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Automotive Sensors
Abstract—An up-to-date review paper on automotive sensors is
presented. Attention is focused on sensors used in production automotive systems. The primary sensor technologies in use today are reviewed and are classified according to their three major areas ofautomotive systems application–powertrain, chassis, and body. This subject is extensive. As described in this paper, for use in automotive systems, there are six types of rotational motion sensors, four types of pressure sensors, five types of position sensors, and three types of temperature sensors. Additionally, two types of mass air flow sensors, five types of exhaust gas oxygen sensors, one type of engine knock sensor, four types of linear acceleration sensors, four types of angular-rate sensors, four types of occupant comfort/ convenience sensors, two types of near-distance obstacle detection sensors, four types of far-distance obstacle detection sensors, and and ten types of emerging, state-of the-art, sensors technologies are identified. Index Terms—Acceleration sensors, angular rate sensors, automotive body sensors, automotive chassis sensors, automotive powertrain sensors, obstacle detection sensors, position sensors, pressure sensors, review paper, rotational motion sensors, state-of-the-art sensors. INTRODUCTION SENSORS are essential components of automotive electronic control systems. Sensors are defined as [1] “devices that transform (or transduce) physical quantities such as pressure or acceleration (called measurands) into output signals (usually electrical) that serve as inputs for control systems.” It wasn’t that long ago that the primary automotive sensors were discrete devices used to measure oil pressure, fuel level, coolant temperature, etc. Starting in the late 1970s, microprocessor-based automotive engine control modules were phased in to satisfy federal emissions regulations. These systems required new sensors such as MAP (manifold absolute pressure), air temperature, and exhaust-gas stoichiometric air-fuel-ratio operating point sensors. The need for sensors is evolving and is progressively growing. For example, in engine control applications, the number of sensors used will increase from approximately ten in 1995, to more than thirty in 2010, as predicted in [2]. Automotive engineers are challenged by a multitude of stringent requirements. For example, automotive sensors typically must have combined/total error less than 3 % over their entire range of operating temperature and measurand change, including all measurement errors due to nonlinearity,
Manuscript received September 8, 2000; revised November 2, 2001. This work was supported by Tom Vos, Director, Systems Technology, Occupant Safety Systems, Washington, MI. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was Dr. Gerard L. Cote. W. J. Fleming is with Systems Technology, TRW Occupant Safety Systems, Washington, MI 48094 USA (e-mail: william.fleming@trw.com). Publisher Item Identifier S 1530-437X(01)11158-9.

hysteresis, temperature sensitivity and repeatability. Moreover, even though hundreds of thousands of the sensors may be manufactured, calibrations of each sensor must be interchangeable within 1 percent. Automotive environmental operating requirements are also very severe, with temperatures of 40 to 125 C (engine compartment), vibration sweeps up to 10 g for 30 h, drops onto concrete floor (to simulate assembly mishaps), electromagnetic interference and compatibility, and so on. When purchased in high volume for automotive use, cost is also always a major concern. Mature sensors (e.g., pressure types) are currently sold in large-quantities (greater than one million units annually) at a low cost of less than $3 (US) per sensor (exact cost is dependent on application constraints and sales volume), whereas more complex sensors (e.g., exhaust gas oxygen, true mass intake air flow and angular rate) are generally several times more costly. Automotive sensors must, therefore, satisfy a difficult balance between accuracy, robustness, manufacturability, interchangeability, and low cost. Important automotive sensor technology developments are micromachining and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS manufacturing of automotive sensors began in 1981 with pressure sensors for engine control, continued in the early 1990s with accelerometers to detect crash events for air bag safety systems and in recent years has further developed with angular-rate inertial sensors for vehicle-stability 1 chassis

> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < systems [3]. What makes MEMS important is that it utilizes the economy of batch processing, together with miniaturization and integration of on-chip electronic intelligence [5]. Simply stated, MEMS makes high-performance sensors available for automotive applications, at the same cost as the traditional types of limited-function sensors they replace. In other words, to provide performance equal to today’s MEMS sensors, but without the benefits of MEMS technology, sensors would have to be several times more expensive if they were still made by traditional electromechanical/discrete electronics approaches. II. OBJECTIVE MEMS-based automotive sensor technology was recently reviewed by Eddy and Sparks [5]. Frank’s 1997 publication [6] emphasized electronic circuits and sensor manufacture. Two classic references on automotive sensors include: Wolber’s 1978 publication [7] and Heintz and Zabler’s 1982 publication [8]. The objective of the present paper is to provide an up-to-date overview of current-production and emerging state-of the-art, automotive sensor technologies.
1Stability

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systems, also called active handling systems, automatically minimize oversteer/understeer vehicle dynamics, which can occur during cornering and/or hard vehicle braking or heavy acceleration on split- _ (split coefficient of friction) road surfaces [4]. 1530-437X/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE
FLEMING: OVERVIEW OF AUTOMOTIVE SENSORS 297

III. SENSOR CLASSIFICATION As shown in Fig. 1, the three major areas of systems application for automotive sensors are powertrain, chassis, and body. In the present systems-classification scheme, anything that isn’t powertrain or chassis is included as a body systems application. 2 Fig. 1 also identifies the main control functions of each area of application and the elements of the vehicle that are typically involved. The automotive industry has increasingly utilized sensors in recent years. The penetration of electronic systems and the associated need for sensors is summarized in Table I. Powertrain applications for sensors, shown in Table I, can be thought of as the “1stWave” of increased use of automotive sensors because they led the first widespread introduction of electronic sensors. Chassis applications for sensors are considered to be the “2nd Wave” of increased use of sensors, and body applications are called the “3rd Wave.” Automotive control functions and associated systems for powertrain, chassis and body areas of application are shown, respectively, in Figs. 2–4. These diagrams help to classify the various applications for automotive sensors. Tables II–IV provide additional detail on the types of sensors used in automotive applications. 3 In these Tables, if sensors are universally used in automotive applications, they are denoted as having a

“major” production status; if the sensors are used in just a few automotive models, but not universally used, they’re denoted as having “limited” production status, and some promising sensors which are getting close to production are denoted as having “R&D” status. TableIIshowsthatcertaintypesofsensorspredominateinpowertrain application, namely rotational motion sensors,4 pressure, and temperature. In North America, these three types of sensors rank, respectively,number one, two, and four in unit sales volume [9]. To illustrate the predominance of these sensors, there are a total of 40 different sensors listed in Table II, of which eight are pressure sensors, four are temperature sensors, and four are rotational motion sensors. Thus, 16 of 40 of the powertrain sensors in Table II belong to oneof these three types of sensors.Newtypes of recently introduced powertrain sensors, listed inTable II, include the cylinder pressure, pedal/accelerator rotary position, and oil quality sensors. Table III shows that certain types of sensors also predominate in chassis applications, namely rotational motion and pressure (these two types were also predominate in powertrain). But, instead of temperature, inertial acceleration and angular-rate sensors round out the four types of predominant sensors. To illustrate this predominance, there are a total of 27 different sensors listed, of which four are pressure sensors, three are rotational motion sensors, five are acceleration sensors and three are angular rate sensors. Thus, 15 of 27 of the chassis sensors in
2Body

applications include occupants’ safety, security, comfort and convenience functions. In the present classification, devices such as passive rf-transponder ID-tags/keys, are categorized as components of communications system, not sensors; and are therefore not be covered. Similarly, e-connected telematics devices (wireless cell phones, e-mail, internet connection, etc.) are likewise not covered. 3In this paper, type of sensor refers to the measurand of the sensor (i.e., the quantity measured by the sensor). 4Rotational sensors measure shaft rotational motion (i.e., speed), as contrasted to position sensors below that directly measure angular or linear displacements.

Fig. 1. Major areas of systems application for automotive sensors.

sensors used for instrumentation. therefore. a list of automotive sensor applications was independently developed and Frank similarly obtained a totaof just over 100 types of automotive sensors. These 107 sensors are thought to be representative of most of the major applications for sensors used in automobiles. focused on sensors used in automotive production systems (i. currently found in chassis systems applications. to infrared thermal imaging. new types . steering wheel angular position. Theapproach used in this reviewwill consist of rankinganddescribing sensor types. to ultrasonic near-obstacle sensors. include the ultrasonic-array reversing aid. chassis and body automotive systems applications. Once again.andso on. can be made utilizing any of several different kinds of technologies. Additionally. As contrasted to powertrain and chassis. applications of sensors will therefore be described after all sensor technologies are first covered. References for additional information on each type of automotive sensor and for each kind of technology will also be provided. a given type of sensor often 5It’s 3 noted that in Table I of Frank’s publication [6]. new types of sensors. and strut-displacement position sensors. In total. Hall effect. 27.e. This gives a total of 107 sensors (which still isn’t all inclusive).. CURRENT-PRODUCT SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES Table II through IV list 40. IV. Body sensors range from crash-sensing accelerometers. Attention is. Again. currently found in body systems applications.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < of sensors. include the yaw angular rate. for powertrain. pertaining to all automotive sensors. to millimeter-wave radar. Table IV shows that body sensors are very diverse and no specific types of sensors are dominant. rotational motion is a type of sensor which is Made using anyone of the followingtechnologies/operating principles: variable reluctance. according to sales volume and revenue.Becauseautomotiveapplicationsoftenarespecific todifferent sensor technologies. approximately in order. and 40 sensors. is beyond the scope and size constraints of this paper. and infrared-thermal imaging night-vision sensors. there are 40 body sensors listed in Table IV. or less significant applications. lateral lane-departure warning. to ambient-air electrochemical gas sensors. Table III are one of these four types of sensors. respectively. 6 For example. are omitted). magnetoresistance.5 Coverage of all details.

Powertrain systems. control functions and applications (Simplified diagram . 2.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 4 Fig.

4. control functions and applications (Simplified diagram). 3. . Body systems.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 5 Fig. Chassis systems. Fig. control functions and applications (Simplified diagram).

> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < TABLEIII :SENSOR USED IN CHASSIS APPILICATION 6 TABLEII SENSORS USED IN POWERTRAIN APPLICATIONS .

which makes them number one in the present categorization scheme. rotational motion sensors have the most unit sales and also the highest dollar sales (gross sales revenue). In North America.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 7 A. [9]. Rotational Motion Sensors Rotational motion sensors measure shaft rotational motion (they also detect reference points such as those created by the absence of one tone-wheel tooth). with unit sales of 89 million sensors [3]. In 1999. 1) Variable Reluctance: . they had slightly more than 20 percent of the gross sales revenue of all automotive sensors.

. signal conditioning. where geometric patterns of narrow. etc. slots. magnetic flux variations are generated similar to those for the variable reluctance sensor. thereby self-generating a voltage pulse. disadvantages include maximum operating temperature of about 175 C. rotation-direction sense. excellent rotational-measurement repeatability in the neighborhood of 0. temperature compensation. In order to (a) cancel out the common-mode dc voltage component associated with the average flux level and (b) to double the output signal. Magnetoresistor sensors are likewise amenable to fabrication of microelectronic signal-processing integrated circuitry directly on the same chip with the sensing element. Hall sensors feature low cost. and sensitivity to external pressure acting on the sensor package. can be economically added. variable signal strength and signal phase which are dependent on shaft speed (which typically limit rotational measurement repeatability to about 0.1 degree). The sensor features operation to zero speed. Hall-fields and internal shorting by the conductive stripes cause the conduction current to follow more tortuous (more zig-zag). pairs of Hall elements are mounted in a differential mode. On the other hand. Hall sensors are semiconductor active devices and therefore require a bias current. perpendicular to current flow direction. and the active-device 8 These sensors—also called inductive types—are electromagnetic devices which produce a pulsetrainlike voltage-output signal governed by the time-varying fluctuations of magnetic flux created by rotating motion of mechanical parts. flux variations are generated in the sensor’s magnetic circuit (which includes a bias magnet). and operation generally limited to sensor air gaps no greater than about 2 mm. air gap operation limited to no greater than about 2. The resistance change is based on Lorentz force. On the other hand. On the other hand. Variable reluctance sensors feature low cost. 4) Magnetoresistor: Magnetoresistor devices exhibit a change of resistance. As tone-wheel gear teeth rotate past a Hall sensor (and its integral bias-magnet). 3) Hall Effect: Hall sensors produce a voltage signal that corresponds one-to-one with the fluctuations of magnetic . spacing between sensing elements is matched to the pitch between tone-wheel teeth.5 mm. thereby creating a resistive output signal. disadvantages include medium size. As current flows in the presence of an orthogonal external magnetic field. As gear teeth. disadvantages include loss of signal at zero speed. small size. rotate with a shaft and pass by a sensor. the sensor generates voltage variations in its sensing coil which correspond to the derivative of magnetic flux with respect to time. side-by-side.When the strength of the field in the magnetic-circuit of the sensor exceeds a threshold value. medium cost. paths. proportional to magnetic flux density. For additional information on this sensor. on thin layers of high-carrier-mobility semiconductors (InSb or InAs). small-to-moderate size. and good temperature stability. excellent linearity. For effective differential operation. The Hall voltage output signal is linearly proportional to the transverse component of the flux density passing through the sensing element. Wiegand sensors feature: self-generated signal and a high-level voltage-pulse signal (at low rotation speeds). Functions such as amplification.025 . or magnetized poles.05 . air gap operation up to 3 mm and outstanding temperature stability (maximum operating temperature of 200 C). operation to zero speed.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < flux created by rotating motion of mechanical parts. self-generated signals. Via Faraday’s law. higher-resistance. conductive shorting stripes are deposited. the Hall sensor detects the flux level itself. Hall sensors are made using bipolar semiconductor technology which allows their fabrication directly on the same chip along with microelectronic signal-processing circuitry. detected by a pickup coil. uniformly spaced. parallel to the direction of tooth travel. the magnetization state in the Wiegand wire element rapidly switches polarity. Disadvantages include spikelike-signal output and high-volume manufacturability/ cost issues. 2) Wiegand Effect: Wiegand effect sensors are based on the interaction of an applied magnetic field with a sensing element that consists of a magnetic-alloy wire having a radial-gradient magnetization that varies from the wire’s core to its periphery . and rotational measurement repeatability in the neighborhood of 0. but instead of detecting the time-derivative of flux.

. the two sensors function similarly. newly enacted by California and federal regulators.Though the location is different . Another major application for variable reluctance sensors is wheel speed. The sensor similarly features operation to zero speed. They measure pressures ranging from 10 kPa-vacuum (for OBD evaporative fuel leak detection). i. misfire) and this has spurred the introduction of the higher-performance magnetoresistor. and a maximum operating temperature of 150 C.5 mm. More stringent. four AMR sense elements. a sensor technology used in the 10-kPa application won’t be robust enough for the 180-MPa fuel-pressure application..the operating principles are similar. and the active-device bias current requirement. deposited on a common substrate. GMR sensors again are amenable to fabrication of integrated circuitry directly on the same chip. which makes them number two in the present categorization scheme. Pressure sensors have the second greatest unit sales and the sixth highest gross sales revenue. but is still three to six times greater than that for AMR sensors. medium cost.e. Pressure Sensors 9 Pressure sensors have some very diverse automotive applications. both respond primarily to field orientation/direction rather than to field strength. to 180 MPa (for diesel common-rail fuel pressure systems). atmospheric pressure. OBD onboard diagnostic engine misfire detection requirements. The GMR effect is quantum mechanical in nature. Consequently. At room temperature. Wiegand effect sensors find application in aftermarket high-performance ignition systems. and need for tightly controlled limits on its bias point.e. 6) GMR Magnetoresistive: GMR giant magnetoresistive sensors utilize ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic layered structures made up of atomically thin films. in the range of 2-to-5-nm thickness. rather than field strength. The sensor primarily responds to field orientation/direction. rotation direction sense. on all four wheels (for the ABS antilock brake system. AMR and GMR types of sensors. pressure sensors accounted for 9 % of all automotive sensors sales revenue. AMR sensors are also amenable to fabrication of integrated circuitry directly on the same chip. are connected in a Wheatstone signal-detection bridge arrangement.etc .> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < bias current requirement. Another important application for higher-performance sensors which operate to zero speed. . have necessitated higher-accuracy crankshaft angular-measurements to detect the absence of individual cylinder firing torques (i. 5) AMR Magnetoresistive: AMR anisotropic magnetoresistive sensors generate changes of resistance as an external magnetic field is rotated with respect to their magnetized thin film (typically consisting of magnetized NiFe permalloy). is the measurement of wheel rotation in vehicle navigation systems. Disadvantages include medium size. the active-device bias current requirement. Automotive Applications: Major uses for variable reluctance sensors include engine crankshaft and camshaft rotational control of spark timing. in North America. The sensor similarly features operation to zero speed. PRESSURE SENSORS Pressure sensors are used to measure intake manifold pressure. air gap operation up to 3 mm. extended air gap operation up to 3. the GMR sensitivity advantage diminishes. and maximum operating temperature of 200 C. excellent rotational-measurement repeatability. and the pressure being measured vary . Typically. excellent rotational-measurement repeatability. traction control and vehicle stability). Although GMR and AMR sensors have different operating mechanisms. medium cost. fuel injection timing and engine speed measurement. and for control of transmission input and output shaft speeds for electronically controlled gear shifting. This is a 18 000:1 variation in full-scale pressure range measurement requirements! Clearly. 7 In 1999. The reason GMR sensors are called “giant” is because (at very low temperatures) they exhibit sensitivities to variations of applied magnetic field which are up to 20 times greater than those for AMR sensors. with unit sales of 78 million sensors [3]. B. rotation-direction sense. there exist several different pressure sensor technologies. vapure pressure in fuel tank . Disadvantages likewise include: medium size.

when to ignite the cylinder . The silicon chip changes its resistance with the changes in pressure . The ECM needs to know intake manifold pressure to calculate .The MAP sensor is located either directly on the intake manifold or it is mounted high in the engine compartment and connected to the intake manifold with vacuum hose .The ECM interrprets the voltage signal as pressure and any change in the voltage signal means there was change in pressure . MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SENSOR In the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor there is a silicon chip mounted inside a reference chamber . Intake manifold pressure is a directly related to engine load. this reference pressure is either a perfect vacuume or a calibrated pressure .and other functions . This change in the resistance alters the voltage signal . depending on the application . On one side of the chip is reference pressure .> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 10 how much fuel to inject . the electrical resistance of the chip changes . On the otere side is the pressure to be measured . When the silicon chip flexes with the change in pressure .

engine off or when the throttle is suddenly opened ). The MAP sensor converts the intake manifold pressure into a voltage signal(PIM). The MAP sensor voltage signal is lowest when intake manifold pressure is lowest on deceleration with throttle closed. links obstruction and connect to the proper port. and vacuum hose . 5 volts to MAP sensor ). The vacuum hose should be free of kinks. The difference in pressure between the vacuum pressure an intake manifold pressure changes the . The VC (VCQ wire needs to supply approx. The E2 ground wire should not have any resistance . 11 The MAP sensor voltage signal is highest when intake manifold pressure is highest (ignition key ON. Visually check the sensor .> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < voltage signal . The voltage drop is calculated by subtracting the PIM voltage from the The MAP sensor uses a perfect vacuum as a reference pressure. Sensor calibration and performance is checked by applying different pressure and comparing to the voltage drop specification . connections . MAP SENSOR DIAGNOSIS The MAP sensor can cause a variety of driveability problems since it is an important sensor for fuel injection and ignition timing.

weather changes air pressure . some times called a high Altitude Compensator (HAC).> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < VC voltage. 12 VAPOUR PRESSURE SENSOR The Vapor pressure sensor (VPS) measures the vapor pressure in the evaporative emission control system . This sensor operates the same as the MAP sensor except that it measures atmospheric pressure . At higher elevations the air is less dense . it has less pressure . the entire ECM must be replaced. If it is defective . Atmospheric pressure varires with weather and altitude . the voltage signal goes higher than on a naturally aspirated engine. or in a remote location. near the charcoal canister assembly . BAROMETRIC PRESSURE SENSOR The barometric pressure sensor. It is located inside t he ECM. In addition . . therefore . TURBOCHARGING PRESSURE SENSOR The turbocharging pressure sensor operates identically to the MAP sensor and is used to measure intake manifold pressure .measures the atmospheric pressure. The only difference is that when there is boost pressure . The Vapor Pressure sensor may be located on the fuel tank .

4. acting on the outside surface of the flexible diaphragm. The strain-sense elements having unit sales nearly as great as rotational motion sensors. In this case an extended. more flexible. 1. 302 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL. thereby providing a means of detecting pressure acting on the diaphragm.)—capacitive ceramic-module configurations.7mmhg). As vapor pressure increases the voltage signal increases . NO. the other side of the chip is exposed to vapor pressure . progressively deflects the diaphragm downwards. sensor die sizes have shrunk and wafer diameters have increased—both factors have helped to lower the cost of micromachined pressure sensors—see [5] page 1752. The voltage signal out depends on the difference between atmospheric pressure and vapor pressure . are utilized [18]. a thousand or more per wafer. programmable calibration of span and offset. Changes in vapor pressure causes the chip to flex and vary the voltage signal to the ECM. also called capsules. high accuracy over a wide temperature range and nearly identical part-to-part interchangeability. Over the past two decades. 1)Piezoresistive Micromachined: Pressure sensing elements are batch fabricated. progressively flattening it against a dielectric/insulating layer 7Despite This sensor uses a silicon chip with a calibrated reference pressure on one side of the chip. progressive. suspension. Piezoresistive strain-sense elements are implanted in appropriate areas of an etched silicon diaphragm where strains are most sensitive to applied pressure. Increasing pressure. using a “bond and etchback” process. This geometric. DECEMBER 2001 deposited above a base electrode. capacitive “touch-mode” micromachined pressure sensors are used. this sensor is sensitive ti very small pressure changes (1. power steering. Modern sensors feature on-chip digital electronics which provide signal conditioning. This sensor basically consists of a diaphragm and a much thicker substrate which has a shallow cavity aligned under the diaphragm. Silicon diaphragms are micromachined using electrochemical etching and a silicon-to-silicon bonding process forms a vacuum reference chamber [16].> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 13 Silicon-Diaphragm MAP Sensor are electrically connected into a Wheatstone bridge circuit. Adjacent . ratiometric output signal. This is a tribute to the remarkable cost reductions made possible by the prevalent use of IC micromachining technology in the manufacture of pressure sensors. built-in compensation for nonlinearity and temperature effects. flattening produces a linear increase in capacitance which is insensitive to the interfering effects of temperature [17]. etc.0psi=51. 2) Capacitive Touch-Mode Micromachined: In applications where zero-pressure range measurement is not required and where low power consumption is an advantage. VOL. silicon diaphragm is fabricated. 2) Capacitive Ceramic-ModuleIn very harsh automotive applications—such as hydraulic fluids (brake. pressure sensor sales revenue is less than half that of rotational motion sensors.

mechanically) offset from each other by a 45 angle. with unit sales of 48-million sensors 1) Potentiometric: Potentiometric sensors utilize the property that the resistance of an appropriately made film. deflects the diaphragm closer to the underlying substrate and this produces an increase in capacitance. In 1999. one varying as “ . integrally built into the sensor package. Piezoresistive polysilicon-on-steel . Hall sensor voltage varies as . where is the angle between flux density acting on the sensor and bias current applied to the sensor. To insure EMI noise immunity. redundant. each set is physically mounted (i. which makes them number three in the present categorization scheme. pulse-width-modulated output signal is provided by custom IC electronics. An example of an angularposition application is the measurement over four complete revolutions. thereby providing a means of detecting pressure acting on the diaphragm. turbo-boost pressure.” the ratio of the quadrature element signals. a high-level. acting on the outside surface of the diaphragm. The two Hall elements each provide output signals. Strain sensing elements are electrically connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. Polysilicon pressure-sensing elements are vapor deposited on the outside (protected side) of the steel diaphragm. position sensors accounted for about 18 % of all automotive sensors sales revenue. A stainless-steel cylinder. or screenprinted track. where magnet “head-on” and “slide-by” movements detect linear position 3) AMR Anisotropic Magnetoresistive: This sensor was previously described in part 5 of Section A. Angular and Linear Position Sensors Position sensors measure linear displacements ranging from less than one micron (a typical full-scale sensing-element movement inside a MEMS sensor) to over 200 mm (the stroke/travel of a strut in an active suspension system). acting on the inside surface of the diaphragm. C. deflects the diaphragm. Hall sensors are also used for linear position measurements. binary. and vehicle suspension dynamic-control hydraulic pressure. sensors are used to measure common-rail FI (fuel injection) pressure. Two sets of four sensing elements are typically used. The sensor exhibits changes of resistance as an external magnetic field rotates with respect to its sensing-elements. Position sensors have the third greatest unit sales and the third highest gross sales revenue. Capacitive ceramic-module sensors. two Hall sensing elements are mounted in quadrature (geometrically oriented 90 from each other). Automotive Applications: Piezoresistive micromachined sensors are extensively used to measure engine manifold pressure (absolute and barometric).” and the other as “ 2 ”. The use of multiple. The wiper(s) can be either linearly or angularly displaced by the part whose position is to measured. The two pieces are bonded together to form a vacuum reference chamber. [It’s noted that this is possible with any capacitive sensor]. Typically. varies linearly with length. are used to measure brake fluid pressure (for cruise control disengagement and ABS braking regulation). Capacitive touch-mode micromachined sensors are used to measure tire pressure inside the rotating wheel and engine oil pressure (two applications where accurate indication of the zero point isn’t required). and A/C compressor pressure. in North America. Increased hydraulic pressure.e. thereby determining the angular position of the shaft [22]. of steering-wheel angular position. Increased hydraulic pressure. and evaporative fuel leak pressure. wipers and tracks provides improved sensor reliability 2) Hall Effect : In an appropriate magnetic circuit. with a 1-degree measurement accuracy requirement. has a closed end which is thinned down to create a stiff diaphragm. suspension hydraulic pressure..> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < surfaces of the diaphragm and substrate are electroded using a guard ring geometry (which eliminates the influence of stray capacitance). The output signal is derived from the inverse tangent of “ . This provides a linear indication of the angular position of the magnet creating field (attached to the shaft). This is a 200 000:1 variation in full-scale displacement range. This 45 offset again produces a quadrature 90 electrical phase angle 14 Ceramic Disc MAP 4) Piezoresistive Polysilicon-on-Steel: When extreme high pressure is measured—such as diesel-engine common-rail fuel pressure (up to 180-MPa)—polysilicon-on-steel sensor configurations are utilized [19].

the sensor’s encoder “learns” the true center (or zero) absolute position of the steering wheel by starting with the position indicated by the potentiometer and then refining the calibration based on a period of straight-road driving (as detected by vehicle yaw angular-rate sensors like those described below). An acoustic wave is launched back up the rod. the stroke/position of a strut is accurately measured over an extended-length using magnetostrictive-pulse transit-time sensors. the electrical angle goes through two cycles. In active suspension systems. A current pulse is applied through the entire length of the rod. the signals vary as. The two sets of sensing elements are connected in Wheatstone bridge signal-detection IC circuits. which is mounted on the steering column.e. near the IP (instrument panel). Hall sensors are also used in seat belt buckles for high-reliability detection of proper buckle engagement 8 —i. accelerator pedal angle. however. a slotted-aperture optical-encoder sensor is combined with a gear-reduction-driven potentiometric sensor [24]. but with less accuracy than the optical encoder. Because optical sensors can be susceptible to contamination by dirt/oil. the inverse tangent of their ratio similarly produces a linear measure of the angular position. A fixed metal rod. 4) Optical Encoder: For a steering-wheel angle sensor application. 200-mm. “ 2 ” and “ 2 . and transmission gear position. 5) Magnetostrictive Pulse Transit Time: Magnetostrictivepulse transit-time sensors are used to make long. EGR valve position.. as angular position of the shaft/magnet traverses one 360-degree revolution. they are used in applications that provide environmentally protected mounting locations. and wheel-to-chassis height (via a 2-bar. an acoustic pulse is created in the rod due to the interaction of the magnet’s field with the applied current in the magnetostrictive rod (i. 15 D. In a manner akin to the Hall sensor. the inverse magnetostrictive effect). Temperature Sensors Temperature sensors have the fourth greatest unit sales and . concentric to the center axis of a strut. output signals from the two AMR-sensor bridge circuits are obtained. A donut-shaped magnet is attached to and travels with. the magnetic permeability of the rod material is modulated by the interaction of the acoustic wave with an applied field of a bias magnet (i. Due to the harsh environment of the engine and the high number of lifetime dither cycles. linear-to-rotary displacement linkage). This permeability change creates a voltage pulse in the sense coil circuit and the measured transit time between initiation of the current pulse and the detection of the return-wave voltage pulse.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < difference. AMR position sensors are used in the same applications as for potentiometric and Hall sensors. proper linear positions of latch and tongue parts inside the buckle [26]. serves as both a magnetostrictive medium and as an acoustic waveguide. Here.e. but in this case. noncontact Hall sensors are used to measure throttle angle. these are sensors of choice when larger air gaps and/or higher-limit maximum operating temperatures must be accommodated. The potentiometric sensor provides a continuous measurement of steering-wheel angle over a four-turn lock-to-lock turn range.. Whenever the vehicle starts up. with two offset bands of 90 aperture slots each.e.. “2 . When the pulse passes the magnet (attached to the strut). the direct magnetostrictive effect). the displacement of the suspension strut) [25].. When the wave reaches the top end of the rod. a displacement-varying element of a suspension strut. Automotive Applications: Because of their mature state of development and low cost. determines the magnet position (i. linear-position measurements. A good example is the optical-encoder steering-wheel angle sensor used in vehicle stability enhancement systems. potentiometric sensors are extensively used to measure fuel-float level. Both bridge circuits respond to the orientation of the external magnetic field (not its field strength).” of a magnet (attached to a shaft). The encoder. is accurate to within 1-degree accuracy.” From these signals. but it can’t determine the absolute position of the steering wheel.e.

are listed below. Other Sensors 1) Mass Air Flow: MAF mass air flow sensors are fourth highest in gross sales revenue. another configuration of the thermal flow sensor is used. based upon whether or not an occupant’s seat belt is buckled (together with other input signals). For use in closed-loop three-way catalytic-converter emissions control of engines. these sensors must respond to 0-to-1000 C step changes of temperature within 10 s. brake and steering fluids (where differences between the sensor’s self-heating temperatures when immersed and not immersed. Automotive Applications: In the temperature range of 50 to 150 C. 1) Silicon IC: Use of single-crystal silicon permits on-chip fabrication of IC (integrated circuit) enhancements. are mounted in a bypass channel of the air intake to measure mass air flow into an engine [30]. with unit sales of 39 million sensors [3]. 3) RTD Resistive Temperature Detector: In RTD high-temperature sensors. temperature coefficient) resistance characteristics. To satisfy OBD requirements. or positive. in which case. three types of exhaust gas oxygen sensors are currently utilized. Under certain operating conditions. for example. in a fluid provide the output signal). rotational motion sensors. gases and fluids. over 1050 C. Thermistors are used for engine coolant temperature measurement [28] and are also commonly used as level sensors to monitor coolant. However. To measure very high temperature. including a hot-wire element (plus a companion compensating hot-wire MAF Sensor 2) Exhaust Gas: EGO exhaust gas oxygen sensors have the fifth greatest unit sales and the second highest gross sales revenue. in North America. The resistance of the platinum element linearly increases as temperature is increased [29]. Their high sales revenue reflects the higher costs of oxygen sensors which are about three times higher per sensor than. E. 2) Thermistor: Ceramic-oxide compositions are manufactured to exhibit NTC or PTC (negative. both thermistor-type sensor and RTD-type sensors are utilized. which makes them number four in the present categorization scheme. in general use today. . Thermistor-type sensors operate in various ranges between 55 to 1000 C. temperature sensors accounted for about 5 % of all automotive sensors sales revenue. 8This 16 signal is an input to a system that controls the rate of inflation of air bag deployments. as required by OBD regulations for catalyst overheat monitoring.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < the seventh highest gross sales revenue. pulsating reversal of air flow does occur. In 1999. element). This type utilizes a heat source and dual upstream and downstream thermal flow-detection elements (which are fabricated on a micromachined low-thermal-mass diaphragm) the use of IC processes also restricts the operation of siliconbased temperature sensors to an upper limit of about 150 C. or increase. Temperature sensor technologies. where resistance of the sensors decrease. [9]. fuel. Two types of silicon sensors are in general use: (a) spreading resistance based on bulk charge conduction [13] pages 65–70 and (b) pn-junction voltage difference [27]. silicon sensors are used for measurement and control of air. a platinum-film sensing element is printed and then embedded inside an alumina-ceramic layered structure. several orders of magnitude as temperature is increased [28]. This type of sensor measures true mass provided there’s no pulsating reversal of air flow. lubricant. sensors based on a thermal heat-loss principle. On high-performance engines.

This is done using closed-loop control of spark timing i) piezoresistive MEMS sensors which incorporate silicon piezoresistors in suspension beams to detect the accelerationinduced movement of a micromachined proof mass 17 Piezoresistive Sensors ii) capacitive MEMS sensors which incorporate micromachined electrodes to both sense and detect the accelerationinduced movement of a micro-beam (or plate) proof masses iii) resonant-beam MEMS sensors which utilize the principle that a vibrating member will shift its resonant frequency proportional to the (inertial) force exerted on the member The above MEMS types of acceleration sensors include features such as: instrumentation-grade performance at traditionalsensor low cost. similar to the wide-A/F sensor of (iv). they are:i) Exhaust gas-heated ZrO (zirconium-dioxide) solid-electrolyte sensors electrochemically self-generate a voltage output signal which exhibits a step-like transition at the stoichiometric point (which is the chemically correct air-to-fuel mixture ratio)–s ii) Electrically heated titanium-dioxide sensors self-generate a resistive output signal which also makes a step transition at the stoichiometric ratio iii) Electrically heated. two additional types of exhaust gas sensors are utilized. excited by engine knock. dual-chamber ZrO sensors utilize oxygen-pump electrochemical-titration operating principles to measure A/F-ratio over a wide range v) Dual-chamber ZrO sensors. Vibration/knock sensors consist of piezoelectric sensing elements in spring-mass sensor packages 4) Linear Acceleration: Linear-acceleration inertial sensors have the sixth greatest unit sales and the fifth highest gross sales revenue. Cylinder-head vibrations in the frequency range of 4-to-8 kHz. robustness. iv) Electrically heated. planar. the amount of electrochemical pump current in the second chamber is indicative of the exhaust-gas NOx concentration 3) Engine Knock: To obtain maximum power. high-performance engines are run at their borderline limit of incipient knock. are detected using broadband-resonant vibration sensors mounted on the engine cylinder-head. electronically selectable output scales.e. low-thermal-mass. self testability/diagnostics. low-thermal-mass. For use in lean A/F airfuel ratio control of engine emissions. on-chip signal conditioning.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < based on knock sensor feedback. Acceleration sensors are used as inputs for chassis applications such as: adaptive suspension. planar. In this sensor. In some . including automotive micromachined-based MEMS accelerometers. Three main types of automotive acceleration sensors employ MEMS technology. as well as inputs for body-systems frontal.. leaving NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and the second chamber dissociates NOx into N and O . and multiplex/bus network connectivity. side and rollover crash-sensing applications. Reference [38] gives an excellent review of all types of micromachined inertial sensors. but where the first chamber removes (pumps out) exhaust oxygen. they become operational within 5 to 10 s from the ignition-on time of engine start-up . vehicle stability and ABS braking systems. ZrO sensors feature fast light off–i.

In this sensor. moisture-detecting sensors emit IR (infrared) light beams through the windshield. where Coriolisforce-induced lateral displacements of the plate. drive tines are piezoelectrically excited and piezoelectric elements in a second set of pickup tines detect out-of-plane vibrations (resulting from the Coriolis force). this type of sensor has a large share of the automotive market because of its ruggedness and high performance 18 6) Solar. rather than gyroscopic spinning mechanisms. optical. ii) The vibrating-tine sensor consists of a tuning-fork-like tines.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < chassis applications. or reflect back more . a higher refractive-index rain/liquid layer is created. photodiodes which respond to near infrared wavelengths and (b) twilight-detecting photodiodes which respond to visible wavelengths [46].. or the tilt of the disk. high-level. pages 1651–1652] and [41]. sensors are electrostatically driven/oscillated by comb electrodes. Solar and twilight sensors are typically mounted atop the IP in automobiles. where accelerationinduced movement of an electromachined thin-metal proof mass (packaged in a ceramic body) is sensed. 8) Fuel Level: Although other technologies have been developed—e. i) The vibrating-ring type of sensor incorporates a polysilicon suspended ring. 10 and their operation is based on detection of the effects of Coriolis forces acting on different types of vibrating mechanisms such as: rings. electrodes detect the effects of the Coriolis angular-rate force on the nodes and anti-nodes in the ring’s vibration pattern with respect to the sensor’s base [38. due to the harsh operating environment. where either electrostatic and magnetic fields have both been used to excite vibrations in the ring. iii) Vibrating-plate and disk. When rain droplets impinge on the outside of the windshield. 10 Amajor reason whyMEMStechnology is extensively used for both acceleration and angular-rate inertial sensors is that these sensors can be hermetically sealed. Depending on design (i. while still being able to detect their intended measurand (i. supported by a cantilever-like stem. are capacitively detected Another important automotive type of vibrating-tine angularrate sensor is made using discrete electromechanical construction [not the MEMS construction of sensor type (ii) above].” is appropriate because automotive sensors of this type employ vibrating mechanisms. automotive angular-rate sensors also utilize MEMS technologies.e. as well as inputs for body rollover-crash-sensing (roll) and for vehicle-heading navigation applications (yaw).. Similar to acceleration sensors. rather than “gyro. Although larger than MEMS sensors. disks. pulse-width-modulated. the angle of IR beam incidence on the glass). to detect angular rate. ultrasonic and capacitive—the potentiometer . Twilight and Glare Optical Detectors: Two types of optical detectors are commonly used: (a) solar-heat-detecting 9The designation ’angular-rate’ sensor. Angular-rate sensors are used as inputs for chassis suspension (vehicle roll and pitch) and for vehicle stability (yaw). These sensors provide feedback signals for automatic windshield wiper control. behind the rearview mirror. whereas twilight sensors are used to automatically turn on headlights. output signals 5) Angular Rate: Angular-rate9 inertial sensors have the seventh greatest unit sales. the presence of rain on the windshield makes IR light either refract away more.g. The sensors feature integrally packaged custom IC circuits which provide binary.e. with vibrating tines ten times larger than the MEMS type sensor (10 mm tine length versus 1 mm in MEMS). effects of inertial). Solar sensors provide input signals for automatic temperature control systems. This sensor is made from electro-formed quartz. Typically. Either by capacitive or electromotive means (both approaches are presently employed). however. tines. These are capacitive-type sensors.. or plates. without exposing the microelectronic circuitry to the outside environment. A third application of optical detectors utilizes photosensitive microchips that detect visible-light/glare and which are used in automaticdimming rearview mirrors 7) Moisture/Rain: These sensors are usually mounted facing the windshield. The tines are piezoelectrically driven into resonant vibration and piezoresistive sense elements in the stem detect torsional strain resulting from Coriolis angular-rate forces . traditional types of accelerometers continue in use today.

Radar types of obstacle reversing-aid detection are in production on certain commercial vehicles. an audible lane-departure “rumble strip” sound is sent to the speaker on whichever side of the roadway the truck is departing [63]. IR bolometric focal-plane arrays [62] was the key technical breakthrough most responsible for night vision becoming low cost enough for automotive application. each 320 pixels wide. Heavy-truck radars often use nonscanning.S. An appropriate functional relationship between sensor angle and fuel quantity for the particular tank shape used in each vehicle is used. fixed beams [55]. deer. micromachined. small video display of a virtual image viewed by the driver above the hood of the vehicle [61]. giving a total of 76 800 pixel image elements. or an oncoming lane. to resolve. 9) Near-Distance Obstacle Detection: Several technologies exist–namely ultrasound. 12 To take advantage of the respective advantages of millimeter-wave radar and laser radar. Hybrid systems. or lidar (acronym derived from: light radar). these systems have been combined into one hybrid system. other cars. each pixels alters its capacitance. microwave radar. Ultrasound obstacle detection is currently in production in reversing-aid systems on (obscuredrear-vision) minivan and SUV types of vehicles. emits narrow. high reliability and durability [49]. The 11 Range 19 is derived from the transit time of the FM/CW return signal and range rate is derived from the doppler frequency shift of the return signal. which is electronically monitored and input to a heads-up. real-time. for example. a typical focal-plane array consists of 240 lines. an adjacent lane. better accuracy. whether targets are in the same roadway lane. night vision is available on production automobiles [61]. i) Millimeter-wave radar operates at specified governmentregulated frequencies ranging between 24.) is incident on the array. thermal imaging. For automotive night vision. A running average of fuel sensor output signals is utilized to compensate for fuel slosh created due to vehicle motion. for example. a truck begins to stray outside its lane (possibly indicating a drowsy driver problem). IR beams at wavelengths in the vicinity of 850 nm. are expected to appear soon in production 10) Far-Distance Obstacle Detection: Four main technologies are used–namely millimeter-wave radar.7 GHz to 77 GHz and it features the ability to accurately operate in inclement weather. iv) Machine vision is used to monitor a vehicle’s position relative to roadway lane markings. partly due to legislation in some U. Thick-film resistive tracks are generally used in the potentiometer. On the other hand. although more costly. etc. this limitation is promoted as a safety benefit because it limits the use of ACC in poor weather when driver visibility is also limited). single-lane coverage. better accuracy and ability to operate in inclement weather. etc.). which combine ultrasound (for wide-area close-proximity obstacle detection) with wide-beamwidth radar (for extended-range.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < float-arm technology for fuel-level measurement prevails because of its low cost. Some radars use FM/CW frequency-modulated/continuous-wave signals which allow measurement of range and range rate11 of as many as 20 targets (including vehicles. offers advantages of greater range. all are primarily used in reversing-aid systems (“blind spot” monitoring systems have not yet reached production status). Other radars utilize mechanically driven beam scanning [54]. laser radar features high accuracy. Some radars utilize all-electronic (no moving parts) beam scanning [52]. all-weather detection). ii) Laser radar. Short-duration 25-ns pulses are emitted sequentially over wide range of beam-scan (both horizontal and vertical) directions. Millimeter-wave and laser radar are used primarily in vehicle ACC adaptive cruise control systems (which control both speed and vehicle-to-vehicle spacing. [53]. rf capacitance and infrared multi beams. wide-beamwidth microwave radar. The ultrasound technology is used in widespread production because it offers wide-area. which features premium performance derived from the best of both radar systems . Laser radar performance is diminished by inclement weather and/or dirty lenses (actually. wide angular coverage and precise target location. and machine vision. Other automotive radars use pulsed-dopplar and/or monopulse operating principles. The float is designed to traverse a path near the tank’s center for all fuel levels. near-distance beam coverage and is low cost [50]. When infrared thermal energy (from pedestrians. nonradiating. states that requires this feature for trucks. with 10-Hz repetition (update) sweep rates. On the other hand. pulsed. Transit times of individual pulses determine distances to reflecting targets. [57]. laser radar. Development of two-dimensional. roadway obstacles. IR thermal imaging. rather than speed alone). Most radars utilize some form of beam scanning. Beam scanning on automotive lidars is generally accomplished using electromechanically driven mirror-scan mechanisms [56]. When.12 13 iii) Passive IR.

so electricity begins to flow. often able to create a variety of sounds so that you can pick a distinct sound for your car  A radio receiver to allow wireless control from a key fob  An auxiliary battery so that the alarm can operate even if the main battery gets disconnected  A computer control unit that monitors everything and sounds the alarm -. iii) oil level/quality sensor using heated wires to detect change in heat conductivity due to oil aging.the "brain" of the system Door sensor  In a closed-circuit system. 13 To suppress mutual interference either among radar or laser beams. EMERGING SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES Emerging. state-of the-art. the alarm is triggered when the circuit is completed A. Car alarm system Simplest form. the circuit is opened. These sensors include i) short-circuit-ring position sensor used in electronically controlled diesel injection pumps. and electricity can't flow. but are not covered in the above paper. In this system. spread-spectrum phase-modulated signalcoding techniques are used 20 vision sensor consists of a) a digital camera.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < [58]. mounted on the windshield inside the truck cab. This means that as long as the door is closed. Engine Combustion Sensors . opening the door closes the circuit. pressure sensors and motion detectors  A siren. But if somebody opens the door.  In an open-circuit system. it is nothing but one or more sensors connected to some sort of siren Most modern car alarm systems:  An array of sensors that can include switches. or those which have been newly introduced and which are expected to have a significant impact on automotive systems development. 11) Additional Production Sensors: Additional automotive sensors are in volume production. radiated by multiple vehicles on the highway. This triggers an alarm. with typically 100 000 pixels and 120-dB dynamic range. the electric circuit is closed when the door is shut. and b) advanced image-recognition software that incorporate lane-recognition/vehicle trajectory algorithms. ii) finger-type angular-position and angular-speed sensor. sensor technologies are defined here as those which are currently in the R&D stage of development. V. electricity can flow from one end of the circuit to the other.

MI. 1989. [2] M. Publication PT-68. Detroit. Paper 780 207. and C. 1998. Paper 980 233. 2. Woburn. 1998. Hoffman and M. 3. R.” SENSORS Mag. “Chevrolet C5 corvette vehicle dynamic control system. [14] M. 1991.Wolber. “A new perspective on magnetic field sensing. using displaceable air gaps iv) electrically. and also indicates in-cylinder peak pressure and air-fuel ratio 2) Fiber-Optic Diaphragm-Reflection: Detects in-cylinder pressure waveform 3) Piezoresistive Silicon-Carbide-On-Insulator: Detects in-cylinder pressure waveform B.. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall. 65–70. C. or are expected to have a significant future impact on automotive systems development. Sparks. plus oil temperature [ C. 1982/1983. 27. Partin. 25. [15] D. Congr. [9] “North American Automotive Sensor Market. T.” Proc. [72]).” IEEE/ASME Trans. Paper 910 902. This paper covers nearly 50 different types of automotive sensors— all of which currently find widespread application. “Engine crankshaft angular position sensor. Detroit. 1999. Bratland. Powers. 1978.. and R. pp. 25–31. [7] W. pp. Pawlak. pp. [3] R. body systems applications sensors are more diverse and no single sensor types dominate. sensors are used for vehicle-security systems (e. Expo. J.g. 1999. 3) Engine-Crankshaft Speed Variation Due to Cylinder-Firings: Math algorithms are used to derive the engine torque from measurements of engine-flywheel speed modulation due to individual cylinder firings—high-resolution rotational motion sensors are utilized D. Feb. “A worldwide overview of automotive engine control sensor technology. Expo. 194–201. Warrendale. . pp. ser. [10] A. pp. Ten types of emerging. FLEMING: OVERVIEW OF AUTOMOTIVE SENSORS 307 [13] “Silicon Temperature Sensors. VI. and also via the following noncontact methods i) optically. lateral-longitudinal. For automotive powertrain applications. Lequesne. Aug. [4] D. 32–34. 86. [5] D.” Frost and Sullivan. Caruso. “The role of electronic controls for future automotive mechatronic systems. 1996. 1.” in Handbook of Transducers. MA: Newnes ButterworthHeinemann. 23. pp. 1997.. MI. Shirai. In the other type. As opposed to powertrain and chassis. 34–45. MI. SUMMARY A comprehensive review of current-production and emerging state-of the-art automotive sensor technologies is made. Norton. vehicle axes) dual-function. ac-excitation is used to detect changes in shaft permeability [77]. towaway tilt detection) 2) Combined Angular-Rate/Acceleration: Micromachined combined-function sensors are fabricated on the same substrate.” in Sensors and Transducers. Vehicle Displays Microsens. 1999. pp.> REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < 1) Spark Plug Ion-Current (Using Either dc or ac Applied gap Voltage): Detects misfire and detonation/knock. “Transducer fundamentals. Sept. Oil Quality/Deterioration Sensing 1) Stress-Based Predictive Method: Cumulative stress on oil is calculated from combined effects of engine revolutions and oil temperature 2) Multisensor: Detects oil dielectric constant and oil level (capacitively). [8] F.” in SAE Congr. pp. “Novel variable reluctance sensors. 1998. 1999-04-01 ed: Infineon Technologies. pressure and temperature. Ed. permanently magnetized shafts or sleeves self-generate a dc-magnetic flux signal Both sensors operate without contacting the rotating shaft. Frank. PA: SAE. 1747–1755. REFERENCES 21 [1] H. using eddy current with variable shaded poles 2) Non-Torsion-Shaft Magnetoelastic Detection: In one sensor. Smith. Adams. Jurgen. MI. Multi-Axis Micromachined Inertial Sensors 1) Two-Axis Accelerometer/Tilt: Single-chip micromachined two-axis ( . CA. Mountain View. “Problems in the application of sensors in motor vehicles. Eddy and D. Thrush. predominant sensors include inertial acceleration and inertial angular rate sensors.” in Proc. 327–341. . Mar... 22–23. “Future sensing in vehicle applications. Dlugos. Barron andW. B.” in SAE Int. Engine/Transmission/Steering Torque Sensors 1) Twist-Angle Torsion-Bar: Twist angle due to applied torque is detected potentiometrically (using sliding contacts [71]. J.” SENSORS Mag. ’99. [12] D. Schroeder. [6] R. 80–88. Congr.. providing in one package dual independent measurements of lateral vehicle acceleration and yaw angular rate for use in chassis systems for input to vehicle stability systems and for body systems for rollover-crash-sensing . [11] W. Grace. 499–512. Mechatronics. 1998. This sensor is in major production in Europe. using variable apertures ii) optically. Feb. 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