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New Energy Technologies

Scientific news on advanced propulsion systems for aerospace industry and new energy technologies

Issue #1 (16) January-March 2004

Torsion Technologies Are Technologies of The XXIst Century, A.E.Akimov, Russia 2
The Antigravitational Platform, Review 12
Potapov’s Vortex Heat Generator, Yu.S.Potapov 15
Fuelless Air Combustion, Alexander V. Frolov 17
A Free Energy Generator, Zoltan Losonc, Hungary 19
Society for Development of Free Energy Technologies (GFE, Germany) 25
The “Confined Bfield” Homopolar Dynamotor, J. GualaValverde,
and Pedro Mazzoni, Argentina 28
A Hydroelectric Heat Generator, F.M. Kanarev, Russia 34
Conversion of Environmental Energy, B.M.Kondrashov, Russia 39
The World of Free Energy, Peter Lindemann, USA 46
The LUTEC Free Energy Generator, Australia 54
Pulsed Direct Current for Light Circuits, Gary Magratten, USA 56
Patent Applications on ThermoGravitation, Russia 61
An Electrogravitational Engine 62
“BREEZE 5000” Wind Energy Installation, T.A Pungas, Russia 63
SiliconBased Power Engineering 65
A Method of Extraction (Restitution) of Energy, V.F Markelov, Russia 66
Asymmetric Capacitors, Alexander V. Frolov 73
Force on An Asymmetric Capacitor, Chris Fazi, США 75
The Working Principle of Frolov’s TCapacitor, Zoltan Losonc, Hungary 76
A Precession Free Energy Generator, V.I. Bogomolov, Russia 83
On The Way To A New Astronautics, A.V. Perfiliev, Russia 89
An Energy Converter, Review 91
CD “New Energy Technologies” 92
What Ever Happened To Black Light Power? Patrick Bailey, USA 95
The subscriber’s page 96

Publisher: Faraday Lab Ltd

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Torsion Technologies Are Technologies
Of The XXIst Century
Director General of the International Institute tation of a gravitational field of huge
of Theoretical and Applied Physics of the rotating objects [2]. Later on, when
Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, spin, a quantum analog of the angular
A. AKIMOV, Ph.D. momentum of rotation, was discov
ered, it became clear that torsion
Note: the article is published with minor abridgements.
fields, unlike electromagnetic fields
generated by charges and gravitation
al fields generated by mass, at quan
tum level are generated by spin. From
Over the past three hundred years this standpoint, torsion fields can be
scientists have been aware of two uni viewed as independent physical ob
versal longrange types of field: grav jects similar to electromagnetic and
itational and electromagnetic fields. gravitational fields.
The significance of universal long
range fields can be easily manifested By the mid1970s, the theoretical re
by the example of electromagnetic search into torsion fields had result
fields. The twentieth century clearly ed in the appearance of an independ
showed that it is difficult to find any ent line of theoretical physics called
technical, scientific or household the EinsteinCartan theory. Practi
problem which could not be solved cally all the experts working within
by means of electromagnetism. The the framework of the EinsteinCar
fields of its implementation include tan Theory postulate that torsion
the electric power industry, electric fields are but a specific manifestation
transport, radio communication, of gravitational fields. The most
computers, navigation, etc. Take a prominent of these experts are E.
look at your apartment and you are Fradkin, D. Gitman, V. Ponomarev
sure to see an electromagnetic device, and U. Obukhov from Russia, R.
be it a refrigerator, a TV, a vacuum Hammond from the USA, R. Hehl
cleaner, a microwave oven and so on. from Germany, V. De Sabbata and
When a patient enters a physiother C. Sivaram from Italy, M. Karmeli
apy room, he is greeted by a lot of from Israel and others.
equipment, most of which are elec
tromagnetic instruments. Not a sin The EinsteinCartan Theory has re
gle universal longrange field that can mained a theoretical discipline that
find such an impressive list of practical has not found practical application
applications as electromagnetism has since it proved that torsion fields are
been discovered for the last three weak and cannot cause the creation
hundred years. of visible phenomena or effects. It was
not until the 80s, that G. Shipov cre
At the beginning of the twentieth cen ated the Theory of The Physical Vac
tury a French scientist, E. Cartan, pos uum (TPV). It proved the Einstein
tulated the existence of torsion fields Cartan theory to be a phenomenolog
in nature, i.e. fields generated by the ical theory, primarily due to its
angular momentum of rotation [1]. relation to the phenomenological na
Before spin was discovered, the nature ture of Cartan's geometry. A funda
of the torsion field had been explained mental theory of torsion fields based
by the rotation of huge objects. With on Ricci's geometry was developed
in the framework of such an approach, within the framework of the Theory
torsion fields are viewed as a manifes of The Physical Vacuum. The theory

2 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

of torsion fields in TPV does not impose any re lytical description of the Physical Vacuum on the
strictions on the constant of spintorsion interac basis of three vacuum equations: the equation of
tions, i.e. torsion fields can manifest themselves Einstein, the equation of Geisenberg and the equa
intensively. It is worth noting that even the Ein tion of YoungMills, representing the structural
steinCartan Theory does not impose any restric equations of Weitzenbock's geometry. G. Shipov's
tions on the constant of spintorsion interactions Theory of the Physical Vacuum has allowed us to
for dynamic torsion (for radiating torsion sourc reconsider the structure of creation. Reality, of
es). This does not prove that torsion fields have which we are an integral part, is divided into seven
strong manifestations. The importance of this lies hierarchical levels.
in the fact that the theory does not demand that
the constant of spintorsion interactions necessar The topmost level, the Absolute Nothing, is a lev
ily be small. In this case, the answer to the ques el which does not have any strict analytical de
tion as to whether this constant is small or big and, scription within the framework of the Theory of
consequently, whether possible effects are strong the Physical Vacuum. The problem will need to
or weak, can be obtained only by means of direct be solved by future theories. However, there are
experimental measurements. grounds to believe that this level of reality con
tains information defining the necessity of gen
What is the basic interpretation of the Physical erating a subsequent level of reality to determine
Vacuum? Imagine a limited volume of space from the way (laws) this generation should take place,
which the air is removed. Traditionally, we would which, in its turn, determines the properties of still
say there is nothing there, which means that there another level of reality. Shipov called this next
is a vacuum. However, according to modern un level of reality a “primary torsion field”. A prima
derstanding, this space represents a technical vac ry torsion field is a special form of existence of
uum since, physically speaking, it is not totally substance, representing quantum vortices that
empty. Let us imagine now that we have managed do not possess and transmit energy. These
to remove all the fundamental particles from this quantum vortices interact on the level of infor
space and to screen it so that no particles from out mation. If there is no quantum vortice interaction
side can get in. But even in this case, from the point energy in the primary torsion field, the perturba
of view of modern physics, it is impossible to assert tion transfer rate in the medium of this level can
that the space is empty. Socalled virtual electron only equal infinity. The primary torsion field
positron pairs can appear at random locations of should contain information defining the necessi
this volume of space. Material objects, which are ty of generating the subsequent level of reality,
electronpositron pairs, cannot appear from no which determines the way (laws) this generation
where. They can only be produced by a substance should take place, which, in its turn, determines
of some sort, and if we do not register it directly in the properties of still another level of reality. This
the specified space, from which the virtual pairs level of reality is known to modern physics as the
arise, this will indicate that we are dealing with a Physical Vacuum. The Physical Vacuum might
specific substance that cannot be observed under have a lot of components and various structural
usual conditions. This specific substance was called elements. As well as the primary torsion field, it
the Physical Vacuum. Apart from producing elec contains ring vortex structures that do not trans
tronpositron pairs, the Physical Vacuum manifests fer energy. Perturbation propagates instantly in
itself in a number of experimentally observed phe the Physical Vacuum, i.e. its speed equals infinity.
nomena. The Physical Vacuum is known to mani The properties of the Physical Vacuum must in
fest itself in the socalled Lemb Shift in a hyperfine clude information, defining the mechanism of orig
structure of hydrogen atom radiation, determining inating virtual pairs of specific rather than some
the socalled Kazemir Effect. what random particles and antiparticles. Particles
that originate from the Physical Vacuum con
The standard interpretation describes the Physi stitute the following level of the hierarchy of
cal Vacuum as a complex quantum dynamic object, reality, i.e. plasma. Properties of such particles
which manifests itself through fluctuations. Such as electrons, protons and neutrons, coupled with
an approach of scientific description of the Physi those of the Physical Vacuum, with which they
cal Vacuum derives from the concept of S. Win interact, determine the appearance of specific
berg, A. Salam and S. Glashow. G. Shipov's Theory rather than random atoms generated from the
of the Physical Vacuum is based on rigorous fun specified particles. These atoms and the molecules
damental postulates. This theory provides an ana they make up constitute the following three levels

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 3

of reality, depending on the state of the phase — It follows from the above suggestions that the true
gases, fluids and solids. Shipov called the four low electroneutrality of such an electronpositron vac
er levels of this sevenleveled reality structure uum will only be possible if the ring undulatory
“Objective Physics”, which is a subject of tradi packages of electrons and positrons are enclosed
tional schools of Physics. The upper two levels one into another, as you see it in Fig. 1A. If the
were called “Subjective Physics”. A number of spins of these enclosed ring packages are opposite
theoretical experimental results testify to the fact each other, such a system will be selfcompensat
that these two levels, together with the level of ed not only with respect to charges, but also with
the Physical Vacuum, are responsible not only for respect to the classical spin and magnetic moment.
many physical phenomena and processes, but also The system comprising the enclosed ring undula
play a role of primary importance in human con tory packages, as is shown in Fig. 1A, will be re
sciousness. It is possible that the Absolute Noth ferred to as a fiton.
ing is a level connected with the global mani
festation of the Spirit as a cosmic factor. The Let us consider the most practically important cas
level of the Spirit needs to be creative and strong es of Physical Vacuum perturbation by different
willed. The inevitability of the existence of the external sources within the framework of the pro
creative nature of the Spirit is determined by the posed model. This may help demonstrate the fea
fact that the whole vertical structure and proper sibility of the suggested approach.
ties of all the horizontal levels need to be first “for 1. Let the charge (q) be the perturbation
mulated” at the level of Absolute Nothing. The source. If the vacuum has a fiton structure,
inevitability of the volitional nature of the Spirit the activity of the charge will be expressed
of the Absolute Nothing level is determined by in the charge polarization of the Physical
the fact that there must have been an Impulse that Vacuum, as is shown in Fig. 1C. This case is
started the mechanism of creation of the above well known in quantum electrodynamics. In
mentioned reality levels. In the end, it turned out particular, the Lemb Shift is traditionally
that the Theory of the Physical Vacuum, as well explained through charge polarization of the
as the physical models constructed, not only electronpositron Physical Vacuum.
gives ground to set up a Physics of Conscious 2. Let the mass (m) be the perturbation source.
ness, but also allows us to approach physical Unlike the previous case, where we face a
representations of the role of the Spirit. wellknown situation, we will come up with
a hypothetical supposition here. Perturba
Phenomenological models of the Physical Vacu tion of the Physical Vacuum by the mass m
um appeared in Russia in the early 1980s and lat will be expressed in symmetric oscillations
er turned out to correspond to the conclusions of of the fiton elements along the axis on the
the Theory of the Physical Vacuum. The fact that center of the object of perturbation, as is
these models did not contradict to known experi shown in Fig. 1D. Such a state of the Physi
mental results was also of great importance. cal Vacuum can be characterized as a gravi
tational field (Gfield).
When models of the Physical Vacuum were cre If the mechanism of gravitation really relates
ated it was considered expedient to return to the to longitudinal spin polarization of the Phys
electronpositron model of P. Dirac in its changed ical Vacuum, we will have to admit then that
interpretation. This approach may be considered the nature of gravitation bans precludes ex
justified if it allows us to formulate conclusions istence of antigravity.
that do not follow directly from standard notions. 3. Let the classical spin be the perturbation
source. Presumably, the action of the classi
At the same time, by considering the vacuum as a cal spin on the Physical Vacuum will consist
state without particles, and, proceeding from the in the following. If the source has a spin ori
model of the classical spin, which Ya. Frenkel and ented in the manner shown in Fig. 1e, spins
I. Ternov consider to be a ring undulatory package of fitons that coincide with the orientation of
(a circulating energy flow, according to Belinfan the source's spin retain their orientation.
te's terminology [6]), we shall view the vacuum as Spins of fitons that are opposite to the
a system consisting of ring undulatory packages source's spin undergo an inversion enforced
corresponding to electrons and positrons, rather by the activity of the source. As a result, the
than electronpositron pairs carrying information Physical Vacuum will adopt a state of trans
about the properties of these particles. verse spin polarization. This polarization state

4 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

as an electromagnetic field (Е). The same medi
um in the state of spin longitudinal polarization
manifests itself as a gravitational field (G). Final
ly, the Physical Vacuum in the state of spin trans
а) Phyton
verse polarization manifests itself as a spin (tor
sion) field (S). Thus, EGSfields correspond to the
b) Phyton structure
EGSpolarization states of the Physical Vacuum.
of Physical Vacuum

In the early 1980s, A. Akimov predicted and ex

Еfield perimentally confirmed the existence of a spe
cial class of torsion fields — electrotorsion fields
q [9]. In the mid1990s, the author of the Theory of
c) Charge polarization of Physical Vacuum the Physical Vacuum, G. Shipov, gave a fundamen
tally rigorous substantiation of electrotorsion
fields [3].

Gfield The model of polarization states of the Physical

Vacuum has allowed us to establish an important
circumstance. It has already been reported that a
d) Longitudial spin polarization of Physical Vacuum
torsion field can be registered in cases when the
Physical Vacuum adopts a state of spin transverse
polarization. However, we can formulate a more
general approach based on synergetic criteria. Pre
SR SR sumably, a torsion field can be registered in all cas
Sfield es when the Physical Vacuum is in a nonequilibri
um spin state.

It is clear that the charge scission of fitons also

e) Transverse spin polarization of Physical Vacuum
causes spin spatial scission in the process of charge
polarization of the Physical Vacuum, as you see
Fig. 1. Diagrams of polarization states in Fig. 1c. As a result, the spins appear to be non
of the Physical Vacuum compensated, which is an equivalent of the tor
sion component in an electromagnetic field. Grav
itational and torsion fields manifest themselves
can be interpreted as a spin field (Sfield), a “purely”, whereas electromagnetic fields always
field generated by the classical spin, i.e. a tor contain a torsion component, which is an impor
sion field. The above approach tallies with no tant fundamental fact. A torsion field can be ob
tions of torsion fields as a condensate of fer served both in an electrostatic field and in elec
mion pairs. tromagnetic radiation.

The SR and SL polarization spin states contradict The inability to understand this has frequently re
Pauli's exclusion. However, according to Acade sulted to that many tried to explain phenomena
mician M. Makarov’ concept [7], fundamental generated by electromagnetic sources by means
physical laws can alternate at densities close to of electromagnetic phenomena. In this connection,
Planck's densities. Rejection of Pauli's exclusion it is necessary to mention the works of explorer
in a specific material medium, such as the Physi Zen Kanzhen, inventor Hideo Uchida, etc. Uch
cal Vacuum, is permissible, and probably to no less ida experimentally proved [8] that a device, which
extent than it is the case with the concept of he had designed responded when the generator
quarks. was switched on at a frequency of 13.0 GHz, with
the detector shielded and waveguide outlet closed
According to the above approach, we can state by a metal blank flange. It is possible to explain
that the uniform medium, the Physical Vacuum, this phenomenon considering the fact that the
can be in a different phase, or, to be more precise, electromagnetic signal in the waveguide excites a
polarization states, i.e. EGS states. This medium torsion signal at the same frequency and that the
in the state of charge polarization manifests itself latter is not screened.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 5

It is noteworthy that the reaction of operators of The peculiar features of a torsion field's properties
biological detectors to electromagnetic radiation to a great extent entrain the significant efficiency
is probably connected with the specified ability of of torsion technologies and simplicity of the phys
an electromagnetic field to generate a torsion com ical and technical means that implement these tech
ponent. nologies. I will only outline their basic properties.
However, it is noteworthy that all the properties
Shipov’s fundamental theory of torsion fields [3], of torsion fields were predicted theoretically and
which has allowed us to show the possibility of have been confirmed experimentally.
intensive manifestation of torsion fields, and, 1. Classical spin or macroscopic rotation is the
hence, provided us with the opportunity to ob source of torsion fields. A torsion field can be
serve strong effects, and, consequently, to solve a generated by torsion of space or arise as a con
wide range of applied problems, has played a very sequence of perturbation of Physical Vacu
important role in the new revolution in physics. um of a geometrical or topological nature. It
The creation of the world’s first torsion genera also can arise as an integral component of elec
tors in Russia in the 1980s [9] was a landmark of tromagnetic field. Torsion field can be of self
this new revolution. A torsion generator is a de generating nature.
vice generating static torsion fields and undula The above cases describe torsion fields gener
tory torsion radiation. A number of laboratories ated at the level of matter. However, accord
united under the auspices of the International ing to the Theory of the Physical Vacuum,
Institute of Theoretical and Applied Physics (Rus there are primary torsion fields that are gen
sia, Moscow), which is working on a considerable erated by Absolute Nothingness. Compared
number of projects together with TORTECH with the source material of the world of mat
USA, have made more than 20 torsion generators ter, the fundamental particles appear from
of different design over the past 20 years. Physical Vacuum, which, in turn, arises from
the primary torsion field.
The torsion generators make up two groups of de 2. Tordions are quanta of torsion fields. There
vices. The first group includes torsion generators are grounds to believe that tordions are neu
that create static torsion fields of variable inten trinos with energy as low as unities of eV.
sity and spatial configuration, with different spac These neutrinos make up a special class.
ing and range. The other group consists of torsion 3. Since torsion fields are generated by the clas
generators that create undulatory torsion radia sical spin, its influence on this or that object
tion of various intensity, different frequencies is confined only to changing its spin state (the
(with a frequency range from a fraction of a hertz state of nuclear or atomic spins).
up to hundreds of gigahertz), different frequency 4. Unlike sources of electromagnetic and grav
spectrums, different types of modulation, and dif itational fields, which create fields with
ferent methods of sending information to differ central symmetry, sources of torsion fields
ent objects. Universal torsion generators have create fields with axial symmetry, as shown
been designed, which, apart from undulatory tor in Fig. 2.
sion radiation, can create static torsion fields and A spinning object establishes polarization in
torsion currents. In some practical situations, dif two spatial cones corresponding to the left
ferent types of torsion generators have to be used torsion field (SL) in one direction and the
simultaneously. right torsion field Fig. 2 (SR) in the other.
Moreover, there is an area of the torsion field
For 20 years, torsion fields and torsion generators that looks like a disk that is perpendicular to
have been widely used to create torsion energy sourc the spin axis and passes through the spin cent
es, torsion transport, torsion metallurgy, torsion sys er. The axial torsion field appears in the areas
tems of data transfer communication, torsion sys described as cones (Ta), while the radial tor
tems of medical diagnostics, etc. [10]. The feasibili sion field (Tr) arises in the disk. Each of these
ty and practical effectiveness of torsion fields has torsion fields can be either right (ТaR, ТrR) or
been experimentally proved in a number of areas of left (TaL, ТrL).
application. In some fields, that use torsion technol 5. Compared to electrical charges, like torsion
ogies (such as nuclear waste processing), a scientific charges (like classical spins (SRSR or SLSL))
foundation has been laid and preliminary experimen attract, while unlike charges (SRSL) repel.
tal results have been achieved. Technological expe 6. A stationary spinning object creates a static
rience has been gained in some areas. torsion field. If the spinning object has non

6 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

SrD tional rather than energetic nature of signals
transfer, as well as the indefinitely great trans
fer rate.
SaR SaL 10. The constant of spintorsion interactions, in
relation to static torsion fields with Cartan's
torsion, is less than 10–50, according to the
existing assessments, i.e. such fields cannot
produce effects that can be observed. Theo
retically, the constant of spintorsion inter
actions, as regards undulatory torsion fields
with Cartan's torsion (dynamic torsion), is not
limited. As far as torsion fields with Ricci's or
Weitzenbock's torsion are concerned, they also
have no restrictions as to the value of the con
stant of interactions, and, hence, to the intensi
SaR, SaL — right and left axial torsion field of a spinning object ty of manifestation of these fields. Torsion fields
SrD — radial torsion field of a spinning object
with torsion that is generated as a component
of electromagnetic fields (electrotorsion inter
Fig. 2. A spatial diagram of the static torsion field
action) have a value of the constant of interac
of a spinning object
tions amounting to 10–3 – 10–4 [3]. This is a
theoretical value that has been experimental
ly confirmed by Professor R. Kuzmin.
11. Since the constant of electrotorsion interac
equilibrium, that is features a change of an tions (10–3 – 10–4) is slightly less than that of
gular rotational velocity, precession, nutation electromagnetic interactions (~7.3·10–3), in
or moments of greater order in massive ob natural conditions such a torsion influence
jects and a nonuniform distribution of mass can cause observable changes only in objects
es with respect to the spin axis, then such a in a nonequilibrium state, for example, phase
dynamic spinning object creates undulatory transitions that attenuate electromagnetic
torsion radiation. connections.
7. A static torsion field has a limited range of rо 12. A torsion field passes through natural medi
where the intensity of the torsion field may ums without losses. This is a normal factor,
slightly vary, remaining almost the same as considering that neutrinos are quanta of tor
you can see in Fig. 3. Conventionally, by anal sion fields.
ogy with electromagnetism, although the 13. Theoretically, as it has been pointed out
physics of processes is different here, we can above, the speed of torsion waves equals in
call the ro range a shortrange zone. Undula
tory torsion radiation is not limited by the rо
range and its intensity does not depend on Intensity
the distance. of torsion field

8. The potential of torsion fields identically

equals zero, which proves that they are not
energetic in nature. This is one of the factors
that explain why torsion signals (torsion in
fluence) are transferred informationally rath
er than energetically, i.e. without transmis
sion of energy and at superlight (infinite) ve
9. The Physical Vacuum is the medium in which
torsion radiation propagates. Its relation to
torsion waves can be compared with a holo
graphic medium. In this medium, torsion
SR, SL — right and left torsion field of a spinning object
waves propagate through the phase portrait
of a hologram. This is the second fundamen Fig. 3. Intensity of static torsion field of spin object
tal physical factor that explains the informa as function of r

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 7

finity. Superlight velocity is not something Orthodox physics not only lacks an interpretation
unusual in physics. It was present in Newton's of inertia, it cannot even explain whether the forc
theory of gravitation, and it makes up the es of inertia are internal or external with respect
basis of the concept of tachyons. But for them, to moving bodies. The Theory of the Physical
there would be no Goldstone's theory of the Vacuum has shown pretty clearly that inertia is a
spontaneous disturbance of symmetry. Super manifestation of torsion fields in mechanics [13].
light velocity was first experimentally ob It follows from here that if torsion fields can be
served by N. Kozyrev [11], and later con controlled, it is also possible to control the forces
firmed by two other teams. Zeilinger [12] con of inertia and, on this basis, make universal pro
firmed it at the quantum level. It is worth pulsion devices that would not feature reactive
mentioning here that Soviet physicists no thrust or friction.
ticed more than a decade ago that spin per
turbations in spin mediums propagate so that Presumably, Newton's mechanics is based on
they cannot be screened, which has no rela Euclidean geometry, whereas torsion fields de
tion to torsion fields whatsoever. This means rive from Ricci's geometry, i.e. the geometry of
that there is a possibility of underwater and torsion. It is, therefore, quite obvious that New
underground connection, as well as connec ton's mechanics cannot be applied to systems
tion through any other natural medium. with spin, just as it cannot be used to describe
14. All organic and inorganic bodies consist of at objects moving at relativistic speeds. In this
oms, most of which have nonzero atomic or case, the theory of relativity, based on Rieman
nuclear classical spins. Taking into account nian geometry, must be resorted to. It is a spe
that all bodies are placed in the magnetic field cial sort of mechanics, i.e. torsion mechanics,
of the Earth, considering the presence of mag that must be applied to systems with torsion
netic moments of atoms and nuclei caused by rather than Newton's mechanics. The founda
classical spins, and charges, precession appears, tion of torsion mechanics was laid by the Rus
which generates undulatory torsion radiation. sian physicisttheoretician Shipov. Torsion me
Thus, all bodies have their own torsion fields chanics observes effects that are impossible from
(radiation). the standpoint of Newton's mechanics, just as
15. Since different bodies consist of different in the case of quantum mechanics, where phe
chemical elements and feature different nomena also seem impossible if viewed within
chemical compounds with different stereo the framework of Newton's mechanics. The most
chemistry, i.e. different spacing of atoms and unusual factor is the possibility to create, not
chemical compounds in these bodies, each only theoretically, but also practically, systems
body has a unique torsion field (radiation), that can move using internal forces. A picture
i.e. a typical frequency and spatialfrequen of a device that employs the above principle is
cy torsion field. presented in Fig. 4

No matter how unusual the properties of torsion

fields may seem, they should not only be accept
ed, but also strictly obeyed, since these proper
ties are an objective reality of nature confirmed

Many properties of torsion fields, now that they

have been formulated, almost automatically allow
us to find a property that can be used as the basis
for any specific application of torsion fields, given
a mere formulation. Fig. 4. General view of Tolchin’s inertioid

We can demonstrate peculiar properties, and,

hence, manifestations of torsion fields by the fol Great emphasis has been placed since the first half
lowing example. Many think that it does not take of the 1980s on experimental and practical work
a scientist to know that physics knows everything aimed at changing the properties of different ma
about mechanics. In particular, inertia is much terials by influencing these materials in their var
spoken about but there is no definition of inertia. ious phase states with torsion fields. An example

8 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

of such work is research into the influence of tor The other point of view recognizes that elements
sion waves on smelted metal. of the Physical Vacuum, the oscillators, which do
not interact, possess energy that is infinite. A
Each experiment features two sorts of smelting, a number of Russian physicists, including Academi
test and an experimental one. In both cases the cian Ya. Zeldovich [15], have pointed out that this
conditions remain the same. The only difference infinite energy has usually been overlooked, have
is that in the second case the metal in the smelt announced it unobservable and called it a “zero lev
ing crucible is influenced by a torsion generator el”, making this indefinitely high level a benchmark,
producing torsion waves ranging from 1 to 150 for example, to calculate the energy of particles.
Hz and placed about one meter from the Tamman's J.A. Wheeler [16] is known for his estimation of
furnace. The time of exposure is 15–20 minutes. the energy of fluctuations of the Physical Vacu
As soon as the smelting is over, each furnace is um, which can be viewed as the lower boundary
left to cool down. Then the ingots are removed of this energy, amounting to 1095 g/cm3. For com
from the crucible and sections are taken to study parison, we shall note that nuclear energy is esti
the structure of the metal. mated at the density of the nucleus, making
1014 g/cm3, and the energy produced by burning
We would like to point out that in such experiments oil is estimated at a density of about 1 g/cm3.
the torsion field made metal grains almost identi
cal with respect to their dimension, they became If the energy of the Physical Vacuum is unlimit
bigger, and the structure of the metal became al ed, then increase in power consumption for the
most completely isotropic. Such metal is stronger needs of the Earth (not mentioning here the prob
and more ductile. The results were obtained in the lem of heat balance), with the help of the energy
late 1980s. In the ensuing years, a number of alloy of the Physical Vacuum cannot affect it in any way.
production torsion technologies have been devel
oped and patented. Torsion modes have been es Recognizing that the theory lets in the possibil
tablished that help reduce the size of grains, and in ity to develop energy from the Physical Vacu
some cases change the crystal lattice. um, the problem consists in detecting the physi
cal principles that need to be used as the basis to
A new torsion technology for production of silumin, make equipment capable of solving the problem
a mixture of aluminum and silicon, has been devel and subsequently searching of technical solutions
oped in Russia. Unlike standard silumin production of an appropriate commercial nature. These phys
technologies, torsion technology does not require ical principles are the focus of a number of re
employment of alloying additives to increase the search groups. However, I have not heard that
metal's strength. Nor does it require special chemi anyone has solved this problem. At the same time,
cal additives to fix gases in the silumin. If torsion there are many devices, which, according to their
technology is used, torsion waves of a certain spec inventors, have an efficiency factor exceeding
trum alone force gas bubbles out and increase the unity [17].
strength by 1.3 times and ductility by 2.5 times. The
simultaneous increase in strength and ductility by Usually, the psychological power of physics as it
means of torsion radiation is impossible from the is taught in schools asserting that an efficiency
point of view of standard technologies. factor cannot exceed unity, appears to be strong
er than data obtained in higher educational insti
Considering the pressing nature of the global en tutions. Any standard course of thermodynamics
ergy crisis, coupled with the impossibility of a rad contains strict proof that closed systems truly can
ical solution to this crisis using solar energy, wind, never have an efficiency factor greater than 100
thermal sources etc., there have been quite fre percent. However, if the system is of an open type
quent suggestions that the energy of the Physical and thus can get energy from outside, such a sys
Vacuum should be used instead. tem can have arbitrary large efficiency. Thus, if
an inventor asserts that he has designed a system
Physicisttheoreticians have two points of view with efficiency of more than 100 percent, it seems
on this issue. One point of view boils down to the senseless to discuss whether or not it is possible.
statement, that since the Physical Vacuum is an There are only two questions that matter. The first
object with minimum energy, the idea per se to is whether the procedure is correct and whether
use it as an energy source makes no sense. the equipment complies with the requirements for
definition of a system's efficiency. In a great

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 9

number of cases, inventors declare 100 percent the water rise. One could think that the water heats
plus efficiency because either the method of meas itself. Considering that the energy that heats the
urement or the equipment has been improperly water is caused by torsion effects, and also taking
chosen or used. into account that this mechanism is implemented
through a spiral, vortical process, and that the sys
If the system's efficiency is measured correctly and tem is designed to obtain extra energy, this ther
efficiency is indeed more than 100 percent, this mal heating installation was called the Torsion Vor
automatically means that the system is of an open tex Generator (TVG).
type and this is the case when the second ques
tion needs to be answered: What kind of energy It follows from the above that the Torsion Vortex
gets into this system and through what chan Generator has two energy sources: the electric
nel? When the research discloses the channel and mains supplying power to the electromotor, which
the kind of energy and as soon as this energy is is necessary to pump the water through the sys
incorporated into the total system's energy bal tem, and Physical Vacuum, which gives out the
ance, its efficiency again drops below 100 percent. energy to heat the water. In the future, the when
efficiency of such systems is considerably higher,
Thus, when the efficiency of a system is measured i.e. more energy is taken from the Physical Vacu
to be more than 100 percent, it only means that we um, part of the thermal energy, taken from the
do not know very well how this system works. In Physical Vacuum, might be transformed into elec
this connection there is a proposal that it would be trical energy and supplied to the electromotor. In
more logical to use the term “effectiveness ratio” this case, the mains will not be necessary any long
rather than efficiency when dealing with open type er and such a thermal system will become com
systems. In terms of standard terminology, some pletely independent. Such a system will become
systems of an electrostatic, magnetic, electromag an independent source of energy. When this hap
netic or thermal type are known to have an effi pens, it will be a revolution in power engineering
ciency of up to 500 percent. In most cases, the fig in general. It is not important whether this sys
ure is declared by inventors in patents. In one pat tem is going to be thermal, electric, magnetic or
ent, for example, the device was declared to have of any other construction.
an efficiency of 3,000 percent. However, as a rule,
the evaluation (by an independent expert) does not An important direction of the work connected with
confirm such high figures. This might happen if in the Physical Vacuum and torsion fields has con
ventors conceal their methods knowhow or be sisted in fundamental and applied medicobiologi
cause the system is hard to produce. cal research. Of great importance has been the re
search into the influence of static torsion fields and
Russian inventors, as well as those in the CIS na undulatory torsion radiation on various sorts of liv
tions, have focused on thermal systems with an ing organisms, as well as research into the integral
efficiency greater than 100 percent. Among the and characteristic torsion fields inherent in vari
great number of such systems there are ones whose ous living organisms. The latter has become possi
efficiency reaches 400 percent. However, only one ble due to creation of highly sensitive quantum sys
design of a thermal system whose mass produc tems recording torsion radiation and its frequency
tion variants passed independent expert evalua spectrums.
tion several years ago, proved to have an efficien
cy greater than 120 percent. Construction of such A database containing spectrums of torsion radia
a system is scheduled for 2001. tion of different tissues at various stages of different
diseases has been being collected for a long time. It
Since spiral movement generates a torsion field, gives us the opportunity to make equipment to check
which is registered by torsion field measurement a person's health, measuring characteristic spectrums
devices, it can serve as the grounds to consider of torsion frequencies of specific groups of cells or
that interaction of the system's torsion field with tissues of any part of a human organ and comparing
torsion fields of spin clusters (clusters of fitons them with the respective spectrums of healthy cells
[18]) of the Physical Vacuum causes a small or cells with different degrees of pathology.
amount of the energy of the fluctuations of the
Physical Vacuum to be shared with the object A system designed to diagnose a person based on
that generates the torsion field of the system, i.e. the records of his torsion fields is called the Tor
the water spiral. This makes the temperature of sion Diagnostics system (TORDI). To correctly

10 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

understand how it works, a number of things must The TORDI system is a readytouse production
be explained. Van Hoven's theory features the fol device. Nevertheless, it is important to understand
lowing conclusion: in order to obtain complete that the model is not a limit of the scientific and
information about any system, it must be de technical potential incorporated in it and that en
stroyed. However, destruction of a person’s tis hanced versions of the system are sure to appear
sues in order to get information about their state in the course of time.
is too high a price to pay for the information about
his health. However, Van Hoven's criterion can Summing up, I would like to draw your attention
be satisfied with the minimum influence, when the once more to the fact that work on torsion tech
cells are not destroyed and the atoms of these cells, nologies is not limited by the lines of research that
being primary sources of torsion spectrums to be have been discussed here. Actually, as it was point
registered, are rendered as nonequilibrium by ed out in the beginning, ongoing development
means of an outside disturbing influence. In or embraces all branches of economics, including in
der to choose the frequency of the disturbing tor dustry, agriculture and medicine, as well as all
sion influence correctly, it is necessary to take ac problems that arise in everyday life.
count of the role played by water in the physical
and biochemical organization of tissues of the hu The torsion technologies that have been touched
man body. At the same time, it is necessary to take upon here signify that mankind is on the threshold
account of resonance torsion frequencies of vari of the age of torsion technologies, which, we believe,
ous human organs. Finally, it turns out that the will change our life in the 21st century more than all
signal of torsion disturbance must be rather so the scientific and technical revolutions of the 20th
phisticated, considering both these factors. century.


1. Cartan E. Compates Rendus. Akad.Sci., Paris, 1922, v.174.

2. V.Melnikov, P.Pronin. The problem of gravitation constant stability and additional interactions. Itogi Nauki
I Tekniki, ser. Astronomy, v.41, Gravitation and Astronomy, Moscow, VINTI, 1991.
3. G.I.Shipov The Theory of the Physical Vacuum. Gard, Moscow 1998
4. I.Ternov, V.Bordovitsin. On the modern interpretation of the classical spin theory of Ya.Frenkel. UFN, 1980,
v.132, No.2.
5. V.Bagrov, V.Bordovitsin. Classical spin theory. Izvestiya VUZ, Phys.Series, 1980, No.2.
6. F.I.Belinfante. On the spin augular momentum of mesons. Physica VI, 1939, v6, No.9.
7. M.Markov. The very early universe. Proc of the Nuttfield Workshop, Eds. G.V.Gibbson, S.W.Hawking,
S.T.Siklov, Cambridge, 1988.
8. Hideo Uchida. A apparatus for detecting a fluid. Patent England, No 511662, May 24, 1978.
9. Anatoly Akimov. A heuristic discussion of the problem of finding longrange interactions. EGSconcepts.
CISE VENT, preprint N7A, Moscow, 1992.
10. IITAP RANS, TORTECH USA, Horizonts of the Science and Technology XXI age Proc, Editor A.E.Akimov,
Folium, Moscow, 2000, vol.1 (in Russian).
11. N.Kozyrev, Astronomical observations by means of the physical properties of time. In “Flarestarse” Interna
tional Symposium in Byurakan, 1976, Armenian Academy of Sciences Publ., Yerevan, 1977 (in Russian)
12. Bouwmecster D. Nature, v.390, 11 dec, 1997.
13. G.I.Shipov. Theoretical and Experimental Research of the Inertial Mass of the FourDimensional Gyro
scope. ITTAP RANS, preprint N10, Moscow, 2001, (in Russia).
14. The way of correction of metal alloy microstructure. Patent Russian, RU 2107105, 1998.
15. A.Dolgov, Yu.Zel’dovich, M.Sazshin. Cosmology of the Early Universe. MGU Publ., Moscow, 1988.
16. I.A.Wheeler. Fiustein’s vision. Springer Verlag, 1968.
17. Convegno Internazionale:Quale Fisica per 2000, Proc. Bologna, 1991. see: The Manual of Energy Derices
and Systems. Complied D.A.Kelly, D.A.K. WLFUB, Burband, California, 1986, Publ. N1269/F289.
18. Daytlov V.L. Polarization Model of the Ungomogendous Physic Vacuum. Institute Mathematical, Sibirians
Academic Science, 1998 (in Russian).

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 11

The Antigravitational Platform
And Experiments With the Effect
Of Multi-Cavity Structures
Reviewed by N. OVTCHARENKO
sidered to be the boundaries of a po
tential electron well. In general, this
is true for dielectrics as well as for
metals. Group movement of electrons
results in the appearance of a system
Meeting our readers’ wishes halfway, of de Broglie standing waves, having
we publish a review of works by classical frequencies, in the poten
V.S. Grebennikov and V.F.Zolotarev, tial space”. (B.N. Rodimov, SelfOs
who in 1985 applied for a patent for cillatory Quantum Mechanics, Tomsk,
discovering “The phenomenon of TSU, 1976).
the interaction of multicavity
structures with living systems” According to Zolotarev’s calcula
(Russian Federation patent priori tions, the length of a standing wave
ty #32OT11170 of 03.09.1985). is twice as large as the size of a po
tential well. The frequency of a stand
In issue #1, 2001 of our magazine, we ing wave equaling 2 Hz constitutes a
published an article containing Pro threat to a person’s health since it can
fessor Zolotarev’s calculations of the result in interaction with central
effects observed in multicavity sys nervous system impulse frequencies.
tems. The essence of the present ef Thus, taking into consideration the
fect lies in the interaction of biologi experimenter’s sensations, we come
cal systems with de Broglie waves. to the conclusion that the human
The appearance of the latter is relat body interacts with de Broglie waves
ed, in Professor Zolotarev’s opinion, that “pierce” it. The character of res
to the group movement of electrons onant interaction implies the diver
inside solid bodies containing cavi sity of wave lengths and frequencies,
ties that act as de Broglie wave reso determined by the geometric dimen
nators. This, in turn, results in the sions of the interacting structures.
appearance of standing de Broglie
waves. The amplification of the ob It is difficult to overestimate Profes
served effect is caused by the rhyth sor Zolotarev’s contribution to the
mic spatial structure of fieldgener theoretical study of the essence of the
ating cavities. present effect, but the variety of
methods of its practical implementa
Professor Zolotarev assumed that tion can be found in the works of V.S.
since only interrelated natural cate Grebennikov.
gories may interact, the physical
mechanism of nerve impulses has In his book “My world”, the scientist
much in common with de Broglie gives a description of numerous ex
material waves, which are, supposed periments, making it possible to re
ly, longitudunal. veal the manifestation of the effect of
multicavity structures. The effect
Technical application of the effect in was discovered by Grebennikov dur
question can be realized by means of ing his study of the morphology of
several methods. “The walls of mul insects, in particular of chitinous cov
ticavity structures… are usually con ers of some parts of their corpora. He

12 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

writes that an “unusually rhythmic microstruc mentions “blocking panels”, the malfunction of
ture” of one of the insects’ wings roused his inter which was the cause of difficulties experienced
est. He observed an unusual effect when he tried by the inventor during his first test flight.
to juxtapose two identical details under a micro
scope: the detail “…broke loose from his tweezers; The steering of the antigravitational platform was
for a few seconds it hung suspended above the oth performed by both handles in the following way.
er plate on the microscope shelf, turned a few de The left handle was used to control the gravita
grees clockwise, slid to the right, turned counter tional filter blinds. By means of joining or parting
clockwise, swung, and only then abruptly fell on these blinds, the ascending or landing of the de
the desk”. vice was performed. The right handle was used for
a horizontal, onward movement that was achieved
The effect of antigrav by inclining of both groups of “wing case” blinds
ity, discovered by Gre via a flexible cable situated inside the steering
bennikov and caused column. In his book, the author declares that he
by multicavity struc was able to achieve a speed of 150 km/h, which
tures, was implement can be easily increased up to 1500 km/h.
ed by him during the
creation of his most During the test flight, performed by the author
interesting, in our on March, 18, 1990, such anomalous effects as the
opinion, invention — slowing of time and spoiling of photographic films
the antigravitational were observed by him.
platform. In his book,
the scientist describes The effect of multicavity structures was studied
his experience of fly by the author during numerous other experiments.
ing the platform (its Our readers can carry out the majority of these
main view is shown in experiments themselves since they do not require
Fig. 1 and 2). the use of any special equipment. A description of
Fig. 1 some of these experiments is given below.
Grebennikov writes
that during the flight
(Fig.3) he was stand
ing on a flat rectangular platform, slightly ex
ceeding the seat of a chair in size. A steering col
umn with two handles (field regulators), by
means of which the device was controlled, was
mounted on the platform. He also mentions oth
er parts of the antigravitational platform. Thus,
Grebennikov writes that the descending and
braking of the platform is achieved by means of
“crossshifting filter blinds” (which the author
also calls “microcellular gravitational filter
blocks”) situated beneath it. The author also

Fig. 3

Note: all the pictures and photos, which the present

article comprises are taken from V.S. Grebennikov’s
book “My World”.
Fig. 2

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 13

“Perpetuum Mobile” 1015 min. The “unnatural”, unusual transforma
tion of the spatial shape formed by the set can be
View from above picked up even by the palm of a hand. Experiment
with couching seeds, or breeding microorganisms
and insects, under a “macrocomb” and compare
the results with those of identical experiments
conducted at least 2 m away from the comb. Re
peat each pair of experiments several times.

Paper Emanators of The Effect

of Multi-Cavity Structures
6 sheets of office paper
should be cut in two,
then lengthwise and
General view
folded accordionlike
Fig. 4 so as to get 10 edges and
20 surfaces. Squeeze
the “accordions” to
In order to carry out this experiment, seven rolls make them square and
of used film should be arranged in the way shown glue them on top of one
in Fig. 4. The rolledup films should be placed another, turning each Fig. 6
around the apparatus shown here. The device also horizontally 30 degrees
has an inclined singlearm straw indicator, hung clockwise against the
on a thin thread (a small piece of plasticine was bottom one (Fig. 6).
used as a counterbalance). Slowly leaving the zone
of impact of one roll, the straw would enter the
power field of the second, then the third, and so Moving “Combs”
on... This experiment is most successful in a sound
insulated chamber, away from wires and pipes, as Make a wooden spin
well as of sources of heat, cold, and bright light. ning top and drill sever
al holes on its sides,
making sure to go all
Artificial Honeycomb way through. They
should be pencilwidth
Take a dozen and a in diameter or a bit wid
half papiermache su er (Fig. 7). Their cavi
permarket egg cases ty effect will signifi
Fig. 7
(the 30egg variety), cantly increase if the
tie them up or glue top is rotated, and this
them together (one can be easily perceived
on top of another) in by the palm of one’s
such a way as to join hand. This is due to the
the “teeth” to one an fact that the number of
other (Fig. 5). Fix holes is numerically mul
the whole set (it can tiplying in space.
be enclosed in a case)
over the head of a
person sitting in a The complete text of Grebennikov’s book “My
chair, with the bot World”, comprising descriptions of his unique
Fig. 5
tom “comb” 1020 cm experiments, can be found on the website:
above the head. Leave
the person there for

14 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Рис. 2
Vortex Heat Generators (VHG)
Yu.S.POTAPOV, Russia
The author is a Doctor of Technical Sciences, a
professor, an Academician of the Russian
Academy of Natural Sciences; an Academician of
the International Academy for Leadership in
Business and Administration, USA; an Honorary
Inventor, a Birmingham Torch Award winner,
USA; an All-Russian Exhibition Center Award
Winner and an Honorary Doctor of Sciences.

Application of vortex heat generators

Vortex heat generators of the seventh generation are designed to provide auton
omous heating and hot water supply for households and industrial buildings.
They may also be used by specialists for practical and research needs. The gen
erators are operated in direct, automatic and remote modes depending on out
door conditions. A vortex heat generator’s load percentage amounts to 10% a
day. The efficiency factor of a vortex heat generator (the efficiency of energy
conversion according to EEC standards) is 220%. It has demonstrated a two
fold reduction in energy consumption. The system has a payback period equaling
no more than a single heating season.

Fig. 1. Vortex heat generator operation scheme

1. Inlet connection 9. Boiler

2. Vortical heat generator 10. Circulation pump
3. Output connection 11. Air valve
4. Coupling 12. Pipeline
5. Motor (electric motor) 13. Microprocessor
6. Frame 14. Starter
7. Casing 15. Radiator (heat exchanger)
8. Cock

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 15

The conception It is well known that the efficiency of a combus
tion engine averages 40%; of a steam engine 12%;
and design of a VHG of an atomic engine 34%; of a gas engine 30% and
of a hydrogenfuelled engine 45%. All types of
A vortex heat generator consists of a cylindrical case engines operating on the principle of combustion
and a rotor. The rotor is rotated by an electric motor. (including hydrogen combustion) pose danger to
The generator has an accumulating cell for night humanity since 1 kg of fuel consumes about 300
operation. Working fluid (water) is tangentially liters of air while burning. A 50 kW engine ex
directed to the vortex heat generator’ inlet. Then the hausts about 3,000 liters of odorless gas during
water, run along a complex route, gets hot. By the operation. The exhausted gas comprises 200 poi
time this happens, more than 500,000 cycles of com sonous elements harmful to human health.
pression and expansion of the water have taken place.
The heating is performed due to the friction of water A catalyst doesn’t help solve the problem. The use
molecules and the processes of cavitation and fusion. of hydrogen causes the greenhouse effect, which
could lead to global disaster. A hydrogenfuelled
The system, equipped with a microprocessor, oper engine releases steam into the atmosphere. This
ates in a pulse mode and maintains the assigned steam is responsible for 90% of the greenhouse
temperature regime at different outdoor tempera effect on the Earth. Besides, hydrogen consumes
ture values. Twoyear operation of a new generation the same volume of air as gasoline while burning;
VHG in Moscow has shown that no complex and the processed air being exhausted is irrespirable.
expensive service is needed. The difference between
a new VHG and a VHG of the first generation lies In Potapov’s new engine (a picture of it can be
in the fact that the new VHG operates without an seen on the cover) the inlet air pressure amounts
electric pump, heating water up to 95oC in one op to 0.01–0.09 Atm. This range of pressure values
eration. Steam formation is also available. The ex defines the number of rotations per minute at
perience operating of a VHG (by implementing the which power takeoff takes place: 960–16,700
new technology in factory conditions) has rpm. Air consumption is minimal (Table 1).
demonstrated that the cost of heating of 1m3 of a
premise’s volume averaged $ 0.63 a year. Compare: Potapov’s engine does not affect the chemical or
• Average cost of heating by means of an elec physical state of the air during operation. The ex
tric boiler — $ 16.18 hausted air is respirable without any limitations.
• Average cost of heating by means of a boiler The engine goes through a bench test, first at idling
operating on burning liquid fuel — $ 8.81 speed and then with a load. The output engine pow
• Average cost of heating by means of a gas boil er amounts to 700 kW. The total mass of the en
er — $ 1.23 gine with a reduction gearbox is about 80 kg. The
overall dimensions of the 700 kW engine (without
an electric generator) are: 900×500×750 mm. The
Potapov’s vortex engine noise level, which is adjusted by shock absorbers and
a noiseabsorbing bonnet, accounts for 2–35 dB.
The new type of vortex engine is intended to be
installed in vehicles (cars, buses, boats, submarines, The patent for Potapov’s engine and the method
aircraft, locomotives, helicopters, armored vehicles, of power generation used in the engine are pro
electric power stations etc.). It is a fully tected by law. Anybody reproducing the present
autonomous electric power station. It operates on method or the construction of this engine will be
ordinary air. When the engine rotor reaches the prosecuted according to international law and the
design number of rotations, the electric generator laws of the Russian Federation. The cost of a pro
is switched on. About 30% of the total output power duction license is agreed by contract. The cost of
is used to keep the engine running, while the a demonstration is also agreed by contract.
remaining 70% are supplied to the consumer.
Тable 1
№ Air Turbine acceleration Turbine overtravel Inlet Revolution
temperature, оС time, sec time, sec pressure, Atm number, rot/min
1. 20 5 68 0.01 964
2. 21 3.5 87 0.03 4,100
3. 21 2.7 160 0.05 8,120
4. 23 2.0 180 0.07 12,100
5. 23 1.5 195 0.09 16,700

16 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Fuelless Air Combustion
Alexander V. FROLOV circuit of dissociation and recombi
Faraday Lab Ltd., Director General nation of hydrogen can provide for
Lev Tolstoy Str., 7–601, Saint-Petersburg, a high efficiency heat output.
197376, Russia
7-812-3803844 The change in the composition of
exhaust gases of the engine, which
consumes less fuel during its opera
tion [1, page 11], leads us to the con
clusion that nitrogen is involved in
Air autothermia — the effect of fuel the process of combustion, since its
less air combustion, which is used, in percentage diminishes. The percent
particular, in a modernized automo age of water vapor increases at the
bile engine, is described in detail in a output; the presence of carbon in the
book called “Natural Power Engineer form of smallsized graphite parti
ing” written by E.I. Andreev [1]. Ex cles has been registered. With a large
periments carried out by a group of quantity of hydrocarbonic fuel (a
researchers in 2001 showed that it is rich airfuel mixture) the excess of
possible for carburetor engines to binding electrons in the fuel impedes
function with minimal fuel consump air autothermia; that is, the combus
tion due to the fact that the engine’s tion of the fuel itself with oxide for
airfuel mixture is processed in a cer mation can usually be observed. Ac
tain way. cording to Andreev’s method of au
tothermia, catalysis can be achieved
According to Andreev’s theory, fuel by means of magnetic treatment of
less air combustion starts when air. Not fuel electrons but binding
there is a minimal quantity of hydro electrons of air itself are used dur
carbons and is based on an ava ing the process.
lanchetype reaction when, for ex
ample, the hydrocarbons’ free elec Let us consider the role played by
trons interact with oxygen atoms. the magnetic field in detail. As
One of the bestknown examples of shown in the book [1], the magnetic
this effect is the explosion of an ox field represents a flux of small posi
ygen cylinder when oil is present on tive particles called “electrino”,
its external surface. The chemical which are considered in detail by
reaction of the combustion or explo D.H.Baziev [2]. I believe that we
sion of pure oxygen can be repre should consider the magnetic field
sented as a dissociation of an oxy as a flux of aether particles instead
gen molecule into atoms and elec of introducing new concepts; I find
trons, followed by a recombination it to be more traditional and prom
of the oxygen atoms accompanied by ising. Thus, Andreev writes: “…by
an energy output. It is important to means of a magnetic flux, the elec
emphasize that the present cycle has trino vortex around the atoms in the
earlier been studied as applied to hy catalyst may be amplified… which
drogen. The effect of heat liberation will make it possible to amplify the
during the process of recombination processing, for example, of air…”. On
of atomic hydrogen is used in hy the other hand, we can do without
drogenous welding sets for the cre considering the electrino if the phys
ation of temperatures of about ical essence of magnetic flux is pre
5000–8000 degrees Celsius. Devel sented from the classical point of
oping this method, our company has view of aetherodynamics. Particles
created a device in which a closed of a substance are considered as vor

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 17

tex structures. Since in the area of the magnetic ternative energetics. One of the major advantag
flux the aether’s pressure changes, the conditions es of this approach lies in the possibility of using
of chemical reactions change as well. standard carburetor internal combustion engines
as a base for new energy installations. On the oth
Moreover, aetherodynamics does not consider er hand, the understanding of the processes of air
charges of aether particles. Andreev shows [1, autothermia draws our attention to other natural
page 75] that the effect of leakage of the mag physical mechanisms that could be used in fuel
netic induction between poles (the divergence less power engineering. The analogy between the
of magnetic field power lines in air) is determined processes of dissociation and recombination ac
by the fact that molecules of a substance (nitro cording to the theory of Andreev and similar proc
gen, for example) capture the electrino from the esses observed in our laboratory has been drawn
magnetic flux, set them spinning and throw them above. The common point of these two approach
out of the main flux. It deforms magnetic field es lies in the fact that special dissociation condi
power lines. It is obvious that the charge of the tions allow achieving the transmission of a sub
electrino does not make any difference and we stance into an atomic state with minimal energy
can simplify the situation by considering mole consumption, while the process of recombination
cules as vortex processes taking place in aether. provides for heat output. By means of such a nat
The magnetic field should be regarded as a flux ural method of using a symmetrical fuelless disso
of aether particles. ciationrecombination cycle, the problem of heat
emission or heat absorption could be solved.
The example of rare earth metal combustion in
open air, considered in the book [1], is also regard Faraday Lab Ltd. is interested in the
ed as a catalytic reaction. Rare earth metals, due development of contacts with investors in this
to their specific structure, can be regarded as pow particular field of research.
erful concentrated vortex processes taking place
in aether. Due to this, they represent catalysts of
the transformation of oxygen into an atomic state REFERENCES:
(dissociation), while the ensuing oxygen recom
bination leads to heat output. 1. E.I.Andreev., Natural Power Engineering3, Saint
Petersburg, 2003.
It is evident that research in the field of air auto 2. D.H. Baziev., The Charge and Mass of a Photon,
thermia is one of the most promising trends of al Moscow, 2001.

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18 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

A Free Energy Generator Based
On Mechanically Changed Capacitance
Zoltan LOSONC, Hungary distance between the plates d. By changing one or more of these param
eters the mechanical energy can be
converted into electrical energy. These
methods are illustrated in fig. 1.

• In the first example (fig. 1a, which

Editor: In the present article the au corresponds to the changing of e)
thor reinvents the principles of design the capacitance is decreased by
ing parametric capacitors. These prin removing the solid dielectric from
ciples were developed way back in the the capacitor with a mechanical
middle of the XXth century by Acade force F. This force is opposed by
mician N.D. Papalexi. He proved that, the edge effect forces Fee at the
according to his own words, the “ef edge of the capacitor, because the
fectiveness of obtaining electrical en dielectrophoretic forces tend to
ergy using my method may amount to pull the dielectric back into the
99% and higher…”. capacitor.

There are several types of energy con • In the second case (fig. 1b) the
verters that convert mechanical en capacitance is decreased by in
ergy into electrical energy by chang creasing the distance d between
ing the capacitance of a charged con the plates. This movement is op
denser. The energy content of a posed by the electrostatic pres
capacitor can be calculated with the sure forces Fep that pull the plates
simple formula of W=Q2/(2C). We together.
can conclude from this correlation
that if the capacitance C of the con • In the third example (fig. 1c) the
denser is decreased while the stored distance d between the plates re
charge Q is kept constant (i.e. while mains constant, but the upper
the capacitor is disconnected from plate is moved in horizontal direc
the power supply) the energy stored tion parallel with the lower elec
in the capacitor will increase. trode, and by this the effective
adjacent surface areas S facing
The capacitance of a condenser can each other will be diminished.
be changed by mechanical means in Since in electrostatics the electric
different ways. The formula of a flat field lines are always perpendicu
capacitor C=eS/d shows that the ca lar to the surface of a conductor,
pacitance depends on 3 parameters: and the electric forces act along
the permittivity e of the dielectric these Efield lines on that surface,
between the plates, the surface area the only places where braking Fep
of one side of one plate S, and on the forces can appear are the edges of

Fig. 1

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 19

ried charge can be extracted under a higher volt
age U2, since the distance to the grounded elec
trode have increased and their mutual capaci
tance have decreased.

It is important to recognize the principal simi

larity of this converter with the case shown in
fig. 1c. The key feature of both cases is that the
only place on the moving electrodes where the
unwanted braking forces can appear is the edge
of the moving electrode. The main horizontal
surface of the electrode does not contribute to
the retarding electric forces, since the Efield
and force lines are perpendicular to the surface.
On fig. 1c this is perpendicular to the move
ment, and in the last example the forces point
in radial direction, thus they can not develop
retarding torque on the shaft. This observation
Fig. 2 readily offers a possibility that if we can elim
inate the retarding electrostatic forces at the
edges, then we can construct a generator that
will produce more output energy than the to
the moving electrode. The edges are the only tal sum of the input electrical and mechanical
places where these force lines can have hori energies.
zontal component parallel to the movement’s
The unwanted electrostatic drag
A practical realization of a simple electrostatic
energy converter is shown on fig. 2. This de Let us examine a little deeper these unwanted
vice is a mechanical DC/DC converter, when a retarding forces at the edge of the moving elec
lower input voltage U1 is converted into a high trode. A modified version of the discussed con
er output voltage U2 while the input and the verter with double grounded stator plates is
output currents are the same, and consequent shown on fig. 3a. The double stator electrodes
ly the output power is greater than the input ensure greater capacitance, higher energy den
electric power. However, this is not a free ener sity per volume, and a beneficial symmetrical
gy generator since no excess energy is generat configuration. On the top and bottom flat sur
ed, but only mechanical energy is converted into faces of the moving electrode (between the two
electric energy. The law of energy conservation stator plates) the electric forces are perpendic
remains valid in this case since the electrostat ular to the movement, thus they can not exert
ic retarding forces unnecessarily waste the driv any retarding force. The only places where the
ing mechanical energy. electric forces can have a horizontal component
parallel to the movement are the edges. At the
The rotor is made of an insulator material front edge f only a minor accelerating force Fa
mounted on a shaft so that they can rotate to can appear since the Efield intensity is much
gether. On the two opposite sides of the rotor weaker here than at the back edge b between
two metal electrodes are mounted. When one the plates. Thus the retarding electrostatic force
electrode of the rotor is facing the grounded sta upon the aft edge Fr will overweigh the acceler
tor segment below, they represent a capacitor ating force Fa, and if we want to maintain the
that is charged to voltage U1 through the lower movement, an additional external mechanical
brush b1. By turning the rotor clockwise the driving force of Fm=Fr–Fa is required. The work
charged electrode on the rotor is disconnected performed by this mechanical force (while op
from the brush b1 and moved to the upper posi posing the unwanted electrostatic retarding
tion. This rotation is opposed by the attracting forces) will be the same as the increase of the
Fep forces shown on fig. 1c. When the charged electrical energy in the capacitor.
electrode touches the upper brush b2 the car

20 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Fig. 3

Free energy is generated by Two experiments have been conducted so far

for the practical detection of the expected
eliminating the retarding thrust upon a semicylindrical thruster ele
electrostatic drag ment. The first experiment was carried out by
Andreas Pramesberger. He constructed a semi
The braking effect of the electrostatic forces cylindrical thruster with rounded edges to avoid
at the aft edge of the moving electrode can be electric breakdown, and molded it into paraffin
neutralized by binding them to their own re wax. The drawing and related information can
action forces. This is accomplished by sur be found on the page thrusterproject.htm. An
rounding the edge with a grounded conductive dreas has observed a small unidirectional
semicylindrical electrode, and filling the gap thrust directed from the bigger towards the
between this semicylinder and the edge with smaller electrode. After increasing the thick
solid dielectric as in fig. 3b. This dragneutral ness of the paraffin layer on the side of the
izer is practically a semicylindrical thruster smaller electrode this thrust completely van
element and capacitor, which is mechanical ished and no unidirectional thrust was ob
ly attached to the aft edge of the moving served. However, the originally observed
electrode and they move together. thrust cannot be explained with the effect of
air ionization, because in that case it would
There are 3 active forces within the thruster ele have to act in the opposite direction.
ment. The first is the electrostatic pressure com
ponent that pulls the inner surface of the outer Some preliminary measurements have been per
semicylindrical electrode towards the plate’s formed by Steven Dufresne using a different
edge. The second is a similar but greater force thruster, and related calculations and theory can
pulling the moving electrode’s edge backwards. be found on the page fullcylsph.htm. Further re
The resultant of these two components will be a lated information can be found on page
backward retarding force. Related calculations thrusterproject.htm, and the details of practical
about the magnitude of these electrostatic pres construction and measurement results are on the
sure forces can be found on the page ethrform.htm. page
The third force is a dielectrophoretic force that efthrusters/fullcyl2d1/fullcyl2d1.htm. In this
pushes the dielectric towards the plate’s edge. This case two semicylindrical elements of identical
type of force has been discussed on the page dimensions but with two different dielectrics
dielforce.htm and related estimating calculations have been molded together, pointing into oppo
can be found on the page fullcylsph.htm. Accord site direction. One semicylindrical thruster el
ing to these calculations a nonzero unidirection ement opposes the thrust of the other, and since
al thrust is expected to act on a semicylindrical the dielectrics are different, one supposed to
thruster element filled with dielectric, directed overweigh the force of the other and a resultant
from the bigger semicylinder towards the small unidirectional thrust was expected.
er one. This nonzero thrust was expected, since
the dielectrophoretic force upon the dielectric was Although the measurement is not yet complete,
calculated to be greater than the electrostatic pres Steven could not measure any resultant thrust
sure forces on the electrodes, having the opposite upon this thruster during some failed (due to
direction. arcing) preliminary measurements using 8 kV.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 21

This result is far from the expected and I still
can not understand what would be the correct
way of calculating the forces in such a way that
the dielectrophoretic and electrostatic pressure
forces should exactly cancel each other. With
other words it is not clear how could I calcu
late less dielectrophoretic force than the Fycm on
the page fullcylsph.htm to get zero resultant
unidirectional thrust (as Steven’s measurement

Since I have not seen personally any of the

above two experiments, can not take any respon
sibility for their absolute correctness. Howev
er, for the present invention it does not really
matter whether there is a thrust towards the
smaller electrode or no thrust at all. We will
assume in the followings that the mentioned Fig. 4
measurements are correct and one of these two
cases might be true for the dragneutralizer at
the edge of the moving electrode (fig. 3b). The working phases are as follows:
1. When the whole surface of the rotor plates
Based on the mentioned experimental results is between the grounded stator plates (when
there will be no resultant retarding force on the capacitance is maximal, or little before
the dragneutralizer semicylindrical capaci that), an input voltage is connected to the
tor element, and the only electrical force com rotor electrodes by suitable input commu
ponent in x direction will be the forward ac tators or control electronics (not shown on
celerating force F a at the front edge of the the drawing). After the plates are charged,
moving electrode. Since this driving force is the input power supply is disconnected by
fairly small and it is insufficient to counteract the commutators.
the frictional forces, a small mechanical driving 2. The rotor is rotated in such direction that the
force will be needed. This mechanical power dragneutralizers should be at the aft edges
wasted on friction will be much less than the of the moving electrodes (clockwise on the
gained excess energy. Therefore in this gener drawing). This rotation will require minimal
ator the retarding electric forces have been mechanical power just enough to compensate
neutralized and it will produce more output the frictional losses, since there will be no re
electric energy than the sum of input electri tarding electrostatic forces to be counteract
cal and mechanical energies required for its ed. The semicylindrical dragneutralizers
operation. will eliminate these forces.
3. When the rotor plates leave the space be
tween the adjacent stator electrodes, i.e.
when the voltage potential is at maximum
The phases of the generator’s on the rotor electrodes, they are discharged
operation and practical designs through the output mechanical commuta
tors or other suitable control electronics
After explaining the basic principle, let us see (not shown). The most efficient operation
some practical designs of the discussed genera can be achieved when the rotor electrodes
tor. Naturally in a practical device there would are completely discharged and their com
be several stator and rotor segments, which can plete energy is utilized in each cycle, but
be arranged on discs or cylinders. One possible this is not absolutely necessary for the op
example using the disc arrangement is shown eration.
on fig. 4 (it shows only one cell without the
commutators). The output energy can be discharged directly
into resistors to generate heat, or into suitable
capacitor system to reduce the voltage and in

22 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

crease the current (charging in series, and dis smaller than its highest value when the plates
charging in parallel). A further possibility is to completely cover each other.
discharge the energy into resonant LC circuits 1. In the first case let us take the radius of
and take off the useful energy through trans the rotor to be r=0.5m and assume to have
formers with suitable current intensities. On 8 segments per disc. Then the active sur
fig. 4. only one generator cell is shown, but face area of the fully closed capacitor is
several such cells can be mounted on the same S=r 2 p=0.79m 2 (the rotor segments have
shaft to achieve substantial output power. only half of this area but their both sides
are utilized for a capacitor). The air gap
The available maximum output power will be between the stator and rotor electrodes is
limited by the speed of rotation and by the max d=1cm. This gap allows maximum 30kV
imum output voltage allowed by the electric tension without sparking (or even less due
strength of the insulation between the stator to the edges, but they can be covered with
and rotor plates. This insulation can be im insulator). Since this 30kV of max. output
proved by covering the rotor and/or stator voltage is 10 times greater than the input
plates with solid dielectric material. However, voltage, the input voltage should be 3kV
if the stator plates are coated with thick insula or less.
tor, then this increases the gap between the ro The capacitance of one cell is C=e 0S/d=
tor and stator electrodes, decreases the capaci 6.95E–10F and the charge upon the rotor
tance and the output current. plates is Q=UC=2.1E6C. Since there are
8 segments per rotor disc, there will be
If the rotor segments are coated with thick die Qo=8Q=16.8E–6C charge transferred to the
lectric, then this would be the most beneficial output at each revolution (the capacitor
from electric point of view (increased maximum will be charged and discharged 8 times per
voltage and output current), but in this case un revolution).
wanted dielectrophoretic retarding forces might If the speed of the rotation is 6000 rot/min=
be developed within the thick dielectric layer. 100 rot/sec then the output current will be
This would require additional mechanical driv I=Q0.100 rot/sec=1.68E–3C/sec=1.68 mA.
ing torque and input power. Thus the optimal The output power of one cell is
arrangement should be found by measurements P1=30kV.1.68mA=50.4W. By mounting 100
and experiments. such cells on the same shaft we can get 100
times greater output power i.e. Po=5kW.
The number of segments per disc depends on the If the thickness of one cell is 3cm then the
speed of rotation, desired output frequency, dimensions of such a generator would be
voltage, current, and on other practical consid 1m×1m×3m taking about 3m3 of rectangu
erations. Preferably the output frequency would lar volume.
be best in the 5060 Hz range, but such low fre 2. In the second case r=1m thus S=3.14m2. There
quency does not allows the generation of sub is d=2cm air gap between the electrodes and
stantial output power due to the relatively low 8 segments per disc. This allows 60kV
achievable capacitance and current. By increas maximal output voltage and about 6kV input
ing the frequency the output power can be in voltage.
creased, but then we will have difficulties with The capacitance of one cell is C=1.39E–9F,
the extraction and utilization of high frequen and it can store Q=8.34E–6C charge at
cies (except if it is immediately converted into 6kV. The total charge transferred in one
heat in suitable resistors). Thus a compromise revolution is Qo=8 .Q=6.67E5C. If the ro
should be found here too. tational speed is 12000 rot/min=200 rot/sec
then the current is I=13.34mA. This cur
rent gives P 1 =800W power at 60kV. By
Estimating the output power mounting 50 such cells on the same shaft
the total output power will be Po=40kW.
Finally let us make some rough estimations how With a cell thickness of 5cm, this generator
much power could be generated with a practi would have a dimension of 2m ×2m ×2.5m
cal capacitive generator. Let us as suppose that taking a rectangular volume of 10m 3. With
the lowest capacitance between the rotor elec a positive feedback the electrical and
trodes and the grounded stator plates is 10 times mechanical input power can be acquired

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 23

from the output and the device can be made engineer to perform the necessary calculation
selfsustaining. for the mechanical stability of the device and
follow his design (to prevent the mechanical
Although theoretically any amount of power explosion of the rotor).
could be achieved with such generators, there
is a practical limit in increasing the diameter A further problem is that in such cases the fric
and the speed of rotation. When the diameter tion of the air will increase to a considerable
and the speed of rotation is too high, huge cen level and diminish the efficiency of the device.
trifugal forces will appear that can break apart This can be avoided by evacuating the sealed
the rotor. At the same time the danger of vi chamber in which the rotor is spinning. There
brations will be great and high precision ma are some other more practical ways of increas
chining will be required to minimize this ef ing the performance and the output power, but
fect. Thus if anyone ventures to make such gen those methods will be discussed on a separate
erators, he should first consult a machine page later.

Moon Colonization
and Alternative
Energy Technologies

an online and published

magazine about Electric,
Hybrid, Fuel Cell Vehicles,
advanced batteries, ultra
capacitors, fuel cells,
microturbines, free energy
systems, events and
exhibitions worldwide
Plans for the colonization of the Moon, an
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“Problems and Prospects of Exploration of the
Moon and Other Planets” given at a session of
the Russian Academy of Sciences Presidium Subscription $13/3 issues
held on December 23, 2003).

24 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Gesellschaft zur Förderung Freier Energy
(Society for Development of Free Energy
A non-profit organisation committed to
making use of new regenerative sources of BEGINN
energy of inexhaustible availability. (
Merkurring 100
D-22143 Hamburg / Germany The Bergedorf Society of Innova
Tel. +49(0)40-679 459 12 tions contributes to our development
Fax. +49(0)40-679 459 59 work with regard to the radiation/
Internet: energy converter in supplying the
E-mail: knowhow of their physicists, re
searchers and engineers.

About GFE — who are

Schedule of
Klaus Jebens, President and CEO Development. History
of the GFE, son of Heinrich Jebens,
inventor and president of the “Deut In November 1930 Heinrich Jebens
sches Erfinderhaus” in Hamburg, has travelled to America on the invita
established the “Jebens Group of tion of T.A. Edison and other inven
Companies” a few decades ago and tors and was asked by Nicola Tesla to
has since been successful in business join him on a test ride of a newly de
and as an inventor with 63 patents veloped car which was driven on “ra
to his name. diant energy”. This test ride proved
to be an overwhelming success.
Dirk Schadach, Head of Develop
ment, masters degree in physics, spe
cial emphasis on applied physics of
electromagnatic fields including
EMC. Professional carreer in the The Devolpment Work
fields of the electric energy technol of GFE
ogies, fuel cell applications, establish
ment of private research institutes in Research and evaluation of old and
the areas of Frankfurt (1999–2000) new publications and essays concern
and Berlin (2002–2003) ing inventions and scientific work on
innovative energy conversion tech
The Development + Research nologies worldwide.
Team /GFE consits of a group of ap
prox. 10 scientists and engineers who Undertaking investigations into all
back this society and do not publi promising methods by which it might
cise their work. Due to this teamwork be possible to gain access to new
it was possible to register a first pat sources of energy and convert these
ent in 2003. into electric power.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 25

Construction of working models (incl. specified Space Energy and Radiations
documentation) to test the efficiency of such en
ergy converters in the laboratory, followed by The space around us is full of potential energy and
improving adjustments and finally the construc noncoherent high frequency electromagnetic en
tion of prototypes that live up to present day ergy from a natural source which we cannot utilize
levels of technology with a view to operating at present. We call this source of inexhaustable
efficiency, durability and economic life time, engery simply “space energy” which is available in
security in operation and exclusion of possible space everywhere like a sea of endless energy.
health risks.
Now, so far we have looked at this source from
One basic patent for the radiant energy converter the wrong side and this is the reason why our es
(name TSEK) has been filed as a result of several tablished researchers have not found a way of gain
years’ development work, specified amendments ing access to it.
to follow.
It is the declared aim of the GFE to find a way of
utilizing this inexhaustable source of energy and
Innovative Energy Technologies convert it to electric power. Some scientists and
inventors, such as Nikola Tesla, Thomas H. Moray
The primary objective of our work is the utili and Hans Coler, have already mastered this task
zation of such energy as was discovered more with working prototypes decades ago and have then
than 100 years ago by Nikola Tesla and was re taken this secret with them to their graves.
ferred to by him as “radiant energy” or “radia
tions”. Since the late 30s of the past century this Apparently, at that time mankind was not ready for
discovery was neglected and almost forgotten. a change to such breathtaking new technologies
which tended towards an infrastructure of decen
Since that time the world’s population has quad tralised energy supply. Fragments of these discov
rupled to some 7,000 million and the number of eries still available have been incorporated into the
cars worldwide has risen to nearly 1,000 mil development and research work done by GFE.
lion. To supply the energy for our population
and vehicles we basically rely on fossil fuels
which over the next 25 years will be increas Future Advantages
ingly in shorter supply and therefore become
more and more expensive. • Low Cost Energy tapped from this inexhaust
able source in the universe (vacuum field, zero
It is now foreseeable that the oil reserves will point energy, space energy) this energy will
run dry within 50 to 70 years and remaining oil be converted to electric power or directly into
reserves should remain for the use in the chem mechanical energy by means of a converter,
ical industries. Bearing this in mind we are ad called The RadiantEnergyConverter.
dressing the task of solving these impending • Protection of the Environment and Climate.
(energy) problems. Reduction of CO2 – emission Reduction of
nuclear power. Saving fossil fuels.
All other known regenerative energy sources • Reduction of ElectroSmog. High current
can only supply a small portion of the energy overhead power lines can be reduced step by
needed and even if extensively promoted could step as small businesses and private households
not supply more than 25% of total energy needs. change their energy supply to decentralised
Nuclear energy should be discarded in steps as systems. Only for big industrial users requir
quickly as possible due to the problems of its ing more than 1 MW would power stations
waste disposal and the general danger. and overhead power lines be required.
• A Better World. The poorer population in the
third world and development countries with
So, how do we go on in future? their emerging markets will also benefit from
this new technology, offering them affordable
Make use of INNOVATIVE ENERGY SOURCES; low cost energy for a number of development
for which pioneers have prepared the path over projects (i.e. water supply and distribution to
the last 150 years. desert areas, etc.).

26 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

New Energy Converter Invented
A new device for generating energy based on
new physical principles has been proposed
by a Moscow inventor, IGOR GLEBOVICH

A new apparatus for the generation of energy based on new physical prin
ciples has been constructed by a Moscow inventor. Igor Glebovich
Bogdanov is the author of this device. It is intended for the creation of
power sources for vehicular stations operating on various types of trans
port. The device can be used on aircraft, seagoing ships and also for the
construction of electric power stations operating on new physical prin
ciples. According to Bogdanov’s opinion, a constituent part of his sys
tem may be used for the realization of a controlled nuclear fusion reac
tion. His machine contains a rotating device comprising a stator and a
rotor. The latter contains a rotated liquid.

Patents: RU 2203518 C2 of 04.27.2003, Bulletin №12, Bogdanov I.G.

RU 2200875 C2 of 03.20.2003, Bulletin № 8, Bogdanov I.G.

Contact information: Bogdanov I.G. Stary Guy Str., 61151, Moscow

Russia, 111402

New Energy Technologies
A collection of articles Japanese Version
A collection of articles from New Energy Technologies
magazine, 2001–2002 has been published in Japan

To purchase the book, please, contact

Eiichi Yamamoto
President of Yama Trans Co. Ltd

email: or

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 27

A “Confined B-field”
Homopolar Dynamotor
Jorge GUALA-VALVERDE1 ing wires: a probe and a closing (cir
and Pedro MAZZONI2 cuit) wire at rest in the lab. In both
E.mail: the above pieces electrons move
centripetally. Each wire becomes an
electromotive force (emf.) source.
If the ends of the wires are connect
ed, the whole circuit behaves as two
identical emf. sources connected in
Abstract opposition and current cannot flow.
If, enabling electrical continuity
Following our investigation of mo between the wires, the probe is an
tional electromagnetic induction chored to the magnet, then direct
started in this journal [1], we current (DC) flows through the
search for torque location in “con whole circuit [1, 2]. When the
fined Bfield” homopolar dynamo probe is at rest relative to the mag
tors. Angular momentum conser net, induction only takes place on
vation precludes a local interac the closing wire, which is in motion
tion between the magnet creating relative to the magnet. The probe
the field and a current carrying wire, plays a passive role: to provide a
as happens in the “open Bfield” current path [1, 2, 3].
configurations formerly investi
gated. Angular momentum balance The above experimental discovery,
takes place now between the active in full agreement with Weber’s elec
current and the magnet plus the trodynamics [12, 13], puts an end to
yoke as a whole. frequent misconceptions concerning
motional electromagnetic induction
[14, 15, 16, 17, 18] and gives some
Electromotive Force credit to “rotating field lines” advo
cates [19].
due to Spinning
As advanced in 2002 in
this journal [1] and Closing wire
widely published subse
quently [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 10], a spinning magnet
induces a Lorentztype
electric field responsible
for a motional Hall effect
[11] in the bulk of near
by conductors (figure 1).
The figure corresponds
to a clockwise north
pole magnet rotation
beneath two conduct Fig. 1. Homopolar Setup Magnet, Probe and Closing Wire

Subsecretaria Energi;a Neuquen Government + Eje;rcito Argentino. NeuquenAR
Fundacio;n Julio Palacios. NeuquenAR

28 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Torque Acting on Magnets leakage). The lower horizontal branch, the
probe from here on, lies in the intense Bfield
free to Spin region (air gap). The loop itself can be consid
ered as consisting of a probe connected to a
The engine sketched in figure 1 exhibits a re closing wire. According to standard electrody
versible behaviour: Injecting DC through the namics, the probe would be the active region
electrically connected but mechanically decou for torque generation on the coil and rotation
pled wires, a motor configuration takes place. will take place for current sufficient to over
Obviously, if the probe is soldered to the clos come frictional torque.
ing wire giving rise to a closed loop, torque
cancellation precludes both magnet and loop
rotation. A Confined B-field machine
That fact suggested us, in order to enhance the
effects, to replace the single loop by a coil of
“A Confined B-field” Nloops. In our actual setup the probe “active
Homopolar Motor length” reaches some 4 cm, N=20, and the
Bfield on the probe amounts to some 0,1 T.
A slight variation of our former experiments [1]
was developed in order to study the behaviour of Whilst coil dynamical behaviour is trivially
homopolar motors when the magnetic field re predicted, the same cannot be said when refer
mains confined in an iron core. Figure 2 sketches ring to the magnet. From theoretical consid
an iron core, the “yoke” from here on, available to erations we cannot expect continuous magnet
confine the Bfield generated by a uniform cylin rotation, since it would imply angular momen
drical permanent magnet able to rotate about its tum creation. Due to spatial constraints im
symmetry axis. posed by the yoke, the coil is unable to describe
a full rotation and, after a limited angular ex
Traversing the yoke, collinearly aligned with cursion, it will collide with the yoke remain
the magnet shaft, is the left branch of a carry ing at rest. A continuous magnet rotation
ing DC wire loop. Laplace force acts on this would imply the generation of an unbalanced
left wire but is inefficient for developing rota angular momentum, without any identifiable
tional torque. Both the upper horizontal source. Moreover, if we admit the coincidence
branch and the right vertical one are located between kinematical and dynamical rotations
in a region free of Bfield actions (neglecting [20], we would expect a force interaction be
tween the coil and the magnet plus the core as
a whole magnetised bulk. In order to check the
above rationale, we have performed the follow
ing experiments.


1-a Both coil and magnet free

to rotate in the lab
A (centrifugal on the lower branch) DC ranging
from 1 to 20 A is injected in the coil located on
the north pole of the magnet.
The predicted torque is observed when DC reach
es some 2 A, which suffices to overcome friction
on the coilbearings. As expected, rotation revers
es when centripetal DC is injected in the circuit.
Fig. 2. Confined Bfield machine

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 29

Magnet rotation never was detected albeit in Ingoing DC
our experiments frictional torque on the mag
net never exceeded 3×10–3 N.m.
Mercury Cup

1-b Coil attached to the Outgoing

magnet Probe DC

Yoke Magnet
With the coil attached to the magnet, both co
rotate in the clockwise sense when centrifu
gal (on the active branch) DC exceeds some
4 A. Motion reverses when centripetal DC is
injected. Due to actionreaction cancellation,
this experiment rules out a local interaction Fig. 3. Setup employed in section 2–experiments
magnet/coil. The behaviour of the above en
gine exhibits a strong departure from the
equivalent “openfield” configuration, and is
the first indication that the interaction would
take place between the (magnet + yoke) as a
whole and the active branch of the coil. With
the aim of throw light on that issue we de
signed and performed two independent sets of


2-a Probe and closing wire

mechanically decoupled
Photo 1. Corresponding to Fig 3
A Lshaped wire is adopted as probe. Both probe
and closing wire are electrically connected via
mercury beds [1, 3] but mechanically decoupled
(figure 3 + photo 1). The closing wire, responsible for a magnet ro
tation in the “open field” equivalent configu
The probe is free to rotate in the air gap, whereas ration, lies now in a fieldless region, becom
the closing wire remains anchored to the bench. ing a passive element for torque generation.
When the probe carries a centrifugal DC amount
ing to some 4 A, then a net probe clockwise rota On the other hand, a magnetised body (the
tion is detected. Rotation becomes counterclock yoke in our actual case) is unable to put in ro
wise when centripetal DC is injected. When DC tation another magnetised body (the magnet
is raised up to 50 A, no magnet rotation is ob itself in our actual case). A dragging of the
served. magnet by the probe appears to be the most
plausible explanation for the observed phe
nomenon. In order to give additional credit to
2-b Probe attached to the the latter hypothesis, we replace the uniform
magnet cylindrical magnet by a piece in which a circu
lar sector amounting to some 15 o was removed
Probe attached to the magnet, both free to rotate (photo 2). This modification introduces a short
in the air gap. A net clockwise rotation is observed range singularity in which Bfield locally
when centrifugal DC reaches some 10 A. Rota reverses [1, 2, 3, 4].
tion reverses when centripetal DC is injected.

30 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

2-c Probe free to rotate EXPERIMENTAL-3
in the magnet’s singularity
3-a Symmetric counterpart
As expected, and due to field reversal, when of 1-a
the probe carries a centrifugal DC amounting
to some 4 A, it itself rotates in the counter With the aid of two 4 meter steel wires an
clockwise sense, whereas the magnet rotates in chored to the ends of its upper branch, the yoke
the clockwise sense. Clearly, a local interaction (ca. 80 kg weight) itself was suspended from
in full agreement with Newton’s third law takes the ceiling. Fixing the (20 turns) coil in the
place in this arrangement. lab, a counterclockwise yoke rotation amount
ing to ca. 1 degree is detected when centrifu
gal (on the active branch) DC reaches some
50A. Constrained rotation takes place about
the line in which lies the magnet axle. This
minute effect is easily amplified by optical
means. Rotation becomes clockwise when DC

By attaching the coil to the yoke no angular devi

ation is detected even for DC as high as 100 A.

“Confined B-field”
Homopolar Generator
Photo 2. Corresponding to experiments 2c + 2d
If the homopolar dynamotor is a reversible en
gine [1, 2] the conclusions drawn for the motor
configuration can be applied, mutatis mutandis
to a generator configuration:

2-d Probe attached to the

magnet in the singularity 1. Oscillating Coil
No rotation is observed with the probe attached Spatially constrained rotation of the coil de
to the magnet when DC as high as 100 A is in livers a NωBR 2/2 emf which changes sign when
jected in the circuit, despite the frictional rotation is reversed. The measured output re
torque being the same as in 2b. Actionreac mains unchanged when the coil is attached to
tion cancellation in the singularity destroys ro the magnet. These qualitative experiments
tational mutual actions between the probe and were performed with the aid of a 1000 turns coil
the magnet. Consequently, this experiment rules manually moved. The output signal was
out the hypothesis of a “hidden” torque acting amplified with the aid of a linear amplifier.
on the magnet. When, with the coil at rest in the lab, the
magnet is spun up to some 5 rps no electrical
Conclusively, the active branch of the cur signal is detected in the coil.
rent carrying loop is the only piece able to
drag the magnet. Our experiments prove that
the magnet can no more be the seat of reac 2. Decoupled circuit
tive torques, as in the “openfield” configura
tion. In “confinedfield” arrangements, it only We have not performed experiments on gener
plays a passive electromechanical role: to ation with the probe mechanically decoupled
provide a magnetic field source. Force inter from the closing wire. Nevertheless, and due
action is now between the current and the to the full reversibility exhibited by electro
whole magnetised bulk.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 31

mechanical conversion [1, 2], it is easy to infer A few words on the (in archaic language) “ro
the behaviour of each component in an actual tating”/“fixed” fieldlines controversy can be
engine. We apply, stepbystep, to generation said in the light of our experiments:
the protocol formerly developed for the motor:
For “open” configurations all happens as if B
lines rotate anchored to the magnet, whereas the
2-a’ above lines appear to be attached to the whole
magnetised bulk, when dealing with “confined”
If the probe is spun, then it will generate an arrangements.
emf which changes sign when rotation is re
versed. Magnet rotation is unable to gener Unlike the “open” configuration, in the “con
ate emf. fined” one, only an active torque τ(M+Y),C exists
due to the (magnet + yoke) body, acting on the
active (ohmic) current C. The active current re
2-b’ acts on the (magnet + yoke) body with the equal
but opposite torque τC, (M+Y). Total angular mo
If the probe rotates anchored to the magnet, mentum remains null: L = LM+Y + LC = 0, which
the same output as in 2a will be displayed. means that (Iω)M+Y = –(Iω)C .
When dealing with “confinedfield” arrange
ments, magnet rotation doesn’t play any active Our experiments confirm Muller’s measure
role in emf generation. The above finding gives ments concerning homopolar motional induc
partial credit to old statements due to Panof tion, as applied to emf generation [23, 24]. Un
sky [16] and Feynman [17], although they were fortunately, Muller (as well as Wesley [25])
wrong for “openfield” configurations. failed when attempting to rationalize the ob
served facts. The above due to a misconception
about the relevant parts involved in the whole
2-c’, 2-d’ interaction. Muller centered his analysis in the
magnet/wire pair, rather than in the (magnet
Probe in motion relative to the magnet will de + yoke)/wire one which is, in fact, the physi
velop an emf. No emf can be expected when the cally relevant pair. The Muller/Wesley ration
magnet is spun with the probe attached in the ale entails doubts about angular momentum
singularity. conservation.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS Experimental details
Homopolar phenomena have been a trouble In order to diminish frictional torque on the mag
some issue for the theory of electrodynamics net’s bearings, we developed the contrivance
for almost two centuries [21]. The whole set shown in figure 4 and photo 3.
of experiments performed on both “open” and
“confined” configurations exhibits a common The magnet itself is embedded in a teflon “boat”
feature: angular momentum conservation. Re able to float in a mercury bed. Archimedes push
active forces, which have their seat on the mag diminishes the apparent weight of the whole piece.
net in “open” configurations, “shift” to the Mechanical contact between the magnet and the
whole magnetised bulk when “confined” ar yoke is achieved with the aid of 4 steel balls “sand
rangements are employed. The above findings wiched” between two circular paths, respectively
are fully consistent with the Amperian surface inscribed in both the contacting faces of the yoke
currents responsible for magnetic effects [22]. and the magnet. Mercury is added until the mag
The source of magnetic field (the magnet it net smoothly slides on the yoke.
self) induces Amperian surface currents on the
whole yoke, and each of them interacts with Acknowledgments: To Tom E. Phipps Jr. and Cris
the ohmic current traversing the circuit. Gagliardo for valuable collaboration.

32 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Steel ball
Teflon “boat”


Teflon cup


Fig. 4. Contrivance employed to diminish frictional torque on the bearings


[1] J. GualaValverde, Physica Scripta 66, 252 (2002).

[2] J. GualaValverde & P. Mazzoni, Rev. Fac. Ing. UTA
(Chile), 10, 1 (2002).
[3] J. GualaValverde, P. Mazzoni & R. Achilles,
Am. J. Physics 70, 1052 (2002).
[4] J. GualaValverde, Spacetime & Substance 3 (3), 140
[5] J. GualaValverde, Infinite Energy 8, 47 (2003). Photo 3. Corresponds to Fig. 4
[6] J. GualaValverde et al., New Energy Technologies 7
(4), 37 (2002).
[7] J. GualaValverde, “News on Electrodynamics”, Fond.
Louis de Broglie, in press (2003).
[8] F.R. Fernбndez, Spacetime & Substance, 4 (14), 184 (2002).
[9] R. Achilles, Spacetime & Substance, 5 (15), 235 (2002).
[10] G.R. Dixon & E. Polito, “Relativistic Electrodynamics Updated”, (2003)
[11] J. GualaValverde & P. Mazzoni, Am. J. Physics, 63, 228 (1995).
[12] A.K.T. Assis & D.S. Thober, “Unipolar Induction…”, Frontiers of Fundamental Physics. Plenum,
NY pp.409 (1994).
[13] A.K.T. Assis, Weber’s Electrodynamics, Kluwer, Dordrecht (1994).
[14] E.H. Kennard, Phil. Mag.23, 937 (1912), 33, 179 (1917).
[15] D.F. Bartlett et al.Physical Review D 16, 3459 (1977).
[16] W.K.H. Panofsky & M. Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, AddissonWesley, NY (1995).
[17] R. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on PhysicsII, AddissonWesley, NY (1964).
[18] A. Shadowitz, Special Relativity, Dover, NY (1968).
[19] A.G. Kelly, Physics Essays, 12, 372 (1999).
[20] A.K.T. Assis, Relational Mechanics, Apeiron, Montreal (1999).
[21] H. Montgomery, Eur.J.Phys., 25, 171 (2004).
[22] T.E. Phipps & J. GualaValverde, 21st Century Science & Technology, 11, 55 (1998).
[23] F. J. Muller, Progress in SpaceTime Physics, Benj. Wesley Pub., Blumberg, p.156 (1987).
[24] F.J. Muller, Galilean Electrodynamics, 1, Nє3, p.27 (1990).
[25] J.P. Wesley, Selected Topics in Advanced Fundamental Physics, Benj. Wesley Pub., Blumberg, p.237 (1991).

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 33

An Analysis Of The Evaluation Process
Of The Electric Energy Consumed
By A Hydroelectric Heat Generator
F.M. KANAREV, Krasnodar, Russia

We have just obtained approval to

apply for patents on highefficien
cy devices generating additional
heat energy. The time has come to Fig. 1. The cell of a hydroelectric
invite other researchers to join our heat generator
project. The process of adapting
this technology will evolve more
efficiently if novice researchers sumed by a hydroelectric heat gen
know the most crucial problems erator in household or industrial
facing us on our way to commercial conditions is one of the problems.
izing these devices. That is why we This is why a detailed analysis of
have decided to start publishing the process using real experimen
patented schemes of hydroelectric tal data will be given below.
heat generator cells and explaining
the most complicated problems that The evaluation was carried out us
might hinder the process of their ing a laboratory prototype of the
commercialization. The evaluation most efficient hydroelectric heat
process of the electric energy con generator cell (Fig. 1). A draft of this
cell will be published after a patent
has been issued.

A scheme of the experimental instal

lation is shown in Fig. 2.

1 — reservoir for solution;

2 — thermometer;
3 — electric scales;
4 — channel for solution feeding;
5 — rotameter;
6 — solution feed regulator;
7 — hydroelectric heat generator cell;
8 — thermometer;
9 —drain for heated solution;
10 — receiving reservoir

Fig. 2. A scheme of the experimental installation

34 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Тable 1

Indices 1 2 3 Avrg.
1 – mass of the solution, passed through the cell m, kg. 0.600 0.624 0.600 0.608
2 – solution temperature on the cell input t1, degrees Celsius. 21.0 21.0 21.0 21.0
3 – solution temperature on the cell output t2, degrees Celsius. 41.0 41.0 41.0 41.0
4 – solution temperature difference dt=t2–t1, degrees Celsius. 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
5 – duration of the experiment dτ, seconds 300.0 300.0 300.0 300.0
6 – voltmeter indications V, volts 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
6' – oscillograph indications V', volts 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8
7 – ammeter indications I, amperes 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
7' – oscillograph indications I', amperes 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
8 – energy consumption according to voltmeter and ammeter indications
E1=I.V.dτ, kJ 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
9 – heated solution energy, E2=3,04.m.dt , kJ 36.48 37.94 36.48 36.97
10 – cell energy efficiency K=E2 /E1 40.53 42.15 40.53 41.07

The voltage and the current on the input of the cell tions. The voltage (Fig. 3) and amperage (Fig. 4)
of the hydroelectric heat generator were evaluated oscillograph records, as well as the methods of
by two sets of devices: a voltmeter with an accura their handling, are given below.
cy rating of 0.2 (GOST 871178), an ammeter with
an accuracy rating of 0.2 (GОSТ 871160) and the
ASK2022 electronic oscillograph.

In order to reduce heat losses that were not taken

into consideration during the experiment, the
temperature differential of the solution before and
after being heated in the cell was kept at a consid
erably low level dt=21 C.

The results of the experiment are set out in Table 1.

Since the energy efficiency of the cell turned out to

be high, we decided to back up the voltmeter and
ammeter readings with oscillograph readings. Hav
ing received the oscillograph records, we turned to Fig. 3. Voltage
a specialist in measuring systems and devices. He
had the kindness to assent to help us by studying
the oscillograph records and sending us back the re
sults and a description of the processing method. In
his letter, he wrote that our evaluation of electric
energy on the cell input was absolutely correct. As a
token of gratitude we included his name in the list
of the authors of our first article, which comprised a
description of the approach proposed by him and the
results of its implementation.

Since experts in measuring systems and equip

ment are quite rare, and taking into consideration
our specialist’s great experience, we treated his
opinion with great respect. All our further actions
were based on the authority of his recommenda Fig. 4. Current

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 35

The impulse scale factor is 10. The average volt
age amplitude (Fig. 3) is:

Uаavrg = (29+31+8+33) × 10/4 = 252.5 V.

The amperage was determined as the decrease

in voltage in a 0.1 Ohm resistor. Taking this
into account, the average current amplitude
will be (Fig. 4):

Iаavrg=(1.7+0.8+1.7+2.1)×0.2×10/(4 × 0.1)=31.5 А. 1 – hydroelectric heat generator cell;

2 – electric oscillograph;
Impulse repetition interval Т = 7.4 ms. 3 – impulse generator;
Impulse length tp= 0.28 ms. 4 – voltage impulse;

Impulse frequency f =1000/7.4 = 135.14 Hz. 5 – current impulse; other circuit components correspond
to the agreed notation.
Intermittency factor S = 7.4/0.28 = 26.43.
Impulse duty factor Z = 0.5/26.43 = 0.019.
Fig. 5. A scheme of the evaluation of hydroelectric
heat generator electric parameters
Average impulse voltage value
Uavrg= 0.019×252.5 = 4.80 V.

Average impulse current the voltmeter and ammeter.

Iavrg= 0.019×31.5 = 0.60 А.
The average voltage impulse amplitude amount
It follows from the data that the divergence be ed to 252.5 V, the average voltage value being 5 V.
tween the voltmeter, ammeter (Table 1) and os The average current impulse amplitude amount
cillograph does not exceed 5%. This fact was a ed to 31.5 А, the average current value being
strong reason to consider the data obtained to be 0.60 А (Fig. 5). The impulse duration amounted
correct. to 0.00028, the intermittency factor and impulse
duty factor being 26.43 and 0.019 respectively.
However, later on, the author of the proposed
method announced that he had begun to doubt According to the voltmeter, ammeter and oscil
whether the method used to evaluate the energy lograph readings, the power on the cell input av
consumed by the cell of a hydroelectric heat gen erages P0=5 × 0.6=3.0W. Taking this into con
erator was entirely correct. sideration the cell’s energy efficiency will be
41.07 × 100 = 4107% (Table 1). The same result
In this situation I, being the scientific advisor of is obtained during the processing of the oscillo
the present research, had to perform a detailed graph records.
analysis of the evaluation process of the energy
consumed by the hydroelectric heat generator cell. It is known that the evaluation of voltage and cur
The results of this analysis are given below. rent in electric circuits with complicated impulses
(Fig. 3 and 4) by oscillograph is considered to be
In order to simplify the process of analysis, a scheme the most reliable method, yet not the most precise.
that can be called structural was developed (Fig. 5). That is why oscillograph readings that differ from
In addition to the data set out in Table 1, the volt backup voltmeter and ammeter readings by no more
age and current ahead of the impulse generator than 5% are considered to be indisputable. This is a
were evaluated (Fig. 5, Pos. 3) during the experi reason to conclude that the index of energy efficien
ment. The voltage at that point equaled the volt cy of processes taking place inside the cell of a hy
age in the mains (220 V). The amperage remained droelectric heat generator amounts to 4000%.
permanent and amounted to 0.60А.
In order to be absolutely sure of the result ob
The average voltage value 5.0 V and average am tained, the voltmeter, ammeter and oscillograph
perage value 0.60 А (Fig. 5) on the input of the readings must be backed up by another, more pre
cell of a hydroelectric heat generator (1) are in cise indicator. One indicator is an electronic en
scribed into the schematic symbols representing ergy counter, which that we do not possess. How

36 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

ever, knowing its working principle, we can theo tor (3) indicate hat the impulse generator and the
retically calculate the final result of its evaluation. cell together consume 39.6 kJ during the experiment,
while taking into consideration all voltage and cur
First of all, an electronic counter will register the rent impulse area results in the value 253.1 kJ?
energy of every impulse. Since the energy is pro
portional to the pulse area, the electronic energy In order to do so, let us pay attention to the fact that,
counter will separately determine the area of eve as follows from Fig.5, the value of the current is com
ry voltage and current impulse (Fig. 3 and 4). mon for the whole circuit, while the voltage values
Then, let us assume that the areas of voltage and differ. The voltage before the impulse generator (3)
amperage impulses obtained will be multiplied by totals 220 V, while the voltage ahead of the cell and
the number of impulses per experiment (300/ after it leaves the impulse generator is 5 V. This means
0.0074)=40540.54. After this, the multiplication that during the calculation of the power consumed
of the total voltage impulse area by the total cur by the cell, performed by means of evaluating the volt
rent impulse area will show the amount of energy age and current areas, we need to take into consider
consumed by the cell (1). Taking into considera ation the total area of voltage impulses only and then
tion a triangle shape of impulses, we get the fol multiply this area by the value of current com
lowing: mon for the whole circuit, i.e. by 0.6 А. Then we
will have 252.5×0.5×0.00028×0.6×41095.98=0.87 kJ.
Voltage impulses area The energy efficiency of the process will amount
252.5×0.5×0.00028×40540.54 =1418.92 to 36.97/0.87=42.50.

Current impulses area Thus, if we calculate the energy consumed by the

31.5×0.5×0.00028×40540.54 =178.38 cell by means of an electronic energy counter, con
nected before the cell, we shall get the same re
According to this method of registration of sult as obtained by studying the voltmeter, am
the energy consumed by the cell of a heat meter and oscillograph readings.
generator, the amount of energy will total
Е=1418.92×178.38=253.1 kJ. This result is ob This is enough evidence to show that the energy
viously incorrect as it exceeds the readings of efficiency value of the cell of a heat generator ex
the devices connected before the impulse gen ceeds 4000%. The laboratory results of this index
erator 220×0.6×300=39.6 kJ. Where is the mis are stable and reliable.
take? In order to find it, we have to calculate
the same energy using the voltage and current The question arises of whether the existing elec
impulses in order to determine the power gen trical measuring instruments connected before the
erated by the cell. The total voltage and cur impulse generator (Fig. 5, Pos. 3) can confirm the
rent impulse areas per second have to be present efficiency
found and then multiplied together. The
number of impulses per second equals a fre As one can see from Fig. 5, at an efficiency factor
quency of impulses of 135.14 Hz. Then the of the impulse generator equaling or approximat
total area of voltage impulses per second will ing unity, an ammeter connected ahead of the im
be 252.5×0.5×0.00028×135.14=4.78 V. The to pulse generator (3) will indicate 0.60А, and a volt
tal area of current impulses will amount to meter will indicate 220 V. As a result, the power
31.5×0.5×0.00028×135.14= 0.60 А. One can see generated by the impulse generator (3) and the
that these values agree with those obtained during cell (1) will total P1=220×0.60=132 W. In this
the processing of the oscillograph records. Then, case, the energy efficiency of the cell of a hydroe
the power generated by the cell will total lectric heat generator, taking into consideration
4.78×0.60=2.87 W while the energy consumed the heated solution energy (Table 1) will be less
by it from the mains will be 2.87×300=0.86 kJ. than unity (36970/300=123.23)/132=0.93.
The energy efficiency of the process will be
36.97/0.86=42.50. Connecting a voltmeter and Thus, if the efficiency factor of the impulse genera
ammeter before the cell, allow us to confirm the tor (3) equals unity, the readings of the devices con
result obtained. In Table 1 this value equals 41.07. nected before and after the impulse generator, are
forty times greater. The question is: which measur
Now it is much easier to answer the question of why ing instruments permits us to reveal the result
the devices connected before the impulse genera matching the true amount of energy consumed by

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 37

the cell of a hydroelectric heat generator? Those impulse generator (3) and the cell (1) together,
connected before the impulse generator (3) or those i.e. 132 W. Such are the features of electric cir
connected after it? What is the physical essence of cuits. No energy economy is possible.
the difference between the two aspects?
Thus, we have two contradicting results: the undis
In order to answer this question, we need to pay putable energy efficiency of the hydroelectric heat
more attention to the physical processes that take generator’s cell totaling almost 4000% and the ina
place during the evaluation of the voltage and bility of an electric circuit to make use of the effec
current before the impulse generator (3). tiveness to economize energy. The main cause for this
contradiction lies in the fact that the cell consumes
The readings of the voltmeter connected before energy in the form of shortterm voltage and cur
the impulse generator (3) exceed those of the os rent impulses, which are not present in the mains.
cillograph and the voltmeter connected before the
cell (1). This happens because the voltage ahead But what if we turn down the idea of using an im
of the impulse generator always equals the volt pulse generator and design an electric energy gen
age in the mains, 220 V. erator that will create energy in the form of impulses
used by the cell (Fig. 3 and 4)? Evidently, such a
Let us pay attention to the fact that a single impulse generator must not have any electric communica
(100 Hz) of rectified current with a duration of 0.01 tion with the whole electric circuit. In this case, a
sec is shown before the impulse generator in Fig. 5. power of 3.0 W generated by the cell will be di
A voltage impulse (4) with a duration of 0.0003 sec., rected to the generator shaft. If we make the shaft
which is detached by the impulse generator from the common with the shaft of an electric motor setting
whole impulse with a duration of 0.01 sec and di the generator in motion, the common shaft will cre
rected to the cell, is also shown in Fig. 5. Strictly ate a power of 3.0 W for the cell. The power drawn
speaking, the remaining area under the curve of the by the electric motor from the common circuit will
rectified impulse with a voltage of 220 V must de be (taking into consideration any losses) the same.
crease by a value corresponding to the area of the
impulse sent to the cell and correspond to a voltage
of 220–5=215 V. However, this difference is com Summary
pensated for by the mains potential while the indi
cated area of the impulse with a duration of 0.01 sec. A voltmeter, ammeter and oscillograph connect
still corresponds to a voltage of 220V. ed before the cell of a hydroelectric heat genera
tor correctly evaluate the energy consumed by
Thus, any measuring devices connected before the the generator.
impulse generator (3) will register power 40 times
greater than the devices connected before the cell The energy efficiency of the cell of a hydroelectric
(1). Now we know that the reason for this is that heat generator, amounting to 4000%, is registered
the devices connected before the impulse genera in laboratory conditions as stable and reliable.
tor (3) attribute a current of 0.60 А not to the
magnitude of the voltage impulse (with a dura The highenergy efficiency of a hydroelectric heat
tion of 0.0003 sec.) sent to the cell of a hydroelec generator can be implemented in modern electric
tric heat generator, but to the whole voltage im circuits by using an individual generator creating
pulse (220V) with a duration of 0.01 sec. electric energy in the form of the voltage and cur
rent impulses consumed by the hydroelectric heat
It is only now that we may try to answer another generator.
question of whether the efficiency obtained can
be applied in household or industrial conditions
with the aim of achieving energy economy? REFERENCES

Since an electric circuit represents a closed sys 1. Kanarev Ph.M. The Principles of Micro World’s Phys
tem, a current of 0.6А will flow through all elec ical Chemistry. Third edition. — Krasnodar: KSAU
tric pulse counters installed in the system (with a Publishers, 2003.
voltage of 220 V) all the way up to the electric 2. Kanarev Ph.M. The Principles of Micro World’s
Physical Chemistry. Fourth edition. 2004. (In Eng
power station generator’s turbine. As a result, all
counters will register the power created by the

38 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Conversion Of Environmental Energy
B.M. KONDRASHOV uneven heating of atmospheric gas
Moscow, Russia. es, accumulating solar energy and
e-mail: compressed under the influence of
gravity, causes atmospheric pressure
changes, affecting the balance of the
atmosphere. During its reestablish
ment, both potential and heat ener
In the present article are considered gy of air masses are transformed into
ways of lowpotential energy conver kinetic energy. The transformation
sion, making possible the generation of of atmospheric energy into the type
power, highgrade heat and “cold”. that allows it to be used, is per
They involve the use of scientifically formed in this stochastic process.
valid and experimentally proven tech The advantages of windmills using
nical solutions, which are realized in this type of energy over heatengines
ejectornozzle devices of turbine en lies in the performing of mechanical
gines. Unlike known free energy con work without any oxygen consump
verters (using wind or solar energy), tion and in the absence of exhaust gas
the effectiveness of environmental production, while the disadvantages
energy conversion in the fuelfree tur are: low energy density per working
bine discussed below engines does not square unit and the inability to con
depend on geographical, temporary or trol wind velocity.
atmospheric conditions, while their
power density is higher and could be However, it is possible to break the
compared with the power density of atmospheric balance in order to
traditional heat engines. They may transform the potential energy of air
work either by using an open cycle and masses into kinetic energy by means
atmospheric air as the working medi of controlled local impacts (for in
um, or by using a closed cycle in air stance, in ejectortype devices). By
independent systems. The generation recreating the equilibrium broken
of the needed energy type by the fuel by the active jet of the working me
free systems based on such turbine dium, the atmosphere performs me
engines is performed directly in the chanical work, the amount of which
place where it is being consumed. The depends on the degree, the method
absence of materials and devices con of impact and the parameters of the
nected with fuel usage in their con ejector devices as well. In the ejec
struction makes the work more fail tion process representing parallel
safe, simplifies the construction and adjunction to the stationary reactive
technology, reduces costs and enables jet, the efficiency factor and the ad
these devices to be produced at most ditional mass adjunction coefficient
engineering plants, making the opera m (characterizing the adjoining air
tion environmentally friendly. mass to active jet ratio) are low be
cause mixing and friction reduce the
The problems concerned with keep active jet speed Caj. As a result, both
ing up with society’s growing energy the thrust and the kinetic energy of
needs are becoming more acute with the reactive mass increase insignifi
each day. The reduction of hydrocar cantly.
bon raw material reserves and the
increase in energy consumption ac In another process, that of consecu
companied by the everworsening tive adjunction (having another
environmental situation require physical basis, which is not necessar
more effective and clean energy con ily related to jet mixing), the impact
version technologies, because the ex of the pulsing active jet creates neg
isting ones are still not effective. The ative pressure in the ejector muzzle,

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 39

when due to the unbalanced atmospheric pressure scribed is that the latter can be guided in a pre
force air is adjoined and accelerated following each arranged direction with design thermodynamic
new active jet impulse. The process can take parameters), forming during the outflow from the
place practically without mixing the adjoined muzzle the second part of the reactive mass, which
masses and reducing the active jet velocity, but acts on the blades. Due to the acceleration of the
only in a limited range of values and correlations adjoined air mass, the pressure falls in the muzzle,
of such main process parameters as design frequen thus increasing the potential difference in pres
cy, shape, duration, the velocity of active jet im sure before the outflow of the active jet impulse
pulses, the speed of the approach flow, and the of the next period, and, respectively, the kinetic
correlation of design values of the jet device and energy of the present impulse. As a result, the neg
its ejector muzzle. ative pressure in the muzzle rises during the sec
ond cycle of this period, and the velocity of the
During the process of adjunction the following air being adjoined also increases. Thus, the trans
combined reactive mass is obtained: formation of the energy of a lowgrade source
TM = 1+m, during the previous period establishes condi
where 1 is the active jet mass and m is the adjoined tions for the increase of effectiveness of energy
mass, numerically equaling the adjunction coeffi transformation of another, highgrade source,
cient m. in the next period.

The effectiveness of the process is also character Hence, in contrast to the process of parallel ad
ized by the combined reactive mass velocity coef junction, when the kinetic energy of the ejecting
ficient: jet is decreased by means of redistribution of its
wtm = Ctm / Cpj, initial energy on a greater gas mass, a periodical
where Ctm is the velocity of the combined reac disturbance of atmospheric equilibrium in the
tive mass (Ctm equals Caj which depends on the ejector muzzle (under the influence of the ac
periodical pressure alteration inside the ejector tive pulsing jet), creates a potential difference
muzzle); Cpj is the velocity of the pulsing reactive in pressure with a preset periodicity, providing
jet, produced by the working medium with the for acceleration of the adjoined air masses dur
same parameters as observed during the forma ing the process of equilibrium recreation, which
tion of the active jet, but increasing in volume at results in an increase of the active jet’s kinetic
constant pressure. Let us consider the types of energy. As a result of this discrete process, the
energy conversion taking place inside engines with combined mass with increased kinetic energy, act
different thermodynamic cycles. ing on the turbine blades, augments the momen
tum on its axle without additional fuel consump
The first type refers to a jet engine with an ejec tion. This leads to the generation of the same pow
tor nozzle diaphragm and the working medium re er, while the fuel consumption is a minimum of m
sulting from the fuel combustion that takes place times, corrected by the wtm value, less than in gas
inside the chamber of recurrent combustion. The turbine engines of a traditional design.
process of adjunction in this case is discrete and
consists of a pair of consecutive thermodynamic After the start of the outflow of combustion prod
cycles repeated with a predefined periodicity. Each ucts, their pressure decreases in the chamber and
cycle has its own source of energy and working before the throat of the nozzle. The degree of “rear”
medium. In the first cycle of each period, the en part expansion of the gaseous mass decreases in
ergy of the combustion products is transformed the first cycle and so does its velocity. As a result,
into the kinetic energy of the first part of the re a decrease of decompression in the muzzle and a
active mass, which moves in the ejector muzzle as reduction of velocity of the adjoined mass are ob
a gas piston, creates negative pressure, and on its served during the second cycle. The “front” part
outflow acts on the turbine blades, thus creating of impulses of the combustion products of the next
angular momentum on the axle. Due to the nega period extrudes the “rear” part of the adjoined air
tive pressure in the muzzle, both the potential and mass, which has a lesser speed, out of the muzzle.
thermal energy of the atmospheric air, compressed All this results in a partial mixing of separated gas
by gravity, become the main source of energy dur eous masses, which decreases the effectiveness of
ing the second cycle. Under the influence of the the whole process. However, experiments have
difference in pressure this lowgrade working shown that even taking into consideration these
medium expands and accelerates with a drop in losses, the combined reactive mass may have ki
temperature (the difference between a natural netic energy totaling Etm= 0.5 (1 + m) C2tm ,which
stochastic process and the process being de many times exceeds the active jet’s energy:

40 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Eaj = 0.5 C2aj . By ejecting atmospheric air by the Unsophisticated mathematical calculations show
pulsing jet of combustion products, an increase in that it is sufficient to increase Etm, obtained in the
thrust totaling 140% was achieved. Etm (taking transformation processes by 44% in comparison
into consideration the decrease of wtm due to the with Eaj in order to provide for their selfmainte
losses caused by partial blending) is 2.4 times nance. Surplus energy can be used by external
greater than the kinetic energy of the active jet consumers. If the value of the m parameter
Eaj. Thus, the major part of the power, created in amounts to just 1, while the efficiency factors of
this type of energy conversion is generated by the turbine and the compressor are 0.85 and 0.8
means of transformation of both potential energy respectively, the energy obtained in the previous
and lowgrade heat of gases, compressed under the cycles can be used for the compression of the
influence of gravity, into the kinetic energy of air working medium, leaving 24% of the available Etm.
mass. The effectiveness of such combined jet tur
bine heat engines should be evaluated by the to Results of experiments have proven the possi
tal efficiency factor, which equals the efficiency bility of atmospheric energy transformation
factor of the Carnot cycle, increased by the prod during compression of the working medium at
uct of the m and wtm coefficients. the expense of the power generated during its
transformation in the previous cycles. When we
The second type. Experiments have shown that extrapolate the increase of the kinetic energy by
the best value of combustion products Caj re a factor of 2.4, experimentally obtained in a less
sides in the range of velocities which can be effective process of the consecutive adjunction of
obtained by expansion of the compressed work combustion products to the active jet, to a similar
ing medium without additional heating. Con process which uses compressed air to create the
sequently, combustion products can be replaced jet, the energy left for external consumers (taking
by compressed air, while the combustion cham into consideration losses and compression expens
ber can be replaced by a pneumatic accumula es) will be not less than 34.2% of Etm.
tor. On the outflow of air from the pneumatic
accumulator, the pressure at the throat of the According to the second law of thermodynamics,
nozzle remains constant during the cycle. That not all the energy of a single source is transformed
is why the “rear” part of the gaseous mass of the into work in the proposed method – part of it is
active jet’s impulses, decreasing the effective transformed into the heat of losses and into a high
ness of the adjunction process, is not present, grade heat during the mechanical compression of
which practically excludes the mixing of con the working medium. This heat can be dispersed
secutively moving separated air masses, and, in the environment or used by consumers, which
therefore, the losses on their friction. The wtm makes it possible to generate power at the same
coefficient becomes greater than unity. Since Ctm time. The temperature of the heat can be regulat
equals Caj, the kinetic energy of the combined ed depending on the degree of working medium
mass will be greater than the kinetic energy of compression and on the degree of its cooling be
the active jet, i.e. Etm is a minimum m of times fore expansion. At the atmospheric temperature,
greater than Eaj. The m parameter, which chang the Caj and Ctm values will reside in a range of the
es its value in a range from 10 to 50, depending velocity coefficient л up to 2.45, which is suffi
on the parameters of the adjunction process, will cient enough to reach peripheral velocities, pro
exceed the value used in the process with the viding for a high efficiency factor of the turbo
active jet of the combustion products, other machines.
conditions being equal. In order to increase the
air pressure inside the pneumatic accumulator, The air temperature in the processes of energy con
different methods, as well as external energy version falls. By controlling the volume of both the
sources, can be used. The energy needed to me atmospheric air and the cold air on the exhaust,
chanically compress the air (ignoring compres which are returned to ejector muzzles as adjoined
sion losses), amounts to Eaj and ranges from only masses, we can obtain air temperatures that can be
1/10 to 1/50 of Etm. used in airconditioning systems. If the cold air of
the exhaust, coming from one ejector nozzle is di
Such an energy balance allows compressing of rected as adjoined masses to another ejector nozzle
the working medium by using the power gener and so on, it can be cooled down to the extremely
ated in the processes of transformation of at low temperatures used in cryogenic devices.
mospheric energy into mechanical work during
the previous cycles. Thus, the atmospheric energy is simultaneously
transformed into three types of energy, that is:

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 41

mechanical energy, highgrade heat energy and reduces production costs and expands the area of
into the “cold” of a design temperature. application due to the simultaneous generation of
three types of energy.
This type of energy conversion uses open cycles.
The exhaust gaseous mass is expelled into the at Let us consider additional ways of increasing the
mosphere. It is cold and does not contain com effectiveness and expanding the field of applica
bustion products. The main energy sources are the tion of fuelfree engines using the following en
lowgrade temperature of atmospheric air and the gine as an example (Fig. 1).
gravity that creates the atmospheric pressure. The
mechanical compression is performed at the ex The engine consists of an ejector nozzle block,
pense of the power, generated during the atmos which comprises a convergent propulsive nozzle
pheric energy conversion, which takes place in 1 and an ejector muzzle, the adjoining device 2.
previous cycles. That is why the devices, using the The airgas channel of the device and of the tur
present method, are called atmospheric (gravi bines 3 and 4, mounted at the ends of the power
tational) fuelfree heat jet engines. Unlike the shaft 5, is situated inside this hollow shaft. The
known free energy converters (using wind, solar compressor rotors 6, 7 are located on the outside
or geothermal types of energy), the effectiveness surface of the shaft. The output of the compressor
of energy conversion in the proposed engines does stage 30, which is not mounted on the shaft 5, is
not depend on geographical, temporary or atmos connected via its return valve 20 to the pneumat
pheric conditions, while their power density is ic accumulator 18 of the working medium. The
higher and can be compared with the power den compressed air is fed into the accumulator through
sity of traditional heat engines. The absence of the valves 19 or 20. The valve 21 provides for the
materials and devices concerned with fuel usage design periodicity and for the duration of the out
in their construction makes the work more fail flow of the compressed air from the propulsion
safe, simplifies the construction and technology, nozzle 1. Negative pressure forms in the device 2

Fig. 1

42 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

following the air mass of the impulse. Under the sure can be further augmented at the expense of
influence of atmospheric pressure, the adjoined air using the Eus, part by connecting the center of the
accelerates following the air mass of the impulse volume 12 via the directing apparatus 15 to the
through the valves 26, 27, blades 22 of the tur compressor input 6.
bine 29, blades 23 of the turbine 3, and through
the directing apparatus 24. The degree of the neg During the compression of the resulting lowtem
ative pressure obtained in the device 2, as well the perature mass, energy consumption on the com
time period of the pressure remaining stable, de pression work is reduced compared to compres
pend on the geometric parameters of the nozzle 1, sion of air at the atmospheric temperature. That
device 2, their correlation and also on the ther is why opencycle engines can be used not only as
modynamic parameters of the propulsive mass of power generating units, but as effective genera
the impulses. The degree of the negative pressure tors of a highgrade working medium used by more
and the time period of its remaining stable influ powerful fuelfree systems. They can also be used
ence the amount of the adjoined air, its velocity for the creation of lowtemperature propulsion jets
and the total head, creating momentum on the (in nozzles 28) and for creating thrust. The effec
shaft 5 due to the effect of the inflowing air mass tiveness of the compression can also be increased
on the blades 23 of the turbine 3 and the effect of by using birotating compressors 7 and 30 with the
the combined reactive mass on the blades 25 of working wheels rotating in opposite directions.
the turbine 4, mounted on the other side of the
shaft. The total power obtained is used by com The power density can be increased by heating
pressor drives 6, 7 and by external consumers. the resulting lowtemperature air instead, or on a
par with the mechanically compressing the work
By compressing the mass processed in the com ing medium to form the active jet. It will make
pressor 7 at the expense of the Eus part, an increase possible the creation of a highgrade working me
in the effectiveness of the adjunction process can dium using the heat from external sources (solar,
be achieved; the resulting mass can be bled to the geothermal etc.) before the expansion.
environment at an increased pressure through the
valve 9 and/or reused by feeding it through the The third type. The process of consecutive ad
valve 10 via the в and с channels. During this junction can also be used to generate power, high
process, due to the negative pressure obtained grade heat and “cold” outside of atmospheric
before the compressor input 7, potential difference conditions by transforming environmental heat
of the pressure increases during the formation of energy in a closed thermodynamic cycle. Let us
impulses, which, in turn, leads to an increase in imagine that an atmospheric fuelfree jet engine
the active jet’s velocity. The kinetic energy of the is placed in an environmentally isolated space,
combined reactive mass also increases, accompa filled with air or helium. During the operation
nied by a decrease in temperature and by an in of the engine, due to the cooling of the processed
crease in the momentum on the shaft 5. mass, both the temperature and pressure of the
volume will decrease. The parameters of the ad
Negative pressure, used for augmenting poten junction process will change so radically that at
tial difference of the pressure, may be obtained some moment the value of Etm will be insufficient
without additional energy consumption. For to create the design power of the compressor,
this purpose, jets flowing from the blades 25 of contracting the working medium. The degree of
the turbine 4, are spiraled (variant B) through its contraction and Caj will diminish with every
the directing apparatus 11. In the volume 12, to following cycle. The process of adjunction will
which the outflow is directed, a vortex effect is gradually fade out, and the engine, having “fro
created due to the remaining kinetic energy. The zen”, will stop.
negative pressure created in the central part of
the effect increases potential difference of the It will not happen if the isolated space is used as a
pressure during the expansion of the working lowtemperature heat absorber for the outflow of
medium. At the same time, the pressure of the the processed gaseous mass, and is connected to
combined mass increases in the peripheral part of the heat exchange device, while the output of the
the vortex created. The combined mass acts on the device is connected to the input of the adjunction
blades 25 of the turbine 4 via the directing appa device and the compressor in order to create a
ratus 13, and then (directly after compression in closed circuit. Part of the processed gaseous mass
the compressor 6) is expelled through the valve under the influence of the unbalanced force of gas
16 and/or is directed for reuse through the valve pressure, appearing due to the negative pressure
17. In variant B, potential difference of the pres that forms behind the gaseous mass of the active

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 43

jet’s impulses, is directed to the heat exchange of the active jet. The proposed fuelfree methods
device. By obtaining heat and reducing the tem of energy conversion are based on this statement,
perature of the environment, part of the processed which was verified in experiments.
gaseous mass is heated up to the design tempera
ture before performing the functions of the ad The principle of augmenting the kinetic energy
joined masses of the following periods. Under the is the same for all three methods: the augmenta
influence of the negative pressure created on the tion takes place during the reestablishment of
compressor’s input, part of the processed gaseous equilibrium by the gaseous masses of the low
mass is directed via the heat exchange device (or grade working medium, which is broken by the
bypassing it) into the compressor where it is con gaseous mass of the active jet’s impulses in the
tracted for further use. ejector muzzle. The adjoined masses may acceler
ate practically without any friction loss. Due to
As a result, by heating up the processed gaseous their acceleration, the velocity of the active jet also
mass in the heat exchange device, the process increases, compared to its velocity during the out
of consecutive adjunction in airindependent flow to the constant pressure area. The amount of
fuelfree jet engines with a closed cycle can be the increase in kinetic energy augmentation de
performed for an unlimited period of time. It pends on the correlation of the main parameters
does not depend on the pressure of the environ of the process, and also on the correlation of the
ment, which acts as a heater, i.e. a source of design parameters and the proportion of the ejec
heat transformed into work. tor device. Turbulent mixing and friction of the
gaseous masses, which drastically decrease the ef
The difference between fuelfree engines with a fectiveness of the adjunction process, are absent
closed cycle and those with an open cycle lies in only in a narrow range of optimal values of pa
the principle of heat exchange with the environ rameters.
ment and in the possibility of modifying the pres
sure and temperature in the heat exchange device. Thus, an inexhaustible and natural free energy
Their effectiveness to a considerable degree de source can be effectively transformed without any
pends on the temperature differential between the harm to the environment into three types of ener
environmental source of heat and the heat exchange gy, consumed directly on the site of their genera
device before the heating up of part of the proc tion. Such energy generation can be performed
essed gaseous mass used during the following peri regardless of the geographical position and envi
ods. By modifying the adjunction process, the pres ronment conditions and will make it possible to
sure and temperature of the heatexchange device, do away with the need for development and trans
and the degree of compression of the processed mass portation of energy carriers, the use of longdis
before reuse, the engine’s power can be controlled tance transmission circuits, and the accumulation
and the range of temperatures of the environmen of the energy generated. The production of such
tal heat sources that are used can be expanded. systems is much easier and more effective com
pared to the production of analogous traditional
On the basis of closedloop engines, airindepend systems, and is possible at the majority of facto
ent autonomous fuelfree energy systems of a ries that produce propulsion systems.
broad power range and for different applications
can be created. Their operation would be possible The proposed methods of energy transformation
under any environmental conditions: in outer and the construction of turbine engines, using
space or under water, making possible the trans these principles, are intellectual property objects,
formation of its lowgrade heat into the three protected by a Russian Federation patent. Accord
needed types of energy. If ponds, glaciers, soil and ing to the Patent Cooperation Treaty (РСТ), an
the atmosphere are used as sources of heat, the international application has been filed. The im
control over their aggregative state can be plementation of these objects will yield great ben
achieved. A local alteration of climatic conditions, efits to those who have signed the Treaty. Various
depending on the scale of the fuelfree systems legal forms of mutually beneficial cooperation are
application, is also possible. possible, from license agreements to joint patent
ing in countries of production. A version of this
In conclusion, I would like to emphasize the fol article, containing energy balance calculations, a
lowing point: the reactive thrust and the kinetic schematic diagram of a fuelfree turbine engine,
energy of the combined reactive mass, obtained the description of its working principle, and addi
as a result of the process of consecutive adjunc tional explanations and references, can be sent by
tion, exceed the thrust and the kinetic energy email by the author on request.

44 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Letters to the editor with other vortex processes, both low
(the aether’s temperature falls) and
high (the aether’s temperature rises)
pressure areas can be formed in aether.
The existence of matter under such
Dear Mr. Frolov, “atypical conditions” looks like a
Having studied the contents of your change in the speed of time for this
website, we have matter.
found the information concerning
your invention to be very interesting. A few words about practical applica
I would like to obtain more details on tion of the device: a change in the rate
the prospects of creating a “time ma of existence of matter in the first place
chine” and to offer my help should you influences the activity of isotopes;
be so kind to comply with my request. this is a method of stabilizing radio
Also, if it not too much trouble, could active materials or activating of chem
you, please, answer the following ical transmutations of substance, ac
questions? companied by the emission of energy.
1. What are your plans concerning
practical application of the device? Another application is the creation of
2. What will be the consequences of a vehicle, moving due to the gradient
its use? of aether’s density. The application in
3. Which are the main fields of appli aerospace technology is evident.
Several aspects are related to medicine,
I am looking forward to your answer. but I am not a specialist in this field.
Best regards, K. However, if the stabilization of isotopes
is performed using the method in ques
tion, Ivan S. Philimonenko’s ideas
Thank you for your interest in the about immortality will be realized. He
invention. considered the process of aging to be
the result of damage to the structure
As a result of our experiments, we of cells and DNA, caused by the radia
have found a way to change the rate tion of K40, the main isotope, which
of any physical processes. In this case, represents the cause of the socalled
“time” is considered as a parameter of “natural radiation background”, and
any process, determining its rate. The which accumulates in the human body
existence of any matter, including during a lifetime. Thus, our cells are
photons, is considered as a process. constantly repairing themselves. By
The novelty lies in the fact that for eliminating such “inner irradiation”,
the first time the rate of existence is the normal functioning of body cells
represented by the function of ae can be achieved, which will result in
ther’s density. We have also applied twentyfold increase in human longev
for a Russian Federation patent. The ity. In addition, it is necessary to study
density of aether can be changed in the application of our technology for
many ways. During our research with treating people who have been exposed
Dr.Chernobrov, we tested his meth to radiation.
od of using threelayered electromag
nets. Magnetostriction of the core also I’m interested to know what your or
plays an important role. However, ganization, and you personally, have
such a method leads to quite disputa in mind in terms of helping me to de
ble results due to the fact that some velop this particular research line?
magnetization of detectors (chronom
eters) takes place. I consider the Alexander V. Frolov,
creation of vortex processes in aether Faraday Lab Ltd.
to be a more promising method. As 78123803844

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 45

The World of Free Energy
Peter LINDEMANN Current State
Clear Tech, Inc.
PO Box 37 of Technology
Metaline Falls, WA 99153, USA
A c t u a l l y, t h e a n s w e r t o t h a t
question is NO. In fact, the op
posite is true. Spectacular ener
gy technologies were developed
right along with the other break
throughs. Since that time, mul
tiple methods for producing vast
amounts of energy at extremely
low cost have been developed.
None of these technologies have
In the late 1880’s, trade journals made it to the “open” consumer
in the electrical sciences were market as an article of com
predicting “free electricity” in m e r c e , h o w e v e r. E x a c t l y w h y
the near future. Incredible dis this is true will be discussed
coveries about the nature of elec shortly. But first, I would like to
tricity were becoming common describe to you a short list of
place. Nikola Tesla was demon “free energy” technologies that I
strating “wireless lighting” and am currently aware of, and that
other wonders associated with are proven beyond all reasonable
high frequency currents. There doubt. The common feature con
was an excitement about the fu necting all of these discoveries,
ture like never before. is that they use a small amount
of one form of energy to control
Within 20 years, there would be or release a large amount of a dif
automobiles, airplanes, movies, ferent kind of energy. Many of
recorded music, telephones, radio, them tap the underlying Жther
and practical cameras. The Victo field in some way; a source of en
rian Age was giving way to some ergy conveniently ignored by
thing totally new. For the first “modern” science.
time in history, common people
were encouraged to envision a 1. Radiant Energy. Nikola Tes
utopian future, filled with abun la’s Magnifying Transmitter, T.
dant modern transportation and Henry Moray’s Radiant Energy
communication, as well as jobs, Device, Edwin Gray’s EMA Mo
housing and food for everyone. tor, and Paul Baumann’s Testati
Disease would be conquered, and ka Machine all run on Radiant
so would poverty. Life was getting Energy. This natural energy form
better, and this time, everyone can be gathered directly from the
was going to get “a piece of the environment (mistakenly called
pie”. So, what happened? In the “static” electricity) or extracted
midst of this technological explo from ordinary electricity by the
sion, where did the energy break method called “fractionation.”
throughs go? Was all of this ex Radiant Energy can perform the
citement about “free electricity”, same wonders as ordinary elec
which happened just before the tricity, at less than 1% of the cost.
beginning of the last century, all It does not behave exactly like
just wishful thinking that “real electricity, however, which has
science” eventually disproved? contributed to the scientific com

46 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

munity’s misunderstanding of it. The Meth produce ten times more heat than standard
ernitha Community in Switzerland current methods using the same energy input.
ly has 5 or 6 working models of fuelless, self
running devices that tap this energy. 4. SuperEfficient Electrolysis. Water can
be broken into Hydrogen and Oxygen using
2. Permanent Magnets. Dr. Robert Adams electricity. Standard chemistry books claim
(NZ) has developed astounding designs of that this process requires more energy than
electric motors, generators and heaters that can be recovered when the gases are recom
run on permanent magnets. One such device bined. This is true only under the worst case
draws 100 watts of electricity from the source, scenario. When water is hit with its own
generates 100 watts to recharge the source, molecular resonant frequency, using a system
and produces over 140 BTU’s of heat in two developed by Stan Meyers (USA) and again
minutes! Dr. Tom Bearden (USA) has two recently by Xogen Power, Inc., it collapses
working models of a permanent magnet pow into Hydrogen and Oxygen gas with very lit
ered electrical transformer. It uses a 6watt tle electrical input. Also, using different elec
electrical input to control the path of a mag trolytes (additives that make the water con
netic field coming out of a permanent mag duct electricity better) changes the efficien
net. By channeling the magnetic field, first to cy of the process dramatically. It is also
one output coil and then a second output coil, known that certain geometric structures and
and by doing this repeatedly and rapidly in a surface textures work better than others do.
“PingPong” fashion, the device can produce The implication is that unlimited amounts of
a 96watt electrical output with no moving Hydrogen fuel can be made to drive engines
parts. Bearden calls his device a Motionless (like in your car) for the cost of water. Even
Electromagnetic Generator, or MEG. Jean more amazing is the fact that a special metal
Louis Naudin has duplicated Bearden’s device alloy was patented by Freedman (USA) in
in France. The principles for this type of de 1957 that spontaneously breaks water into
vice were first disclosed by Frank Richardson Hydrogen and Oxygen with no outside elec
(USA) in 1978. Troy Reed (USA) has work trical input and without causing any chemi
ing models of a special magnetized fan that cal changes in the metal itself. This means
heats up as it spins. It takes exactly the same that this special metal alloy can make Hy
amount of energy to spin the fan whether it is drogen from water for free, forever.
generating heat or not. Beyond these devel
opments, multiple inventors have identified 5. Implosion/Vortex. All major industrial
working mechanisms that produce motor engines use the release of heat to cause ex
torque from permanent magnets alone. pansion and pressure to produce work, like
in your car engine. Nature uses the opposite
3. Mechanical Heaters. There are two class process of cooling to cause suction and vac
es of machines that transform a small amount uum to produce work, like in a tornado.
of mechanical energy into a large amount of Viktor Schauberger (Austria) was the first
heat. The best of these purely mechanical to build working models of Implosion En
designs are the rotating cylinder systems gines in the 1930”s and 1940”s. Since that
designed by Frenette (USA) and Perkins time, Callum Coats has published extensive
(USA). In these machines, one cylinder is ly on Schauberger’s work in his book Living
rotated within another cylinder with about Energies and subsequently, a number of re
an eighth of an inch of clearance between searchers have built working models of Im
them. The space between the cylinders is plosion Turbine Engines. These are fuelless
filled with a liquid such as water or oil, and engines that produce mechanical work from
it is this “working fluid” that heats up as the energy accessed from a vacuum. There are
inner cylinder spins. Another method uses also much simpler designs that use vortex
magnets mounted on a wheel to produce motions to tap a combination of gravity and
large eddy currents in a plate of aluminum, centrifugal force to produce a continuous
causing the aluminum to heat up rapidly. motion in fluids.
These magnetic heaters have been demon
strated by Muller (Canada), Adams (NZ) 6. Cold Fusion. In March 1989, two Chem
and Reed (USA). All of these systems can ists from the University of Utah (USA) an

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 47

nounced that they had produced atomic fu system produced more than 17 times more
sion reactions in a simple tabletop device. energy than it took to keep it going! It could
The claims were “debunked” within 6 months power a small neighborhood from the roof of
and the public lost interest. Nevertheless, a hot tub gazebo, using exactly the same
Cold Fusion is very real. Not only has ex technology that keeps the food cold in your
cess heat production been repeatedly docu kitchen. Currently, there is an industrial
mented, but also low energy atomic element scale heat pump system just north of Kona,
transmutation has been catalogued, involv Hawaii that generates electricity from tem
ing dozens of different reactions! This tech perature differences in ocean water.
nology definitely can produce low cost en
ergy and scores of other important industri There are dozens of other systems that I have
al processes. not mentioned, many of them are as viable
and well tested as the ones I have just re
7. Solar Assisted Heat Pumps. The refrig counted. But this short list is sufficient to
erator in your kitchen is the only “free ener make my point: free energy technology is
gy machine” you currently own. It’s an elec here, now. It offers the world pollutionfree,
trically operated heat pump. It uses one energy abundance for everyone, everywhere.
amount of energy (electricity) to move three It is now possible to stop the production of
amounts of energy (heat). This gives it a “co “greenhouse gases” and shut down all of the
efficient of performance” (COP) of about 3. nuclear power plants. We can now desalinate
Your refrigerator uses one amount of electric unlimited amounts of seawater at an afford
ity to pump three amounts of heat from the able price, and bring adequate fresh water to
inside of the refrigerator to the outside of the even the most remote habitats. Transporta
refrigerator. This is its typical use, but it is tion costs and the production costs for just
the worst possible way to use the technolo about everything can drop dramatically.
gy. Here’s why. A heat pump pumps heat from Food can even be grown in heated greenhous
the “source” of heat to the “sink” or place es in the winter, anywhere. All of these won
that absorbs the heat. The “source” of heat derful benefits that can make life on this
should obviously be HOT and the “sink” for planet so much easier and better for every
heat should obviously be COLD for this one have been postponed for decades. Why?
process to work the best. In your refrigera Whose purposes are served by this postpone
tor, it’s exactly the opposite. The “source” of ment?
heat is inside the box, which is COLD, and
the “sink” for heat is the room temperature
air of your kitchen, which is warmer than the The Invisible Enemy
source. This is why the COP remains low for
your kitchen refrigerator. But this is not true There are four gigantic forces that have
for all heat pumps. COP’s of 8 to 10 are eas worked together to create this situation. To
ily attained with solar assisted heat pumps. say that there is and has been a “conspiracy”
In such a device, a heat pump draws heat to suppress this technology only leads to a
from a solar collector and dumps the heat superficial understanding of the world, and
into a large underground absorber, which re it places the blame for this completely out
mains at 55° F, and mechanical energy is ex side of ourselves. Our willingness to remain
tracted in the transfer. This process is equiv ignorant and actionless in the face of this sit
alent to a steam engine that extracts mechan uation has always been interpreted by two of
ical energy between the boiler and the these forces as “implied consent.” So, besides
condenser, except that it uses a fluid that a “nondemanding public,” what are the oth
“boils” at a much lower temperature than wa er three forces that are impeding the availa
ter. One such system that was tested in the bility of free energy technology?
1970’s produced 350 hp, measured on a Dy
namometer, in a specially designed engine In standard economic theory, there are three
from just 100sq. ft. of solar collector. (This classes of Industry. These are Capital, Goods,
is NOT the system promoted by Dennis Lee.) and Services. Within the first class, Capital,
The amount of energy it took to run the com there are also three subclasses. These are:
pressor (input) was less than 20 hp, so this 1) Natural Capital. This relates to raw ma

48 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

terials (such as a gold mine) and sources of tions are the imagined “divine right to
energy (such as a hydroelectric dam or an oil rule”, greed, and their insatiable need to
well). 2) Currency. This relates to the print control everything except themselves. The
ing of paper “money” and the minting of weapons they have used to enforce this post
coins. These functions are usually the job of ponement include intimidation, “expert” de
Government. And 3) Credit. This relates to bunkers, buying and shelving of technology,
the loaning of money for interest and its ex murder and attempted murder of the inven
tension of economic value through deposit tors, character assassination, arson, and a
loan accounts. From this, it is easy to see, wide variety of financial incentives and dis
that energy functions in the economy in the incentives to manipulate possible supporters.
same way as gold, the printing of money by They have also promoted the general accept
the Government, or the issuing of credit by ance of a scientific theory that states that
a bank. free energy is impossible (Laws of Thermo
In the United States, and in most other coun
tries around the world, there is a “money mo The Second Force operating to postpone the
nopoly” in place. I am “free” to earn as much public availability of free energy technology
“money” as I want, but I will only be paid in is National Governments. The problem here
Federal Reserve Notes. There is nothing I can is not so much related to competition in the
do to be paid in Gold Certificates, or some printing of currency, but in the maintenance
other form of “money.” This money monopo of National Security. The fact is, the world
ly is solely in the hands of a small number of out there is a jungle, and humans can be
private stock banks, and these banks are counted upon to be very cruel, dishonest, and
owned by the Wealthiest Families in the sneaky. It is Government’s job to “provide for
world. Their plan is to eventually control the common defense.” For this, “police pow
100% of all of the Capital resources of the ers” are delegated by the Executive Branch
world, and thereby control everyone’s life of Government to enforce “the rule of law.”
through the availability (or nonavailabili Most of us who consent to the rule of law do
ty) of all goods and services. An independ so because we believe it is the right thing to
ent source of wealth (free energy device) in do, for our own benefit. There are always a
the hands of each and every person in the few individuals, however, that believe that
world, ruins their plans for world domina their own benefit is best served by behavior
tion, permanently. Why this is true is easy that does not voluntarily conform to the gen
to see. Currently, a nation’s economy can be erally agreed upon social order. These peo
either slowed down or sped up by the raising ple choose to operate outside of “the rule of
or lowering of interest rates. But if an inde law” and are considered outlaws, criminals,
pendent source of capital (energy) were subversives, traitors, revolutionaries, or ter
present in the economy, and any business or rorists.
person could raise more capital without bor
rowing it from a bank, this centralized throt Most National Governments have discov
tling action on interest rates would simply ered, by trial and error, that the only For
not have the same effect. Free energy tech eign Policy that really works, over time, is a
nology changes the value of money. The policy called “Tit for Tat.” What this means
Wealthiest Families and the Issuers of Cred to you and me is, that governments treat each
it do not want any competition. It’s that sim other the way they are being treated. There
ple. They want to maintain their current is a constant “jockeying” for position and in
monopoly control of the money supply. For fluence in world affairs, and the STRONG
them, free energy technology is not just EST party wins! In economics, it’s the Gold
something to suppress, it must be PERMA en Rule, which states: “The one with the
NENTLY FORBIDDEN! Gold makes the Rules.” So it is with politics
also, but its appearance is more Darwinian.
So, the Wealthiest Families and their Cen It’s simply “survival of the fittest.” In poli
tral Banking institutions are the First Force tics, however, the “fittest” has come to mean
operating to postpone the public availabili the strongest party who is also willing to
ty of free energy technology. Their motiva fight the dirtiest. Absolutely every means

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 49

available is used to maintain an advantage on National Security grounds, the legal and
over the “adversary”, and everyone else is the illegal harassment of inventors with crimi
“adversary” regardless of whether they are nal charges, tax audits, threats, phone taps,
considered friend or foe. This includes out arrest, arson, theft of property during ship
rageous psychological posturing, lying, ment, and a host of other intimidations which
cheating, spying, stealing, assassination of make the business of building and marketing
world leaders, proxy wars, alliances and a free energy machine impossible.
shifting alliances, treaties, foreign aid, and
the presence of military forces wherever pos The Third Force operating to postpone the
sible. Like it or not, this IS the psychologi public availability of free energy technology
cal and actual arena National Governments consists of the group of deluded inventors
operate in. No National Government will and out right charlatans and con men. On the
ever do anything that simply gives an adver periphery of the extraordinary scientific
sary an advantage for free. NEVER! It’s na breakthroughs that constitute the real free
tional suicide. Any activity by any individu energy technologies, lies a shadow world of
al, inside or outside the country, that is in unexplained anomalies, marginal inventions
terpreted as giving an adversary an edge or and unscrupulous promoters. The first two
advantage, in any way, will be deemed a Forces have constantly used the media to
threat to “National Security.” ALWAYS! promote the worst examples of this group, to
distract the public’s attention and to discred
Free energy technology is a National Gov it the real breakthroughs by associating them
ernment’s worst nightmare! Openly ac with the obvious frauds.
knowledged, free energy technology sparks
an unlimited arms race by all governments Over the last hundred years, dozens of sto
in a final attempt to gain absolute advantage ries have surfaced about unusual inventions.
and domination. Think about it. Do you Some of these ideas have so captivated the
think Japan will not feel intimidated if Chi public’s imagination that a mythology about
na gets free energy? Do you think Israel will these systems continues to this day. Names
sit by quietly as Iraq acquires free energy? like Keely, Hubbard, Coler, and Hender
Do you think India will allow Pakistan to de schott immediately come to mind. There may
velop free energy? Do you think the USA be real technologies behind these names, but
would not try to stop Osama bin Laden from there simply isn’t enough technical data
getting free energy? Unlimited energy avail available in the public domain to make a de
able to the current state of affairs on this termination. These names remain associated
planet leads to an inevitable reshuffling of with a free energy mythology, however, and
the “balance of power.” This could become an are sited by debunkers as examples of fraud.
allout war to prevent “the other” from hav
ing the advantage of unlimited wealth and The idea of free energy taps very deeply into
power. Everybody will want it, and at the the human subconscious mind. A few inven
same time, want to prevent everyone else tors with marginal technologies that demon
from getting it. strate useful anomalies have mistakenly ex
aggerated the importance of their inventions.
So, National Governments are the Second Some of these inventors also have mistaken
Force operating to postpone the public avail ly exaggerated the importance of THEM
ability of free energy technology. Their mo SELVES for having invented it. A combina
tivations are “selfpreservation.” This self tion of “gold fever” and/or a “messiah com
preservation operates on three levels. First, plex” appears, wholly distorting any future
by not giving undue advantage to an exter contribution they may make. While the re
nal enemy. Second, by preventing individu search thread they are following may hold
alized action capable of effectively challeng great promise, they begin to trade enthusi
ing official police powers (anarchy) within asm for facts, and the value of the scientific
the country. And third, by preserving income work from that point on suffers greatly.
streams derived from taxing energy sources There is a powerful, yet subtle seduction that
currently in use. Their weapons include the can warp a personality if they believe that
preventing of the issuance of patents based “the world rests on their shoulders” or that

50 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

they are the world’s “savior.” Strange things ment, greed, want of power over others, and
also happen to people when they think they a false sense of selfimportance. The weap
are about to become extremely rich. It takes ons used are lying, cheating, the “bait and
a tremendous spiritual discipline to remain switch” con, selfdelusion and arrogance
objective and humble in the presence of a combined with lousy science.
working free energy machine. Many inven
tors’ psyches become unstable just BELIEV The Fourth Force operating to postpone the
ING they have a free energy machine. As the public availability of free energy technology
quality of the science deteriorates, some in is all of the rest of us. It may be easy to see
ventors also develop a “persecution complex” how narrow and despicable the motivations
that makes them very defensive and unap of the other Forces are, but actually, these
proachable. This process precludes them motivations are still very much alive in each
from ever really developing a free energy of us as well. Like the Wealthiest Families,
machine, and fuels the fraud mythologies tre don’t we each secretly harbor illusions of
mendously. false superiority, and the want to control oth
ers instead of ourselves? Also, wouldn’t you
Then there are the out right con men. In the “sell out” if the price were high enough, say,
last 15 years, there is one person in the USA take $1 million dollars, cash, today? Or like
who has raised the free energy con to a pro the Governments, don’t we each want to en
fessional art. He has raised more than sure our own survival? If caught in the mid
$100,000,000, has been barred from doing dle of a full, burning theater, do you panic
business in the State of Washington, has been and push all of the weaker people out of the
jailed in California, and he’s still at it. He way in a mad, scramble for the door? Or like
always talks about a variation of one of the the deluded inventor, don’t we trade a com
real free energy systems, sells people on the fortable illusion once in a while for an un
idea that they will get one of these systems comfortable fact? And don’t we like to think
soon, but ultimately sells them only promo more of ourselves than others give us credit
tional information which gives no real data for? Or don’t we still fear the unknown, even
about the energy system itself. He has mer if it promises a great reward?
cilessly preyed upon the Christian Commu
nity and the Patriot Community in the USA, You see, really, all Four Forces are just dif
and is still going strong. His current scam ferent aspects of the same process, operating
involves signing up hundreds of thousands of at different levels in the society. There is re
people as locations where he will install a free ally only ONE FORCE preventing the pub
energy machine. In exchange for letting him lic availability of free energy technology, and
put the FE generator in their home, they will that is the unspiritually motivated behavior
get free electricity for life, and his company of the human animals. In the last analysis,
will sell the excess energy back to the local free energy technology is an outward mani
utility company. After becoming convinced festation of Divine Abundance. It is the en
that they will receive free electricity for life, gine of the economy of an enlightened socie
with no outfront expenses, they gladly buy ty, where people voluntarily behave in a re
a video that helps draw their friends into the spectful and civil manner toward each other.
scam as well. Once you understand the pow Where each member of the society has eve
er and motivations of the first two Forces I rything they need, and do not covet what
have discussed, its obvious that this person’s their neighbor has. Where war and physical
current “business plan” cannot be imple violence has become socially unacceptable
mented. This one person has probably done behavior and people’s differences are at least
more harm to the free energy movement in tolerated, if not enjoyed.
the USA than any other Force, by destroy
ing people’s trust in the technology. The appearance of free energy technology in
the public domain is the dawning of a truly
So, the Third Force postponing the public civilized age. It is an epochal event in human
availability of free energy technology is de history. Nobody can “take credit” for it. No
lusion and dishonesty within the movement body can “get rich” on it. Nobody can “rule
itself. The motivations are selfaggrandize the world” with it. It is simply, a Gift from

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 51

God. It forces us all to take responsibility for may feel wholly inadequate to the task, but
our own actions and for our own selfdisci start gathering information now. You may be
plined selfrestraint when needed. The world just a link in the chain of events for the ben
as it is currently ordered, cannot have free efit of others. Focus on what you can do now,
energy technology without being totally not on how much there still is to be done.
transformed by it into something else. This Small, private research groups are working
“civilization” has reached the pinnacle of out the details as you read this. Many are
its development, because it has birthed the committed to publishing their results on the
seeds of its own transformation. The un Internet.
spiritualized human animals cannot be
trusted with free energy. They will only do All of us constitute the Fourth Force. If we
what they have always done, which is take stand up and refuse to remain ignorant and
merciless advantage of each other, or kill actionless, we can change the course of his
each other and themselves in the process. tory. It is the aggregate of our combined ac
tion that can make a difference. Only the
If you go back and read Ayn Rand’s Atlas mass action that represents our consensus
Shrugged or the Club of Rome Report, it be can create the world we want. The other
comes obvious that the Wealthiest Families three Forces WILL NOT help us put a fuel
have understood this for decades. Their less power plant in our basements. They will
plan is to live in The World of Free Energy, not help us be free from their manipulations.
but permanently freeze the rest of us out. But Nevertheless, free energy technology is
this is not new. Royalty has always consid here. It is real, and it will change every
ered the general population (us) to be their thing about the way we live, work and re
subjects. What is new, is that you and I can late to each other. In the last analysis, free
communicate with each other now better energy technology obsoletes greed and the
than at anytime in the past. The Internet of fear for survival. But like all exercises of
fers us, the Fourth Force, an opportunity to Spiritual Faith, we must first manifest the
overcome the combined efforts of the other generosity and trust in our own lives.
Forces preventing free energy technology
from spreading. The Source of Free Energy is INSIDE of us.
It is that excitement of expressing ourselves
freely. It is our Spiritually guided intuition
The Opportunity expressing itself without distraction, intim
idation or manipulation. It is our openheart
What is starting to happen is that inventors edness. Ideally, the free energy technologies
are publishing their work, instead of patent underpin a just society where everyone has
ing it and keeping it secret. More and more, enough food, clothing, shelter, selfworth,
people are “giving away” information on and the leisure time to contemplate the high
these technologies in books, videos and web er Spiritual meanings of Life. Do we not owe
sites. While there is still a great deal of use it to each other, to face down our fears, and
less information about free energy on the take action to create this future for our chil
Internet, the availability of good information dren’s children? Perhaps I am not the only
is rising rapidly. Check out the list of web one waiting for me to act on a greater Truth.
sites and other resources at the end of this
article. Free energy technology is here. It has been
here for decades. Communications technol
It is imperative that you begin to gather all ogy and the Internet have torn the veil of
of the information you can on real free ener secrecy off of this remarkable fact. People all
gy systems. The reason for this is simple. The over the world are starting to build free en
first two Forces will never allow an inventor ergy devices for their own use. The Bankers
or a company to build and sell a free energy and the Governments do not want this to
machine to you! The only way you will ever happen, but cannot stop it. Tremendous eco
get one is if you, or a friend, build it your nomic instabilities and wars will be used in
self. This is exactly what thousands of peo the near future to distract people from join
ple are already quietly starting to do. You ing the free energy movement. There will be

52 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

essentially no major media coverage of this vive the political/social/economic transition
aspect of what is going on. It will simply be that is underway. No National Government
reported as wars and civil wars erupting eve will survive this process. The question is,
rywhere, leading to UN “Peace Keeper” oc who will ultimately control the emerging
cupation in more and more countries. World Government, the First Force, or the
Fourth Force?
Western Society is spiraling down toward
selfdestruction, due to the accumulated ef The last Great War is almost upon us. The
fects of longterm greed and corruption. The seeds are planted. After this will come the be
general availability of free energy technolo ginning of a real Civilization. Some of us who
gy cannot stop this trend. It can only rein refuse to fight will survive to see the dawn
force it. If, however, you have a free energy of the World of Free Energy. I challenge you
device, you may be better positioned to sur to be among the ones who try.



Living Energies by Callum Coats

The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity by Peter Lindemann, D.Sc.
Applied Modern 20th Century Aether Science by Dr. Robert Adams
Physics Without Einstein by Dr. Harold Aspden
Secrets of Cold War Technology by Gerry Vassilatos
The Coming Energy Revolution by Jeane Manning

WEBSITES: excellent freeenergy site run by Geoff Egel based

in Australia developed by Clear Tech, Inc. and Dr. Peter Lindemann developed by JLN Labs in France Jim’s Free Energy Page in the USA developed by Jerry Decker in the USA site for super electrolysis technology excellent site for all kinds of alternative news, with many links
For more links to other recommended sites, see the “Links Page” at

P A T E N T S : (most can be viewed at ) This list is nothing more than a sample of
inventions that produce free energy.

Tesla USP #685,957

Freedman USP #2,796,345
Richardson USP #4,077,001
Frenette USP #4,143,639
Perkins USP #4,424,797
Gray USP #4,595,975
Meyer USP #4,936,961
Chambers USP #6,126,794

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 53

LUTEC Magnet Generator
Editor: the article dedicated to the work of the
of one thousand three hundred years.
LUTEC Company aroused our readers’ interest This product is nonpolluting. It will
(the web-site of the LUTEC Company is assist to bring down green house gas This article contains the es and therefore help cure our sick
latest news from the developers of this new and dying planet. There are strong
technology. community health benefits. It will
help slow the rate of use of nonre
newable resources, like oil. It will
help reduce airborne emissions of
gases and elements that ruin our for
ests and lakes.

National Phase Patent Applications

filed in the name of Ludwig Emma
Brits and Victor John Christie from
PCT/AU99/00962 claiming priori
ty from Australian Provisional Pat
ent Application No. PP6961 filed 6
November 1998

How it Works


The Lutec 1000 is the first free ener

gy machine to be developed to com
mercial stage anywhere in the world.
The Lutec 1000 generator will pro
duce up to 1000 watts of DC elec
tricity twenty four hours a day, eve
ry day, which will be stored in a bat
tery bank and then inverted to AC
power and connected directly into
the home or business.

The Lutec 1000 draws the power it

requires to run itself from the same
battery bank. The average house in
Cairns, Queensland, uses only four
teen of the twenty four kilowatt
hours able to be stored in twenty four
hours by this method. The batteries
will last ten years. The generator is
expected to come with a conditional
tenyear warranty.

The magnets that are responsible for

the generation have an effective life Fig. 2

54 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

The authors write: “We have never said there is
an “endless” source of energy emanating from
magnets. We have said that the magnets we use
in the Lutec 1000 are able to maintain their
magnetic qualities for over twelve hundred
years. That is a long time when gauged by hu
man life expectancy, but is not forever. We wel
come informed opinion, and to that end have Fig. 3
sought out the highest qualified people in Aus
tralia and the United States of America to re
view our work. Note that we have achieved two effects from one
cause, thus inducing an electric current per Mr
The Lutec 1000 only baffles those who misinter Faraday’s theory, and so generating electricity
pret the actions taking place within it as being as an output or product of the motors motion.
outside common scientific principles and laws, The only electricity consumed has been that re
where in fact it certainly is not. We will try to make quired to temporarily charge the coils and so
a simple explanation to demonstrate what moti creating a temporary magnet of like polarity to
vates the Lutec 1000 motor/generator: cause the permanent magnet to be repulsed
rather than attracted.
Let’s say we hang a ten kilo weight off a perma
nent magnet butted to a steel roofing beam, and There are a couple of other major factors that we
that the only thing holding the permanent mag won’t go into here, suffice it to say that our cur
net to the steel beam is the magnetism. Now let’s rent prototype demonstrates 1500% more “out”
do the same thing, but this time with an electro than “in” (15:1).
magnet which requires a constant electrical input
to maintain its magnetic qualities.
Let’s say we leave them both there for ten years…
Time has become the essence in respect of an
They will both perform the same task, that of nouncements regarding the possible marketing
holding the ten kilos off the floor. The electro of a product designed around the technology.
magnet, however, has needed to be fuelled by There are “commercial in confidence” dealings
electricity provided by a generator of some going on behind the scenes that require of us
kind — it could be hydro, nuclear, wind, solar, to provide certain patents for specific areas.
coal or oil — and has cost a large amount in These patents must be granted to enable the
terms of energy. Much work (in the scientific parties involved to raise the capital needed to
sense) has been done to provide the constant finance the huge undertaking of introducing
electric current necessary to maintain its mag the technology to the world. This patent issue
netic hold on the steel girder. alone caused significant slowing of the program
because of the amount of time it has taken for
Now take notice, the permanent magnet has not the specific countries to provide the full pat
needed to be energised by an external source, it ent protection. That milestone has now been
has done the job for “free” using only the magnet achieved.
ism it contains to perform the same job. The clue
here is in the title of “permanent” magnet. What now remains is for the proof of concept
prototype currently in work to be completed to
That same principle is one of the reasons the Lu the satisfaction of the aforesaid parties. People
tec 1000 motor turns, it is of course the spinning are chatting on the net and no doubt in other
of the centre core of the motor which is caused by places surmising what technical difficulties may
the permanent magnets being attracted and then be causing problems. In particular those relat
repulsed from the steel cores of the fixed stator ing to the switching of the input electricity that
coils. It is this primary movement that allows the allows the coil cores to become energised as tem
magnetic fields around the stator coils to be “cut” porary magnets, and how to handle the subse
by the effect of the permanent magnets sweeping quent back EMF spikes caused by the collaps
past the steel cores of the coils. ing field. We have got it figured out and are hard

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 55

at work finetuning the new system designed one to two years. It’s a case of wait and see, eve
specifically for the task. Previously we were rything hinges on our completing the prototype
concentrating on a solidstate system, no mov to the degree required, after which things will
ing parts, and we had the luxury of time to ex move very quickly.
periment with that notion while waiting for the
patents to come through. Now however it is Hopefully the next update will be before
more important to have the system running at Christmas 2003 and not need to be as long
a certain level, so we have reverted to the old winded as this. Thank you for reading this far.
method. Once perfected it will not be difficult We are trying to reply to emails but the num
to produce a solidstate system as the data of bers are so high it is very difficult. Please bear
what is required and the entire associated vari with us, don’t stop writing; the encouragement
ables will be identified mapped and analysed by and support we get from you is fantastic and
computer for the purpose. This can’t be done very welcome, but please don’t be dismayed
with the existing switching system. should you not receive a personal reply for a
long time”.
The bottom line is we are not prepared at this
time to make a guess at when product will or A more detailed information could be found on
might be available. It can be fairly safely as the company’s website
sumed that final design, construction, testing
and satisfying regulatory authorities could take

Pulsed Direct Current for Light Circuits

Engineering report
Theory in brief:
26901 Ridge Rd.
The Gray Circuit can be em
Willits CA 95490, USA
ployed to power a light circuit or
tel: 707-459-1435 a pulse DC motor more efficient
fax: 707-459-9298 ly. There are five main principles
that make the Gray Circuit
uniquely efficient. Understand
ing these principles can be of
great importance to increasing
the efficiency of a circuit when
designing for light circuits and
pulsed DC motors.
Editor: A short variant of this ar 1) There is a substantial current
ticle was published in the previous gain developed by an electric
issue. A full variant, which we have spark in open air. Gray em
recently received is given below. ployed a spark gap in the de
We would like to stress once again sign of his motor and power
that it was P.N. Yablochkov, a supply. This will be explained
Russian inventor, who way back in in the summary of the text,
1877 d e s c r i b e d a m e t h o d o f ’The Mechanism of the Elec
current amplification by means tric Spark’ by L. Loeb and
of introducing an electric spark J. Meek.
to a circuit (Patent № 120684, 2) A load circuit can be electro
11.10.1877). statically coupled to the pri
mary circuit by employing

56 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

the ’Inverse Photoelectric Effect’. This also create photons which produce electrons
will be explained by a brief summary of to continue this process. In this fashion the
the principle of ‘inverse photoelectric positive space charge develops toward the
effect’. cathode from the anode as a selfpropagat
3) Pulsed DC can provide a more efficient ing positive spacecharge streamer.
means of delivering power to a light cir
cuit or a pulsed DC motor by providing As the streamer advances towards the cath
power for a short duration at the opti ode it produces a filamentary region of in
mum time. tense spacecharge distortion along a line
4) Back EMF or counter EMF from the col parallel to the field. The conducting stream
lapsing magnetic field of an inductive er of a plasma consisting of electrons and ions
coil can be utilized to do work that oth extending to the anode thus makes a very
erwise would be wasted. steep gradient at the cathode end of the
5) Energy Recycling. Current from the pri streamer tip. As this advances toward the
mary circuit is recycled back to the neg cathode the photoelectron avalanches pro
ative terminal of the primary battery for duced by radiation at the cathode, especial
reuse. Current from the primary circuit ly at the intercept of the extended streamer
is also cycled back to recharge a second axis at the cathode, it begins to produce an
ary battery. intense ionization near the cathode. Hence
the positive ions created there may increase
the secondary emission. Thus, as the space
charge streamer approaches the cathode a
The Mechanism of Positive cathode spot is forming which may become a
Streamer Formation source of visible light. When the streamer
reaches the cathode there is a conducting fil
The photoelectrons created at points in the ament bridging the gap. As the streamer tip
gas and at the cathode at any great radial dis reaches the cathode the high field produces
tance from the avalanche axis will merely a rush of electrons towards the end of the
create other avalanches. streamer. This is followed by a current of
electrons, gives a highpotential wave which
Those in the gas will be short and those com passes up the preionized conducting channel
ing from the cathode region will be long and to the anode, multiplying the electrons
like that of the initial avalanche. Being small present by a large factor. The channel is
er and, in any case, later in creation that the thus rendered highly conducting. If the metal
pattern avalanche, such avalanches will be of can emit a copious supply of electrons be
no interest in breakdown. However, those cause of the formation of an efficient cath
photoelectrons created near the spaсecharge ode spot, the current of electrons continues
channel of positive ions, and especially near the channel maintaining its high conductiv
the anode, will be in an enhanced field which ity and ever increasing in it. This current,
exerts a directive action drawing them into unless limited by external resistance, will
itself. If the spacecharge field [X1] is in the then develop into an arc. It is, however, the
order of magnitude of the imposed field [X], intense increase of ionization by the poten
this action will be very effective. In addition tial wave which gives the highly conducting
the values of [a] will be much enhanced. channel characterizing the spark.

The electrons from the intense cumulative Conclusion: According to Loeb and Meek,
ionization of such photoelectron avalanch there are three means by which a spark in
es in the combined fields [X] and [X1] which open air will provide a very large current
are drawn into the positive space charge gain. If this is true, it should be fairly easy
feed into it, making it a conducting PLAS to prove with inexpensive and unsophisticat
MA which starts at the anode. The added ed equipment. Once the actual amount of
fields will be most effective along [X] and so current gain has been determined for the de
will the ionization. The positive ions they sign parameters of the spark gap, then the
leave behind will therefore extend the space rest of the circuit can be designed for the in
charge towards the cathode. These electrons creased current value.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 57

Next: The Quantitative Criterion For Streamer The Mechanism of the Electric Spark
The later history of an avalanche. Electrons have disappeared
The Mechanism of the Electric Spark into the anode. Positive spacecharge boss appears on the
anode. Ion pairs out from the trial indicate the appearance of
The electron multiplication of electrons by the cumulative photoelectric ion pairs in the gas produced by photons from
ionization of a single electron liberated from the cathode by the avalanche.
a photon.



OT Fig. 3

Fig. 1
Efficient Power Supply Suitable
The Mechanism of the Electric Spark For Inductive Loads
Patent Number: 4,595,975
The development and structure of an avalanche, with positive
ions behind the electrons at the tip. The avalanche has
crossed the gap, spreading by diffusion. Summary of the Invention

The present invention provides a more effi

cient driving system comprising a source of
electrical voltage; a vibrator connected to the
lowvoltage source for forming a pulsating
signal; a transformer connected to the vibra
tor for receiving the signal; a highvoltage
source, where available, connected to a
bridgetype rectifier; or the bridge type rec
tifier connected to the high voltage pulse out
put of the transformer; a capacitor for receiv
ing the voltage pulse output; a conversion el
ement having first and second anodes,
electrically conductive means for receiving a
charge positioned around the second anode
and an output terminal connected to the ca
Fig. 2

58 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

pacitor; a commutator connected to the By the summer of 1973, Gray was doing dem
source of the electrical voltage and to the first onstrations of his technology and receiving
anode; and an inductive load connected to the some very positive press. By later this year,
output terminal whereby a high energy dis Gray had teamed up with automobile designer
charge between the first and the second an Paul M. Lewis, to build the first fuelless, elec
odes is transferred to the charge receiving tric car in America. But trouble was brewing.
means and then to the inductive load.
On July 22, 1974, an unprovoked Los Ange
les District Attorney’s Office raided the of
Edwin Vincent Gray (1925 – 1989) fice and shop of EVGray Enterprises, and con
fiscated all of their business records and work
Edwin Gray was born in Washington, DC in ing prototypes. For 8 months, the DA tried
1925. He was one of 14 children. At age elev to get Gray’s stockholders to file charges
en, he became interested in emerging field of against him, but none would. Gray was even
electronics, when he watched some of the first tually charged with “grand theft”, but even
demonstrations of primitive radar being test this bogus charge couldn’t stick and was fi
ed across the Potomac River. He left home at nally dropped. By March 1976, Gray pleaded
15 and joined the Army, attended advanced guilty to two minor SEC violations, was fined,
engineering school for one year before he was and released. The DA’s office never returned
discovered and honorably discharged for be his prototypes.
ing under age. After the attack of Pearl Har
bor, he reenlisted in the Navy and served In spite of these troubles, a number of good
three years of combat duty in the Pacific. things were happening. His first U.S. Patent,

After the war, he worked as

a mechanic and continued his
studies in electromagnetics.
After experimenting for
years, he learned hw to “split
the positive” in 1958 and had
his first Electric Magnetic
Association (EMA) motor
model running in 1961. His
third EMA prototype was
successfully tested for 32
days straight before it was
torn down for analysis. With
this report in hand, Gray
started looking for serious
funding. After being turned
down by every major corpo
ration and venture capital
group he approached, he
formed his own Limited part
nership in 1971. By early
1973, EVGray Enterprises,
I n c . h a d a n o f f i c e i n Va n
Nuys, California, hundreds
of private investors and a
new (#4) EMA motor proto
type. Ed Gray had also re
ceived a “Certificate of Mer
it” from Ronald Reagan, then
Governor of California.
Fig. 4

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 59

on the motor design, issued in June of 1975, receive a single reply or even an acknowl
and by February 1976, Gray was nominated edgement!
for “Inventor of the Year” for “discovering
and proving a new form of electric power” During the early 1980’s, Gray lived in Coun
by Los Angeles Patent Attorney’s Associa cil, Idaho, where he wrote and was granted
tion. Despite this support, Gray kept a much his other two U.S. Patents. By 1986, he had
lower profile after this time. In the late a facility in Grande Prairie, Texas, where a
1970’s, Zetech, Inc. acquired Gray’s technol number of new prototype EMA motors were
ogy and EVGray Enterprises ceased to exist. built. By 1989, he was working on propul
In the early 1980’s, Gray offered the U.S. sion applications of the technology, and
Government his technology to augment Re maintaining his residence in Council, Ida
agan’s SDI program. He actually wrote let ho, as well as shop facilities in Council,
ters to every member of Congress, both Sen Grande Prairie, and Sparks, Nevada.
ators and Representatives, as well as the
President, Vice President, and every mem Edwin V. Gray died at his shop in Sparks, Ne
ber of the Cabinet. Remarkably, in response vada, in April, 1989, under mysterious circum
to this letter writing campaign, Gray did not stances. He was 64 and in good health.

Fig. 5

60 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Patent Applications
on Thermo-gravitation
Application Summary
registration number 96104919/06
Date of filing 1996.03.18 Application: the transformation of
Title A Twophase the energy of lowgrade heat sources
Gravity Drive into mechanical energy. The essence
Inventors E.V. Soloviev of the invention: a vertically posi
V.V. Privezentsev tioned tube is situated under the tur
Patent holder Russian Federation State bine inside the case of a thermosy
Scientific Centre, the Insti phon with a gap relative to the case
tute of Physics and Energy of the thermosyphon and the rotor of
the turbine. A minimum one liquid
vapor turbine nozzle is situated in the
clearance between the side face of the
tube and the case. The construction
of the turbine is liquidvapor, while
the level of boiling water exceeds the
level of the turbine.

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 61

An Electrogravitational Engine

Patent Application N 97116748/09 frequency electromagnetic field in

Inventors: V.V. FEDOROV, E.B.BAGLAEV, the strip line, this energy being re
G.V. SLAVIANSKIJ, E.A. MOKLOKOVA ceived from the microwave oscillator.
Summary N 2136102 The impulse gravitational field gen
erated by the inertial mass, which
moves with acceleration in the strip
line, creates vortex gravitational cur
rents in the core and the respective
impulse gravitational field or pres
The engine is designed to propel a sure varying with time. The force in
vehicle. The device consists of a mi side the core is directed to the oppo
crowave oscillator (1), а concentrat site side, as compared to the force
ed winding (2), in the form of a mul acting in the environment. Accord
tilayered cylindrical coil, made of a ing to the Law of Action and Reac
strip line and rigidly mounted with tion, the Earth’s gravity field will cre
the frame of the vehicle being pro ate counterdirectional impulse grav
pelled, a core (3), electrodes (5) and itational fields, and, consequently,
a highvoltage block (5). During the pressures. As a result, the motion of
discharge of the electric impulse of a vehicle can be observed. The speed
the highvoltage block, an electric arc of a vehicle can be regulated by con
appears, closing the output of the trolling the output power of the mi
strip line. As a result of the load crowave oscillator, while its direction
change, a transient process is initiat and braking can be regulated by con
ed in the line, accompanied by the trolling the direction of the electro
accelerated motion of the inertial magnetic microwave energy power
mass, equaling the energy of the high flow in the strip line.


62 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

“BREEZE 5000” Wind Energy Installation
A New Approach To The Old Scheme
Toomas A. PUNGAS, Russia
for such a lowgrade energy resource
“ELECTROSFERA” Holding Company
as wind.
B. Sampsonievsky Av., 61
Saint-Petersburg, However, in the late 1970s wind ener
Russia, 194044 gy underwent revival (in the West), caused by a worldwide energy crisis. Furthermore, it became obvious that a
tel: (812) 324-48-88 power industry based on the principle
fax: (812) 324-48-84 of burning fossil fuel, did not have any
future, since its reserves are limited. The
accident at Chernobyl deprived atomic
energy of its status as a panacea for the
energy hunger.

Wind energy was one of the first types Today wind power engineering is one the
of energy that man learned to use. For most dynamically developing industries
more than three thousand years, sail with multibillion dollar turnovers in the
ing vessels furrowed the seas while tens countries of Western Europe and North
of thousands of wind mills were setting America. But this is not true for Russia.
in motion mill burrs, pumps, saws and It can be said that there is no such indus
other mechanisms. A considerable part try in Russia as wind power engineering,
of the territory of the Netherlands was and there are objective reasons for this.
reclaimed from the sea by means of First, the relatively low cost of both ener
waterengines set in motion by wind. gy resources and electric energy in our
country make the building of large wind
energy installations (socalled “wind
parks”) unprofitable. Besides, high pow
er wind generators are intended for oper
ation as integral parts of highpowered en
ergy systems with stable parameters.
Speaking about Russia, that would main
ly apply to the central regions but they
have insignificant wind resources.

At the same time, there is an objective

necessity to build wind power genera
tors in the regions of Russia where die
sel generators are used for the power
supply. These regions constitute about
With the invention of the steam engine 60% of the territory of the Russian Fed
and other machines operating on the eration with a population of 15 million
principle of conversion of the burned people. These would be the regions of
fuel heat energy into mechanical or the Far North, Siberia and the Far East
electrical energy, the use of wind ener of Russia. The majority of these regions
gy started to diminish until, by the also have splendid wind resources.
middle of the ХХth century, it had al
most disappeared on a global econom Taking this into consideration, in 2002
ic scale. It seemed that in a world where the “Electrosfera” SPA came to a deci
industrial capacities were measured by sion to design a lowcost and reliable
mega and gigawatts there was no place wind power installation that could be

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 63

used as an integral part of a fully automatized wind
diesel electric power station or integrated into the
already operating diesel electric power station.

Figuratively speaking, we did not mean to “invent the

bicycle”. We simply designed a good “bicycle”. A wind
power generator is the main (and the most expensive)
component of the installation, and it has quite a tradi
tional construction for modern wind generators, con
sisting of a threebladed windwheel, transmitting ro
tation directly to a synchronous generator and interfer
ing with the field of constant magnets. The principle of
shifting of the wind generator to a diagonal current of
air is used to limit the windwheel rotation speed and to
protect the installation during storms. Aerodynamic and
gravitational forces acting on the windwheel and the larger area for the setdown, does not represent a prob
weathercock, which is free to move on the pintle, are lem for sparsely populated regions.
balanced in such a way that when the wind reaches a
speed of 15–16 m/s, the weathercock folds, putting the The electric energy generated directly by a wind
surface of the windwheel parallel to the air current. power generator has unstable frequency and volt
age. That is why it is used to charge an accumulator
The wattage was selected proceeding from the idea storage battery (as in the majority of analogous in
of serviceability in remote regions. A wattage of 5 kW stallations manufactured in other countries). The
is sufficient to serve a cottage or a small farm with installation also comprises a charge regulator used
electricity. On the other hand, the weight and dimen to prevent the battery from overcharging, which can
sions of the wind power generator make it possible to cause it to break down.
assemble it without using a lift crane or other special
equipment. If more power is required, wind power The accumulator voltage is transformed into a stabi
generators can be connected in parallel, thus creat lized commercial frequency voltage (220 V) by means
ing installations reaching 10, 20 or even 50 kW. The of an inverter. The shape of the wave is a “perfect” sine,
use of several turbines instead of one, larger in size, which is one of the unique features of our installation,
increases the reliability and operability of the instal since the majority of foreign manufacturers of small
lation. The only disadvantage, lying in the need for a sized wind generators kit them up with transformers
having a socalled “modified sine wave” on their out
put. This means that the voltage gets distorted by a
large number of parasite harmonics, which sometimes
may result in a malfunction or breakdown of the equip
ment, consuming electricity from such a transformer.

We realized from the very beginning that a diesel or pet

rolpowered generator should be an integral part of our
installation. Indeed, a wind power generator itself can
not provide an uninterrupted power supply since even
in the windiest areas nowind periods, sometimes last
ing for several days, may occur. To kit up the installa
tion with a battery having a capacity high enough to
provide the weekly amount of needed electric energy
seems to be technically and economically unreal.

A diesel generator, as an electric energy source, be

sides the need to constantly fill its fuel tank, has an
other grave disadvantage. The problem is that both
the technical and economic performance of aggregates
of this type drastically drop when the load is not high
enough (less than 15% of their nominal power). The
fuel consumption per generation of 1 kWh of energy
increases, and the aggregate’s units wear out more
quickly. It is clear that it is quite difficult to provide

64 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

the constant load of a diesel generator, which will be (depending on wind resources), which can be com
no less than 50%. pared to electricity charges.

However, introducing a diesel generator as part of a Thus, the full configuration of the wind diesel pow
winddiesel electric power station allows us to solve the er electric station comprises a wind power genera
problem fairly easy. We have designed a flexible program tor with a mast, a charge regulator, an accumulator
mable system for controlling the winddiesel installa battery, a diesel generator, a unit for controlling the
tion providing the following operation algorithm: when joint operation of wind and diesel generators, and
no wind is present, the load receives the electric energy also a container equipped with an automatic tem
due to the discharge of the battery. Then, when the bat perature regime control system. We would like to
tery voltage drops down to a certain design value, the stress once again that our installation may operate
diesel generator is started. The generator takes upon it as an integral part of an already operating diesel elec
self the load of consumers and then it is additionally load tric power station.
ed by the charging current of the battery in order to
reach 80–85% of its nominal power. Then, when the Wind generators and “BREEZE 5000” installations
battery gets charged, the diesel generator stops and the are serially manufactured by the “Electrosfera” Com
load is again directed to the inverter. pany using Russianmade parts. Wind generators and
winddiesel installations are available at the compa
Such an algorithm to operate the winddiesel elec ny’s warehouses in SaintPetersburg and can be de
tric power station allows achieving a cost of about livered to the customer at the earliest possible date.
$0.03 per 1 kWh of the generated electric energy

Silicon-Based Power being a constituent part of sand, is so easy to ignite,

Engineering does it not mean that this very chemical element will
become mankind’s main fuel in the near future?
Extracted from: “Energetika i promishlennost
Rossii” (“Russian Power Energy and Industry”) First, our planet is rich in sands. Second, the reaction of
newspaper burning in nitrogen is not accompanied by the genera tion of greenhouse gases, oxygen dioxide being the main
one. What remains after the new burning reaction is over,
is sand, the main difference being that it is not oxygen,
New revolutionary ideas have appeared in the field of but nitrogenbased sand. A perfect world of the future,
modern energy: carbon and oxygen must be removed which uses silicon as fuel, would look like this: man
from the energy industry, while other chemical would abandon using coal and oil supplies, electric power
elements should be introduced. At a German chemical stations would operate on a silicon powder, cars would
factory the “boiling” of silicon, which was stored in a be fueled by the same powder at service stations and
form of fine powder in a nitrogen medium, was would unload bags filled with “ash” at the same time.
observed. Norbert Auner, a professor of Chemistry from Certainly, it would be incorrect to declare sand “to be
Frankfurt, has announced that energy may be the oil of the future”, since it is not the sand that burns
generated not only by traditional methods, that is by but silicon. Pure silicon is not present in nature — in
burning carbon in oxygen, but by using chemical in order to get it from sand, a considerable amount of energy
teraction of other elements. A detailed investigation needs to be spent. This energy is mainly spent to separate
of this factory case showed that traces of copper oxide oxygen atoms from silicon atoms. However, this energy
were present in one of the reservoirs that contained expenses will be recompensed due to the high
silicon powder and nitrogen. It is evident that the pure effectiveness of the process of combining silicon and
nitrogen that was present in the reservoir was also nitrogen. Professor Auner assumes that it would be bet
involved in the interaction. A reaction took place that ter to build factories for silicon revivification in equato
was contrary to the experience of handling such an inert rial deserts, which have all the necessary conditions for
element as nitrogen. But the fact remains the same: the silicon manufacturing, that is sand, air, and solar energy.
reaction did take place and on the day when the silicon The latter, by generating current, will make siliconre
started to “boil” it took great effort to still the “boiling” storing reactors work.
silicon powder. As it turned out, silicon may quite ef
fectively combine with nitrogen. The temperature Of course, a large number of technological problems
needed to start a reaction is 500 oC, the second condi need to be solved. This process, in Auner’s estimation,
tion being that the silicon has to be reduced down to a will take ten to twenty years. This is how long it will
fine powder. Copper oxide acts as a catalyst. If silicon, take for technical ideas to develop into projects.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 65

A method of extraction (restitution) of the
energy supply stored in liquid or gaseous
mediums and transformation of the energy
obtained into mechanical work
(Russian Federation patent N 2059110)
Grajdansky Ave., 15–1, ap.147,
Russia, 195220

In 1607 Cornelius van Drebbel, a

Dutch scientist, demonstrated a “con
tinuously operating” clock to the Eng
lish king James I. The clock was set in
motion by a similar “continuously op
erating” motor, or, to put it simply, a
“perpetuum mobile”. Van Drebbel had
already patented the clock in 1598. The secret lies in the fact that poten
However, unlike other numerous de tial differences do exist, manifesting
vices bearing the same name, the mo themselves not spatially but tempo
tor invented by Cornelius van Dreb rally (Editor: In my report, given in
bel really was a “continuously operat 1996 at the conference “New Ideas
ing” one in some sense. in the Natural Sciences”, I proposed
a similar principle for obtaining en
What was the secret of this clock (or, ergy from a singlewire power trans
rather, of the motor that was setting mission line. Instead of a common
it in motion)? Van Drebbel’s contin potential difference U=X 1 –X 2 ,
uously operating clock worked due I proposed a chronal potential differ
to the drive, which used, like any oth ence U=X(t1)–X(t2). This means that
er real motor, the single possible a potential difference may be obtained
source of work – the nonequilibri at a single point if a change in poten
um (potential difference) of the en tial values is created). The principle
vironment. can be illustrated by the example of
the atmosphere. Let us assume that
Van Drebbel made use of a special no considerable pressure and temper
type of nonequilibrium, though it ature differences are observed in the
was also related to pressure and tem area where a motor is situated. But
perature differences. It may act in an the pressure and temperature (com
ideally balanced environment, the mon in all points) still continue to
temperature and pressure of which change (both day and night). These
are everywhere equal. What is the differences may be used for obtain
secret of this effect and where does ing work (in full accordance with the
work come from? laws of thermodynamics).

66 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

In a description of the inven
tion titled “A method of ex
traction (restitution) of the
energy supply stored in liquid
or gaseous mediums and
transforming the energy ob
tained into mechanical work”
(Russian Federation patent
№ 2059110) a version of a
pseudocontinuously operat
ing working solar engine was
proposed by me. In order to
increase the power and the
number of cycles, the proper
Photo 1 Photo 2
ties of two mutually unbal
anced mediums – gas and
water – are most fully used.
Archimedes’ principle is considered as a corollary a dynamic compressor consumes more energy than
of the law of conservation of energy, in which the a pistontype one, we choose the latter:
buoyancy force is tied in with the energy consumed • Source of compressed air – VP210/9 piston
to create water and air. The amount of this energy type compressor.
determined such physical properties as density, • Compressor output – 0,167 m3/sec
thermal capacity and thermal conductivity. • Output pressure, МPa – 0.9 (9 Atm).
• Compressor’s shaft capacity– 56.5 kW
The correlation of energy used for creating densi • Water cooling
ties is partially reflected in the nonequilibrium
coefficient, equaling 820. If we found a way to fully The efficiency of a pneumohydraulic turbine will
use this nonequilibrium, we would obtain an be evaluated by comparing the power supplied and
820fold gain in energy. Nonequilibrium states the power obtained, i.e. the amount of work per
are observed starting from the moment of feeding second.
air under a column of water. They accumulate
when the air rises because the air volume increas A compressor’s output is evaluated by the volume
es, taking away heat from the water. Air is fed of air fed into it at atmospheric pressure. This
under the water column at a temperature less than means that a productivity of 0.167 m3/sec is the
the temperature of the water, since if during the air volume before entering the compressor and
process of reaching atmospheric pressure the air after it rises in the turbine. While feeding air un
pressure equals 4 Atm (0,4 MPa) and the temper der the bottom level of the turbine, 0.167 m3/sec
ature is +20oС (293 K), the air will cool down to of water will be displaced through the upper lev
–75oС (198 K), i.e. by 95oС. Heat extraction will el. The same amount of water will be fed again
take place in conditions close to adiabatic. This under the turbine’s bottom level, thus creating an
means that heat losses will be minimal due to the airandwater mixture and causing it to move in
fact that water is a good heat accumulator but a side the turbine. The value of 0.167 m3/sec corre
bad heat conductor. sponds to the water consumption taken into con
sideration during the calculation of the capacity
of a pneumohydraulic turbine. The capacity is cal
Calculation of an energy- culated using the formula used for calculating the
extracting pneumohydraulic capacity of a hydraulic turbine:
N=9.81·Q·H· η,
(Russian Federation patents N 2120058, where 9.81 m/sec2 — the gravitational accelera
N 2170364, N 2024780) tion;
Q – the water consumption in m3/s;
A compressor is used as a source of compressed H – the head in (m);
air. Dynamic and positive displacementtype com h–Efficiency factor (which reaches rather high
pressors are the most suitable for this case. Since values and amounts to 0.94–0.95 or 94–95% un

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 67

der most favorable conditions).
As an airandwater mixture is
used as the working medium,
there is a necessity to justify the
use of this formula for calculat
ing the capacity of a hydraulic
turbine. We believe that the
most effective results can be
obtained in the operation mode
of the turbine when a mixture of
a 0.5 t/m3 density is used (com
prising 50% water and 50% air).
In this mode, the air pressure is
a little higher than the absolute
pressure inside the turbine case.
Air is fed from the pressure tube
of the compressor in the form of
separate bubbles, which come
out from it in equal intervals.
The total volume of bubbles
equals the volume of water be
Photo 3 Photo 4
tween them in the turbine case.
A bubble takes the shape of a
spherical segment and works as
a piston in a limited space, displacing water in an amount of pump energy is spent. Let us assume
upward direction only, since its backflow is impos that the turbine’s energy efficiency equals 0.9. In
sible due to the higher pressure, while its sideflow this case the capacity will be:
is impossible due to the incompressibility of water. N = 9.81·0.167 m3/sec ·2 m ·5 ·0,9 = 14.7 kW
If a constant volume of air of 0.167 m3/sec is fed,
0.167 m3/sec of water will be displaced. This means Thus, we obtained output energy 13 times exceed
that 2 × 0,167 m3/sec of the airandwater mixture ing the input energy:
will be displaced through the upper level of the tur 14.7 kW / 1.13 kW = 13
bine, the stream velocity inside the turbine being
high. Thus, we get: An increase in power by means of using additional
N = 9.81·2·Q·0.5·H·з = 9.81·Q·H·η working wheels has been observed on working pro
totypes. The operability of the turbine has been in
Let us consider an installation with a head of wa directly proven by experiments carried out at Saint
ter column equaling 2 m and calculate the com Petersburg State Technical University (SpbSU).
pressor engine capacity needed to feed air under Thus, Professor V.V. Elistratov, a Doctor of Engi
this water column, taking into consideration the neering Sciences, a member of the Commission for
atmospheric pressure, proceeding from the tech Unconventional Power Sources in the government
nical specifications of the compressor: of the Russian Federation and head of the Depart
N = (2 m · 56.5 kW) / (90 m + 10 m) = 1. 13 kW ment of Renewable Energy Sources and Hydroen
ergetics of SpbSTU wrote: “However, proceeding
A rising stream of an airandwater mixture will from the hydraulics of hydraulic units and our nu
be observed on all levels of the installation. No merous experiments of feeding air into the working
more than 5 working wheels may be installed wheel of the turbine in order to reduce cavitation
along the stream due to the buoyant force the in erosion, an increase of cavitation values was observed
tensity of which does not depend on the depth of accompanied by a considerable decrease of energy
immersion of a body. The proposed turbine is more values”. In this case, the experiments show that the
energyefficient than the famous “Airlift” pump, air that is fed into the device creates a counter stream,
since the flow of water takes place beneath the which, acting on the working wheel from below,
level of water in the turbine, i.e. in conditions close makes it rotate in the opposite direction. Such is the
to zero gravity and without a considerable water design of the wheel. In such a way, a small volume of
level rise inside the turbine, on which the main air acts in a limited space equaling the volume of the

68 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Air to the load


Electric generator


level Inner case


Fig. 1

hydroturbine case. The proposed installation may N = 14.7 kW · 1.2 = 17.6 kW

extract heat from the water and transform it into
mechanical energy. Taking into consideration the Our expectations about a gain in energy were
temperature difference between the water and the borne out:
air when the water temperature equals 80oС (the 17.6 kW / 5 = 3.5 kW
thermal source, water, heated up in a solar collector 3.5 kW / 1.13 kW = a 3,1fold energy gain per
or in a system of turbine cooling or compressor cool wheel
ing, etc.), and the air temperature is 20oС, the coef
ficient of the air volume increase, according to the During the calculation of the power needed to feed
GayLussac Law, will total: air under the water column, we took the atmos
1+ (80oС – 20oС)/273 = 1.2 pheric pressure into consideration (1 Atmosphere
= 10 m of the water column). This means that the
The capacity will amount to: rising air overcomes the absolute pressure inside

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 69

the turbine case. The pressure, composed of the wa Calculation of an energy-
ter column pressure in the turbine and the atmos
pheric pressure, equals the pressure of a 12meter
extracting pneumohydraulic
water column. The absolute pressure inside the tur engine
bine case is neutralized by the buoyancy force of (Russian Federation Patents N 2003830,
the air, but since it is still present outside the case, N 2160381)
it influences the feeding of air into the turbine. This
influence can be compared to the influence of the • Source of compressed air – VP2 – 10/9 pis
negative pressure created in the turbine case by the tontype compressor.
total volume of water inside it on the water stream • Compressor output – 0.167 m3/sec
(this effect is not present in other hydroturbines). • Output pressure, MPa – 0.9 (9 Atm).
If the construction of the turbine meets out require • Compressor shaft capacity – 56.5 kW
ments, we can consider the head as: • Water cooling
H=Н of water column + 10 m
The efficiency of a pneumohydraulic engine will be
Then the power will total evaluated by comparing the power supplied and the
N=9.81 ·0.167m3/sec·12 m ·5 ·1,2 · 0.9=106. 14 kW power obtained, i.e. the amount of work per second.
The compressor output is the volume of air on the com
We obtained output energy 93 times greater pressor’s input, i.e. the volume of air at atmospheric
than the input energy. pressure. Then the value of 0.167 m3/sec is the volume
of air on the compressor input and on the exit from the
Let us calculate a more powerful energy installa upper float of the pneumohydraulic engine (Fig. 3).
tion able to power a small urban village, military Floats are released from the air and then filled with
unit, a vessel etc. A 2VM10 – 63/9 pistontype water at a level that is situated below the level of water
compressor with the following technical specifica in the engine case. At an air pressure of 9 Atm it may be
tions will be used as the source of compressed air: fed under a water column with a head of 90 m. If the air
• Compressor output – 1.04 m3/sec bubbles rise at a speed of 0,4 m/s, it will take 225 sec
• Output pressure, МPa – 0.9 (9 Atm) for a bubble to reach the surface. Moving air will be
• Compressor shaft power – 332 kW present at all levels of the water column. This figure of
• Water cooling 0.4 m/s was obtained during experimental evaluations.
If the water column and compressor output remain sta
A calculation will be carried out for an installa ble, an increase or decrease in speed at which the bub
tion with a head of water column equaling 5 m bles rise, results only in a change in the horizontal di
and with 10 working wheels installed inside at a mensions of the floats (their length and width), since it
distance of 500 mm from each other. The capacity is the air volume that increases or decreases. This, in
of the compressor motor needed to feed air under turn, only increases or decreases the force, not influ
a 5meter water column, taking into consideration encing the capacity of the pneumohydraulic engine.
the atmospheric pressure, is: The possibility to change the horizontal dimensions of
5 m · (332 kW / 100 m) =16.6 kW the floats allows making floats of a needed volume pre
serving the water column.
The installation capacity will total:
N=9.81·1.04 m3/sec ·15 m ·10 ·1.2 · 0.9=1652 kW The volume of air on the output of the compres
sor’s pressure tube at a depth of 90 m will total (tak
We obtained output energy exceeding the in ing into consideration the atmospheric pressure):
put energy by a factor of 99. 0.167 (m3/sec) / 10 Atm = 0.0167 m3/sec
since the pressure of a 10meter water column will
Thus, the obtaining of any amount of energy is equal 1 Atm and due to the fact that an increase
possible, accompanied by an improvement in the in the volume of air by the value of the initial vol
gaseous water composition by means of an envi ume takes place every 10 meters the air rises. If
ronmentally friendly method. This method im the air volume remained permanent, at the mo
plies the use of an inexhaustible energy source, ment of reaching the surface its volume would be:
when a natural nonequilibrium of water and air 0.0167 (m3/sec) ·225 sec = 3.757 m3
is used in any climatic zone. There is no need any Taking into consideration the volume of air at the
more to build expensive dams and sluices, which moment it reaches the surface, its total volume will
leads to flooding of valuable agricultural lands. amount to:

70 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

3.757 m3 ·10 Atm = 37.57 m3 upper water sheets. The process will be accompa
nied by a simultaneous extraction of heat from the
Taking into consideration the coefficient of ther water. The most important point is that there will
mal expansion, its volume will total: be no need to economize energy, since we do not
37.57 m3 ·1.2 = 45.084 m3 amplify the natural energy imbalance by using a
natural nonequilibrium. On the contrary, we re
The buoyancy force of a 1 m3 of air equals 1000 kgf store it by getting rid of the consequences of ther
mal pollution. As for the solar energy, we do not
The amount of work performed by this volume of spend more of it than we obtain.
air as it rises will amount to:
45084 kgf ·0.4 m/sec =18 033 kgf · m/sec We considered a method of obtaining energy in in
or 18033 kg · fm/sec dustrial conditions, but there is a great need for en
ergy installations with a wattage of 34 kW. Let us
Since 1 kg ·fm = 9.81 W, the result of recalcula try to estimate their sizes. Take an installation with
tion is the following: a head of water column equaling 2 m. Using the same
18033 kg ·fm/sec ·9.81 =176903.73 W or 176.9 kW type of compressor (only for calculation) we may
find out the capacity of the compressor engine need
By adding no less than 30% of the energy that is ed to feed air under a 2meter water column:
returned, obtained due to the reactive force that N = (2 m · 56.5 kW) / (90 m + 10 m) = 1.13 kW
is created during the filling of a float with air, to
the energy that is received, we get: The compressor output – 0.167 m3/sec
176.9 kW + 18 kW = 194 kW
A 2meter water column creates pressure equal
We obtained the output energy exceeding the in ing 0.2 Atm. Then the water volume at a depth of
put energy by a factor of 3.4. 2 m will amount to (taking into consideration the
atmospheric pressure):
The mechanical energy efficiency of a pneumohy 0.167 (m3/sec) / 1.2 Atm = 0.139 m3/sec
draulic engine will be rather high since during op
eration the engine is well lubricated by water, while The time needed for a bubble to rise equals:
the floats are mutually balanced. The energy effi 2 m / 0.4 (m/sec) = 5 sec
ciency of the compressor is taken into account dur
ing consideration of the compressor’s engine capac The volume of moving air that will be present in
ity. The pneumohydraulic engine is equipped with the floats of a pneumohydraulic engine in 5 sec
a brake that makes it stop during operation. When onds (taking into account the increase in volume
the engine stops, air is still present in the floats, as the air rises and the thermal expansion coeffi
which means that no energy will be consumed on cient) will total:
the next startup since the engine will be put in 0.139 (m3/sec) ·5 sec ·1.2 Atm ·1.2 = 1 m3
operation by the air left in the floats.
The amount of work performed will amount to:
In our calculations, we proceeded from parame 1000 kgf ·0.4 m/sec = 400 kg ·fm/sec
ters of a serially produced compressor, able to feed
air under a water column with a head of 90 m. This The amount of work per second equals the power.
is a way to increase the effectiveness of hydroe Since 1 kgf = 9.81 W, the capacity will be:
lectric stations by means of installing pneumohy N = 9.81 W ·400 = 3924 W = 3.924 kW
draulic engines in pontoons at waterstorage
ponds. Increasing the effectiveness of hydroelec By adding 30% of the power returned, we get:
tric stations by using tail ponds is considered in 3.924 kW + 0.34 kW = 4.263 kW
the description of the invention № 2059110. The
design of the pneumohydraulic engine is remark If the mechanical energy efficiency equals 0.9, we
able for its low steel intensity, thus making it very get the following capacity:
light. Any river, pond, spring, thermal source or N = 4.263 kW · 0.9 = 3.84 kW
cooling tower may become a source of energy. A
leveling of the water temperature at hydroelec We obtained output energy exceeding the input
tric stations will become possible be means of energy by a factor of 3.4:
blending lower, more warm water sheets and cold 3.84 kW / 1.13 kW = 3,4

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 71

10 m

10 m

10 m

Fig. 2 а

In order to once again make sure of the effective

ness of the proposed method of obtaining energy,
let us compare its effectiveness with that of a stor
age plant, in which water is pumped to a highlevel Fig. 2 b
storage pond by means of a pump or a reversible
hydroset and then used at a lower level in a tur
bine. In this case, if the energy efficiency factor Air
amounts to 100%, it means that we obtained an
amount of energy that equals the amount of the
energy consumed. Let us calculate the capacity of
a pump engine needed to lift water to the level of Compressor
90 m, the output of which is 0.167 m3/sec:
N=(9.81 ·0.167m3/c ·90 m)/0.75 =196.5 kW

Let us compare the power obtained by a pump en

gine to that obtained by a compressor engine with a
capacity of 56.5 kW and air output of 0.167 m3/sec.
The latter can displace the same amount of water,
lifting it to a level of 90 m and feeding it to a turbine.
An amount of power equaling 196,5 kW is obtained,
which means that 3.5 less energy is spent. Besides,
the moving air that remains throughout the head of
the water column will also perform work, which is
confirmed by the aforecited calculation. The possi
bilities of implementation of the proposed method
are reflected in the diagram shown below (Fig.1)

It can be seen from this diagram that the buoyan

cy force manifests itself starting from the volume
Vo. The crosshatched part of the picture is a wa
Fig. 3. A scheme of a generator based on floats
ter column H, to overcome which the energy gen
erated by the compressor is spent. Vo is the vol
ume of water at a depth of H; Vk is the volume of
air, expanded due to the fall in pressure as air ris The inexhaustibility of the energy source, its ab
es Vq is the active air volume. The diagram shows solute environmental friendliness, the ease of pro
that the volume of active air in a pneumohydrau duction and quick payback due to the evergrow
lic engine equals Vq, while the volume Vk is essen ing need for energy provide for effective market
tial for a pneumohydraulic turbine, since it oper ing of the proposed construction, while the
ates on a displaced volume of water. This fact ex diversity of designs provide for a wide area of ap
plains the difference in their effectiveness. plication.

72 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Asymmetric Capacitors
Alexander V. Frolov
Faraday Lab Ltd. The electrodes are separated by a “di
7-812-3803844 electric wall” to exclude the possibili ty of electric discharge along the min
imal distance between the electrodes.
The electric field structure is config
ured here to create codirected elec
trostatic forces for both electrodes.

A few words about patent priorities.

Although electric gravitation was In 1994 an article of mine contain
studied from 1927–1965 by Thomas ing a description of the present prin
Townsend Brown, modern experi ciple was published in the USA in the
ments with asymmetric capacitors New Energy News magazine, May,
became widely known only in the 1994, pages 1–5. Later the article was
1990s due to the “Lifter” project. also published in the Newsletter of
What is the history of these experi Planetary Association for Clean En
ments and which line of the research ergy, vol. 8(1), September 1994. The
seems to be more promising? Some article was edited by Thomas E.
considerations concerning this issue Bearden. In that article I described
are given below. the principles of using electric fields
that make it possible to create a pro
I have performed several experiments pulsion force. Here is a quotation
in my laboratory since 1994. The con from my article concerning the issue
ception lies in the idea of getting an of asymmetric capacitors:
asymmetric vector composition of
forces. In the classic design of a flat “In order to find a solution and to
capacitor, for example, the plates are create a unidirectional resulting
attracted towards each other, but the thrust, we should take into consid
forces are opposing while the result eration that the potential field force
ing force equals zero. In the Tcapac lines are always perpendicular to a
itor, which I designed in 1994, two charged surface”.
electrodes were situated in the same
plane. This is why the result is a non The experiments were shown to spe
zero propulsion force. cialists of a Japanese company, who
came to SaintPetersburg
for a visit. Some of the ba
sic experiments are shown
in Fig. 2.

Later on, a French research

group (headed by Jean
Louis Naudin) also experi
mentally proved the
present principle and start
ed research on the practi
cal application of the tech
nology, not going deeply
into the phenomenon’s es
sence. Their website is

Fig. 1

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 73

pany can be found on their website:

The present technology is too complex for

commercial application due to the need to
use highvoltage equipment. You may try to
calculate the dimensions and voltage of a
Fig. 2. A slight change of the Tcapacitor’s weight can be 1000kilogram asymmetric capacitor for
observed using primitive scales.
business applications yourself. I believe that
The capacitor is connected to a 10kV power source.
this path is not leading us anywhere. A new
solution needs to be found.

Fig. 4. In the present version, Jean Louis Naudin uses a

thin wire and a metal plate as two asymmetric electrodes

In 1995, I suggested a design of an asymmetric

capacitor filled with a liquid dielectric. During our
first experiments positive results were achieved.
The proposed design (a can filled with a liquid oil
dielectric) is shown in Fig. 5:

Fig. 3. Jean L. Naudin’s version of Frolov’s Capacitor cylinder

liquid dielectric

In the beginning, the asymmetric capacitor was

called “Frolov’s Hat” (its scheme is shown in
Fig. 3), but recently the design has been sim Fig. 5
plified. Now a scheme consisting of two elec
trodes, one of which is a thin wire while anoth
er is metal plate, is being developed, Fig. 4.
A force totaling 0.4 gram was registered between
The present technology is also being developed the electrodes with a voltage of 10 kV. An evalua
by the Transdimensional Technologies Compa tion was performed using HL400EXtype digital
ny, USA. The research is supported by NASA and scales.
patents have been obtained. News from this com

74 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

The research on a solid gradient dielectric seems SaintPetersburg State University Publishers.
to be the most promising. It is quite difficult for A.V. Frolov.
our small private company to bring the idea to life
since the task to be implemented lies in the crea We are also continuing our research of the T
tion of a gradual change of permittivity in the di capacitor; an application for a patent has been
electric between the plates of the capacitor. We filed. I believe that the details of the invention
are sure that our work has great commercial pros should not be considered until positive results
pects and, therefore, continue experimenting. Cal of a patent examination have been achieved.
culations show that if a 10 kV power source is After the acquisition of a patent, we shall de
used, the design force amounts to 80 tons with an velop partnership relations with different or
area of 100 sq. meters. If a highquality dielectric ganizations aimed at commercialization of the
is used in the capacitor, the power source’s cur invention. The end product will represent a thin
rent drain could be minimal. These principles were (about 1 millimeter thick) flexible film, the
reported at a congress held in 1998 in SaintPe structure of which realizes the Tcapacitor prin
tersburg, Russia. The present report was published ciple. This film is to be manufactured by means
in a book called “Fundamental Problems of the of the modern electronic industry. When the
Natural Sciences”, vol I, pp. 195–200, 1999, Saint power is on, a thrust will be generated in a di
Petersburg, Russian Academy of Sciences and rection perpendicular to the film surface.

Our company is interested in developing partnership relations with potential customers.

Force On An Asymmetric Capacitor

Thomas B. BAHDER, Chris FAZI
trodes: ballistic ionic wind and ionic
Army Research Laboratory
drift. The calculations indicate that
Tech Report No. ARL-TR-3005, June 2003 ionic wind is at least three orders of
(extracted from an Internet-source) magnitude too small to explain the
magnitude of the observed force on
the capacitor. The ionic drift transport
assumption leads to the correct order
When a high voltage (~30 kV) is ap of magnitude for the force; however,
plied to a capacitor whose electrodes it is difficult to see how ionic drift en
have different physical dimensions, ters into the theory. Finally, we
the capacitor experiences a net force present a detailed thermodynamic
toward the smaller electrode (Biefeld treatment of the net force on an asym
Brown effect). We have verified this metric capacitor. In the future, to un
effect by building four capacitors of derstand this effect, a detailed theo
different shapes. The effect may have retical model must be constructed
applications to vehicle propulsion that takes into account plasma effects:
and dielectric pumps. We review the ionization of gas (or air) in the high
history of this effect briefly through electric field region, charge transport,
the history of patents by Thomas and resulting dynamic forces on the
Townsend Brown. At present, the electrodes. The next series of experi
physical basis for the BiefeldBrown ments should determine whether the
effect is not understood. The order of effect occurs in a vacuum, and a care
magnitude of the net force on the ful study should be carried out to de
asymmetric capacitor is estimated as termine the dependence of the ob
suming two different mechanisms of served force on gas pressure, gas spe
charge conduction between its elec cies and applied voltage.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 75

Frolov’s T-capacitor
And Its Working Principle
Zoltan LOSONC, Hungary bution within and around the de
e-mail: vice. The effect does not require
the reactive force of ions, or other
physical objects moving in oppo
site direction around the thruster.

The Frolov’s T capacitor was in • “The propelling force however

vented several years ago but its is not reduced to zero when all
working principles are still not environmental bodies are re
correctly understood by the re moved beyond the apparent ef
searchers. Since even the brief fective range of the electrical
original explanation of the work field”.
ing principle given by Mr. Frolov
on his site did not present the real Here it is confirmed that the creat
source of thrust, the correct prin ed thrust does not require any phys
ciple and theory will be given in ical matter nearby to provide a re
this paper. action force and base. Thus the de
veloped thrust can be named
reactionless force within the phys
The origin of the idea ical frame of reference (the reaction
background is represented by the
The basic concepts of the T ca ether that can be considered be
pacitor can be found in the work longing to a subtler dimension).
of T. Townsend Brown in the field
of Efield propulsion. In his pat • “Recent investigations in elec
ent of ‘Electrokinetic Apparatus’ trostatic propulsion have led to
US 3,187,206 granted on June 1, the discovery of improved de
1965 the following important vices for producing thrust by
declarations laid the ground for the use of electrical vectorial
the device: forces”.

• “This invention relates to an This sentence postulates that the

electrical device for producing thrust is generated purely by the
thrust by the direct operation of electrical field (or force lines),
electrical fields. I have discov that is a vector field and also a
ered that a shaped electrical force field (unlike the magnetic
field may be employed to propel field). It is several times empha
a device relative to its surround sized in the patent that the unidi
ings in a manner which is both rectional thrust is achieved by
novel and useful…” creating an asymmetrical Efield
distribution that produces asym
This statement declares the dis metrical electrostatic forces. Thus
covery that a unidirectional thrust the art of producing effective E
can be produced exclusively by field propulsion is defined as find
shaping the electrostatic fields, or ing a way to create asymmetrical
with other words by employing Efield — and electrostatic force
special Efield and charge distri distribution.

76 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Mr. Brown has proposed several embodiments The T capacitor design
that realize this concept, specifically the fol and the unclear principles
lowing thruster type can be considered as the
basis for the T capacitor (shown in fig. 8. in The originality of the Frolov’s T capacitor is
the original patent), that is presented on the in the different idea of achieving the asym
figure below: metry of the Efield. He keeps both electrodes
in the same plane, thinking that by placing a
sheet of dielectric under the electrodes will
Power supply direction weaken the Efield intensity at the bottom of
no thrust of thrust the electrodes (at least this is what his draw
ings suggest and how most researchers inter
pret the main principle). Thus the supposed
of thrust
electrostatic pressure and forces will be weak
er on the bottom surface than on the top sur
Fig. 1. Brown’s electrokinetic thruster
face of the electrodes. This way the asymme
try is established and an upward resultant
unidirectional reactionless thrust is expect
ed. The original drawing of the T capacitor
borrowed from Mr. Frolov’s site is shown on
It is described in the patent as follows: the following figure:

• “In accordance with still other aspects of

this invention an annular electrode mem
ber is secured to an electrode mounted in
the region of the axis of the annular elec
trode. If the second electrode is located at
the center of the annular electrode and the
two electrodes are energized such force is
not detected. However, if the second or in
nermost electrode is displaced from the
center of the annular electrode in the re
gion of the axis of the annular electrode
and the electrodes are energized, then the
thrust will be produced by the two elec
trodes. The annular electrode may either
be a flat ring, a toroid, or a section of a dielectric
Fig. 2. The original drawing of the T capacitor

Thus by taking the two dimensional variant,

when the outer electrode is a flat ring and
the inner electrode is a flat disc, then we get
the planar electrodes of the T capacitor spe Mr. Frolov has given the following explana
cifically its circular “hat” variant. (Com tion about its working principle on his page
ment: this design was used by French re titled “proposals for experimental research
searchers who named it “Frolov’s capacitor”. on propulsion systems”:
But it is not exactly true. I recommend read
ing my article about Frolov’s Тcapacitor). “Electrodes are separated by “dielectric wall”
The Efield distribution should be asymmet to exclude electric discharge along minimal
rical in order to obtain a unidirectional distance way between electrodes. The elec
thrust, and this asymmetry has been tric field structure is configured here to cre
achieved in Brown’s patent by moving the ate codirected electrostatic forces for both
central disk electrode above or below thep electrodes. In microstructure version of this
laneof the ring. system the operational voltage can be de

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 77

creased. Eshape dielectric structure is opti thruster. For easier understanding let us con
mal for this case”. sider first a T capacitor, which has a very
thick layer of dielectric below the electrodes.
Since the experiment demonstrated a unidi If the thickness of this layer is about the size
rectional thrust, it is obvious that codirec of the width of electrodes (or thicker) then
tional resultant forces must exist on both we can assume that the whole space below
plates, but it does not explain its working the electrodes is filled with the dielectric,
principle. It is not explained how (based on since the shape of the Efiled will be the same
what effect or mechanism) is the electric field with good approximation. Let’s name this
structure configured to create these codirec case as ‘thick T capacitor’. The shape of the
tional electrostatic forces, and what is the Efield will be approximately as shown on
shape and intensity of the Efield below the the following figure:
electrodes. The dotted semicircular line above
the electrodes on the figure represents the E
field, and it suggests the reason and the way
resultant upward
these codirectional forces are created. Mr.
Frolov has obviously suggested that these
forces are nothing else but the electrostatic
pressure forces acting upon the surface of the
electrodes. Since the electrodes are made of
conductors and the Efield lines are always
perpendicular to the surface of the conductors 2
in electrostatics, it will be clear that only up
ward, codirected forces will act upon the up
per surface of the electrodes.
thick layer of dielectric
However, no electric field lines and no forc 1 — top EP forces;
es are shown on the bottom surface of the 2 — bottom EP forces;
electrodes, and they are assumed not to ex 3 — dielectrophoretic EE forces.
ist, or if they exist it is supposed that they
must be much less than those above the Fig. 3. The cross section of the thick T capacitor
plates and they have been neglected. The
(Comment: there is no Tshaped dielectric on Fig.3! Where
electric field shape and intensity below the
is the vertical wall between the plates? A.V. Frolov).
electrodes are not discussed in the original
presentation, nor the existence of additional
fo rces upon t h e di e l e ct r i c i s m en t i o n e d
(Comment: It is not unmentioned but still it is
not covered in the open press. This issue is the This Efield shape is specially valid for a sec
knowhow of the invention. A.V. Frolov). The tion of the series of strip like T capacitors
area below the electrodes has been complete placed side by side with alternating positive
ly neglected, although this area is the key for and negative electrodes, and also for the ‘hat’
creating the asymmetry, unidirectional reac version using disc and ring electrodes (in
tionless thrust, and for the development of that case some extra lines should be added
efficient thrusters. at the ring’s outer edges, but they make no
difference). The dielectric wall above the
electrodes has the only purpose to prevent
The detailed explanation discharge and it does not alter the shape of
of the real principle the Efield significantly (specially if it is thin
and of low dielectric constant), therefore it
In order to understand the working princi is neglected in this explanation. (Comment:
ple and find the source of the detected thrust It is not true. This mistake reveals the author’s
we have to know at least the approximate misunderstanding of the Tcapacitor’s work
form of the Efield within and around the ing principle. A.V. Frolov)

78 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

The shape of the field lines above the elec Efield lines of the same length as on the top,
trodes is semicircular that is gradually dis the Efield intensity is the same as above the
torted into ellipsoid form very close to the plates. Although the originally declared and
inner edges, and finally merges into a straight assumed working principle would require
horizontal line connecting the two edges and predict an asymmetrical Efield distri
along the shortest path. The changing inten bution, and a weaker Efield intensity below
sity of the electric field is roughly indicated the electrodes this is obviously not realized
by the density of the field lines, and it is in this case.
higher close to the inner edges and lower far
ther away from that point. After realizing that the Efield shape and in
tensity is symmetrical to the horizontal plane
The intensity of the Efield is determined by of the electrodes and it is the same below and
the potential difference between the elec above the electrodes (Comment: it is true for
trodes and by the length of the specific E the scheme shown in Fig.3 but not for the T
field line. The potential difference between capacitor. A.V. Frolov), the question arises
two points is determined by the line integral whether the EP forces will be also identical
of the Efield vector’s and the elementary and cancel each other. If this would be the
displacement vector’s scalar product. case then there would be no resultant unidi
rectional thrust present on the thruster. Let
With simple words in this specific case it us see the magnitude of the EP forces on the
means that since the potential difference be bottom of the electrodes. They are calculat
tween any point on one electrode and any ed in similar way as previously for the top of
point on the other electrode is the same, and the plates but using the absolute dielectric
if the examined field line is longer, then its constant e of the dielectric in the formula in
intensity must be lower to give the same stead of the dielectric constant of the air e 0.
product (and integral). This way it is obvi
ous that the Efield intensity of the shorter Although the Efield intensity is the same as
semicircles close to the inner edges should above the electrodes, the surface charge den
be stronger, and that of the longer field lines sity s will be greater than on the top surface
farther away from the facing edges weaker. of the electrodes. The increased surface
charge density is caused by the property of
The only forces present above the electrodes the dielectric to bind more electric charge on
are the electrostatic pressure (EP) forces its surface at the same Efield intensity than
that act on the surface of the conductor what would be possible in vacuum. Compar
plates and they are perpendicular to the sur ing the bottom and top forces we get the
face, pointing upwards on both electrodes ratio of F b/F t=e/e 0 =e r that means, the force
(codirectional). The intensity of these forc at the bottom pulling the thruster down
es can be calculated after determining the wards is e r times greater than that on the top
surface charge density (or Efield intensity) of the electrodes. Thus the EP forces on a
in each point on the electrodes and integrat thick T capacitor produce a downward re
ing the product of the local electrostatic sultant thrust.
pressure and the elementary surface areas for
both electrodes: This finding is quite surprising, since accord
ing to the original assumptions exactly the op
However, this upward force will be effective posite was expected, namely a resultant upward
only if the downward force present on the force and a weaker Efield below the thruster,
bottom of the electrodes will be smaller than that is not true in this case. The strange thing
this force. As the above figure indicates the is that even the experimental observations in
Efiled lines below the electrodes within the dicated an upward resultant thrust. Where is
dielectric have the same shape as above the the mistake in the above analysis?
electrodes. Since the potential difference be
tween the electrodes is the same as above the There is no mistake in the discussed analy
plates and the symmetrical geometry creates sis. Although the experimental observation

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 79

showed an upward resultant thrust, it does The first attempt to mathematically analyze
not means that this resultant thrust can be these forces was presented on the page
composed only of these two force compo fullcylsph.htm, but the results are not in con
nents. If there is an additional upward force sonance with the preliminary measurement
component that is greater than the calculat results obtained so far. This deviation indi
ed sum of EP forces, then the resultant ob cates that the dielectrophoretic forces with
servable thrust will point upward. Let us see in the dielectric can not be calculated sim
what can be the source of such unexpected ply by using the Coulomb’s law for each mol
upward force component. ecule and integrate their cumulative effect.
Since the Efield intensity can not be lower
than what follows from the line integral
The new force component and along a specific Efield line calculated with
new E-field thruster principle the formula (1), it is obvious that the elec
trostatic forces acting on the charges of the
The Efield thrusters invented by Brown, Frol elementary dipoles of the dielectric will be
ov and other inventors were based on the pre less than predicted by the Coulomb’s law.
viously declared key principle first recognized The question of exactly how much less, and
by Brown, that a reactionless unidirectional why is the Coulomb’s law not valid in this
thrust can be created by establishing an asym case, should be answered after further re
metry of the electric field in the thrusters. This search is done, and measurements performed.
can be accomplished either by geometrical
asymmetry of the electrodes or by asymmetri The second form how these dielectrophoret
cal utilization of dielectrics. This principle de ic forces can manifest is shown on fig. 5b. on
rives its forces from the electrostatic Coulomb the page dieltutor.htm. In this case the E
(EP) forces acting on uncompensated surface field lines are not straight lines but they rep
charges on the electrodes or space charges with resent arcs and curved lines. Since in such
in the nonlinear dielectrics. cases the charges of the elementary dipoles
are not attracted in exactly the opposite di
The new force component that was not rec rection, they will be not attracted only to
ognized and explained in detail so far by oth wards the greater Efield intensity, but also
ers in Efield thrusters is the dielectrophoret towards the concave side (or focus point) of
ic force component that acts on the electri the curved Efield lines. Since in most cases
cally neutral body of the dielectric. The basic such arced Efield structure appears around
mechanism of dielectrophoretic forces has been the edges of capacitors they have got the
described on the tutorial page dieltutor.htm. As name of ‘edge effect’ (EE) forces to be dif
it is demonstrated on fig. 5a. on that page ferentiated from the CFE forces. Its work
there are two main forms of manifestation of ing principle and the related basic calcula
these forces. In the first case the Efield lines tions were presented on the tutorial page
are straight lines, but converging towards a dielforce.htm specifically illustrated on fig.
focus point, and thus it is a convergent inho 12 and fig. 13. A mathematical analysis of
mogeneous (gradient) field. The elementary these EE forces has been presented on the
dipoles of the dielectric are attracted towards page dielphpump.htm, and their utilization
the greater Efield intensity, and they repre to produce free energy is suggested.
sent the ‘convergentfield effect’ (CFE) forc
es, which are basically dielectrophoretic forc This type of dielectrophoretic force is
es (Comment: exactly this issue, i.e. the Efield present in the dielectric of the T capacitor
gradient, was considered in the report given by since the shape of the Efield lines are arced,
me at a congress held in SaintPetersburg in and the resultant EE forces will point to
1998. The report is published in a book titled wards the center of the semicircles in upward
“Fundamental Problems of Natural Sciences”, direction. This is the new force component
vol I, p. 195200, 1999, SaintPetersburg, Rus not explained by Brown and Frolov, although
sian Academy of Sciences Publishers, SpbSU. it is stronger than the originally declared EP
A.V. Frolov). forces.

80 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

The E-field shape and forces on The source of the resultant upward thrust
a “thin” T capacitor observed in experiments is again the edge
effect (EE) dielectrophoretic forces as in the
When the layer of dielectric below the elec case of the thick T capacitor.
trodes is not enough thick to include almost
all Efield lines and therefore a significant E There are two more force components present
field exists even below the dielectric layer in the T capacitor. One is the force developed
then we get approximately the following by the ionized air, but if the edges of the elec
Efield distribution: trodes are well insulated it can be minimized.
Even if these forces were present they would
produce a downward force, and could not be
resultant upward thrust the source of the observed upward thrust.

The second additional force component is the

BiefieldBrown effect that produces a unidi
1 rectional reactionless force from the negative
electrode towards the positive electrode, in
dependently of the shape or intensity of the
2 3 Efield and electrodes. The effect of this force
component can be also neglected in the T ca
pacitor, because it would represent a horizon
tal force component that does not contrib
1 — top EP forces;
ute to the vertical thrust. The intensity of
2 — bottom EP forces;
this force is also much less than the other
3 — dielectrophoretic EE forces.
components (at least for the voltages applied
Fig. 4. The Efield distribution and forces so far) and it is neutralized by the stacked T
on a thin T capacitor capacitor elements placed side by side in
oneplanewith alternating positive and nega
tive (or grounded) plates.

As the above figure shows the Efield inten

sity within the dielectric in this case is re Using the presented principle
ally less than below the dielectric or above for the optimization and
the electrodes. At first sight this would sug
gest that the EP forces below the electrodes
development of practical
are indeed smaller than above the plates. Al E-field thrusters
though the EP forces on the boundary layer
of the electrodes and dielectric is less than The guidelines for the development of prac
in the case of a thick T capacitor, the strong tical Efield thrusters can be understood if
Efield below the dielectric is still present one realizes the main problem of inefficien
and it will increase the downward force cy. The main problem is that different force
component. On the boundary layer between components fight against each other and di
the dielectric and air there will be noncom minish the resultant unidirectional thrust.
pensated bound charges that will create an The art of developing efficient Efield
intense Efield, similar to that above the thrusters is to amplify the strongest force
electrodes. Thus there will be additional, components pointing in the same direction,
fairly strong EP forces upon the bottom sur and weaken the unwanted force component
face of the dielectric pulling the thruster opposing these forces. In order to maintain
downward. Therefore the desired strong high efficiency it is also important to pre
asymmetry of the EP forces is not achieved vent current leakage through ionization or
in this case either, when the Efield inten caused by insufficient insulating properties
sity is less in the dielectric than above the of some dielectrics.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 81

Summary: • A new principle of producing unidirectional
reactionless thrust has been presented. The
• The basic concept of the necessity of asymmet thrust of this principle is created by the di
rical Efields for the creation of a unidirectional electrophoretic forces, that was not recog
reactionless thrust in Efield thrusters has been nized and explained previously as the
declared by T. T. Brown. source of reactionless thrust in Efield
thrusters. Two main variants of these die
• The original explanation of the T capacitor’s lectrophoretic forces were shown: the ‘con
principle by Alexander Frolov is to achieve vergent fieldeffect’ (CFE) forces and the
lower electrostatic pressure force on the bot ‘edgeeffect’ (EE) forces.
tom of the electrodes than above the plates
by placing a sheet of dielectric below the elec • It has been demonstrated that the EE forc
trodes (Comment: It is not exactly so. es create the observed upward resultant
A.V. Frolov). thrust in the T capacitor and not the origi
nally declared EP forces acting upon the
• It has been demonstrated that there is no elec uncompensated charges.
tric field asymmetry between the top and
bottom region of the thruster with a thick die • The guidelines for the development of
lectric, which is contradicting the original practical Efield thrusters were present
expectations. Even in the case of T capacitors ed that directly follow from the present
with relatively thin dielectric layer the Efield ed real working principle of the T capac
intensity is weaker only within the dielectric, itor thruster.
but a strong Efield is still present on the bot
tom surface of the dielectric layer producing
strong unwanted downward forces. RELEVANT LINKS:

• It has been demonstrated that the EP forces
below the electrodes are not smaller than those
above the plates, and in the case of the thick
T capacitor it is even greater than the upward
EP forces. Thus the EP forces can not be the
source of the observed resultant upward
thrust as expected by the original theory.

Eagle-Research Infinite Energy

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82 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

A Precession Free Energy Generator
tel: + 7 812 271 94 08
The kinematic scheme of the mecha
nism of a gyroscope with 3 degrees of
freedom of flywheel rotation makes it
possible to transform a mechanical sys
tem comprising substance elements and
physical vacuum elements (aether) into
a “flywheel in the artificial potential
Our magazine has recently drawn field of inertia centrifugal force”. This
our readers’ attention to the fact results in an environmental resonant
that any potential field represents energy interchange, leading to the cre
a possible source of free energy [1]. ation of a system of precession rotation
Several practical implementations by means of the structure of substance
have also been proposed. As report elements of the gyroscope construction.
ed in “New Energy Technologies” This allows us to utilize environmental
magazine, several inventors are free energy, in particular, to pick up
making use of the Physical Effect of available energy by means of a load.
Precession (PEP) in order to create
vehicles that do not need to have a
fulcrum to move and also to gener
ate free energy.
of experiments
In the present article, on the basis
of experiments, carried out at the The physical effect of precession is one of
Faraday Lab Ltd. (experiments with many tools granted to mankind by Na
a speed inertia governor have been ture that allows the tapping of free ener
covered in previous issues of the gy. It is a key to inexhaustible supplies of
magazine [2]), and by describing conservative forces of potential fields. Tra
the MBG free energy generator, an ditional physicists have been concealing
effort is made to give a concrete ex this fact for many years. In traditional ref
ample of how inventors can use the erence books intended for students and
Physical Effect of Precession to cre engineers you will not find any conclu
ate devices, aimed at utilizing of sions implying that the power on the shaft
any conservative natural forces of of the moment of a gyroscope’s precession
potential fields. These are gravita forces represents free energy, which ap
tional, electrostatic and magnetic pears due to the action of such external
fields, Coulomb forces, Van der forces, applied to the rotor axis, as, for ex
Waals forces of structural unity of ample, the gravitational energy of the
a substance (of a spring, for exam weight force of the displaced center of
ple) and others. gravity of a rotor. This power, however,
does not appear due to the transforma
The purpose of publishing this arti tion of the electrical energy, with which
cle is to find business partners and the gyroscope’s rotor is supplied, into me
investors, whose cooperation with chanical energy. A manual published in
the author and the laboratory would 1964 [3] gives a short description of the
be aimed at commercialization of theory of gyroscopes, unveiling secrets
this new innovation product and at only to a limited number of people aware
license transfer. This cooperation of the mysteries of the PEP. This book is
will also allow the inventor to com intended for aviation engineerstobe who
plete his scientific research and to are only about to study drafts and designs
apply for patents. of aviation gyroscopes.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 83

Proceeding from longterm experience of practical the axle of a precessing gyroscope, we have to accu
verification of mathematical theories, D.S. Pelper mulate the electrical energy in the form of the ki
comes to the following conclusion: “The nutational netic energy of the flywheel rotation, and then sim
gyroscope motion represents an inertial motion... The ply replace its small friction losses for an unlimited
surplus inertial moment, which is also called the prod period of time, since according to theory, no gyro
uct of inertia forces in theoretical mechanics, tends scope’s rotor energy is spent on the generation of
to align the gyroscope’s rotor axis with the axis of the power of precession forces.
cardan’s external case, since the balance is broken
during the nutation. In the process of precession, a In order to verify this fact, a simple experiment was
dynamic balance between the external moment of carried out. Its purpose was to verify whether any
force and the gyroscopic moment, equaling the prod surplus energy was consumed by the gyroscope’s
uct of inertia forces, is created... The gyroscopic mo motor during the process of utilization of gravita
ment represents the inertial resistance, shown by the tional energy at the precession axle. In order to car
gyroscope when it resists to the applied external mo ry out the present experiment, a scheme suggested
ment of force... As follows from the equation of the pre by Kl.E. Suorts was used.
cession law, the precession motion of the gyroscope’s
rotor axis, equaling it, is determined by the external Basic physical principles are described in a book by
moment of force, acting on the gyroscope... The pre Kl.E. Suorts [4]. The book also contains his inter
cession represents an inertialess motion”. Let us make pretation of the gyroscope experiment: “You may
our own conclusion proceeding from this thought: create a gyroscope using a bicycle wheel. Hang a
precession is a specific instrument that allows us to front wheel removed from a bicycle by one end of its
use the energy of external forces, applied to a gyro axle on a lace, as is shown in Fig.1. Lower the other
scope’s rotor due to the creation of a centrifugal iner end of the axle so that the wheel is supported by the
tia force moment, which appears due to the Physical lace only. An unbalanced moment of forces, over
Effect of Precession. turning the wheel, will be created right away. Grav
ity force, applied to the center of the wheel and di
In Pelper’s book, formulas describing laws of motion rected vertically, acts on it. The arm of the present
of the gyroscope based on examples of mechanical force equals the distance from the center of the wheel
models are deduced. In these experiments, a balance to the point where the lace is attached.
weight is used as an external force, applied to the
rotor shaft. This means that the energy of the grav Now do the same, but this time ask someone to set
itational field is used, the capacity of which, in the the wheel in rotation before you start lowering it. The
form of precession moment of force, is being utilized same unbalanced moment of gravity force will act on
for free! The question arises as to why the author the wheel, but it will not get overturned. The wheel
does not come to the next and most evident conclu will remain vertically balanced, while its axle will
sion. It is clear that in order to receive power from slowly turn in the horizontal plane around the lace”.


84 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

Why does the wheel not overturn and where does lifting the balanceweight to a height of 1 m was per
the moment of impulse, connected with the wheel formed and the wire was spooled around the preces
center motion along the horizontally oriented cir sion axle, the ammeter and voltmeter readings re
cle, come from? mained stable. The same was observed when the pre
cession axle was hard braked. We also compared the
In order to explain the present phenomenon, let us time needed to fully stop the rotation of the fixed
consider what happens with the upper “Р” point of electric motor’s rotor without any load and with a
the wheel. If we look from above, this part of the wheel load on the precession axle with a balanceweight
gets overturned to the right. Consequently, the force after the power supply was switched off. In both cas
acting on the Р point is also directed to the right. es it amounted to 31 min. Furthermore, when the
However, the P point is rapidly moving forward gyroscope’s motor was switched off, the gyroscope
(when we look down at the wheel). The overturning performed the work of lifting the balanceweight for
force imposes a small impulse on the Р point (the ital 17 minutes. Conclusion: the gyroscope’s motor was
ics are mine; it draws reader’s attention to the source not consuming any extra energy during utilization
of impulse energy! V.I. Bogomolov); the impulse is di of gravitational energy on the precession axle!
rected to the right and is vectorially added to the main
impulse of the point in question, which is directed for After studying Suorts’ and Pelper’s interpretations
ward. The resultant impulse will have a direction that and proceeding from the results of our experiment,
corresponds to the turning of the whole wheel to the it becomes clear that the constant of the flywheel’s
right. Instead of getting overturned, the wheel and impulse moment in its basic rotation is easily main
the plane of its rotation will turn to the right. tained in the present device, since in order to main
tain the inertial flywheel’s rotation, only the rolling
Forces and impulse moments are shown in Fig. 1 by friction of the bearings must be overcome. The roll
arrows directed along the corresponding axes. In this ing friction increases linearly with the increase of
system, the rotating wheel has the largest impulse angular velocity (we also know the designs of mag
momentum, which is directed along the horizontal netic suspensions, air bearings and other devices, the
axis. The gravity force momentum also lies in the hori resistance of which is minimal). The increase of the
zontal plane. However, it is situated perpendicular to flywheel’s angular velocity, which must be main
the wheel axle (italics and bold print are mine). Due to tained at that level, to obtain the possibility of build
this, the moment of gravity force does not deceler ing up the influence of external forces on the mo
ate the wheel and does not take away its kinetic ment axis. The gravity forces can be replaced by oth
rotation energy, which is needed for the action of er conservative forces, such as, for example, the
precession forces moment of the Р point! During backmoving forces of a spring or by the forces acting
each time interval dt, the moment of gravity force inside permanent magnets. In this way we may
alters the moment of precession of the Р point: achieve the generation of free energy, several times
Мdt = dJ. This increment of impulse moment is di exceeding friction losses, by means of picking up the
rected transversely to the main impulse moment of power of precession forces from the gyroscope axle.
the wheel and does not change its module. However, The electric energy is consumed by the gyroscope
the momentum of gravity force changes the direction only to create favorable conditions for precession.
of the impulse moment of the P point of the wheel. The By directing a part of the free energy received in or
axle of the wheel rotates in the horizontal plane, and der to replace the energy spent, we will get a “per
the rotation continues while the moment of gravity petuum mobile of a second kind”.
force is present. Such motion is called “precession”.
The essence of the mechanical effect obtained is
In the experiment according to Suorts’ scheme, the determined by natural physical phenomena ob
rotor, in the form of a bicycle wheel, was replaced by served in the gyroscope, namely, the interdepend
a cylindrical rotor of an electric motor with a diam ence of constants of two moments of rotation im
eter of 10 cm, a speed of rotation of 15,000 rot/min pulses — of the flywheel and of the gyroscope’s pre
and a weight of 2 kg. The arm of gravitation forces cession rotation. This effect is also determined by
moment amounted to 10 cm. A wire, loaded with a the effect of quantification of the precession impulse
200 g balanceweight via a block, was wound around moment by the L/R2 parameter value, where L is the
the precession axle. This was done in order to pick inertia radius of the precessing mass of the flywheel
up the axle’s available output, equaling N=mgh/t. and the action arm of the gravitational force and R
In a quiescent state a fixed motor consumed a DC is the inertia radius of the flywheel rotation. In oth
current with a voltage of 25 V and a current intensi er words, the intensity of the influence of gravita
ty of 0.5 A. The power of the current amounted to tion (weight) on the arm with a change in this pa
12.5 W. The angular velocity of the precession axle rameter is constantly limited by the extreme of the
amounted to 1 rotation per 5 sec. When the work of constant of quantification of the flywheel’s impulse

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 85

moment, in which a surplus inertial moment (the its nucleus, into “envelopes” comprising equal masses
product of inertia) is opposed to gravity, and in of matter. For this reason, and as a consequence of the
which the vertical plane of the flywheel rotation is decrease in density of matter of a physical field, radii of
preserved. In this case the flywheel does not fall. envelopes increase as squares of a natural sequence”
[5, page 272]. The consideration of regular kinematic
geometric parameters of a gyroscope’s construction al
Explanation of the essence of the lows utilizing free energy according to the Law of In
terdependence of Processes. This utilization implies the
process of obtaining free energy pickingup of the available output of the moment of
in a precession generator precession forces on the gyroscope axis. The design of
the gyroscope also allows using the energy of structur
The explanation of the process of obtaining free ener al unity of the substance of which the gyroscope is
gy in a precession generator is possible only on the ba made. This implies that the work is performed by the
sis of a new physical paradigm [5], postulating that sub structure of substance elements, while the potential of
stance elements are no more than vortices of the ae recovery elastic forces (electrostatic Couloumb’s forc
ther medium, which maintain energy interchange es acting inside the lattice and Van Der Waals forces),
balance with the environment. The aether medium (a which are constantly resupplied by the energy from
physical vacuum) may structure itself and form its el the aether medium, are spent.
ements as mechanical systems (vortices, and packets
of standing waves) according to a universal kinematic
scheme that B.P. Ivanov [6] called “the organizational
form of matter”. “New Energy Technologies” magazine
The Marinov–Bogomolov
has previously informed its readers about an experi Generator (MBG)
ment of obtaining free energy by using natural features
of potential fields of inertial centrifugal forces [2]. All The discovery of the possibility of obtaining free ener
organizational forms of matter possess features of a gy during the formation of the kinetic moment of cen
quantummechanical system: quantification of densi trifugal forces in the potential field of centrifugal iner
ty of the kinetic energy of aether’s elements motion by tial forces, made by the author, enabled him to create a
volume and mass density, quantification of the impulse working prototype. The invention was first mentioned
moment on the radius of curvature of the vortex’s tra in the article titled “Russian Inventor Needs Technol
jectory and on the radius of inertia of a localized mass ogy Transfer”, which was published in the “Peterburg
of aether’s elements. Perpetual motion, energy inter skij Analitik” (SaintPetersburg Analyst) analytical
change and its transformation in the aether medium bulletin (№7 of 07.09.99). In that article, I described a
are taken for granted by the new paradigm and are de method for obtaining 3 kW of output power on the
scribed by a universal action algorithm called “the Law shaft of a prototype, set in rotation by an 8 W electric
of Interdependence of Processes” [7]. This means that motor. The experiment was verified in August of 1999
generation of free energy followed by its utilization in by a commission consisting of representatives of the
technical devices seems to be real. Quantification of University of Aerospace InstrumentMaking Industry
the density of the kinetic energy of aether’s elements mo and of the beforementioned magazine. The commis
tion by volume in the organizational form of matter, sion was headed by Professor M.S. Katkov.
forming a potential gradient, can be used to describe
mechanisms of creation of forces and output power of The present device for the obtaining of free energy
all potential fields, namely gravitational, electrical and was named the “Marinov–Bogomolov Generator”
magnetic fields. It can be used to describe the photo (MBG) in memory of Stephan Marinov, a Bulgari
effect, Archimedes’ lift forces, and also to describe the an scientist and inventor [8].
formation of the kinetic moment of centrifugal forces
in the potential field of inertial centrifugal forces. In 1998, the idea came to my mind of using a system
of ultrasonic resonators in technical devices in or
The kinematic scheme of the gyroscope design is cre der to obtain noncompensated centrifugal inertial
ated according to the Laws of the Organizational Form forces of wave impulses in the mass of the substance
of Matter and its algorithm of the Law of Interdepend they are made of. However, I decided to build a sim
ence of Processes. In this scheme, the correlation of pler and cheaper mechanical model using the spring
the quantized precession impulse moment and the pendulums that are used in laboratory research. This
quantized flywheel impulse moment are ensured by the model was intended to simplify calculations con
L/R2 correlation. This complies with conclusions, fol cerned with ultrasonic resonator pendulums.
lowing from B.P. Ivanov’s theory: “A standing wave
process divides the volume of the proper sphere of the In June of 1997, a temporary research group was cre
organizational form of matter both inside and outside ated, consisting of seven members of the Laborato

86 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

ry for Applied Tasks of the Center for Fundamental dulum, does not dampen down the proper natural res
Research, founded by Dr. V.Ya.Bril at the SaintPe onant oscillation of the second pendulum. If masses
tersburg Mining Institute. A contract was signed interact at a right angle, (during hard or soft concus
with the “TEST Separate Design Office” Company, sion of the masses), no speed exchange takes place.
headed by B.P.Kuzmin, for the construction of an However, a peculiar feature is present in our device’s
experimental installation. In March of 1998, during kinematic scheme: the resonant supply of energy direct
the testing of the installation, stable results were ed from the first pendulum to the second, takes place
achieved: the free energy, generated by the installa indirectly, by means of initiated inertial centrifugal
tion and the power of its output exceeded the power forces and the energy of the deformed structure of phys
spent on resonance initiation by a factor of two. ical vacuum substance elements (of aether). As a re
sult, the inertial oscillating spatial movement of the
Later, a second contract with the “TEST” Company whole system of masses transmitted to the swing shaft
was signed, proposing a modernization of the model (3) causes an increase in the device’s capacity. Curved
that had been created to bring it up to production trajectories of the weights’ masses create an artificial
standards using an investor’s funds. However, the system, which is a potential field of inertial centrif
financing was stopped. ugal forces of physical vacuum’s medium (aether)
that performs the work of spatial handling of pen
The principal scheme of the MBG generator is based dulums’s weights. The work performed by the
on Marinov’s [8] scheme of the “BullerMarinov spring elastic forces represents another source of
Generator”, and uses in part the operating principle free energy. These forces, in their turn, also receive
of a wellknown mechanism – the “centrifugal vibra energy from the medium of the physical vacuum dur
tor”  and the physical effect of precession. Symmet ing the process of constant substancemedium ener
rical and simultaneous rotation of masses of disbal gy exchange, providing for the structural unity of the
ances, taking place in this design, results in an oscil material that the springs are made of, within the lim
lating spatial motion of the entire system (case). The its of its strength (i.e. until the moment when the steel
same effect may be observed in related mechanisms, will become “fatigued”).
namely in Tolchin’s and Savelkaev’s inertioids.
The interaction of the two pendulums’ weights mass
The difference between the proposed scheme (Fig.1) es in the proposed scheme represents the conse
and the scheme of a centrifugal vibrator lies in the quence of the physical effect of precession.
idea that the rotary motion of disbalancing flywheels
was replaced by the oscillating motion of balancing The installation turned out to be heavy, weighing
pendulums. The kinematic scheme of our installa more than 100 kilos, but quite cheap: the balancing
tion bears resemblance to the be
forementioned Suorts’ scheme, the
main difference being that it is cre
ated as a system of balancing pen
dulums. The first balancing pendu
lum is a springbacked swinging le
ver (1) mounted on a solid base, on
which a bob (2) oscillates with its
own resonant frequency on the
powerpicking axle (3). The second
balancing pendulum is a subsystem,
playing the role of a weight (2) for
the springbacked swinging lever. A
50kilo weight (5) swings on the le
ver (4) of the pendulum with its
own resonant frequency, which
equals the frequency of the first one,
but with a phase shift totaling a
quarter of a period.

The second pendulum swings in

planes that are situated orthogonal
ly to the swing of the first pendulum.
Due to this, the impulse of inertial
forces transmitted to the first pen Fig. 2

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 87

swing of the resonator, for example, was made out of
the torsion suspension of an old automobile’s shock
absorber. The second balancing pendulum also rep
resents a selfoscillating system. Its oscillations are
initiated and maintained (in resonance) by means
of a centrifugal vibrator that represents an electric
motor with a “rider” — type reducer (8 W, 27 V,
6000 rot/min.) (6), which rotates a lever (7) with a
70gram weight (8) on its shaft. The angular velocity
of rotation, amounting to 1 Hz, equals the frequen
cy of oscillations of the second pendulum.

When the frequency of rotation of the balance

weight (8) amounts to about 1 Hz, both pendulums
start to resound and oscillate with a maximum am
plitude just two seconds after the electric motor has
been switched on. This motion on the output of the
swing shaft is characterized by the following indi
ces: rotation oscillation at an angle of 7–10 degrees Fig. 3
with a frequency of about 1 Hz. The output capac
ity, which was evaluated by means of braking,
amounted to about 3 kW.
tive effect), gradually matching the resonance fre
Since a 50kilo weight (5) reaches the impulse pow quency according to the principle of feedback in self
er of 3 kW in 2 sec using the power of the initiation oscillating systems. A more detailed description is
device equaling 8 W, it is evident, that the present not available since it is also the “knowhow” of the
gain in power cannot be obtained by means of accu author.
mulating the energy of the electric motor in the
mechanism. It would take more than 6 minutes to
accumulate such an amount of energy. REFERENCES:

The principles used in the design of the prototype of 1. A.V. Frolov, “Free Energy”, New Energy Technolo
the GMB generator, have already been implement gies, №1, 2003
ed by the author in two other devices intended for 2. V.I.Bogomolov, “Bogomolov’s Generator”, “An Ex
mass production. The first device, named “Kamer periment of Using Free Energy”, New Energy Tech
ton” (Tuning Fork), is intended for heating farmers’ nologies, №№4, 5–6, 2003
greenhouses and townspeople’s country houses. It 3. S.P. Pelper, “Gyroscopic Devices and Autopilots”,
has been designed to be cheap and simple in produc Moscow, Nauka Publihshers, 1964, pages 32–33
tion. The scheme of the device is not given in this 4. Kl.E. Suorts, “An Extraordinary Physics of Com
article since it is the “knowhow” of the author. mon Phenomena”, Moscow, Nauka Publishers,
1986, pages 174–175
Another device, called the “UZV ModulGenerator” 5. V.I.Bogomolov “A Matreshkatype Paradigm of
(Ultrasonic Generating Module), is a universal World’s Physical Structure”. Schemes for utiliza
electric energy generator. Depending on the number tion of energy of conservative fields, A collection
of modules in a block, this device may be used to of articles, SaintPetersburg, 2002.
supply energy to any electrical consumers (domestic 6. B.P. Ivanov “A Physical Model of the Universe” —
electric appliances, electric vehicles, and factory SaintPetersburg, Politekhnika Publishers, 2000
equipment as well). 7. A.P.Smirnov “Reality Physics”, Collection of ar
ticles “The Principle of Order”, A.P. Smirnov,
Proceeding from the scheme shown above, by using I.V. Prohortsev, SaintPetersburg, PIK Publish
piezocrystals for the generation of EMF (1) and an ers, 2002.
ultrasonic resonator (oscillator) made of a block 8. S. Marinov “Using of Inertial Forces For Genera
comprising a number of nickel plates (2), an effec tion of Free Energy”, A collection of articles “Prob
tive and compact version of the GMB generator can lems of Space, Time and Gravity”, A collection of
be constructed (Fig. 3). A solenoid, receiving ener articles of the IVth International Conference held
gy from an AC generator, (3) will initiate the reso on 16–21 September, 1996, SaintPetersburg, Po
nator’s natural oscillations (2) (the magnetostric litekhnika Publishers, 1997.

88 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

On The Way to A New Astronautics
A.V. PERFILIEV, Russia od was first used in the construction of
Enthusiastov Str., 74/2, ap. 43 a Soviet automatic interplanetary
111123, Moscow “Luna9” (“Moon9”) station that was
the first to softland on the Moon sur
face. At that time it was a measure of
necessity since there was no time left for
the adjustment of the landing system by
About the author: A.V. Perfiliev gradu installing vectoring thrusters. Now it
ated the Department of Spacecraft may be considered as a regress since
Designing of Moscow Aviation Institute though airbags can provide for weight
(MAI). He worked in the RDE of Ap and economic efficiency, they are not as
plied Electrodynamics (MAI), then — reliable as it may seem. This was con
in the State Space Research and firmed by the failure landing of the
Production Complex named for “Beagle2” landing module and the
M.V.Khrunichev, participating in the problems, which occurred when the
project for developing the International “Spirit” marsrover failed to descend
Space Station. from the platform because of one of the
airbags not being totally empty.
On the background of a rapid devel
opment of such fields of knowledge The principle of reactive motion was
as computer science and genetics the used in the ancient China as far back
absence of breakthroughs in space as four thousand years ago.
technologies became too evident.
Tzyolkovsky and Goddard, the pio
neers of astronautics, started their
research by studying reactionless
The aerospace propulsion systems. Tzyolkovsky an
industry stagnation alysed a centrifugal machine while
Goddard tried to make use of elec
A resolution on the usage of a mod trodynamic installations. However, a
ernized “Soiuz” carrierrocket as the quick solution of the problem was not
main mediumclass carrierrocket at found and the beforementioned and
the Kourou Space Centre has been slightly improved technology was
recently passed. Meanwhile, this rock used during the mission to the Moon.
et represents a modification of the R
7 rocket by means of which the first It took great effort of a superpower
artificial satellite was launched forty to accomplish missions to the Moon,
seven years ago. Add three years that while a mission to Mars still remains
were needed to design the rocket and to be technically and economically
you will get fifty years, upon expira insoluble problem. A flight to other
tion of which this construction starts planetary systems by using reactive
the next (as it is difficult to call it thrusters, be it nuclear or electrojet,
“new”) epoch in modern astronautics. seems to be as unreal as a journey to
It is fairly hard to imagine that the Moon by means of a cannon.
Wright’s airplane could have been in
operation until the 1960s.
New physical
Descent modules with American mars principles
rovers and the European “Beagle2”
module used large air bags for softland It is not very often that fully studied
ing on the surface of Mars. This meth phenomena are technically imple

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 89

mented. The initial stage of the development of flown around as a single object; that is why it may
aviation was completed before aerodynamics ap break the sonic barrier relatively easy. The speed of
peared as a field of science. At that time, copying a sound in air is limited by the “М” value (the speed of
natural object, a bird wing, was the main direction sound). At the same time it exceeds the “M” value
of research. By the way, the principle of reactive inside a flying supersonic aircraft relative to a
propulsion is also used by living organisms, in par motionless observer. A material object may exceed the
ticular by the octopus. It seems that there are no speed of light when traveling inside a physical vacuum
more natural analogs left to copy new principles of lens, flown over by the external environment. One of
creating a thrust. But it is so only at first glance. the most interesting byeffects accompanying the
Mankind has long since been aware of permanent flight will be full invisibility of a spacecraft if it is
magnets that effectively interact with each other. moving towards the observer or from him and blurring
What we need to do is to make them interact with of contours at other angles of view.
the physical vacuum. In order to accomplish this
task we need to disturb the physical vacuum by
means of a magnetic buildup at resonant frequen Practice is the criteria of truth
cies. It is possible that this very principle is used in
the Roshin — Godin’s generator. At present moment it is to be wished that experi
ments with the RoshinGodin generator are resumed
It is strange that the scientific world left this ex and some alterations are made in its construction.
periment unnoticed. If weightlessness of the in
stallation amounting to 120 kg is a traction effort, First, the axis of rotation should be placed horizon
the installation could be used right now as a me tally in order to find out whether a change in mass is
diumthrust engine for space flights along inter caused by the creation of thrust or whether the mass
planetary trajectories since 120 kg of thrust is changes independently. This means that depending
much more than electrojet engines can provide. on the direction of rotation the installation may
The installation, what is more, is partially or en create an accelerated stream of physical vacuum; it
tirely used as a power source. Moreover, it does may also thicken or reduce the physical vacuum. In
not use any working medium for creating thrust. the latter case the change in density of the physical
The use of principle of creation of both thrust and vacuum would decrease or increase the influence of
energy inside a single installation, which have al the Earth’s gravity field (as it might represent the
ready been realized in liquidfuel rocket engines, physical vacuum density gradient) on the weight of
is to be wished. the installation.

If we proceed from the idea that the physical vacu Second, magnetic inlays on the rotor’s rolls and on
um resists to objects moving with acceleration, thus the stator should be removed and replaced by driv
causing relativistic effects, we need to built a space ing electric motors installed on axes of all rolls.
craft surrounded by a lens consisting of a physical Though the effect of selfacceleration will disap
vacuum separating the inner physical vacuum pear, we shall be able to find a precise resonant ratio
(inside the spacecraft) from the external one for ac of rotation speed of the rolls to the speed of rota
complishing space flights for interplanetary tion of the rotor as a whole. And only after this mag
distances. The alternative is to break the structure netic inlays must be installed with optimal spacing.
of the physical vacuum before a flying spacecraft. In
both cases the physical vacuum inside the spacecraft Third, the role played by coverings of magnetic el
will remain motionless, which will cause zero gravity. ements made of copper should be found out. In or
At the same time, a small and accelerated stream of der to perform this task, a number of experiments
the physical vacuum could be let pass through the should be carried out without any coverings.
spacecraft in order to create the Earth gravity. It will
allow us to maneuver and to accelerate without Finally, the creation of multirow installations is
exposing the crew to gravity loads. The flow of also possible. It is reasonable that it will take great
external physical vacuum around the spacecraft will expenses. But they cannot be compared with multi
allow increasing the flight speed without any limits. billion sums of money spent on carrying out
Let us draw an analogy from aviation: during the manned space missions to Mars and to the Moon
flight of a biplane air moves between its wings, thus that the USA, the EU and China are planning to
increasing the biplane’s resistance with the speed realize in parallel. It is worth mentioning that these
increase. A monoplane with arrowtype wings is missions are mainly politically biased.

90 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

An Energy Converter
The author of the device: BEREKELEA A.N.,
(equaling the number of functional blocks).
tel. +373 94 59826
Capital, operational and consumption
outlays per 1 kW of the set power are
minimal, due to the absence of thermo
technical equipment and of traditional
A converter thermodynamic process mechanisms. As
a result, the payback period of a convert
of the magnetic field er with a wattage of 300 kW, according
energy into the electric to our preliminary estimations, will
amount to 4 to 6 months. This means that
energy the generation of almost free energy
would be possible in less than a year.
Our research team has practically fin
ished the work on creating a unique tech According to our estimations, construc
nology that will enable mankind to get tion of our devices leads to a reduction
mechanical energy, which is the cheap in the payback period due to the watt
est today and which, as it seems, will re age increase. We don’t see any technical
main the cheapest in the near future. limitations in the production of cold gen
erating energy converters of practically
This technology is based on a whole ar unlimited power (right up to the reach
ray of principles and methods of convert ing of APP power unit wattage).
ing external energy into mechanical en
ergy, which implies that other types of The prime cost of 1 kW of energy, includ
energy can be generated as well — includ ing the electric energy, generated accord
ing electrical, chemical, heat energy etc. ing to this technology, is a hundred times
lower than the prime cost of the energy
Members of our research team have got generated by hydro, atomic and heat
about 150 patents in the fields of research power plants.
relating to those described in the article.
This technology makes possible the pro
In the theoretical part of the work, a log duction of domestic, industrial or elec
ical basis has been laid and the main tric power installations used for the gen
principles of generating mechanical, eration of AC/DC current of the neces
electric and other types of energy have sary voltage and wattage.
been worked out. Technical solutions
based on these principles are ready to Because the proposed technology does
be patented. not imply the use of either nuclear or fos
sil fuel in the working cycle and does not
In the practical part of the work, one of generate any excessive noise, it is envi
the main principles formulated is realized ronmentally safe.
in an operating device. The device is a
cold generating energy converter. This It is technically possible to produce devices
device is a prototype (hereafter referred of any power, built according to this tech
to as “the converter”) with a wattage of nology, and to use them in any region of the
5 kW and a weight of less than 25 kg. It Earth, which will allow building powercon
comprises three interconnected func suming facilities without the need to have
tional blocks. The converter uses two or power stations or highvoltage power lines
three external energy sources, including in the vicinity. The technology will also al
the energy of the gravity field. The giv low make it possible to abandon the need
en wattage of the converter is selected to use expensive means of energy transfor
for the sake of performing research tasks mation and its delivery to the destination
and for the development of principles of point, thus reducing enormous expenses.
high wattage installation construction.
Power equipment created on the basis of The converter can be functionally used,
this prototype is quite manufacturable, not only as a power unit. After the in
failsafe and stable in operation, having stallation of additional devices, it can
small dimensions and comprising a min successfully act as a propelling unit on
imal number of components — three ships, locomotives, automobiles etc.

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 91

New Energy Technologies CD
All back issues of 2001–2003 • Irving Langmuir and the Atomic Hydrogen. Dr. Nicholas
We would like to suggest you to have a look at Moller, Greece
• Hydrogen Energy. Studennikov V.V., Kudymov G.I, Russia
the list of articles that were published in our • On Strange Effects Related to Rotating Magnetic Systems.
magazine during past two years. You may order M. Pitkanen, Finland
• Experiments with Transdimensional Lifters. JeanLouis Nau
a CD, containing PDF-files of all these issues din, France
• On the Great Constant 137.036. Dr. Anatoly Rykov, Russia
(covers included and are in JPEG format). • Inertia Propulsion Drives. Boris D. Shukalov, Russia
• The Technical Design of the “Silver Cup” Antigravitational
Spacecraft, Eugeny Kovalyov, Latvia
• Gravityinertial Mass. J.A. Asanbaeva, Republic Bashkiria
2001, №1 (1) • Propulsion due to the Relativity Effect of the Inertia Force.
• An Experimental Investigation of the Physical Effects In a Takuya Ishizaka, Japan
Dynamic Magnetic System. V.V. Roschin and S.M. Godin • Physical Properties of Axion Fields. Influence of an Axion
• Torsion Technologies Are XXI Age Technologies. Acad. Ana Field on the Hardness of the Pearlitic Cast Iron. Alexander
toly E. Akimov Shpilman, Kazakhstan.
• On New Energy and Political Authority, Alexander V. Frolov • On the Significance of the Conical Shape of the Rotor of Clem’s
• Calculation on the Effect of ManyCavity Structures by Prof. Generator. Alexander V. Frolov, Russia
Valery F. Zolotariov • On History of the Cold Nuclear Fusion in Russia in 1960s.
• QuasiSuperconductive Technology for Electric Power Trans Review, Alexander V. Frolov, Russia
mission. Prof. Dmitry S. Strebkov
• Water is the Basis of the Future Energetics. Prof. Phillip 2002, №1 (4)
M. Kanarev • On the Possibilities of Vortex Energy. News About Experi
• Overunity Patent of 1877 by Pavel Yablotchkov ments by Acad. Gritskevitch O.V. and Lisniak S.A., Vladivos
• The Fundamentals of the New Principles of Motion, P. Sherbak tok, Russia.
• A Design of an Engine For FreeSpace Flights Based On the • Tesla, “Time Control” and other aspects of Tesla’s research,
Pondemotor Effect. Acad. Gennady F. Ignatyev. Prof. Velimir Abramovich, Rotterdam.
• Experimental Gravitonics. Spartak M. Poliakov and Oleg • Future Energy Technologies, Dr. Thomas Valone, Washing
S. Poliakov ton, USA.
• The Physical System of Artificial Biofield. Dr. Alexander • On the Question of Work Performed by an Electrostatic Field,
M. Mishin Alexander V. Frolov
• Experiments on Change of the Direction and the Rate of Time. • On General Nature of Forces and New Methods of producing
Dr. Vadim A. Chernobrov propulsion force by Dr. Eugene Sorocodum, Moscow, Russia.
• On Some Properties of Physical Time and Space. Prof. Dr. • The Antigravitational Wing, Ponomarev D.V. and Shibeko
Albert I.Veinik R.V., KomsomolskonAmur, Russia.
• Causal Mechanics. A review about a research by Prof. Nick • The Radiotelescope in Pulkovo Receives Signals Coming
olay A. Kozyrev From the Center of the Universe, Dr. Alexandra A. Shpital
• Spin (axion) Field Generator, Alexander Shpilman naya and Dr. Alexander M. Mishin, St.Petersburg, Russia.
• On the Eve of the Sixth Revolution in Physics, Dr. Atsukovsky • The Inertialess Motion and Antigravity Are No More Secrets,
Dr. Anatoly Rykov, Moscow, Russia.
2001, №2 (2) • Inductive Conversion of Heat Energy to Electrical Energy,
• KozyrevDirac MagnetMonopole Emanation. Dr. Ivan Experiments With Magnetic Materials Aimed At Getting Free
M. Shakhparonov. Electric Energy From Magnetic Materials by Nikolay E. Zaev,
• The HydroMagnetic Dynamo by Acad. Oleg Gritskevitch Moscow, Russia.
• Testing of a Small Prototype to Investigate the Searl’s Effect, • Tetraspace Coordinates, Josef Hasslberger, Rome, Italy.
S. M. Godin and V.V. Roshin • To the Question of Multipolarity, Alexander V. Frolov,
• Theoretical Basis of the Searl’s Effect, by Dr. Rykov St.Petersburg, Russia.
• Hydrogen  helium Energy on the Base of Laminated Silicates • Ball Lightning: a Description and Proposals On Experiments,
and Tectosilicates, Dr. Oleg M. Kalinin, Dr. Harmut Mueller, Ivan Tshinarev, Tver, Russia
Surina K.S. • The Problem of Electron and Physical Properties of Time
• A New Concept of Physical World, Dr. Nikolaev. Regarding Electronic Technologies of the 21st Century, Prof.
• The Main Principle of Etherodynamics, Dr. Mishin Oleinik, Ukraine
• New Experimental Data from Dr. Mishin on the Ether and Anti • Parametrical Generation of Alternating currents by
gravity Effects. The Discovery of The Center of The Universe. N.D.Papaleksi, Alexander V.Frolov.
• Research on the Capacitance Converter, transforming the • Gerlovin’s Theory of Activation, a review of some experiments on
Environmental Heat into Electricity, N.E.Zaev. the “structure activation” of matter, Alexander V. Frolov, Russia
• Longitudinal Waves in Vacuum: Formation and Research. Dr.
Kirill P. Butusov. 2002, №2 (5)
• Work, Alexander V. Frolov • MEG Overunity Electromagnetic Transformer by T.E.Bearden
• Reactionless Propulsion and Active Force, Alexander and my Fmachine, Alexander V. Frolov
V. Frolov • Fuelless Energy, N.E.Zaev.
• Rythmodynamics of Amplitudeless fields, Dr. Yury N. Ivanov • Symmetrization of MaxwellLorentz Equations. Experimen
• The DNA molecule and Fourdimensional Holography, Alex tal Methods Of Generating Longitudinal Waves in a Vacuum,
ander V. Frolov Dr. Kirill P. Butusov
• Gravity and Aether, I.Hayrullin. • Vortex Heat Generators, Dr. Eugene Sorokodum.
• Experimental Investigations Based on the Model of Electro
2001, №3 (3) magnetic Solitary Waves (solitons), Mikhail V. Smelov
• Time is a Mystery of the Universe, Dr. Lavrenty S. Shikhoba • N.Kozyrev’s Ideas Today, Dr. Shikhobalov.
lov, St.Petersburg, Russia • Kozyrev on the Possibility of Decreasing the Mass and Weight
• Experiments With a Manned Time Machine. Dr. Vadim Cher of a Body Under the Influence of Active Properties of Time, A
nobrov, Moscow, Russia review of experiments.
• Time is a Physical Substance, Dr. Kirill P. Butusov, St.Petersburg, • Longitudinal Thermomangetic Effect, Dr. Alexander M. Mishin.
Russia • An Introduction to Gravity, Lew Price and Mart Gibson.
• Experimenting With Time, Prof. Velimir Abramovich, “Time • A Physical Model of Experiments Carried Out by E. Podklet
Institute”, Rotterdam, Holland nov, V. Roshin and S.Godin, Anatoly Rykov
• Practical Application of the Time Rate Control (TRC) Theo • Scalar Wars, T.E.Bearden
ry. Alexander V. Frolov, Russia • The Problem of Electron and Superluminal Signals

92 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

• Gravitational Electrolysis • Shauberger’s Engine? by Eugene Arsentyev
• The De Aquino ELF Gravitational Shield, Tim Ventura
2002, №3 (6) • Ferrites and Generation Of Free Energy by Means of Ferro
• LargeScale Sakharov Condition, David Noever and Chris magnetics, Nikolay E. Zaev
topher Bremner • Key Concepts for the Conversion and Control of Gravitational
• Matter As a Resonance Longitudinal Wave Process, Alexan Energy, Glenn M. Roberts
der V. Frolov • Analysis of the Additional Energy Formation Processes in
• The Physical Principles of The Time Machine, Alexander V. Vortices and Vortex Heat Generators, Dr. Alexey M.
Frolov Savchenko
• The Time Machine Project by Alexander V. Frolov • Kuldoshin’s Transformer, Review
• KozyrevDirak Radiation, Ivan M. Shakhparonov • Disappearance of Inertia Force Mechanical Resonances and
• ElectricalVortex NonSolenoidal Fields, S. Alemanov Free Energy Work, Arkady P. Kuligin
• Physical Mechanism of LowEnergy Nuclear Reactions, • The FMachine, Vyacheslav I. Boryak
V.Oleinik, Yu. Arepjev • The LUTEC Magnet MotorGenerator
• The Evolution of the Lifter Technology, T. Ventura • Prof. Korotkov
• Reality and Consciousness in Education and Activity, • Books
A.Smirnov • How to Build Electrical SolidState OverUnity Devices,
• Old New Energy, Y. Andreev, A. Smirnov William Alek
• On the Influence of Time on Matter, A. Belyaeva • The “Time” Seminar Held in Moscow State University
• Life Without Diseases and AgeingPreventive Features of an • A Vortex DC Motor
Electrical BioHeater, A. Belyaeva • News
• A Technical Report on Belyaeva’s HighEfficiency Ceramic • Valerian Sobolev’s Discovery. Review
Heater, Sh. Mavlyandekov • Letters from Readers
• Fundamental Properties of the Aether, A. Mishin • Review on the Tilley Electric Car Recharger Promotion, Eu
• The Influence of the Magnetic BlowWave Field on Wine gene F. Mallove
Systems, I. Shakhparanov and others
• Nikola Tesla and Instantaneous Electric Communication, V. 2002, №6 (9)
Korobeynikov • Some Experimental News, A.V. Frolov
• A Unified Theory of Gravity, I. Kuldoshin • On the Possibility of Controlling the Course of Time, V.P.
• New Sources of Energy from the Point of View of the Unitary Oleinik, Yu.C. Borimsky, Yu.D. Arepjev
Quantum Theory, L.G. Sapogin, Yu.A. Ryabov, V.V. Grabosh • Spontaneous Polarization of some Glasses and Direct Current
nikov as an Inexhaustible Energy Source, L.G. Sapogin, Yu.A. Ry
• Antigravity Force and the Antigravity of Matter. Methods of abov
Its Generation, A. K. Gaponov • New Fuelless Space Power Engineering, V.D. Dudyshev
• A Capacitor, Which Possesses Energy of an Atomic Bomb • Electrodynamic Explanation of Ball Lightning, S.B. Alemanov
(Review of Gaponov’s research) • The Nature of Torsion Fields, V.V. Uvarov
• Matter, Space and Time in the Conception of Aether Field,
2002, №4 (7) A.M. Mishin
• Gravitonics is the Electronics of the XXI Century, Spartak • Patent Experts Now are Between a Rock and a Hard Place, V.
M. Poliakov, Oleg S. Poliakov Sharov
• Experimental Research on a Gravity Propulsion System. Re • Reidar Finsrud’s Perpetual Mobile in Norway, John Pasley
view • Physical Quantum Vacuum is a Source of Electromagnetic
• The Beamship Technology: Reconsidering the Discoveries of Energy, P.M. Shalyapin
the beginning of the 20th, Russell Anderson • What is An Instantaneous Electrical Communication, V.I.
• Commercial Antigravity, Tim Ventura Korobeynikov
• Action Without Reaction. A New Gravidynamic Paradox, Yuri • Investigation of a SingleWire Electric Power System, D.S.
N. Ivanov Strebkov, S.V. Avramenko, A.I. Nekrasov, O. A. Roschin
• New Possibilities of Vortex Electrical Devices, Stanislav A. • Fuelless Monothermic Engine (Invention by Y. Volodko)
Lisnyak • On Viktor S. Grebennikov’s Discoveries. Review
• An Investigation of Electric Energy Transmission Processes • Experimental Study of Properties of Time. Review
in nonMetallic Conducting Channels, D.S. Strebkov, A.I. • Bedini Generator, David Mason
Nekrasov, S.V. Avraamenko • Article Update for An Introduction to Gravity, Lew P. Price
• Microcosm – Universe  Life, Alexey G. Shlienov, Ernest L. • The CIP Engine Principle, Robert L. Cook
Petrov • The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman, Michael William
• Hypothesis of a Theory of Everything, Jack P. Gibson son
• The Charge and Mass of a Photon, Dzabrail Kh. Baziev • What is the RQM Technology? Review
• The Homopolar Motor: A True Relativistic Engine, Jorge • Experimental Data on Time Control by Acad. A.I. Veinik
GualaValverde, Pedro Mazzoni, Ricardo Achilles • The Space Power Generator by P. Tewari. Review
• Weight Reductions Caused by BuckingField Permanent
Magnets, William C. Simpson 2003, №1 (10)
• Advanced Nuclear Waste Decontamination Technologies, • Testatika. A Review of a WellKnown Electrostatic System.
Mark Porringa • Cold Fusion by Plasma Electrolysis of Water. Ph.M. Kanarev,
• Experimental Investigations of the Change in the Radioac T. Mizuno
tive Isotope HalfValue Period in the Local Volume of Cause • What A Cold Fusion Is and What Does It Mean to Science
Effect Relations, Igor A. Melnik and Society? E. Storms
• Tilley Electric Vehicle • Technical Introduction to LENRCANR (Low Energy Nucle
• The Problem of Time: Force as the Cause of Change in the ar Reactions). E. Storms
Course of Time, Valentin P. Oleinik • It all Started in 1989… (History of Cold Fusion Development).
• Time and its Physical Relationships, Andrew Michrowski P. Hagelstein
• Time as a Phenomenon of the Expanding Universe, Michael • A Science Tutorial (Cold fusion). T. Chubb
H. Shulman • LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions) Experiments.
• Experiments on ThermoGravitation. Review • On Electrogravitation. A.V. Lemeshko
• A Letter to the Editor from Hector D. Perez Torrez • Avalanchedrive Propulsion Device. M.L. Filho
• HydrogenPowered Vehicles. P. Behr, G. Schneider
2002, №5 (8) • Unusual Permanent Magnet Motors. T. Valone
• Frolov’s Asymmetrical Capacitors • Hydrogen Energetics. A. Pashova
• The Electrokinetic Apparatus by T.T.Brown • On the Longitudinal Electromagnetic Waves. A.V. Frolov
• A Patent by T.T.Brown • Space and Terrestrial Transportation and Energy Technolo
• Nikola Tesla’s Later Energy Generator Designs, Oliver Nichelson gies. T.C. Loder
• HighEfficiency Electrolysis, Alexander V. Frolov • Commercialising the “Searl Effect”.
• New Results of Development and Testing of a SingleWire • Interesting Publications of the Last Year.
Electric Power System, Prof. Dmitry S. Strebkov, Eng. Stan • “Lifter” Project
islav V. Avramenko, Dr. Aleksey I. Nekrasov, Eng. Oleg A. • New Electric Fire Technology. V.D. Dudyshev
Roschin • New Effect of “Cold” Evaporation. V.D. Dudyshev

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 93

• Conceptual Hurdles to New Millennium Physics. D. Reed 2003, №4 (13)
• Resonant Phenomena Occurring in Alternating Current Cir • SingleWire And Wireless Electric Power Transmission. N.V.
cuit. A.V. Frolov Kosinov and others (Ukraine)
• Books Review • The possibility of almost complete transformation of thermal
energy into mechanical one. S.N. Doonaevsky (Russia)
2003, №2 (11) • Inventor Club. Review. Vector Propulsion Engine (Electro
• Minato Wheel. E. Vogels (Sweden) magnetic Version). A. S. Tukanov (Russia)
• Mechanism of DriveFree motion. S.A. Gerasimov (Russia) • Inertial Dynamic Generator. S.N. Schmidt (Russia)
• Production of Ball Lightning in Laboratory Environment. • Latent Potential Energy of Electrical Field. V.D. Dudyshev
Report by A. Pashova (Russia) (Russia)
• Electric Discharge Produced into Air HalfSpace. G.D. Shab • News
anov, O.M. Zherebtsov (Russia) • Energy from Air. M.P. Beshok (Russia)
• Free Energy. A.V. Frolov (Russia) • A Parade of Gravitational Aircrafts. V.A. Chernobrov (Russia)
• Some General Properties of Matter and Energy Sources. E.D. • Energy from vacuum. Review
Sorokodum (Russia) • Meeting of Nobel Prize Laureates in Saint Petersburg
• Commercial Exploration of Space. Review by O. Leontyeva • Perpetual Motor With Magnetic Control Elements. Review
(Russia). • Who Needs A Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion? I.B. Kalugin
• Prospects of Hydrogen Energetics. Ph.M. Kanarev (Russia) (Russia)
• Heater Producing Healthy Effect. A.L. Belyaeva and others • Fuel cells. Edwin Cartlidge (USA)
(Kirghizia) • Free Energy. Thomas F. Valone (USA)
• Inertial Propulsion Device. V.E. Senkevich (Russia) • Secrets of Nicola Tesla’s Experiments. S.S. Makukhin (Russia)
• Unlimited Accelerated Nonreactive Motion. Review. • Alternative Cold. Review
• Revolutionary Current. S.K. Baliyan (India) • HighEfficiency Technology of Magnetic Cooling. E.N. Tishi
• Tilley Electric Vehicle. Review. na (Russia)
• Trends in the Application of MotorGenerators. A. Akau • News
(USA) • Interference Disc Electric Generator. Alan L. Francoeur (an
• Electric Vehicle in Russia. Review by A. Pashova (Russia) announcement of the future article) (Canada)
• The Richard Clem Motor and the Conical Pump. R. Koontz (USA) • Howard Johnson and his Motor. Review
• Spontaneous Flow Heat Pump. J.L. Brochet (France) • Bogomolov’s Centrifugal Generator. V.I. Bogomolov (Russia)
• Registration of Gravitational Waves. V.N. Petrov (Russia) • News
• HighEnergy HyperLowFrequency Electric Field. Yu.V. • Magnetic Motor. A.V. Vydrin (Russia)
Ivanko (Ukraine) • “Omega” Anomalous Hydrogen Reactor
• To the Question of Work Performed by the Electrostatic Field. • Gravitational Shielding. Harald Chmela (Austria)
A.V. Frolov (Russia) • The Concept of Magnetic Gas
• Comments on News on ElectroReactive LIFTER News.
• Letters from Readers 2003, №56 (1415)
• Advertisements (books) • News From Our Company
• Novozhilov’s Motor, Y. Novozhilov, Russia
2003, №3 (12) • SelfAction in the case of Magnetic Rotation, S. Gerasimov
• Work on the Designing of a Time Machines. Vadim A. Cher and others, Russia
nobrov (Russia) • Capillary Motor, I. Elshansky, Russia
• Control of Temporal Parameters of Physical Processes. Alex • GravityHeat Energy System, V. Sukhanov, Russia
ander V. Frolov (Russia) • Modern Perpetual Mobile, Review
• Etherodynamics as a New Field of Physics. Vladimir A. Atsu • Free Energy and Antigravitation, (Spin Wave Lasers), Ines
kovsky (Russia) Espinosa, USA
• Electromagnetic Gravitational Interaction Vadim Ya. Kosyev • Mechanical Analogies, Y. Ivanko, Ukraina
(Russia) • Cell of FinePlasma Electrolyse, Ph. Kanarev, Russia
• Medium For Existing of Matter in Nature. Anatoly V. Rykov • Smith’s Generator, Review.
(Russia) • Strategy of Overunity Devices Marketing, R. Wood, USA
• Adams Motor. Sergey S. Abramov (Russia) • Hutchison Effect, Mark Solis, USA
• Field Transformation in the Model of Extended Space. Dmit • Heat Energy Conversion by Means of NonLinear Dielectric,
ry Yu. Tsipenyuk (Russia) A Ries and others, Brasil
• Joe Flynn’s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology. Tim Harwood • Gates’ Motor, A. Akau, USA
(USA) • “Cold Electricity”, A.Akau, USA
• Flynn Laboratory Photos • Gravity Conversion Rotary Device
• Fluxmachine and Its Analogues. Review • Torsion Technologies, China
• Russian Patents on Alternative Energetics. • News
• Gravitational Spaceships. Gregory R. Uspensky (Russia) • Antigravitation, B.Smith, USA
• On Velocity Of DriveFree Motion. S.A. Gerasimov , V.V. • Electric Levitation, MacLeod, Canada
Stashenko (Russia) • Perpetual Mobile, V. Likhatchev, Russia
• Electromagnetic SelfAction. S.A. Gerasimov, A.V. Volos (Russia) • Interference Generator, A.Francouer, Canada
• Uranium Photoaccumulator. Anton I. Yegorov (Russia) • A New Paradigm of Time, D. Reed, USA
• Global Energy Prize (reportage) • On the Rotating Permanent Magnet System, A.Frolov, Russia
• Teleportation. Alla V. Pashova (Russia) • Inventor’s Week, USA
• “Mass Defect” in Home Conditions. Prokofy V. Sherbak (Rus • Patents on Inertial Propulsion Systems
sia) • Bogomolov’s Experiment With Spring Drive, Russia
• Aether as Unified Field. Alexander M. Mishin (Russia) • History of Perpetual Mobile
• Global Energy. Philip M. Kanarev (Russia) • Tesla Energy Science Conference, USA
• Fusion Processes Of Molecules Of Oxygen, Hydrogen And • Perendev’s Company, Review
Water. Philip M. Kanarev (Russia) • Internet Pages About Free Energy
• Plasma Energy Power Generation. Bruce A. Perreault (USA) • Matveev’s Electrical Generator, Russia
• News • Perpetuum Motor With Magnets, France
• The Marcus Device Controversy. Tim Ventura (USA) • The most interesting of 2003
• Systems of conversion of thermal energy to mechanical one. • Hydrogen Power Engineering, Review
Review • News on Hydrogen Fuel Cells
• I. Prigozin • Electric Discharge as Part of the OverUnity Device, Review
• Letters • Subscription page

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94 New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004

What Ever Happened To Black Light Power?
By Patrick BAILEY, President INE
imminent issuance of the “294 application. By Declara
tion filed in the district court, Group Director Kepplin
New Energy News ger stated that upon reading the patent her “main con
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 11 cern was the proposition that the applicant was claiming
November 2003 the electron going to a lower orbital in a fashion that I knew was contrary to the known laws of physics and
chemistry”. Director Kepplinger believed that the “935
Power from light invisible to human eyes: Black Light patent and the “294 application were directed to similar
Power. It was the talk of the town two years ago. It seemed subject matter, and contacted Robert Spar, Director of
to work: more energy came out (seemed to come out) than the Special Program Law Office in the Office of the Dep
went in — so it looked like a promising new form of po uty Assistant Commissioner for Patents. Director Spar
tential energy conversion! They obtained a US Patent! stated by Declaration that Director Kepplinger expressed
They filed for another! Life was great! And then — and concern that the “294 application “possibly had serious
then — well… — the best explanation that I have heard is and substantial patentability problems and asked me to
that the theory people did their measurements, and came withdraw it from issue for further review”.
up with why the energy was being released from a new
potential energy source. It was coming from collapsed On February 15, 2000 a Notice was issued to BlackLight,
states of the hydrogen atom. The good news: it seemed to stating that the “294 application “is being withdrawn from
be validated by experiment, measurements, and some solid issue pursuant to 37 C.F.R. 1.313... to permit reopening
nuclear theories. The bad news: it violated the current of prosecution... [as] requested by the Director, Special
books on QM, by saying that the current ground state of Program Law Office”. It is undisputed that no one in
hydrogen is not really the lowest energy state of hydro volved in the withdrawal had reviewed the “294 patent
gen. So – whenever science has come up with proof that application before issuance of the Notice; at the argument
the current accepted theories are wrong — what happens? of this appeal the PTO Solicitor stated that the applica
Yep! The scientists are publicly labeled as charlatans — tion was not available for review because the file was in
the new US Patent applications were denied, and the old Pennsylvania for printing of the patent document.
US Patent was withdrawn.
BlackLight’s attorneys made prompt inquiries about the
Why? To protect the quality of your life? No. To protect withdrawal. The PTO treated the inquiries as a petition
or advance science? No. To protect the reputation of the to the Commissioner requesting reversal of the withdraw
existing scientists — and — the value of all of those un al. On March 22, 2000 the petition was denied by deci
sold published books? Of course! It has always happened sion of Assistant Deputy Commissioner Kunin. The de
this way… Meanwhile, this new science is probably being cision stated that “[t]he PTO has an obligation to issue
secretly researched in other countries. Gee, I wonder patents that meet the statutory requirements for patent
where? ability”, and concluded that Director Kepplinger did not
act improperly in obtaining withdrawal of the “294 ap
BlackLight Power Inc. conducts research into new sourc plication for further examination. The decision referred
es of energy. BlackLight is the owner of United States to Director Kepplinger”s concern about the correctness
Patent Application No. 09/009,294 entitled “Hydride of the scientific theory set forth in the issued “935 patent,
Compounds.” As described in BlackLight’s brief, the in described in the decision as “the discovery that energy
ventions claimed in this and several related patent appli was released by stimulating hydrogen atoms to relax, and,
cations and an issued patent are directed to new energy in so doing, to shrink to smaller radii, and to also attain
technology derived from hydrogen compounds, and new energy levels below their “ground state” according to a
compositions including conductive magnetic plastics and “novel atomic model”” and Director Kepplinger’s belief
corrosionresistant highstrength coatings. that the “294 application was based on the same theory.
The decision stated that Commissioner Kunin”s inspec
During examination of the “294 application, the examin tion of the “294 application “reveals that this invention is
er initially rejected the claims on various grounds includ asserted [sic] to matters containing fractional quantum
ing operability under 35 U.S.C. §101 and enablement and numbers. Such fractional quantum numbers do not con
definiteness under §112. After further prosecution includ form to the known laws of physics and chemistry”. The
ing discussions of experimental results and the submis decision did not further discuss patentability, but stated
sion of samples, the examiner withdrew the rejection and that the application would be returned to examination.
allowed the claims. A Notice of Allowance was issued on
October 18, 1999, the issue fee was paid, and issuance was Meanwhile, on March 1, 2000 BlackLight filed suit
noticed for February 29, 2000. against the PTO Commissioner (now denominated “Di
rector”) in the United States District Court for the Dis
Another BlackLight patent application, entitled “Low trict of Columbia, charging that the withdrawal was con
erEnergy Hydrogen Methods and Structures”, issued as trary to law and in violation of the Administrative Pro
United States Patent No. 6,024,935 on February 15, 2000. cedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §701 et seq. BlackLight argued that
Shortly thereafter, prompted by an outside inquiry, the 35 U.S.C. §151 compels issuance when the issue fee has
Director of the Group that had examined these applica been paid
tions was made aware of both the “935 patent and the

New Energy Technologies, Issue #1 (16) January – March 2004 95

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