented a motor, magnets results from the relationship of the length
which operates on permanent magnets of the armature magnet in the direction of its path
(# 4,151,431). It is an object of the invention to of movement as related to the dimension of the
utilize the magnetic spinning phenomenon of stator magnets, and the spacing therebetween, in
unpaired electrons occurring in ferromagnetic the direction of the path of armature magnet
material to produce the movement of a mass in a movement.
unidirectional manner as to permit a motor to be
driven solely by magnetic forces as occurring This ratio of magnet and magnet spacings, and
within permanent magnets. In the practice of the with an acceptable air gap spacing between the
inventive concepts, motors of either linear or stator and armature magnets, will produce a
rotative types may be produced. It is an object of resultant force upon the armature magnet which
the invention to provide the proper combination displaces the armature magnet across the stator
of materials, geometry and magnetic magnet along its path of movement.
concentration to utilize the force generated by
unpaired electron spins existing in permanent In the practice of the invention movement of the
magnets to power a motor. armature magnet relative to the stator magnets
results from a combination of attraction and
Whether the motor constitutes a linear repulsion forces existing between the stator and
embodiment or a rotary embodiment, in each armature magnets. By concentrating the magnetic
instance the “stator” may consist of a plurality of fields of the stator and armature magnets the
permanent magnets fixed relative to each other motive force imposed upon the armature magnet
in space relationship to define a track, linear in is intensified, and in the disclosed embodiments
form in the linear embodiment, and circular in such magnetic field concentration means are
form in the rotary embodiment. An armature disclosed.
magnet is located in spaced relationship to such
track defined by the stator magnets wherein an The disclosed magnetic concentrating means
air gap exists therebetween. The length of the comprise a plate of high magnetic field
armature magnet is defined by poles of opposite permeability disposed adjacent one side of the
polarity, and the length of the armature magnet is stator magnets in substantial engagement
disposed relative to the track defined by the stator therewith. This high permeability material is thus
magnets in the direction of the path of movement disposed adjacent poles of like polarity of the
of the armature magnet as displaced by the stator magnets. The magnetic field of the armature
magnetic forces. magnet may be concentrated and directionally
oriented by bowing the armature magnet, and the
The stator magnets are so mounted that poles of magnetic field may further be concentrated by
like polarity are disposed toward the armature shaping the pole ends of the armature magnet to
magnet and as the armature magnet has poles concentrate the magnet field at a relatively limited
which are both attracted to and repelled by the surface at the armature magnet pole ends.
adjacent pole of the stator magnets, both
attraction and repulsion forces act upon the Preferably, a plurality of armature magnets are
armature magnet to produce the relative used which are staggered with respect to each
displacement between the armature and stator other in the direction of armature magnet
magnets. movement. Such an offsetting or staggering of the
armature magnets distributes the impulses of
The continuing motive force producing force imposed upon the armature magnets and
displacement between the armature and stator results in a smoother application of forces to the

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 65


armature magnet producing a smoother and • U.S. patent number 5,402,021 “Magnetic
more uniform movement of the armature propulsion system” (March 28, 1995).
component.
Nowadays there are may be found many
In the rotary embodiment of the permanent publications by authors who tell about their
magnet motor of the invention the stator magnets attempts to reproduce Howard Johnson motor.
are arranged in a circle and the armature magnets For example, Steven Walker made a device,
rotate about the stator magnets. Means are which was working within two months.
disclosed for producing relative axial
displacement between the stator and armature An American engineer (unfortunately, only his
magnets to adjust the axial alignment thereof, and name – Richard is known) gathered a group of
thereby regulate the magnitude of the magnetic likeminded people in order to reproduce the
forces being imposed upon the armature magnets. device using standard units. More detailed
In this manner the speed of rotation of the rotary information is presented at the webpage
embodiment may be regulated. devoted to the researches by Tom Berden:
h t t p : / / w w w. g r e a t e r t h i n g s . c o m / N e w s /
Special magnets of curved shape are used in the FreeEnergy/Directory/Howard_Johnson_Motor/
device (see Fig. 1). Force vectors of each magnet are TomBearden/index.html.
directed in such a way as to create constant torque.
Power of the working prototype comes to 5 kWt. Not long ago a researcher Douglas Mann
published original drawings of the motor
U.S. Patent April 24, 1979 4,151,431 ( h t t p : / / w w w. g r e a t e r t h i n g s . c o m / N e w s /
FreeEnergy/Directory/Howard_Johnson_Motor/
Douglas_Mann/index.html):

Fig. 2
Fig. 1
This figure of the motor was published in Science
In Howard Johnson patents there is a detailed & Mechanics magazine (USA) in 1980 along with
description of his devices: a brief article about this amazing motor, which
generates energy only by means of permanent
• U.S. patent number 4,151,431 “Permanent magnets.
magnet motor” (April 24, 1979)
Editors of New Energy Technologies magazine will
• U.S. patent number 4,877,983 “Magnetic be glad to receive comments to this publication
force generating method and apparatus” from the authors who try or already have
(October 31, 1989) reproduced Howard Johnson motor.

66 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


Vyacheslav I. Bogomolov, Russia

In the article by V.I. Bogomolov there is considered a physical principle to generate excess mechanical energy.
Details of construction allow accelerating the rotor of the generator with no use of external power source.
We are working at realization of this idea. Please, send your comments to the following address: Faraday
Lab Ltd, Lev Tolstoy Str. 7-601, 197376, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Design of the device is presented in Fig. 1. Watt the body and by virtue of law of conservation
centrifugal governor is mounted at a shaft of a of angular momentum (angular momentum
reversible electrical machine (motor-generator). L=mR2ω1=const) the work of the spring, which
The centrifugal force of inertia F cen=mω ω1 2 R 1 was cocked at the first stage, will cause increase of
appears when there is reached a definite angular kinetic energy and increase of angular speed of
speed ω1 of the loads, which rotate at the shaft and these loads. This work is made to transfer masses
have total weight m. This force of inertia allows the of the loads m at the radius of curvature R 1-R 2
work of centrifugal forces Acen =FR1, i.e. it moves against the centrifugal forces F cen.
apart weighted levers at a maximal radius of
curvature of rotational trajectory R1 . At that a spring W=1/2mR1 2ω12-1/2mR 22ω22 (1)
is contracted. The electrical machine works in a
mode of “motor” and, consuming some power ω2=mR12 /mR22 (2)
from batteries, it converts electrical energy into
kinetic one. It is clear that real motors always This is the very energy, which a consumer gets “free
require some input to generate rotation but of charge”. At that some losses are also possible,
amount of energy input can be very small as to be according to the parameters of the really applied
compared with a result (contraction of the spring). electrical machine.

As a result of operation of the device for two stages,


at the end of the second stage we will get an
increment to the returned energy, which was
consumed at the first stage. In other words there is
an increment of power of the device by means of
free energy of the medium of physical vacuum
(aether).

Theoretically, according to the hypothesis by an


author [2], an artificial system of rotation of loads
creates a subsystem in the structure of elements
of the medium of physical vacuum. This
subsystem is named “potential field of centrifugal
forces of inertia” PCFI (or organizational form
Fig. 1 of matter OFM by B.P. Ivanov [1]). Nature of this
artificial field is similar to the nature of
At the second stage of the device operation, the gravitational, electrostatic and magnetic fields. In
machine works as a generator. Decreasing of speed other words PCFI is a potential well for energy.
of rotation of the loads ω1 causes stretching of the The loads “fall” in it “free of charge” like a man
spring and return of the stored energy Ek, which is falls in a well. And to get out of this “well” it is
converted to the torque of the shaft of a generator. necessary to make some work. Source of energy
Let us explain it by an example. By analogy with increment of the device is a spring, which was
the rotary acceleration made by a figure skater “cocked” at the first stage during “falling” of the
whose arms are clasped to loads in the potential well of energy of PCFI.
If the reversible electrical machine gives us back aether substance (one might say a “stored energy
(less the losses) input energy for two stages of the of medium structure”). This energy causes
action, then where the force and power budget of additional deformation of the structure of physical
the artificial OFM for the “cocked” spring comes vacuum and generation of the power budget of the
from? artificial field of inertia of centrifugal forces around
matter of the loads.
By the inertia of the system of mass of the loads, References
kinetic energy of rotation is accumulated (turns
from electrical one). It is possible since elastic 1. B.P. Ivanov. Physical model of the Universe.
forces of the levers make some work to change
linear tangent vectors of impulse (instantaneous
orbital speed) of masses of the loads at the radius Saint-Petersburg: Politehnika, 2000
of their inertial motion. 2. V.I. Bogomolov. Paradigm of the physical
vision of the world ( “matreshka”). Principle
Source of power of the action of Coulomb and Van scheme of utilization of energy of conservative
fields, Collection of articles of the
der Waals forces (i.e. forces of structural integrity
International Academy “Information,
of a matter of the levers) is in the same perpetually communication, management in engineering,
moving material substance, which surrounds us, i.e. nature, society”) “Problems of space safety”
in the medium of physical vacuum. As shown in [1], Saint-Petersburg, 2002.
every material particle is a subsystem of the physical
vacuum. It represents a vortex of the organizational
form of matter of locally concentrated elements of

Sensational discovery by American scientists

Revolutionary tungsten photonic crystal could provide


more power for electrical devices
http://www.sandia.gov/news-center/news-releases/2003/other/planck-lin.html

Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories visible wavelengths provide a foundation for


have shown that filaments fabricated of more efficient lighting — the first significant
tungsten lattices emit remarkably more energy change in Edison’s light bulb since he invented
than solid tungsten filaments in certain bands it.
of near-infrared wavelengths when heated.

This greater useful output offers the possibility


of a superior energy source to supercharge
hybrid electric cars, electric equipment on
boats, and industrial waste-heat-driven
electrical generators. The lattices’ energy
emissions put more energy into wavelengths
used by photovoltaic cells that change light into
electricity to run engines.

Because near-infrared is the wavelength region


closest to visible light, the day may not be distant
when tungsten lattice emissions realized at
Alexey I. Vydrin, Russia
Ipatov Str., 31-3, 355008, Stavropol
Tel.: +7(8652)269470

A motor (MÏÊ F03 G, 7/00) equal to the total direct propulsion force. Since
converts energy of magnetic stages are immovable, the whole rigidly
permanent magnets into fastened device (i.e. magnetic motor) is turned in
mechanical work, at that the direction of action of their forces.
direct propulsion force
is created. This force Another version of the motor is a device in
causes not rotational but which magnets are placed in circular stages (Fig.
progressive motion. The 1). At that the shape and size of the device are
motor is assembled of changed and the construction has a shape of a
permanent magnets cylinder. However the general way of operation
placed in the housing of the motor is the same.Technical and
made of diamagnetic or economic efficiency of the magnetic motor is
paramagnetic materials. These materials have no determined by its general characteristics. It is
impact on the forces of interaction of magnetic easy in operation, safe and durable. At
poles, since they are not magnetized and magnetic producing of permanent magnets certain
fields run through them almost as easily as air does. energy consumption will be required, but
resources of the motor will be worked out until
Magnets are arranged in stages in such a way as to the hard magnetic material is demagnetized that
face each other with unlike poles in each stage. By will take several tens of years.
means of mutual attraction of magnets in the
stages, the device is in neutral position. Then
magnetic inserts are placed in the stages next
nearest. The magnetic inserts face main magnets
with unlike poles. The stages with inserts interlace
the stages with no inserts. To produce propulsion
force the magnetic inserts are simultaneously
displaced to the adjoined stages where they face
the main magnets with like poles. At that mutual
attraction of the magnets in these stages is
discontinued. Each magnetic pole of this stage is
between like and unlike poles of the adjoined
stages, which due to mutual attraction of the
magnetic fields represent balanced power circuits.
On colliding each other, the like magnetic fields of
the main magnet and of the insert repel from the
like and attract to the unlike pole of the balanced
stages.

At mutual repulsion and attraction of the magnetic


fields of the stages with inserts and balanced stages,
different directions of vectors determine the
difference of forces with which they act in opposite Fig. 1
directions. The sum difference of forces acting in
opposite directions of all the stages of the device is
Releasing Water Energy: Method and Device

Editor’s: The author asked not to mention his name quantum or mechanical one – to explode a lattice
in the publication. You can get in touch with him by of liquids by acting just upon its free electrons.
this email: energyomega@mail. Observations and experiments by V.Yavorsky,
Doctor of Technical Sciences and Academician of
The invention has to do with energy generation, Russian Academy of Missile and Artillery Sciences,
in particular, with releasing thermal energy out prove that released thermal energy exceeds
of water (e.g. out of dissociated electrolyte or kinetic energy of primer explosive. Thus the effect
heavy water). This type of energy ∑ is virtual to depends on kinetic energy of a matter (primer
the energy of atom bonds of a liquid in case of explosive).
inertial (thermoionic) explosion of the later.
One of the earlier known analogues (“Method of
Technically, the present invention makes it releasing bond energy out of electroconductive
viable to generate energy (in the form of kinetic materials” by M. Marakhtanov and A. Marakhtanov
energy of explosion products) by means of (Rospatent, Abstract #2145147) patented in
inertial (thermoionic) explosions of a prepared 2000) has served as a prototype. However this
liquid. The amount of energy ∑ , generated as a method is applicable only to the materials with
result of application of the offered invention, hard lattices.
exceeds electrical power inputs w many times.
The released energy can be easily converted into In the investigation in question there have been
useful kinds of energy (electrical and rotary also used the following known methods and
ones). effects: Method of obtaining high and ultrahigh
pressures in liquids (L.A. Yutkin, inventor
The essence of the invention is in releasing certificate # 105011, priority starting from April
internal energy of water by means of making it 15, 1950); Generation of plastic bodies by means
ready to detonate under the action of artificially of a high energy hydraulic impact (USA patent
evoked anomalous physical phenomena followed #3566447), according to which the speed of
by an explosion. a jet directed to crude products is from
100 to 10000 m/sec; Photohydraulic impact
(A.M. Prokhorov, G.A. Askaryan and G.P. Shapiro,
The method of energy generation out invention #65); Method of hydrogen generation
of water without intermediates lies (Rospatent, Abstract #97116916), and
in forming of a directed flow of liquid “Electrohydrogen Generator (EHG)”
in order to bunch free electrons in (international patent application RU98/00190
this flow... dated on October 7, 1997, Russian patent
#2174162 dated on September 27, 2001).

According to the quantum theory, if we manage The method of energy generation out of water
to regulate somehow a cloud of electrons, without intermediates lies in forming of a directed
kinetic energy of these electrons will increase. flow of liquid in order to bunch free electrons in
In other words, we only need to group at least a this flow. The method has the following
part of free electrons by bunching them, for particularities:
example, into a directed flow and like ions will
immediately leave points of the lattice, repulsing 1. When flow of a liquid accelerate up to the
one another. speed of partial bunching of free electrons and
stop instantaneously, they release gases. That
That is why lattices are always ready to explode. means they also release some energy followed by
We may use one of the three forces – electrical, an explosion;

70 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


2. Contradirectional liquid flows, after being 3. Electrical discharges arise under the action of electrical
accelerated up to the speed of partial bunching power of a capacitor. The energy results from potential
of free electrons and before colliding one with difference of the circles of the torus of liquid;
another, pass through contact nozzles. A high
voltage electrical potential is imparted to the 4. The acceleration and rotation of the liquid as well as
contact nozzles. As a result of it, when the flows an extra detonation of the formed jet result from exploding
collide in the jet there arises an electrical charge, a bled fuel mixture, generated in the device;
accompanied by plasma generation and an energy
release (an explosion); 5. The exterior ring of “Omega” can operate as an
independent energy generator. Thanks to concurrent
3. A jet of the liquid forms in the flow and it effects the device can be used as a hydrogen and electrical
accelerates up to the speed of bunching of the part power generator.
of free electrons. The jet is in motion (it is virtual
to a part of a conductor that is ready to explode
at any moment). Detonation pulses act
periodically upon the jet and cause its explosion;

4. It is possible to accelerate flows of liquids up


to the speed of bunching of the part of free
electrons using either a mechanical method or an
explosive, or electrohydraulic impact, or a
quantum pulse;

5. The detonation force that acts upon the jet


can be evoked by means of either an explosive or
an electrical charge, a quantum or a magnetic
pulse;

6. Hydrogen and oxygen are released when an


electrical current runs through the formed jet or
there is a load resistance connected to the circuit;

7. A hydroturbine and/or a hydropump and/or


a reactive drive can create the flow of circulating
liquid where the jet is formed.

The anomalous waterhydrogen reactor “Omega”


contains a round reservoir with unlike current
conductive elements contacting with the circles
of a rotating torus of a liquid. The device has the
following particularities:

1. The liquid accelerates and rotates by means


of a reactive drive that uses energy, which is
generated in an omegashaped device. The effect
arises due to acceleration of the liquid up to the
speed of bunching of the part of free electrons.
When the electrons collide they release some Fig. 1
energy followed by an explosion;

2. The liquid accelerates and rotates by means of Fig.1 (simplified circuit diagram of the device) illustrates
a reactive drive that uses energy, which is generated the method. The device consists of a static toroid or a
when the main flow makes a peripheral one plate filled with a liquid (its rotating sense is marked by
accelerate. The peripheral flow forms a jet, which an arrow), e.g. with a solution of disassociated electrolyte.
is accelerated to the speed of bunching of the part
of free electrons and is in spatial motion (a part of Rotating sides of the circles of liquid contact with unlike
a conductor is formed). Denotation forces act current conductive elements (e.g. with the fins of a turbine
periodically upon the jet and cause its explosion; (13) and internal periphery of the reservoir).

New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003 71


When the electrical circuit is closed, an electrical current (16) or any other source) passing through the discharge
runs in the liquid through an accumulator (5) or an external gap (20) and the jet contactors (14). As a result of it the
power source. At the same time it releases detonating gases jet explodes and inflames together with the supplied fuel
that pass through an inertial valve (1) in channel (6) mixture in the chamber and, passing through the nozzles
towards a chamber (2) of “Omega”. The gases start (18) and (15), imparts energy of the rotation to the
burning when high voltage is supplied from the torus of liquid. The liquid in the device can be driven
accumulator to an electrode (3) through a discharge either by both rings of “Omega” or by one of them.
gap (4) (or any other commutator). The expanding
gases pass through a nozzle (11) and make the liquid in Moreover, the external ring of “Omega” can operate as an
the circle accelerate. independent power generator (e.g. as a streamandgas
mixture generator in combustion chambers of various
At reaching the required centrifugal moment the liquid engines or as a power generator applied to heat turbines
start flowing into the chamber (2) (while valves (7) are instead of a superheated steam generator, etc).
set at maximal centrifugal pressure). Due to the action of
a minimal rated charge in the liquid, contradirectional The described device can be applied as a hydrogen and
flows pass through the channels of “Omega” and eject electrical power generator (in this case if the channel (15)
from the chamber (2), “flying” one towards another at is not used or equipped with an extinguishing gate valve).
extremely high speed. You can find a detailed description of the process in the
patented inventions “Method of hydrogen generation”
When the liquid (with already weakened (Rospatent, Abstract #97116916), and “Electrohydrogen
molecular bonds) joins in the chamber (8) passing Generator (EHG)” (international patent application
through the jet contactors (9) of a previously RU98/00190 dated October 7, 1997, Russian patent
charged capacitor (10) there runs a highvoltage #2174162 dated September 27, 2001).
discharge (the discharge can also run through a
port of a “mixing” electrode (21)).

The instantaneous collision of the liquids,


electrical discharging and plasma effects,
ultrasonic and cavity processes cause a complete
or partial explosion of the liquid (depending on
its acceleration and the power of discharging)
and its disintegration into hydrogen and
oxygen.

Then the liquid oxidizes (burns down). In both


cases there is a large amount of energy generated
(i.e. practically all the modern technologies are
engaged in such a hydrogen release
within a microsecond period). To intensify the
effect we can fill both chambers (8 and 17) with
detonating gas (before an explosion).

While entering into a circle, the torus of liquid an online and published
accelerates up to ultrasonic speeds and the second magazine about Electric,
ring of “Omega” joins to the operation. Hybrid, Fuel Cell Vehicles,
advanced batteries, ultra capacitors,
The rotating liquid makes the liquid in the radial fuel cells, microturbines, free energy
peripheral ring rotate as well using a slot systems, events and exhibitions
(excluding the chamber (17)) or any other way. It worldwide
results in formation of a jet in the chamber (17)
(that operates like a jet pump). 63600 Deschutes Mkt Rd,
Bend Oregon, 97701
The jet is in spatial motion and passes through 5413881908 fax 5413882750
the jet contactors (14) (like a part of a etimes@teleport.com
conductor). The fuel mixture is supplied to the www.electrifyingtimes.com
same chamber through the channel (15). An Subscription $13/3 issues
electric discharge acts up on the jet from the capacitor
(that have collected a charge of the current accumulator

72 New Energy Technologies, Issue #4 July  August 2003


Harald Chmela, Austria
www.hcrs.at/liquidn2.htm

At the 9th Sept. 1992 in the University of Tampere, For a secured statement I developed this
Finland an experiment of gravitation shielding by experimental setup. It is essentially a modified
superconductors was set up by Eugene tare balance, whose weight on the left side is
Podkletnov. A superconductor floats over a replaced by a steel cylinder with 2.5 cm diameter.
magnet and is additional taken to a rotation. The I selected this form, since the change of
gravity over the superconductor was lowered by gravitation is to arise only directly over the
several percents, depending on the rotation or superconductor, which diameter is already
acceleration of the superconductor. 2.54 cm. The mass of the cylinder is balanced by
various other weights on the right scale
Since that time I read some reports in the Internet, pan, so that the bar stands horizontally.
according to which several people have Exactly underneath the steel cylinder the
succeeded in proving this effect with small superconductor (class 2) and a magnetic disk is
superconductors, which are available for placed. The superconductor is brought in the
demonstration in physic. nitrogen over the magnet to float. I tested the
sensitivity of the balance. It is sufficient, in order
Most of these setups I hold for insufficient, since to indicate 0.5 % of weight change. In order to
both the nitrogen and the superconductor are exclude effects by the magnetic attraction, thick
weighed together and so differences in the steel plates were inserted in the soil of the
evaporation are measured, or others are hanging balance to act as a screen for the magnetic field.
coil and superconductor into the nitrogen, It must be considered, that it comes to a field
whereby it comes to lift features by the boiling distortion, as the superconductivity is set up and
nitrogen if the coil is warmed up by the current. this could cause an excursion also with balanced
magnetic field strengths.

Results

The expected results did not take place under


all possible test conditions. If the balance is in
the equilibrium, and then the nitrogen is
poured into the container, there is no
excursion to be seen. The superconductivity
was examined after each attempt
(superconductor is floating over the magnet),
and was always present. Also moving or
rotating the superconductor could not
produce an excursion on the balance.

Of course the superconductor could not be


brought into a very fast rotation by hand, as it
is perhaps necessary for the effect.

It is in any case not as easy to prove this effect,


Fig. 1 as some experimenters want makes us to
believe. Exaggerated euphoria is not
Experimental setup appropriate here.
Conception of Magnetic Gas
Prepared by our correspondent Alla Pashova

Editor: We publish an interview about fantastical statements made


by the inventor Viktor N. Dubchak. It is unlikely that somebody of our
readers will seriously take these statements. The methods applied for
experimenting seem especially queer. The reason for the publication
is direct analogies revealed between the inventor’s statements on
successful obtaining of non-metal matters with magnetic properties
and well-known works by Valerian Sobolev. If Dubchak’s experiments
on rotation of matter in a magnetic field without supplying outer
energy represent the facts, then possibly many of our readers will be
interested to reproduce his dangerous experiments with nitric acid
and glass wool. Many years have passed since Russian researcher V.N.
Dubchak had experimentally discovered the phenomenon of non-
metallic magnetics and worked out a magnetic gas (MG) conception.
However representatives of the official science have never given
attention to the discovery made by the inventor in spite of the fact
that results of the researches could be a valuable contribution to the
development of high-energy physics.

— In the 60th of the last century reading “Technology particles of a solid which are wetted in the nitric acid
to the Youth” magazine I came upon the article (e.g. wood or minerals) obtain special properties. I
“Pulsating ball from the broken plug socket” – Viktor have got to know about it in the course of several
N. Dubchak tells. – The method to generate a ball simple experiments.
lightning was described in the article. I believed that
it was possible to reproduce the process by myself. I wound cotton and synthetical wool, which was
After nine months of experimenting I managed to wetted in nitric acid, around a ceramic stick and then
achieve beneficial effects. By dampening a carbolite place it in the lower part of a torch flame. (It is also
plug with sulphuric acid I finally obtained not a flame possible to use newsprint). The ash, produced as a
but a reddish ball, which immediately came back into result of the process, began attracting to the magnet.
the plug. I tried to tell about my experiments in press The evolved milk-white MG was attracted to
but my letters to “Technology to the Youth” were not the magnet and slowly rotated at its plane.
noticed. The documents which were applied for Non-metallic magnetics will also become apparent if
inventor’s certificate were sent back. Nobody showed we burn glass wool wetted with acid and then carry
interest in it. an electrified stick to the obtained brown lump. The
— In what way the experiments on generation of the ball lump begins to bounce from the floor.
lightning are related to the magnetic gas conception? — What application of the MG conception could be found
— Thanks to milk-white magnetic gas the lightning in power engineering?
becomes ball-shaped. MG serves as cerment to join — MG can be effectively used for modernization of
matters together since at electromagnetic excitation TOKAMAKs. Along with indifferent gas, which is now
its molecules easily create “dipoles”. In a strong used in such set-ups, MG can be injected in the
electromagnetic field these dipoles are put in order “furnace”. It will serve as an astringent and plasma
and joined to create one giant molecule. “roll”, whose stability is the aim of many researches,
I dare to suppose what exactly causes ball lightning will exist much longer.
in natural conditions. At electrical charge oxygen and
nitrogen are combined with water. In such a way — Is it possible to generate energy directly from the ball
nitric acid is produced. As a result of combustion the lightning? What is necessary for that?
— Most likely we will need a spherical cavity and 24 hours. Hence we will not need to increase
indifferent gas, which does not allow the ball TOKAMAK dimensions and spend money and
lightning to touch the walls of the cavity. However it materials. Even a small plant will allow producing
is not necessary looking for the ways to use the ball required amount of the stable plasma.
lightning since TOKAMAKs have already existed.
Much efforts and money have already put into their
development.
— Is the MG conception somehow related to the so called
“magnetic monofield”?
— No, it does not: “Magnetic monofield” is just a
hypothesis, a guess-work by scientists. Actually it does
not exist. The incapability to explain natural
Infinite Energy Magazine
phenomena causes rising of such nonsense ideas. For
example, in an article published by “Lomonosov” * Cold Fusion
magazine the “magnetic monofield” was considered * New Energy
as a cause of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster. * New Science and
— Have you ever gained the recognition of your Technology
achievements? Subscriptions, 6 Issues PerYear
— I wrote about one of my experiments in Academy $49.95 Foreign
of Sciences. They answered: “Do not write any more”.
Later it was turned out that this seeming indifference
was a complete dissimulation. The researches had Single Sample Copy
been already carried out in Russian Academy of $10.00 Foreign
Sciences and they did not need a surplus man for that.
P.O. Box 2816-FV
— Do you go on your experiments?
Concord, NH 03302-2816
— No, at present I just do not have access to necessary Phone: 603-228-4516 Fax: 603-224-5975
documents. Besides, I believe that a beneficial effect http://www.infinite-energy.com
has been already achieved by me. Proper application
of the present MG conception will allow to improve
operating power plants (such as TOKAMAK) within

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Faraday Labs Ltd, Phone/fax: 7-812-380-3844
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