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Distribution Feeders Using Matlab

Jatin Jangra Shelly Vadhera

Department of Electrical Engineering

National Institute of technology

Kurukshetra, INDIA

jatin231192@gmail.com, shelly_vadhera@rediffmail.com

Abstract -This paper presents a load flow solution for three Mostly, load flow solution for balanced radial distribution

phase unbalanced radial distribution feeder using networks is easily available; however, much work is not

MATLAB/Simulink software. Further a comparison between reported for unbalanced radial distribution networks.

Simulink load flow analysis and solution provided by IEEE

distribution system analysis subcommittee for various The networks are unbalanced because of single phase, two

configurations has been done. Newton-Raphson method for load phase, and three phase loads or due to unsymmetrical line

flow analysis has been used. The IEEE 13 and 34 node test feeder segment data. In this article Simulink model for unbalanced 13

models are used for comparison purposes because these models and 34 node test feeders are developed. Simulink model

includes all possible practical configurations and load profiles

consists of POWERGUI block which provide load flow

such as three phase asymmetry, single phase lateral and

distributed loads, among others. Results show the voltage solution for that model. In recent years comparison for these

magnitude and voltage angle at various load buses with unbalanced node test feeder configuration has been provided

minimum losses. by using various software like CYME [7] power engineering

software, DIGSILENT power factory and PSCAD.However

Index Terms— MATLAB/Simulink model, Node Test Feeders, no such work had been carried out using MATLAB/Simulink.

Load Flow Analysis

Recently, many software have been developed for the analysis Data for all the test feeders are taken from [4].This data for

of unbalanced three-phase radial distribution test feeders [1]. feeders consists of:

These software uses different iterative techniques and range

from very simplifying assumptions made for line and load Line segment Data:

models to very sophisticated with little assumptions made.

The result from these software are compared to benchmark Each feeder configuration provided with a table of line

test feeders. The paper presents a Simulink model for IEEE 13 segment data which gives length of the line segment and a

and 34 node test feeders, further a comparison between configuration code. It also provides node terminations i.e. line

Simulink load flow result and IEEE Distribution Systems connected between nodes for each line segment.

Analysis Subcommittee result has been done.

Load Models:

Load flow is a very important tool for analysis of power There are two types of load present in these models:

systems applications particularly in distribution automation

and optimization in power systems require repeated load flow 1. Spot load: Load can be connected at various nodes.

solutions. The development of various computer programs 2. Distributed load: Load that is distributed along a line

have become necessary because the choice of solution section.

methods for practical applications is difficult. As today there

Loads can be three-phase (balanced or unbalanced) or single

are large number of radial distribution networks are present,

phase. These loads are modeled specified as constant kW (P)

whose load flow solutions are very difficult to be found

manually [3], so there are many computer software that are and kVAr (Q), constant impedance (Z) or constant current (I).

developed which provides load flow solutions. These methods Table I gives lists of codes that will be used to describe

various loads.

require a comparative merits and demerits in respect of

memory storage requirements, computation speed and

convergence criterion.

TABLE I Load Model Codes generators. POWERGUI tool box uses Newton-Raphson

method for load flow analysis.

Code Connection Model

Y-PQ Wye Constant kW and kVAr

Y-I Wye Constant Current

Y-Z Wye Constant Impedance

D-PQ Delta Constant kW and kVAr

D-I Delta Constant Current

D-Z Delta Constant Impedance

Shunt Capacitors:

The shunt capacitor banks are modelled as three phase wye or

delta and single phase line to ground and line-to-line. The Fig. 1:Single line diagram of 13 node test feeder

rating on these capacitors are specified as rated kVAr.

Voltage Regulators:

Voltage regulators are assumed to be step-type and can be

connected in substation and/or to a specified line segment. In

MATLAB/Simulink model the voltage regulator are replaced

with constant voltage source three phase generators.

developed test systems for the use by software developers and

field engineers for validating their studies. The 13 node test

feeder single line diagram is shown in Fig.1. Characteristics of

13 node test feeder as given by subcommittee are as

following:

Fig 2. :Simulink model for 13 node test feeder

feeder

x One substation voltage regulator consisting of three

single-phase units connected in wye.

x Overhead and underground lines with variety of IV. THE IEEE 34 NODE TEST FEEDER

phasing.

x Shunt capacitor banks. The one line diagram for 34 Node Test Feeder is shown in

Fig. 3. Characteristics of 34 node test feeder as given by

x In-line transformer.

the Subcommittee are as following:

x Unbalanced spot and distributed loads.

x Very long and lightly loaded.

Simulink Model:

x Two in line regulators required to maintain a good

The following Simulink model is developed by using voltage profile.

electrical components from SIMSCAPE Power system. This x An in–line transformer reducing the voltage to 4.16

model consists of components like generating source, load kV for a short section of the feeder.

flow buses, unbalanced three phase loads and transformers x Unbalanced loading with both “spot” and

used to step down the voltage level and asymmetrical “distributed” loads. Distributed loads are assumed to

distributed lines. The single assumption taken in that model is be connected at the center of the line segment.

the voltage regulator is replaced by same rating of three phase x Shunt capacitors.

863

Fig.3: Single line diagram of 34 node test feeder

645 NA NA 1.0329 1.0329 1.0154 1.0155

Tables [II-III] show the comparison of results obtained for

load flow analysis by Simulink model and result published by 646 NA NA 1.0312 1.0311 1.0133 1.0134

radial distribution analysis subcommittee for 13 and 34 Node 671 0.9871 0.9900 1.0519 1.0529 0.9780 0.9778

Test Feeders. The voltage magnitude and voltage angle of 680 0.9871 0.9900 1.0519 1.0529 0.9780 0.9778

different phases are compared for unbalanced node test

684 0.9851 0.9881 NA NA 0.9761 0.9758

feeders.

611 NA NA NA NA 0.9741 0.9738

Bus Voltages: 652 0.9796 0.9825 NA NA NA NA

TABLE II Comparison of voltages magnitude in (p.u) at various 692 0.9871 0.9900 1.0519 1.0529 0.9780 0.9777

buses for 13 bus system 675 0.9806 0.9835 1.0543 1.0553 0.9760 0.9758

NO. Va(pu) Va(pu) Vb(pu) Vb(pu) Vc(pu) Vc(pu)

650 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

RG60 1.0625 1.0625 1.0500 1.0500 1.0687 1.0687

632 1.0210 1.0210 1.0420 1.0420 1.0174 1.0174

633 1.0178 1.0180 1.0402 1.0401 1.0148 1.0148

XFM1 0.9941 0.9941 1.0218 1.0218 0.9960 0.9960

864

Voltages Angles: 810 NA NA 1.0403 1.0294 NA NA

812 1.0270 0.9763 1.0321 1.0100 1.0289 1.0069

TABLE III Comparison of voltages angles at various buses for 814 1.0177 0.9467 1.0255 0.9945 1.0203 0.9893

13 bus system

RG1 1.0177 1.0177 1.0255 1.0255 1.0203 1.0203

Bus Simulink IEEE Simulink IEEE Simulink IEEE 850 1.0177 1.0176 1.0255 1.0255 1.0203 1.0203

NO.

Angle Angle Angle Angle Angle Angle 816 1.0177 1.0172 1.0255 1.0253 1.0203 1.0200

(Va) (Va) (Vb) (Vb) (Vc) (Vc)

650 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 818 1.0168 1.0163 NA NA NA NA

RG60 1.0625 1.0625 1.0500 1.0500 1.0687 1.0687 820 0.9929 0.9926 NA NA NA NA

632 1.0210 1.0210 1.0420 1.0420 1.0174 1.0174 822 0.9899 0.9895 NA NA NA NA

633 1.0178 1.0180 1.0402 1.0401 1.0148 1.0148 824 1.0200 1.0082 1.0259 1.0158 1.0226 1.0116

XFM1 0.9941 0.9941 1.0218 1.0218 0.9960 0.9960 826 NA NA 1.0257 1.0156 NA NA

634 0.9938 0.9940 1.0218 1.0218 0.9959 0.9960 828 1.0202 1.0074 1.0260 1.0151 1.0228 1.0109

645 NA NA 1.0329 1.0329 1.0154 1.0155 830 1.0252 0.9894 1.0287 0.9982 1.0271 0.9938

646 NA NA 1.0312 1.0311 1.0133 1.0134 854 1.0253 0.9890 1.0288 0.9978 1.0272 0.9934

671 0.9871 0.9900 1.0519 1.0529 0.9780 0.9778 852 1.0359 0.9581 1.0345 0.9680 1.0360 0.9637

680 0.9871 0.9900 1.0519 1.0529 0.9780 0.9778 RG2 1.0359 1.0359 1.0345 1.0345 1.0360 1.0360

684 0.9851 0.9881 NA NA 0.9761 0.9758 832 1.0359 1.0359 1.0345 1.0345 1.0360 1.0360

611 NA NA NA NA 0.9741 0.9738 858 1.0333 1.0336 1.0321 1.0322 1.0339 1.0338

652 0.9796 0.9825 NA NA NA NA 834 1.0303 1.0309 1.0293 1.0295 1.0315 1.0313

692 0.9871 0.9900 1.0519 1.0529 0.9780 0.9777 842 1.0303 1.0309 1.0292 1.0294 1.0315 1.0313

675 0.9806 0.9835 1.0543 1.0553 0.9760 0.9758 844 1.0300 1.0307 1.0289 1.0291 1.0312 1.0311

846 1.0303 1.0309 1.0289 1.0291 1.0315 1.0313

The load flow solution obtained by Simulink is converged in 3 848 1.0303 1.0310 1.0290 1.0291 1.0316 1.0314

iterations for 13 node test feeders. The power flow result 860 1.0298 1.0305 1.0289 1.0291 1.0312 1.0310

obtained are shown in Table IV

836 1.0295 1.0303 1.0285 1.0287 1.0311 1.0308

TABLE IV Power flow solution 840 1.0295 1.0303 1.0285 1.0287 1.0311 1.0308

862 1.0295 1.0303 1.0285 1.0287 1.0311 1.0308

Location Active Power in Reactive Power 838 NA NA 1.0283 1.0285 NA NA

KW in KVAR

864 1.0311 1.0336 NA NA NA NA

Total generation 3518.74 1540.14

Total PQ load 3101.90 1880.42 XF1 0.9997 0.9997 0.9983 0.9983 0.9998 1.0000

Total Z shunt 363.47 -479.42 888 0.9994 0.9996 0.9982 0.9983 0.9998 1.0000

load 890 0.9134 0.9167 0.9214 0.9235 0.9221 0.9177

Total losses 53.36 139.14

856 NA NA 1.0287 0.9977 NA NA

voltage magnitude and voltage angles. These configurations

are used by many researchers. Voltage Angles:

bus system

TABLE V Comparison of voltages magnitude in (p.u) at various

buses for 34 bus system Bus Simulink IEEE Simulink IEEE Simulink IEEE

NO.

Angle Angle Angle Angle Angle Angle

Bus Simulink IEEE Simulink IEEE Simulink IEEE (Va) (Va) (Vb) (Vb) (Vc) (Vc)

NO. 800 1.0500 1.0500 1.0500 1.0500 1.0500 1.0500

Va(pu) Va(pu) Vb(pu) Vb(pu) Vc(pu) Vc(pu)

802 1.0492 1.0475 1.0492 1.0484 1.0492 1.0484

800 1.0500 1.0500 1.0500 1.0500 1.0500 1.0500

806 1.0487 1.0457 1.0487 1.0474 1.0487 1.0474

802 1.0492 1.0475 1.0492 1.0484 1.0492 1.0484

808 1.0387 1.0136 1.0405 1.0296 1.0398 1.0289

806 1.0487 1.0457 1.0487 1.0474 1.0487 1.0474

810 NA NA 1.0403 1.0294 NA NA

808 1.0387 1.0136 1.0405 1.0296 1.0398 1.0289

865

812 1.0270 0.9763 1.0321 1.0100 1.0289 1.0069 VI. CONCLUSION

814 1.0177 0.9467 1.0255 0.9945 1.0203 0.9893

The Simulink load model for radial distribution node test

RG1 1.0177 1.0177 1.0255 1.0255 1.0203 1.0203 feeders have been presented in this paper. The purpose of this

850 1.0177 1.0176 1.0255 1.0255 1.0203 1.0203 paper is to draw a comparison of load flow solution between

816 1.0177 1.0172 1.0255 1.0253 1.0203 1.0200 Simulink and IEEE radial distribution subcommittee solution.

The comparison of voltage magnitude and voltage angles at

818 1.0168 1.0163 NA NA NA NA

various buses for different phases has been done. The

820 0.9929 0.9926 NA NA NA NA Simulink model takes very less number of iteration for load

822 0.9899 0.9895 NA NA NA NA flow

824 1.0200 1.0082 1.0259 1.0158 1.0226 1.0116

convergence. The only assumption made in Simulink model is

826 NA NA 1.0257 1.0156 NA NA

that the voltage regulator are replaced with same rating of

828 1.0202 1.0074 1.0260 1.0151 1.0228 1.0109 three phase source. From power flow solution tables we see

830 1.0252 0.9894 1.0287 0.9982 1.0271 0.9938 that the losses come out to be less than those provided by

854 1.0253 0.9890 1.0288 0.9978 1.0272 0.9934

IEEE subcommittee report. The Simulink models with

minimized losses can serve the researchers in the field of

852 1.0359 0.9581 1.0345 0.9680 1.0360 0.9637

power systems.

RG2 1.0359 1.0359 1.0345 1.0345 1.0360 1.0360

832 1.0359 1.0359 1.0345 1.0345 1.0360 1.0360 REFERENCES

858 1.0333 1.0336 1.0321 1.0322 1.0339 1.0338 [1] W.H Kersting,“Radial distribution test feeders”, Power Engineering

834 1.0303 1.0309 1.0293 1.0295 1.0315 1.0313 Society Winter Meeting, 2001.IEEE, Feb.2001, Vol./2.

[2] NdagaMwakabutta, ArunSekar “Comparative Study of the IEEE 34

842 1.0303 1.0309 1.0292 1.0294 1.0315 1.0313 Node Test Feeder under practical simplifications”, Power Symposium,

844 1.0300 1.0307 1.0289 1.0291 1.0312 1.0311 2007.NAPS, Oct. 2007.

[3] R. Ranjan, B. Venkatesh, A. Chaturvedi and D. Das, “Power Flow

846 1.0303 1.0309 1.0289 1.0291 1.0315 1.0313 Solution of Three-Phase Unbalanced Radial Distribution Network,

Electric Power Components and Systems 2004.

848 1.0303 1.0310 1.0290 1.0291 1.0316 1.0314

[4] Radial Distribution Test Feeders, [online].

860 1.0298 1.0305 1.0289 1.0291 1.0312 1.0310 Available:http://ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/dsacom/testfeeders.html

[5] Rodolfo A. Aguirre; DhonXean SM. Bobis, “Improved power flow

836 1.0295 1.0303 1.0285 1.0287 1.0311 1.0308 program for unbalanced radial distribution systems including voltage

840 1.0295 1.0303 1.0285 1.0287 1.0311 1.0308 dependent loads”, Power systems ICPS. March 2016.

[6] Salem Elsaiah, Mohammed Benidris, JoydeepMitra, “A Three Phase

862 1.0295 1.0303 1.0285 1.0287 1.0311 1.0308 Power Flow Solution Method for Unbalanced Distribution Networks”

838 NA NA 1.0283 1.0285 NA NA North American Power Symposium NAPS, 2011, Aug.2011.

[7] CYME QA validation Tests Cases, “Load Flow-Unbalanced-IEEE 34

864 1.0311 1.0336 NA NA NA NA Node Test Feeder”, CYME International, June 2011.

XF1 0.9997 0.9997 0.9983 0.9983 0.9998 1.0000

888 0.9994 0.9996 0.9982 0.9983 0.9998 1.0000

890 0.9134 0.9167 0.9214 0.9235 0.9221 0.9177

856 NA NA 1.0287 0.9977 NA NA

iterations for 34 node test feeders. The power flow result

obtained are shown in Table VII

KW KVAR

Total generation 1915.54 192.37

Total PQ load 1123.28 612.85

Total Z shunt 673.10 -351.13

load

Total losses 119.16 -69.35

866

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