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Ateneo de Davao University

Jacinto St.. Davao City

Paints, Pigments, and Coatings

A Laboratory Report
Submitted as a Requirement on Chemical Process Industry (ChE)

Submitted by:

Dellosa, Joash Kurt

Europa, Seve Kenneth L.

Submitted to:

Engr. Eva Marie C. Mendoza



Paints and coatings already existed in the earliest civilizations of mankind.

It provides aesthetics and is an avenue for most iconic artworks ever made.
Despite it being an old invention countless innovations on these products
continue to emerge. As humanity progressed, paints and coatings have also
developed. It has become an important part of most things we use. From the
walls we lean on, the cars we drive, the street signs we look at to the fine images
we see in the museum and murals we pass by. It is without a doubt paint has
become a pillar of humanity.


Paint is the general term for liquid that is used to add color to the surface of
an object by covering it with a pigmented or colored coating. A more exact
definition of paint is simply pigment suspended to a liquid medium known as
vehicle. Pigment is what gives paint its color and opacity. Coatings is a more
general term in which paint is categorized into, this includes lacquer, varnish, etc.
The terms defined will be further explained as we go on to its chemistry and


Paint is used to impart color to objects and surfaces but there is more to
paint other than its color. Paint together with coatings provide objects or surfaces
the needed protection from various external factors. Most paints offer anti-
corrosion property on metals, abrasive resistance, heat resistance, insulation and
many more. These imparted properties provide objects added utility,
convenience, aesthetics, and functions.


The first ever recorded use of paint was back 20,000 to 25,000 years ago in
caves in France and Humans. Cave paintings depicted ancient human activity
and animals. Over the time paints are personalized and hand crafted by
artisans and painters. Made from various essences of nature such as plants,
animals and minerals. It was in the 1700 just before the industrial revolution paint
was produced in bulk. The first paint mill was made in Boston. Since then, paint
has become one of the agents in industrial revolution and now a common
commodity in housing, construction, and manufacturing.

Chemistry and Properties


All paints are basically similar in composition in that they contain a

suspension of finely ground solids (pigments) in a liquid medium (vehicle)
consisting of a polymeric or resinous material (binder) and a volatile solvent.

During the drying of paint, the binder forms the continuous film with the
necessary attributes of adhesion, flexibility, toughness, and durability to the
substrate (the surface being coated).

Paints also contain additives, which are added in small quantities to modify
some property of the pigments and binder constituents.

To further know more about paint and coatings and how it works we need
to discuss its constituents. Paint’s main constituents are pigment, vehicle, and


Pigment are insoluble, fine particle-sized materials which confer on paint its
color and opacity. They are used in paint formulation to provide color, to hide
substrates and obliterate previous colors, to improve the strength of the paint film,
to improve the adhesion of the paint film, to reduce gloss and to reduce cost.

All pigments should be insoluble in the medium in which they are used,
chemically inert, free of soluble salts and unaffected by normal temperatures. It
should be easily wetter for proper dispersion, non-toxic, non-corrosive and have
low oil-absorption characteristics. Also, it should be durable and fast to light as
The materials used to impart color may either be pigments or
dyestuffs. The difference between pigments and dyes is their relative solubility in
the liquid media in which they are dispersed. Dyes are soluble, while pigments are
insoluble. This solubility or insolubility is the reason a surface colored with an
insoluble pigment is opaque with their good light fastness. A dye, on the other
hand, may impart an intense color to the surface but remain transparent and
generally their light fastness is poor.
Pigment Properties
Manufacturers manipulate these properties to produce various paint
products each serving different purpose or optimized for certain conditions such
as glossy finish or matte finish on surfaces of the painted objects.
The quality and type of the pigment used in making paint are defined by
the following properties below:
Hiding power  Is the ability of paint to
completely cover any
underlying color of the surface it
is painted on. The pigments
used must prevent light from
passing through the film to the
previous colored layer and
back to the eye of the observer.
 Depends upon the wavelength
and the total amount of light
that a pigment will absorb, on
its refractive index and the
particle size and shape.

Tinting strength  Is the amount of a colored

pigment required to tint or color
a given weight of a white
pigment to produce a given
 It is a measure of the difference
in particle size and distribution.
 It is independent of its hiding
power. Relatively transparent
pigments can have a high
tinting strength.

Refractive Index  It is the ratio of the velocity of

light in a vacuum to its velocity
in a specified medium.
 It is the capacity to scatter light.
White and lighter pigments tend
to have a higher refractive
index than most colored
Light Fastness  Is its ability to resist deterioration
under the action of sunlight and
industrial fumes.

Bleeding Characteristic  It involves the pigments

solubility. Some pigments
(organic type) are soluble in
aromatic solvents and slightly
soluble in alcohols and other
aliphatic solvents.

Particle size, Shape, and Distribution  Influences the rheological

properties, shade, gloss,
weathering characteristics and
ease of dispersion.

Forms of Pigment Particles

The particle size of the dispersed pigment agglomerates or primary particles
is of great importance in determining the performance of paint systems. The size
of particles of pigments may range between 1 μ and 60 μ diameters
primary particles In a single ‘piece’ of pigment, it can be
identified as an individual by
microscopic examination.
aggregates Are primary particles that are firmly
‘cemented’ together at crystalline
agglomerates Are comparatively loosely bound
primary particles and aggregates that
are joined at crystal corners and edges

Pigment Origin
Pigments, which can be organic or inorganic in origin, have been classified
in a variety of ways, such as: color, natural or synthetic, and by chemical types.
Extenders are solid materials insoluble in the paint medium but which impart little
or no opacity or color to the film into which they are incorporated. Extenders are
incorporated into paints to modify the flow properties, gloss, surface topography
and the mechanical and permeability characteristics of the film.

Inorganic pigments  Many are found in nature as

minerals. The light stability,
degree of opacity and
chemical resistance of natural
inorganic pigment is normally
very high.
 Frequently, inorganic pigments
are chemically prepared from
inorganic raw materials. The
synthetic inorganic pigments are
apparently the same chemically
as the naturally occurring
pigments, but often quite
different in properties
Organic pigments  The natural pigment may be
contaminated by some impurity,
such as silica, which is
uneconomical to remove; the
synthetic products are pure.
 Are mainly of historical interest
and are no longer used.
 In the manufacture of organic
pigments certain materials
become insoluble in the pure
form, whereas, others require a
metal or an inorganic base to
precipitate them.

Colors of Pigments

The coloring materials, which are insoluble in the pure form, are known as
toners and those, which require a base, are called lakes. Synthetic organic
pigments are very finely textured and they provide clean, intense colors.
However, both light fastness and heat stability of organic pigments are generally
lower than that of inorganic pigments. The brilliance and clarity of hue for organic
pigments is much superior. The most attractive, cleanest colors can only be
obtained with organic pigments.

Inorganic Pigments
They are chemically inert, very light-fast products based on oxides and sulfides
of the elements iron and chromium, zinc, molybdenum, and cadmium to a
smaller level. Synthetically produced pigments are preferred by the paint
formulators, since only they fulfill for today’s requirements for color consistency
and uniformity.
White pigments  Lithopone is a mixed zinc sulfide-
barium sulfate pigment
available in two types; one
Types: Lithopone, Zinc Oxide, containing 30 % zinc sulfide and
Antimony oxide one containing 60 % zinc sulfide.
 These are the major contributors After TiO2, zinc sulfide is the
in paint formulation. White strongest white pigment due to
pigments are used not only in its brilliant white color, extremely
white paints, but also in a fine texture and relative
substantial fraction of other cheaper cost.
pigmented paints to give lighter  Zinc oxide, ZnO, is a reactive
colors than would be obtained white pigment prepared by
using color pigments alone. All vaporizing metallic zinc at a
white pigments are inorganic temperature of about 900°C in
compounds of titanium, zinc, the presence of oxygen.
antimony, or lead. Presently, the Because of its low refractive
most important white pigment index, 2.02, ZnO cannot
used in paints is titanium dioxide. compete for the hiding power of
Formerly, white lead and zinc TiO2. Consequently, ZnO is rarely
oxide were widely used used as the sole pigment in
 White lead used to be the most modern coatings. ZnO is used in
widely used pigment until the exterior house paints as a
late 1930s. Due to high toxicity of fungicide and in some can
lead salts and because of this linings as a sulfide scavenger.
restriction and easy availability  Antimony oxide, Sb2O3, is a non-
of titanium dioxide pigments, reactive white pigment
usage of white lead dropped prepared from metallic
rapidly and is no longer antimony and oxygen.
permitted as a constituent of Antimony oxide is widely used in
most paints. the preparation of fire retardant
paint in conjunction with
chlorine containing resins.
Antimony oxide is also used to
modify the heavy chalking
characteristics of anatase form
of titanium oxide.

Yellow Pigments  Yellow iron oxides are of both

natural and synthetic origin. The
synthetic iron oxides are
available in a wider range of
Types: Yellow Iron Oxide, FeO(OH), shades than the naturally
lead chromates, PbCrO4, zinc occurring varieties. Yellow iron
chromates, ZnCrO4 and cadmium oxides give opaque films with
yellow, CdS. good hiding and high exterior
durability; chemical and solvent
resistance is excellent.
 The lead chromate (PbCrO4) is
medium yellow in color. The
crystals of lead chromate with
lead oxide (chrome oranges)
are redder yellow in color.
Chrome yellows are relatively
low-cost pigments with good
light fastness, high tinting
strength and opacity.
 Zinc chromates are used for
decorative and as anticorrosive
yellow paints. This pigment has
the advantage of being non-
toxic and, furthermore, its color
does not change by exposure to
sulfur containing atmospheres. It
is characterized by excellent
light fastness, but its use is
restricted due to poor opacity
and poor tinting strength.
Ultramarine blue is a complex sodium
Ultramarine blue aluminum silicate and sulfide. The color
of the pigment is attributed to the
presence of sulfur. It is widely used as
bluing in laundering to neutralize the
yellowish tone in cotton and linen
fabrics. Prussian blue, KFe(Fe(CN)6), is
an intense reddish shade blue pigment
with fairly good properties. It is used as
a coloring pigment in many types of
paint systems and is also used in the
production of lead chrome greens.
Red iron oxide Red iron oxide (Fe2O3) is an inorganic
pigment of either natural or synthetic
origin. Indian red is a naturally
occurring mineral whose ferric oxide
content may vary from 80 to 95%, the
remainder being clay and silica. Red
lead (Pb3O4) is a brilliant red-orange
colored synthetic inorganic pigment
used mainly as a protective priming
coat for steel work rather than a
coloring pigment in paints.
Lead chrome greens Lead chrome greens, PbCrO4:
KFe(Fe(CN)6), are synthetic inorganic
pigments varying in shades from grass
green to deep green. The use of lead
chrome greens is, however, limited
due to the toxicity of lead. Chromium
oxide, Cr2O3 is a dull green synthetic
inorganic pigment, which can be used
in all types of paint systems where high
chemical resistance and outstanding
light fastness are required.
Black iron oxide Black iron oxide, Fe3O4, is a synthetic
inorganic pigment. Metallic pigments
are used on the surfaces for luster and
brilliance finishes which are normally
not produced by conventional
pigments. For many applications, a
metallic effect is highly desirable and
can be achieved by adding
aluminum, zinc, bronze, stainless steel
or pearlescent pigments.
Aluminum powder Aluminum powder is available in two
forms: Leafing grade and non-leafing
grade. The non-leafing grade is
primarily used in automotive topcoats
where they impart an aesthetically
pleasing sparkle to the finish.
Extenders or extender pigments  These are white inorganic
minerals that are relatively
deficient in both color and
opacity and are commonly to
replace the more expensive
prime pigments. These pigments
are also referred to as inert
pigments because of their
optically inert behavior in
surface coatings. The extenders
commonly used by the surface
coatings industry include, for the
most part, the following: Calcite
(Whiting), Silica, Kaolin (Clay),
Talc and Barytes. Calcite and
whitings are naturally occurring
calcium carbonate deposits.
The lowest cost grades are
ground limestone or the mixed
calcium magnesium carbonate
ore, dolomite.
 Calcium carbonate is the most
widely used of the extender
pigments. It is used throughout
the range of water and solvent
based paints for both interior
and exterior application. In
some applications, the reactivity
of calcium carbonate with acids
makes carbonate pigments
undesirable, especially in
exterior applications.

Organic Pigments
They are insoluble in the pure form. They are known as toner pigments
and those, which require a base, are referred to as lakes. Compared with
inorganic pigments, organic pigments in general are brighter in color, more
transparent (lower hiding power), considerably greater in tinting strength, and
poorer in heat and light-fastness.
Toluidine red They are a class of organic compound
known as insoluble azo dyes. Toluidine
red is bright red of moderate light-
fastness, good chemical resistance
and good hiding power. It is soluble in
some solvents and gives coatings that
are likely to bleed.
Barium lithol red Is bright red in color and is suitable for
interior use only due to its relatively
poor lightfastness and poor chemical
2-Hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid (BON) Is coupled with diazo compounds and
their calcium salts are bright red bleed
resistance pigments. The higher cost,
manganese salt shows better exterior
durability than the calcium or barium
salts. The BON red pigments are
characterized by an extremely high
degree of color stability, resistance to
acids and alkalis and are non-toxic.
Yellow Pigments  The Hansa yellow is a bright
monoarylide often used in trade
Types: monoarylide yellows, diarylide sales and emulsion paints. They
yellows, benzimidiazolone yellows and have low opacity in paint films
heterocyclic yellows. and are soluble in aromatic
 Benzimidiazolone yellows have
good opacity, very good heat
resistance, good solvent
resistance (little tendency to
bleed) and very good light-
fastness. There are numerous
heterocyclic yellow pigments
such as nickel azo yellow. They
are high-cost, high performance
yellow pigments with excellent
Green pigments  The most common are
phthalocyanine greens. The
pigments vary from a blue green
to yellow green, depending on
the ratio of bromine to chlorine.
 The yellowish green is obtained
with nine to ten bromine atoms
per molecule. The
phthalocyanine greens are
economical and have good
light-fastness. The excellent
stability of these pigments
permits their use as colorants in
all forms of decorative and
industrial coating systems.
Blue pigments The most common organic blue
pigments in the coatings industry is
copper phthalocyanine. This is a bright,
versatile pigment of outstanding light
fastness. Phthaloblues are available
commercially in three crystal forms:
alpha, beta and the seldom-used
epsilon. The beta form is the most
stable. Phthalocyanine pigments are
characterized by a high tinting
strength and opacity together with
excellent color stability on exposure to
light. These pigments are also insoluble
in most solvents used in paints and
hence are not prone to bleeding.
Carbon blacks Are organic pigments produced by
partial combustion of petroleum
products or natural gas. They are
insoluble in solvents, stable to acids
and alkalis and have excellent light-
fastness. They are used as coloring
pigments in all types of decorative and
industrial paints.

The second basic constituent of a paint is a “binder”, which binds together
the pigment particles and holds them on to the surface.
Alkyd resins  represent the single largest
quantity of solvent-soluble resin
produced for use in the surface
coating industry. They are
relatively low molecular weight
According to the oil or fatty acid
content, the alkyds are divided
into three broad categories:
Short oil (to 40%), Medium oil (40-
60%) and Long oil (more than
60%) alkyd resins.
Non-drying oil drying (oxidizing)
alkyds(non- - can form films
oxidizing) (coatings)
-do not readily through oxidative
form films and, as polymerization in
such, they are a similar manner
mainly used as to that of the
plasticizers for natural oils
other binders. (linseed or soya)
from which they
are made.
Polyesters  They are practically free of fatty
acids (oils) and have a much
simpler structure than that of
alkyd. Most saturated polyester
resins have relatively low
molecular weights, ranging from
5000 g/mol to 10,000 g/mol.
 Polyester resins possess premium
performance properties such as
exterior durability, gloss, flexibility
hardness, color stability and
versatility of cure. Polyesters are
used in product finishes for
household appliances, food
and beverage containers,
aircraft and equipment,
automotive primers and bake
coats, metal furniture and
Acrylic resins  Are the most widely used
polymers in the said industry.
 The two principal forms of
acrylic used in surface coatings
are thermoplastic and
thermoset. Thermoplastics form
a film by the evaporation of the
solvent present in the coating
formation. Thermoset are cured
at ambient or elevated
temperatures by reacting them
with other polymers.
Vinyl esters  Are usually used in waterborne
coatings in the form of
copolymer dispersions. Typical
vinyl esters are for example, vinyl
acetate, vinyl propionate, and
vinyl laurate. Acrylic, maleic and
fumaric acid esters are used as
copolymers. Vinyl acetate
coatings are primarily used as
interior coatings.

Hydrocarbon solvents  Are the most commonly used
solvents in paints to carry the
pigment and binder. They are
divided into three groups;
aliphatic, naphthenic and
 The preferred type of solvent is
an odorless aliphatic
hydrocarbon (mineral spirits),
which can be used in all areas
including the home. Aromatic
solvents provide stronger
solvency, but with a greater
odor. The most common are
toluene, xylene and naphthas.
Oxygenated solvents  They offer much stronger
solvency and are widely used as
active solvents for synthetic
 Types
Ketones -characterized by their
strong odor, range of water solubility
and evaporation rate.
Esters -provide solvency nearly equal
to ketones but with more pleasing
Glycol -ethers possess both alcoholic
and ether functional groups and are
milder in odor. They display water
miscibility, strong solvency, and slow
Water Is the main ingredient of the
continuous phase of most emulsion
paints. It is also used alone, or blended
with alcohols or ether alcohols, to
dissolve water-soluble resins. The
advantages of water as a solvent are
its availability, cheapness, lack of
smell, non-toxicity and

Are any substances that are added in small quantities to a paint to improve or to
modify certain properties of the finished paint coatings or of the paint during its
manufacture, storage, transport, or application.
The average proportion of a single additive in a formulation is usually
around 1.5% of the total quantity of the paint formulation. The additives have a
profound influence on the physical and chemical properties of the paint. They
are classified according to their function as follows:
Thickening agents They influence the rheological
properties of paint by increasing the
viscosity. Organoclays, organically
modified laminar silicates, are the most
widely used inorganic thickeners in the
paint industry. There are many organic
thickeners, notably, hydrogenated
castor oil and its derivatives,
polyamides, and polyamide-oil.
Surface active agents This group consists of three types of
additives: wetting and dispersing
agents, antifoam agents, and
adhesion promoters. Wetting and
dispersing agents are additives that
belong to the group of surfactants.
They consist of amphiphilic molecules,
which facilitate the very important
process for pigment and extender
dispersion and stabilization in paints
and coatings. Defoamers consist of
water-insoluble, hydrophobic, organic
liquids such as mineral, vegetable and
animal oils as well as polydimethyl
siloxanes or mixtures thereof. Adhesion
promoters are the substances that
improve adhesive strength of paints in
terms of its resistance against
mechanical separation from the
painted surface.
Surface Modifiers These controls the mechanical (e.g.,
scratch resistance) and optical
properties (e.g., gloss) of a coated
surface. Polysiloxane-based and wax-
based additives are used to control
these surface characteristics. Matt
surfaces (low gloss) are often preferred
for many different reasons. Matting
agents are used to reduce gloss.
Natural silicas (sand) are used together
with pigments and fillers in wall paints
as matting agents.
Leveling Agents and Coalescing These are used to control flow and
Agents leveling of a paint during and after the
application and before the film is
formed. It influences, to a large extent,
the appearance of the coating.
Polyacrylates, cellulose acetobutyrate
and other specialty polymers are used
as leveling additives.
Catalytically Active Additives These are used to accelerate a
chemical reaction occurring during
the film-forming process. They belong
to two types: primary (or active driers)
which are compounds of cobalt and
manganese, which have the highest
catalytic activity and most
pronounced accelerating effect on
film formation, and secondary (or
auxiliary driers) which are compounds
of lead, calcium, zinc or zirconium;
which possess a lower level of catalytic
Special-Effects Additives This group of additives include many
other substances which are added to
paint formulation, e.g.: anti-skinning
agents, light stabilizers, corrosion
inhibitors, biocides, flame retardants.


Operations and Process

Weighing Resin, Oils,
Pigments and
Fillers, Additives
except Driers



Solvents, Driers,
Thinning Plasticizers

Waste Hopper

Filling / Canning



Packaging Shipping
 Mixing - Pigment manufacturers send bags of fine grain pigments to paint
plants. There, the pigment is premixed with resin (a wetting agent that
assists in moistening the pigment), one or more solvents, and additives to
form a paste.
 Dispersion - The paste mixture for most industrial and some consumer
paints is now routed into a sand mill, a large cylinder that agitates tiny
particles of sand or silica to grind the pigment particles, making them
smaller and dispersing them throughout the mixture. The mixture is then
filtered to remove the sand particles.
 Thinning - The paste is usually further blended with vehicle, driers,
fungicides, and other additives. It is then tinted with colored dispersions to
match a desired color standard.
 Hopper – The liquid paint is strained into a transfer tank or hopper.
Centrifuges, screens, or pressure filters are used to remove no dispersed
pigments. Filtration is often performed at the time of packaging to remove
lumps from the product.
 Canning - The finished paint product is then pumped into the canning
room. For the standard 8-pint (3.78 liter) paint can available to consumers,
empty cans are first rolled horizontally onto labels, then set upright so that
the paint can be pumped into them. A machine places lids onto the filled
cans, and a second machine presses on the lids to seal them.
 Testing - The paint is tested against standards for
color, application properties, and other features. It is then adjusted to
meet agreed specifications and released for marketing. Paint
manufacturers utilize an extensive array of quality control measures. The
ingredients and the manufacturing process undergo stringent tests, and
the finished product is checked to insure that it is of high quality. A finished
paint is inspected for its density, fineness of grind, dispersion, and viscosity.
Paint is then applied to a surface and studied for bleed resistance, rate of
drying, and texture.

CHAPTER 3: Progression

Potential and Future Innovations

*Insulating paints
claim to use a technology where a broad spectrum thermally reflective coating
is applied to a specific type of micro-spheres to block heat radiation in a much
larger or broader range of thermal energy (heat) to dissipate heat rapidly. This
type of coated thermally reflective material (coated micro-sphere) reduces
heat transfer through the coating with 90% of solar infrared radiation and 85%
of ultraviolet radiation being radiated back from the coated surface. Boysen
names this technology as Cool Shades for their roof paints and Campbridge
paints names it as CeramiCoat Elastomeric insulating paint.
 According to Campbridge paints which is a waterproofing
materials company located in Caloocan city, their insulating
paint is a water based engineered acrylic solar reflective
coating which reflects 80% of the sun’s heat. It contains
ceramic fillers that releases absorbed heat faster than
ordinary paint. Nasa uses ceramic tiles in their space shuttles
to protect it from heat. One of the sun’s spectrum which is
infrared which has the widest spectrum, is responsible for
heating the earth’s surface. They claim that their paint reflects
80% of heat and the other 20% that is absorbed is released by
the paint easily due to its ceramic fillers.
 Boysen also has this technology that is also water based and
uses infrared reflecting pigments and as an added effect, to
maintain the heat reflective effect over time, they have an
acrylic binder that provides excellent dirt pick up resistance.
It is designed with highly engineered infrared-reflecting (IR)
pigments making it possible to create greens, blues, yellows,
grays, and other shades of roof coating while reflecting
infrared light and reducing heat build-up. A paint film
containing infrared-reflecting pigments will stay cooler than
one containing non-reflective pigments of the same color.
The ability of a colored object to reflect infrared light can be
quantified through Total Solar Reflectance (TSR). According
to, Boysen released this technology back in 2013.
They have tested it and lowered the temperature between
1°C to 4°C. In 2014, japan also released a similar technology
in the Build Eco Xpo Asia 2014 in Singapore.
*Nano silica particles in clear coats
Nanomaterials are expected to improve the existing properties of paints
due to their specific structural characteristics such as size, shape, and
greater surface area. Nanomaterials are thought to improve these
functionalities, i.e. water/dirt repellent "easy to clean", UV-protection,
antimicrobial resistance, scratch resistance or extending the paints'
lifespan. Currently, the most relevant nanomaterials for the paint industry
are nanoscale titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide.
Potential functional benefits of nanomaterials in paints

 Nano titanium dioxide is used in paint to exploit two of its excellent
properties namely, photocatalytic activity and UV- protection.
Photocatalytic activity is an ability of a nanomaterial as a catalyst to
speed up the reaction with organic materials and light. This effect is used
for self-cleaning surfaces. The surface will no longer need regular cleaning
as the water and dirt will no longer stick on it. However, studies have
shown that the use of photocatalytic nano titanium dioxide in organic
paints leads to the degradation of the binder by UV irradiation. For this
reason, the rutile type is preferred in organic facade coatings for UV-
 The addition of nano silicon dioxide to paints can improve the macro-
and micro-hardness, abrasion, scratch, and weather resistance.
Adding nano silicon dioxide to polymeric resins creates paints with
excellent abrasion properties. However, it decreases the elasticity of the
paints, which is needed to resist the swelling and shrinking associated with
temperature and humidity changes.
 Surfaces coated with nano silver containing paint provide excellent
antimicrobial properties against bacteria and human pathogens.
However, in contrast to indoor paint, the bactericidal efficiency of nano
silver in paints for outdoor application seems to be insufficient due to
the exposure to external conditions. Studies have shown that nano silver
as well as nano titanium dioxide, are not able to fully prevent microbial
and algal growth on test substrates in addition to being a poor deterrent
from possible fungal colonization.
*Other possible improvements
1. Surface preparation being safe and eco-friendly – the industry uses
sandblasting to strip the paint off a surface and render it ready for a fresh look
but throws dangerous levels of dust. Nowadays, facilities such as Airblast AFC
blast booths use new materials that can be recovered and re-used, making
the process of industrial blasting much safer and much more efficient. Given
that it’s vital for large structures — from wind turbines to jumbo jets — to
display the right branding — developments in this field have been crucial for
businesses in many sectors.
2. Non-toxic paints (low VOC paints) volatile organic compounds –

 Natural Paints and Finishes - These are paints made from natural raw
ingredients such as water, plant oils and resins, plant dyes and essential
oils; natural minerals such as clay, chalk, and talcum; milk casein, natural
latex, bees' wax, earth, and mineral dyes. Water-based natural paints
give off almost no smell. The oil-based natural paints usually have a
pleasant fragrance of citrus or essential oils. Allergies and sensitivities to
these paints is uncommon. These paints are the safest for your health and
for the environment.
 Zero VOC - Any paint with VOC's in the range of 5 grams/liter or less can
be called "Zero VOC", according to the EPA Reference Test Method 24.
Some manufacturers may claim "Zero-VOC's", but these paints may still
use colorants, biocides, and fungicides with some VOC's.
Adding a color tint usually brings the VOC level up to 10 grams/liter, which
is still quite low.
 Low VOC - Low VOC paints, stains and varnishes use water as a carrier
instead of petroleum-based solvents. As such, the levels of harmful
emissions are lower than solvent-borne surface coatings. These certified
coatings also contain no, or very low levels, of heavy metals and
formaldehyde. The amount of VOC's varies among different "low-VOC"
products, and is listed on the paint can or MSDS. Paints and stains, to meet
EPA standards. must not contain VOCs more than 200 grams per liter.
Varnishes must not contain VOCs more than 300 grams per liter
3.Luminous or luminescent paint – exhibits luminescence. Offer a wide range
of pigments and chroma which also 'glow' when exposed to the long-wave
"ultraviolet" frequencies (UV). These UV frequencies are found in sunlight and
some artificial lights, but they—and their glowing-paint applications—are
popularly known as black light and 'black-light effects', respectively.
In fluorescence, the visible light component—sometimes known as "white light"—
tends to be reflected and perceived normally, as color; while the UV
component of light is modified, 'stepped down' energetically into longer
wavelengths, producing additional visible light frequencies, which are then
emitted alongside the reflected white light. Human eyes perceive these
changes as the unusual 'glow' of fluorescence.
4. Iridescent paints – metallic paints, pearlescent paint, candy apple paint. Used
mainly in automobiles and uses small metal flakes like aluminum included in the
paint to create a sparkling effect. Iridescence - (also known as goniochromism)
is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear
to gradually change color as the angle of view or the angle of illumination
changes. Examples of iridescence include soap bubbles, butterfly wings
and sea shells, as well as certain minerals.

Philippine Context
 The painting industry In the Philippines is still booming due to the
advent and continuing rise of condominiums, malls, housings, and
commercial establishments in the Philippines. It grows side by side with
the booming construction industry.
 The paint manufacturing industry in the Philippines was established in
 Back in 1961, the Philippine Association of Paint Manufacturers or PAPM
was established by a group of professional men and women with a
general aim of professionalizing the paint manufacturing industry and
its constituents. It has 72 member companies as of today. Some
members are Nippon paint, Boysen, Davies, Campbridge paints, Rain
or Shine, Mega paint, and pioneer pro.
 In 2013 DENR developed a final version of CCO (Chemical Control
Order) which will prohibit lead compounds in all types of paints beyond
the allowable limit of 90ppm.
 According to the PAPM, 50 percent of coatings consumed in the
Philippines are oil-based, 48 percent are water based, and the
remaining 2 percent are other types of coatings. The country’s paint
manufacturers, based on PAPM’s calculations, can produce
approximately the equivalent of 250 million liters of finished products
per annum. An annual growth rate of 5 percent is predicted for
architectural coatings as building activity expands and the economy
grows at a modest rate (PAPM, 2012).
 Boysen is the only local paint manufacturer capable of producing its
own raw materials (Boysen Paints, 2013) Boysen announced that all
paint products coming out of its factories, whether water or oil-based,
are lead free and voluntarily phased out its lead-containing products
starting in 2007 and is the largest domestic exporter of architectural
paints in South East Asia.
CHAPTER 4: References

Austin, G. T. (2012). Shreves chemical process industries. New Delhi: Tata


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