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Chapter 7 THE IRON-CARBON EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM Alloys of the iron-carbon system include steel and cast iron, which are of the most vital importance to modern industry due to theit extensive, versatile applications. Alloys with a carbon content up to 2.0 per cent are called steels; hose with 2 carbon content exceeding 2.0 per cent are called cast irons.* Earliest research on the iron-carbon equilibrium diagram was carried out by the great Russian scientist D. K. Chemov.** He first Showed, in 186, that when see! heated (or cooled) tanslortalions associated with steucturat changes, occur at definite temperatures (Gepending on the composition of ‘the steel). Chernov called these temperatures “peculiar points” (critical points) and designated them with the letters a and 6. AL the present time Chernov's points a and b are designated as Ay and Ay, respectively. Chernov's discovery of critical points in steel has served a8 a basis for the development of the science of metals, The works of Academicians A.A. Baikov, I. V. Gutovsky, and N. P. Chizhevsky, 25 well as A. A. Reheshotarsky were a great con- tribution to the study of the tron-carbon system. ‘The investigations of such famous foreign scientists as H. C. Sor- by, F. Osmond, W. Roberts-Austen, and P. Goerens helped to con- struct’ the iron‘carbor: equilibrium ‘diagram as we know it today. Tl. tron The melting point of iron is 1,539°C. There are two allotropte forms of iron: a- and y-iron. Curves showing the variation in free energy with the temperature fora- and y-iron are given in Fig. [04. The a-iron free-energy curve This cassitication of stot and cast icon, though accepted, Ia not exact ace Inere fe log sees containing mare than 2.0 per cmt C and alloyed cast irone onfainog leis than 20 geen. ee Dk Chernor, =A Grits! Review of the Articles by Meas Lavrov and Kalakoteky on Stee! and Slr! Gun Burels and Ressaren Made by the Author on the Seine Subject", Teanactons of the Ruslan Eaginering Society, 168, 136 Toe tren Carbon Equilisrlum Diagram ‘hes 4 gradually changing inclination. That of the ylron curve in ge Wa ‘10°C and intereects the a-lron ‘curve Therefore, a-iron exists at temperatures up to 910°C and in the {interval from 1,400* to 1,599° C; y-iron is stable at temperatures from 910° to 1,400°C. In the interval from 1,401° to 1,838° C, a-fron cften called -iron. y = £400" i as" 7 ae Wm OM (a0 Temperature, °C Fi. 14, Feeney ve fpertire cv fr a on The cooling curve for pure iron is illustrated in Fig. 105, The lntleg of ats I of the bod ‘cubic type with a lattice constant of 2.86 Ae Up to 768° Cy iran ferromagnetic. ‘The maximum solubility of carbon ina-iron ts 0.025 per cent (ai 723°), ‘at 20°C, the solubility Ty only 0.0025 per cent.* she Sid cht St corbin atom scaled ete nts 0 i seen se ins : ‘The mechanical properties af fare 08 per coal Qs char ecterised by the following values: 98 kgimm'; 0,—12 kgimmt; "BN 60 per cent, G=80 per cenk Gamma pep ae Iced cable, tal Itce with & constant of 3.63 A (ai 910°C). It fs very weak ie (oecamag- netic) The carbon solublity ef y-ion at 1 20 per “eerding to more exact dals which ave not been entered (a the diag: ‘the carbo olublity a1 20°C te about 10~* per cant. i, ‘The solid solution (interstitial type) of carbon in y-iron is called cath, i sae te ay Teties of ane atom tallest peo Ths carbon Is i the fre of loos hich HL ; | t ” BERS eEEE EERE ig. 108, The cooling curve for pure irom fonised twice (having given up two elections for common use) while ‘the iron atom hss been ionised but once (having given up one elec- The bare of austenite Is shown in in Big, 10s. b. The stru- clare of aslite wes tual obuerved by ya A ane addition to solid solutions (lerri austenite), iron and ‘4 chemleal com ive carbide Re ch has Scie aned conentte. Comertie hus a coebon content of 667 per cat