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CUANDO LA GENTE ES

GRANDE Y DIOS ES .... 7

PEQUEÑO ............................................... 7
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Venciendo la presión de
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grupo, la codependencia y
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el temor al hombre. # $
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25 26
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27 28
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29 30
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31 32
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1
Tomado de “Either / Or” en Kierkegaard Anthology, ed. Robert Bretall (Princeton,
N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1946), 99.
B=: ;9<Q: 789 ;9 689:D>= <E9;= 5 E=: B

39 40
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41 42
=> 9A9<FB=- + = 9: ?E9>D= 789 58B5- EBB M M= :8K;E>9?D=> <9 O8KE9>5 BB5<5;= F=> D9BNU=6=
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:8UE?E96D9 = 789 78E9>= ;9?E> 9: 789 O5M ;9:?8KE9>D= E6 9<K5>@=- 586789 :9 :E96D9
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96 9B 6=<K>9 ;9 9:C:- = 9:D=M <Q: :E<FB9<96D9 ;9:96?5;9656 :85F5>E?EI6
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KG KBE?5 ;9B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9 9: 789 9: 9B ?=6;965>Q 5 <96=: ;9 789 ?=6U9:9<=:
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;9:?8KE9>D= M S8B69>5KEBE;5; =<= >9:8BD5;=
;9 9:D=- D>5D5<=: ;9 F>=D9@9>6=: M 9SED5> B5 5<KEN6 F=;9<=: 6= :9> :56D=: F=> O5K9>
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43 44
9: ;EU9>96D9 ;9 D8SE;5 FCKBE?5 + VE:D96 S9>@[96H5X- 9B :E@8E96D9 DEF= ;9 D9<=> 9: B5
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45 46
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47 48
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49 50
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5 :9> <Q: F9789T= 96 689:D>5: <96D9: :8 E6D>=:F9??EI6 :95 @8E5;5 F=> B5 EKBE5- B5:
9A5<=: ;9 D9<9>B9 5F>=FE5;5<96D9 IB= ?=:5: :IB= 9<F9=>5>Q6 8>8<K= F>9:96D9 B5
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9T=>

=> 9A9<FB=- 569D :9 <=:D>5;= >96896D9 96 E>
2
Harold S. Kushner, When bad Things Happen to Good People (New York: Schochen,
1981), 43.
5 B5 @B9:E5 96 B=: CBDE<=: ;=: <9:9: 8OEA=

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5 F96:56;= 789 :9 ?5:5
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3
Richard Lovelace, Renewal as a Way of Life (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press,
5F>96;E;= B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9 9: 5B@= 789 1985), 86.

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4
Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks, VII:1838-42, ed. :E;= ?=>>=<FE;=: F=> B5 ?ESEBEH5?EI6- ?=<= 96
A. W. Plumstead and H. Hayford (Cambridge, Mass,: Harvard University Press, 1969), 9B ?5:= ;9 B=: 6ET=: B 6ET=- ;9 5?89>;= ?=6
254.
5
Lynne Bundesen, GodDependency (New York: Crossway, 1989), 59
6
John Bradshaw, Bradshaw On: The Family (Deerfield Beach, Fla.; Health
Communications, 1988), 234, 236.

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=;9F96;96D = <=>9 D=;5: B8?9: :9 5<5K5 ;9<5:E5;= 5 :G<E:<= M
7 8
An Anthology of Modern Philosophy, Comp. D.S. Robinson (New York: Thomas Nathaniel Branden, Honoring The Self: Personal Integrity and the Heroic Potentials of
Crowell, 1931). 508. Human Nature (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983), 4.

105 106
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S=BS9> 689:D>=: =A=: O5?E5 5;96D>= ?=6:E;9>5;=: B=: <8><8BB=: E69U5KB9: ;9B 5B<5
;ESE65" :9> <=>5B<96D9 >9?D= 9: O5?9> B= 789
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6= :5B96 ?=<= 789>9<=: =;9<=: :9>
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107 108
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5<= 9 ;9?E;E;= ;ES=>?E5><9 B5 E;95 ;9 789 B5 :8F>9:EI6 ;9 B5: 9<=?E=69:
9: 86= ;9 B=: F9?5;=: ?5>;E65B9: ;9 689:D>5
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F86D=: ;9 SE:D5- +6= 9: ?E9>D= 789 :=6 96D>9<=: 5B ;=B=> 5B E6D9>N: 96 9B ;=B=>
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89:D>= 96U=789 6= :=6 :IB= B5: 9<=?E=69: :D5 9V5BD5?EI6 ;9 B=: :96DE<E96D=: O5
FB5?96D9>5: 89:D= 789 :9 FE96:5 789 B5: ?5<KE5;= 689:D>5 <569>5 ;9 F96:5> =>
9<=?E=69: 96 @969>5B :=6 B5 U896D9 ;9 9A9<FB=- O5?9 F=?= 9:?8?ON 86 :9><I6 789
S9>;5; 5<KEN6 D96;9<=: 5 D969> 86 E6D9>N: =U>9?G5 86 F>=FI:ED= 689S= M >=<Q6DE?= ;9 B5
9:F9?E5B 96 689:D>= ;=B=> B F96:5<E96D= =>5?EI6 B F>9;E?5;=> 9<F9HI ;E?E96;=- B
?>E:DE56= =>D=;=V= :E9<F>9 O5 O5KB5;= ;9B F>=FI:ED= ;9 B5 =>5?EI6 9: D969> 865
:8U>E<E96D=- F9>= 96 9B ?=6D9VD= ;9 B5 ?=6:?E96?E5 ;9 B5 F>9:96?E5 ;9 E=: 8;9
>9?=@9> 5B@865: 5FBE?5?E=69: CDEB9: ;9B
9
On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers (New York: Harper & Row, 1965),
106.
:9><I6- F9>= :8 D9:E: ?96D>5B 9:D5K5

109 110
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>9;8?9 5 ?85B78E9> ?=:5 789 F>9SE969 789 6=: :8K:D56?E5 9 D>5D5 ;9 :96DE>
:E6D5<=: KE96 ?=6 6=:=D>=: <E:<=:

111 112
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?896D5 ;9 789 D8 5B<5 9: 86 >9UB9A= F9>U9?D= D>= 9A9<FB= 9: B?=OIBE?=: 6I6E<=: W X
;9 E=: = ?=6:?E96?E5 ?I:<E?5- 9>9: ?5F5H;9 856;= EBB JEB:=6- U86;5;=> ;9 - 9:D5K5 96
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?>E:DE56= 9>5 865 D>ESE5BE;5; E=: F9>:=65B 6 S9H;9 9:D=- B= 9:FE>ED85B
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+ 8N78E9>9 ;9?E> F5>5 D=;=: 9:D=: <EB9: 789 :96DE<E96D= ;9 FB96ED8; M <5>5SEBB5
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96 @>56 F5>D9- O5:D5 ;=6;9 86= F89;9 S9>- 5B F5>9?9 789 96 689:D>=: ;G 5: F89;9: :9>
SES96 96 ?5D9@=>G 5: K5:D56D9 5A965: 5B 9:FE>ED85B :E ?>99: 96 D8H5F5D= EH78E9>;=
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?=<F>=K5> 9:D= ?=6 :IB= =K:9>S5>B=: =6 9 789;= ?=6 B= 789 <9 @8:D5 ;9 B5
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=KBE@5?E=69: 56D9 E=: W X 6 9B U=6;= ;9 ;9B E=: ;9 B=: ?>E:DE56=: 789 9:DQ 5BBQ
9:D= ;9K9 9:D5> 865 ?=6U8:EI6 D>9<96;5- 865 5>>EK5 E96:= 96 E=: ?=<= 9B 6ES9>:=
EB8:EI6 5D9>>5;=>5- ?=6 D=;5 :9@8>E;5; 6= O5M ?=6 :8F>=FE= :96DE;= ;9 K=6;5;
;8;5 ;9 9BB=
5 9:FE>ED85BE;5; 9:DQ ;9 <=;5 =D>5 S9H
]E9>Z9@55>; :8965 ?=<= 86 F>=U9D5 F5>5 =;5SG 5 :5K9<=: 789 9VE:D96 <E:D9>E=:- 586
689:D>5 NF=?5 =: K5KM4K==<9>: 9:DQ6 96 865 9>5 96 B5 789 B5 D9?6=B=@G 5 9:DQ
>9@>9:56;= 5 B5 E@B9:E5- F9>= 5B@865: S9?9: 6= 9VFB=D56;= 5 @96D9 ;9:95 >9D969> 86
:96DE;= ;9 <5>5SEBB5 96 :8: SE;5: 5>5
10
Los Angeles Times, July 29, 1995, F2. ;9?E>B= ;9 865 <569>5 <Q: KG KBE?5- 9B
11
Soren Kierkegaard, The Point of View for my Work as an Author: A report to History
(New York: Harper & Row, 1962), 74.

113 114
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5:B=^- B5: 69?9:E;5;9: <Q: KQ:E?5: :=6
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689:D>=: 9:DQ6;5>9: = 689:D>=: :96DE<E96D=:- 9:D5: 69?9:E;5;9: :=6 :5DE:U9?O5:- F=;9<=:
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69?9:E;5;9: E6:5DE:U9?O5: D>59>Q6 ?=<=
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69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5: U89 K>5O5<
12
Abraham Maslow, Toward a Psichology of Being (New York: Van Nostrand, 1968),
5:B=^ 8 D9=>G5 ;9 B5 58D=>95BEH5?EI6 21.

115 116
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:IB= F89;96 UB=>9?9> 96 86 ?=6D9VD= ;=6;9 9B ;=78E9>- 6= 9: ;9 5:=<K>5>:9 789 586 B=:
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789 96 B5 ?=<86E;5;- M ;=6;9 9B ?=6:8<E:<= >9U=><5 96 B5: :8F=:E?E=69: U86;5<96D5B9: ;9
9: 86 9:DEB= ;9 SE;5 E B9 F>9@86D5: 5 B5 689:D>5 ?8BD8>5
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5: 9<=?E=69: 5F86D56 5 B5: 69?9:E;5;9:- M 9BE<E65>B= 96?EBB5<96D9 :9 :E96D9 <9A=>
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+ 89;9: 9:?8?O5> B5 <569>5 ?=<= 689:D>5
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5 >E:DE565
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5 :9> 5789BB= 5 B= 789 D9<9: E 69?9:ED5: <86;= 8?O=: F5:D=>9: M BG
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117 118
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DE<5 - = 865 69?9:E;5; F>E<5>E5 5B S9H
9A9<FB=- 86 K9:D :9BB9> 96 9B <9>?5;= B= 789 9:D=M BB5<56;= 865 69?9:E;5;
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86 >9?EFE96D9 S5?G = M F5:ES= 789 9:F9>5 :9> E=:- F9>= 6=: BB9S5>Q 86 F=?= <Q: ;9
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9: BB965;5 ?=6 9B 5<=> ;9 B=: ;9<Q: E 69?9:E;5;9: - F>E<9>5 SE:D5- F5>9?9 D969>
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?856;= 6= 5<= ;9 B5 <569>5 96 789 <9 ;9:9=: 9@=G :D5:- 96D=6?9: O5K>Q6 5B@865:
@8:D5>G5 & = ;9 B5 <569>5 789 69?9:ED= :ED85?E=69: 96 B5: 789 ;9K9<=: ;9?E> 789
9>= :IB= F=>789 :E96D= 865 69?9:E;5; ;9 9:C: 6= DE969 B5 E6D96?EI6 ;9 :5DE:U5?9>
:9> 5<5;= 6= :E@6EUE?5 789 9:D9 ;9:9=
13
Robert Hemfelt, Frank Minirth, y Paul Meier, Love Is a Choice (Nashville: Nelson,
1989), 34.

119 120
689:D>5: 69?9:E;5;9:- F9>= 789 NB 78E9>9 86 ?>E<96 SE=B96D= :95 86 5K>5H= M 86 K896
?5<KE5> 689:D>5: 69?9:E;5;9: ' BB56D= (

B =6D>5@=BF9 9<9>@96D9 5 F>96:5 5?5;N<E?5 D5<KEN6 9:DQ ;9:5UE56;=
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5 =?8>>E;= 865 ?=:5 <Q: 96 B5 K>9S9 OE:D=>E5 ;9UE6E;5 ?=<= 865 D5H5 S5?G 5 6 86
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6E F5>5 B5 :=?E9;5;- 9B 9:D5> 5K:=>D= ?=6 B5: F>=U9:EI6 F:E?=BI@E?5 M B5 E6;8:D>E5 ;9 B5
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D9I>E?5: ;9B 9@=G :<= >5F5H M B5 SE?DE<EH5?EI6 6=: O5 BB9S5;= 5 865 @969>5?EI6 ;9 E6;ESE;8=:
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:8F=:E?E=69: <86;565:- M 9:D5: :8F=:E?E=69:
14 15
Ver Welch, “Who are we? Needs, Longings, and the Image of God in Man” The The Economist, February 26, 1994, 15.
16
Journal of Biblical Counseling, 13 (1994): 25-38 Philip Cushman, “Why the Self Is Empty,” American Psychologist (May 1990), 599.

121 122
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5
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123 124
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17
John M´clintock and James Strong, “Holiness” Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological
<56EU9:D5;5 96 D=;5: :8: ?85BE;5;9: 8 and Ecclesiastical Literature (New York: Harper, 1872), 4:298.

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18
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, “Aurora Leigh”, Libro VII.
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20
Un libro útil es Robert A. Peterson, Hell on Trial: The Case for Eternal Punishment
19
The Works of Jonathan Edwards (New York: Leavitt and Allen, 1855), 4:313-21. (Phillipsburg, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1995).

167 168
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21
Tom Whiteman and Randy Petersen, Love Gone Wrong (Nashville: Nelson, 1994),
B9@5B<96D9- M 6=: >9;E<9 ;9 B5 9:?B5SED8; ;9B 90.

185 186
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22
F=>?EI6 789 ;E@5 789 D969<=: 865 69?9:E;5;-
Robert Hemfelt, Frank Minirth, and Paul Meier, Love Is a Choice (Nashville:
Nelson), 34

187 188
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189 190
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6= F89;96 <5D5>\ D9<9; <Q: KE96 5 5789B 5B5K>5 ;9 E=: F969D>5 9B 5:F9?D= E6;ESE:EKB9
789 F89;9 ;9:D>8E> 9B 5B<5 M 9B ?89>F= 96 9B ;9 B5 F9>:=65 5 F5B5K>5 BB9@5 O5:D5 B5:
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191 192
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5B<5 96U5DEH5 B5 9VE:D96?E5 ;NKEB M D9>>965B 9 5?89>;= ?=6 B5 D9=>G 5 ;9 B5: 69?9:E;5;9:
;9 B5 F9>:=65- 96 D56D= 789 9:FG >ED8 :8K>5M5 F:E?=BI@E?5:- B= 789 9: :E<EB5> 9: 789 D56D= 9B
9B O9?O= ;9 789 689:D>5 SE;5 :9 ;9>ES5 ;9 O=<K>9 ?=<= E=: DE9696 86 ;9:9= F>=U86;=
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E6<5D9>E5B ;9 689:D>5 O8<56E;5;- = 5 B5 ?=6 NB <E:<= & 9B 5;>9- 9B EA=- M 9B :FG >ED8
F9>:=65 789 SES9 56D9 9B E=: :56D= => B= 56D= 5<KEN6 :E@6EUE?5 789 E=: DE969 86
D56D=- 6= F=;9<=: 96?=6D>5> 69?9:E;5;9: 56O9B= ;9 >9:D58>5> B5 >9B5?EI6 ?=6 :8: OEA=: !%
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=> B= D56D=- ;9 5?89>;= ?=6 9:D5 D9=>G
5- B5
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KGKBE?= ;9 B5 E;95 ;9 B5: 69?9:E;5;9:
F:E?=BI@E?5: 9: 9B ?=6?9FD= ;9 B5 E<5@96 ;9 23
Larry Crabb, Understandig People (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976), 94

193 194
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?=6:9A= 9: :8F9>UE?E5B B F5:D=> 6= 96D96;EI
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=KSE= F=> B5 E6UB896?E5 ?8BD8>5B = F=> B5 F>=U86;5 F5>5 :8?OE:<9 9: :8F>=FE= F9?5;=
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=D9<=: 865 ;9 :8: E<FBE?5?E=69: ?=6 ?=6D>5 ;9 E=: 5 ?58:5 ;9B F9?5;= 9: 9B
>9:F9?D= 5 E=: = ?5K9 ;8;5 ;9 789 E=: F9?5;= :8<E> 789 B5 :=B9;5; 9: 9B
5<5 5 :8 F89KB=- F9>= B5 F9>:F9?DES5 ;9 B=: S9>;5;9>= <9=BB= ;9B F>=KB9<5 :E@6EUE?5
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24
Larry Crabb, Inside Out (Colorado Springs: NavPress, 1991), 53-54
25
Crabb, Understanding People, 112

195 196
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197 198
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789 DE969 9B ;9>9?O= ;9 9:D5> 96=A5;= ?856;= F:E?=BI@E?5:,
:89:F=:5 6= :5DE:U5?9 9:D5 69?9:E;5;
6D=6?9:- + I<= ;9K9<=: 96D96;9>
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M 6= B= :=<=:- 6=: :96DE<=: O9>E;=: E + I6;9 F=;9<=: 96?=6D>5>B5: 96 B5 :?>ED8>5,
D969<=: 865 69?9:E;5; ;9 >9:F9D=- :=<=: = O5M 9SE;96?E5 ?B5>5 ;9 789 :=6 865 F5>D9
;9S5:D5;=: = 6=: 96=A5<=: ;E:DE6DES5 ;9 689:D>5 65D8>5B9H5 ;5;5 F=>
E=:- 6= =K:D56D9 :=6 >95B9: E B5 EKBE5 6=
=: <56;5D=: 789 E=: O5?9 ;9 5<5>- O5KB5 ;9 9:D=- 96D=6?9: :9>G 5 :EB96?E=:5 ;9
9:?8?O5>- BB9S5> B5: ?5>@5: M B5S5> B=: FE9:- 6= 865 9VF9>E96?E5 O8<565 F>=<E696D9 M ?5:E
E<FBE?56 789 D969<=: 69?9:E;5;9: 86ES9>:5B
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;9?E> 789 69?9:ED5<=: F>5?DE?5>B5:- F9>= B5 6 S9H ;9 K8:?5> 9:D9 ?=6?9FD= 96 B5 NF=?5
:?>ED8>5 6= :8@E9>9 789 ;9K9<=: >9?EKE>B5: ;9 B5 ?>95?EI6- ?856;= U8E<=: ?>95;=: 5 B5
F5>5 :96DE>6=: KE96 ?=6 6=:=D>=: <E:<=: 6 E<5@96 ;9 E=:- 78EHQ ;9K9>G 5<=: K8:?5> 96
S9H;9 9:D=- B5 :?>ED8>5 ?89:DE=65 9B F>=FI:ED= B5 NF=?5 789 SE6= ;9:F8N: ;9B F9?5;= ;9
D=D5B ;9 B5: 69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5: =: ;Q6 C6 ;9:F8N: ;9 B5 ?5G ;5 96 9B F9?5;=-
O5KB5 5?9>?5 ;9 B5 69@5?EI6 ;9 86= <E:<= 96 B5 @96D9 :E@8EI F=>D56;= B5 E<5@96 ;9 E=:-
S9H;9 O5KB5> ;9 :96DE>6=: <9A=> ?=6 6=:=D>=: F9>= B5 ;9:=K9;E96?E5 ;9 ;Q6 D>5A= ?5<KE=:
<E:<=: =: O5KB5 ;9B =>@8BB=- 6= ;9 865 U86;5<96D5B9: 96 689:D>5 O5KEBE;5; F5>5
<5M=> 58D=9:DE<5 5<KEN6 9: 86 9>>=> >9UB9A5> B5 E<5@96 ;9 E=: 5 ;E>9??EI6 ;9B
BI@E?= 96?=6D>5> 865 ?=69VEI6 96D>9 B=: ?=>5HI6 O8<56= :9 =>E96DI O5?E5 9B M= M 6=
<56;5<E96D=: ;9 E=: M 689:D>5 69?9:E;5; O5?E5 E=: 6 9B A5>;G6- 9B O=<K>9 ?=<96HI5
;9 >9?EKE> 5789BB= 789 9: <56;5;= E 5FBE?5: >9F9DE> B5 <56D>5 789 F9>:E:DE>Q O5:D5 789
9:5 BI@E?5 5B <56;5<E96D= ;9 ?=6:E;9>5> 5 B=: 9:C: >9@>9:9 ;Q6 ;EA=" = 78E9>= =
;9<Q: ?=<= :8F9>E=>9: 5 86= <E:<= WEB 78E9>= @B=>E5 F5>5 <G<E:<= 96 B8@5> ;9 ;5>B9
!"%X- BB9@5>G 5: 5 B5 ?=6?B8:EI6 ?B5>5<96D9 D=;5 B5 @B=>E5 5 E=: = 5<= <E: F>=FE=:
978ES=?5;5 =6?B8E>G5: 789 F89:D= 789 E=: ;9:9=: 96 B8@5> ;9 5<5> 5 E=: :D= BB9@= 5
B9 O5 =>;965;= 9:D= 5 B=: ;9<Q:- DC ;9K9: :9> ?=6=?E;= ?=<= 96SE;E5- ;9:9=:
D969> 865 69?9:E;5;- 9:D5KB9?E;5 F=> E=:- ;9 ;9:=>;965;=:- = E;=B5D>G 5
:96DE>D9 <Q: E<F=>D56D9 789 =D>5: F9>:=65:
+ : F=:EKB9 789 9B = 78E9>= ;9 ;Q6 9: B5
F>E<9>5 9VF>9:EI6 ;9 B5: 69?9:E;5;9:

199 200
F:E?=BI@E?5:, : F=:EKB9 789 B=: ;9:9=: 96@= 789 D969>B= - E ;9:9=: :=6 B=:
F:E?=BI@E?=: SE9696 ?856;= 6=: >9O8:5<=: 5 KB=789: KQ:E?=: 789 U=><56 <E <86;=
5<5> 5 E=: M 5 >9?EKE> :8 5<=>, + = U89 ?=6
;Q6 789 9B <=SE<E96D= ;9 B5 SE;5 O8<565 =6:E;9>5 B=: <=<96D=: 96 B=: 789 D9 O5:
?=<96HI 5 E> O5?E5 5;96D>=- O5?E5 B=: ;9:9=: :96DE;= ?=6D>=B5;= F=> =D>5: F9>:=65: &
;9B M= - 96 S9H ;9 E> O5?E5 U89>5- O5?E5 86 5789BB=: <=<96D=: 96 B=: 789 D9 OE?E9>=6
;9:9= ;9 ?=6=?9> M O5?9> B5 S=B86D5; ;9 E=:, 96=A5>D9 = ;9F>E<E>D9 O=>5 <E>5 ;9K5A= ;9
D5B 9:?B5SED8; + I<= ?=<FB9D5>G 5: B5 =>5?EI6
:D= 6= 78E9>9 ;9?E> 789 9B F9?5;= =>E@E65B U89 = 69?9:ED= _______ = = 56O9B=
9B ;9B9ED9 96 :96DE>:9 5<5;= E9>D5<96D9 6= ________ + =;>G 5 9VF>9:5>:9 9V5?D5<96D9
89:D= 789 U8E<=: U=>A5;=: F=> B E=: B= <E:<= ;E?E96;= = 78E9>= ______ `
<56D9- ;9K9<=: ;9B9ED5>6=: 96 5<5> M :9> W5<=>- :9@8>E;5;- :E@6EUE?5;=- F=;9>X M P6= B=
5<5;=: 9>G
5 5B@= E6O8<56= 9B 6= ;9B9ED5>:9 9:D=M =KD96E96;=R 9<56;= D969> ______
96 9B 5<=> 5<KEN6 :9>G 5 E6O8<56= :E 6= 6:E:D= 96 D969> ______ = = F89;=
6=: :E6DEN>5<=: O9>E;=: F>=U86;5<96D9 U86?E=65>a SESE>a
=K9;9?9> :E6 ________
?856;= =D>=: 6=: >9?O5H56 = F9?56 96 689:D>5
?=6D>5 B F>=KB9<5 6= 9: 789 ;9:95<=: :D= 9VFBE?5 F=> 78N >E:D= 5B@865: S9?9: 6=
5<=>- 9B F>=KB9<5 9: ?8Q6D= B= ;9:95<=: = 9: :8UE?E96D9 F5>5 6=:=D>=: E 9:D=M ;9B56D9
?=6 78N F>=FI:ED= B= ;9:95<=: += ;9 NB ?=<= 865 D5H5 S5?G 5 9:F9>56;= :9>
;9:95<=: D56D= 789 F=69 :=<K>5 :=K>9 BB965;5 ?=6 :5DE:U5??EI6 F:E?=BI@E?5- 686?5 <9
689:D>= ;9:9= ;9 E<ED5> 5 E=:, + = ;9:95<=: :96DE>N :8UE?E96D9<96D9 BB96= + => 78N,
F5>5 689:D>= F>=FE= FB5?9> = F5>5 B5 @B=>E5 ;9 >E<9>=- F=>789 <E: ;9:9=: :=6 EBE<ED5;=:\
E=:, :=6 E6:5?E5KB9: F=> 65D8>5B9H5 9@86;=-
F=>789 9:C: 6= DE969 B5 E6D96?EI6 ;9
=: 56O9B=: DE9696 <8?O= 96 ?=<C6 ?=6 B=: :5DE:U5?9> <E: ;9:9=: 9@=G :D5: B ?=6D>5>E=-
;9:9=: ;9:=>;965;=: =<E96H56 KE96 W 9B 9B DE969 B5 E6D96?EI6 ;9 >=<F9> B5 D5H5 ;9 B5:
;9:9= ;9 :96DE>:9 5<5;=X F9>= 5?5K56 F=> 69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5: W ;9:9=:X- 96 S9H
9:?B5SEH5>6=: B9S5> 689:D>= ;9:9= ;9 5<=> ;9 BB965>B5
M =D>=: FB5?9>9: O5:D5 9B F86D= 96 789 :9
?=6SE9>D96 96 69?9:E;5;9: = 56O9B=: 65 F9BG ?8B5 ?>E:DE565 <=:D>5K5 5 86
U9>SE96D9:- 9: 9V5BD5> F9?5<E6=:5<96D9 9B 5;=B9:?96D9 789 :9 5?9>?I 5 >E:D= ?=6 B5
;9:9= ;9 D5B <569>5 789 :9 ?=6SE9>D9 96 86 F>=<9:5 ;9 =KD969> <9A=>9: ?5BEUE?5?E=69: 5
;9BE>E= ;9 ;9:9= =: @>ED5" = 78E9>= - F5>DE> ;9 :8 ?=6S9>:EI6 =6UG
5 96 >E:D=-
=KDN6 <9A=>9: ?5BEUE?5?E=69: & P:8965

201 202
@>56;E=:=R E<FB9<96D9 5@>N@5B9 5B@865: F5>D9 ;9 B= 789 :=<=: => 9A9<FB=- +;9A5:
?=:5: <Q: ?=<= ;E69>=- 865 F5>9A5 5D>5?DES5 ;9 :9> F9?5;=> ?856;= ;89><9:, 9>N <Q:
M 9B ?5>>= ;9 B5 U5<EBE5- M :9 ?=6S9>DE>Q6 D=;=: 9:F9?GUE?= + 9A5: ;9 :9> F9?5;=> ?856;=
B=: 5;=B9:?96D9: + 9>= 6= 9: 5?5:= 9:D= 865 ;89><9: M 6= :89T5:, 5 >9:F89:D5 KG KBE?5
5F9B5?EI6 5 B=: ;9:9=: 96 S9H ;9 =U>9?9> ?B5>5<96D9 9: 6= : ?=<= :E <9
BEK9>5?EI6 M F9>;I6 ;9 9BB=:, B 9S56@9BE:<= F>9@86D5>56- + E@89: :E96;= ; ?856;=
F>5?DE?5;= F=> B=: E:>59BED5: 686?5 :8@E>EI 789 ;89><9:, B :9> F9?5;=> 9: 865
:8: S9?E6=: E;IB5D>5: ;9KG 56 ?=<96H5> 5 ;9:?>EF?EI6- 96 9B DE9<F= F>9:96D9- ;9 D=;=:
5;=>5> 5B E=: S9>;5;9>= F=>789 9O=SQ B9: 6=:=D>=:- E6?B8M96;= ;9 5789BB=: 789 O56
;5>G5 <9A=>9: ?=:9?O5: 789 B=: G ;=B=: 6 S9H F89:D= :8 U9 96 >E:D= => :8F89:D=- O56
;9 9:D=- B5 @96D9 U89 M 9: BB5<5;5 5 S=BS9>:9 :E;= A8:DEUE?5;=: D=;=: 5789BB=: 789 O56
;9 B=: G ;=B=: F=>789 B5 E;=B5D>G 5 9:DQ6 96 BB5<5;= 9T=> 5 9:C:- B= ?85B 78E9>9 ;9?E>
?=6D>5 ;9 E=: 789 M5 6= :=6 ?=6:E;9>5;=: ?=<= ?8BF5KB9:
5<KEN6- B9: O5 :E;= ;5;= 9B :FG >ED8- 9B ?85B
> 5 >E:D= F5>5 :5DE:U5?9> 689:D>5: B=: O5?9 :E9>S=: ;9 >E:D= 96 S9H ;9 :9>
69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5: F9>?EKE;5: 9: :E9>S=: ;9B F9?5;= 9>= D=;5SG 5 :=6
?>E:DE56EH5> 689:D>=: ;9:9=: 9 F9;E<=: 5 F9?5;=>9: 5 F9>U9??EI6 6=: 5@85>;5 96 B5
E=: 789 6=: ;9 B= 789 789>9<=:- F5>5 789 9D9>6E;5;
F=;5<=: :96DE>6=: <9A=> ?=6 6=:=D>=:
<E:<=:- = F5>5 789 F=;5<=: D969> <Q: =<= F9?5;=>9: 789 F9?56- 9:D5<=: 96
U9BE?E;5;- 96 S9H ;9 :56DE;5;- 96 689:D>5: ;98;5 ?=6 86 E=: 56D= 9 ;9K9<=:
SE;5: F9>U9?D5 B95BD5;- @B=>E5- 5B5K56H5 M O=6=>-
F9>= 6= B9 O9<=: F5@5;= F=>789 O9<=: :E;=
:D= 6=: >9?89>;5 789 865 ;9 B5: U=><5: 789 D=D5B<96D9 ;9:DED8E;=: => B= D56D=- 865 ;9
D969<=: 9: B5 U=><5 ;9 F9?5;=>9: B :9> 689:D>5: 69?9:E;5;9: <Q: F>=U86;5 9: 9B
F9?5;=> M5 6= 9: 689:D>5 U=><5 F>E<5>E5 = F9>;I6 9>;I656=: 689:D>5: ;98;5: -
E;96DE;5;- F9>= 9: 865 E;96DE;5; 789 D=;5SG 5 =>5<=:- M E=: 96 >E:D= F9>;=65 689:D>5
>9D969<=: B@C6 ;G5 :9>9<=: B5 9:F=:5 ;98;5 W 5D )" !X
D=D5B<96D9 O9><=:5- F9>= O5:D5 9:9 ;G 5
F9><569?9<=: :E96;= F9?5;=>9: 789 F9?56 O=>5 >95B<96D9 9:D5<=: 96 ;98;5 ?=6 E=:-
F9>= 6= 9: 865 ;98;5 789 5S9>@[96?9
B M= 78E9>= >9:E;96D9 9: <Q: 789 5B@= 789 :D5K5<=: 96;98;5;=: F=> 689:D>= F9?5;=- M
O5?9<=: =?5:E=65B<96D9 :DQ 96D>9D9AE;= 96 N>5<=: F9>:=65: 5S9>@=6H5;5: O=>5-
B5 D9B5 ;9 689:D>5: SE;5: ;9 D5B <569>5 789 9: 9:D5<=: 96;98;5;=: F=> :8 F9>;I6- M

203 204
9:D5<=: BB96=: ;9 @>5DED8; = =K:D56D9- 9:D9
6= 9: 9B BG <ED9 ;9 689:D>5 ;98;5 F>9:96D9 5>5 96:5>
89:D>= 5;>9 9B9:DE5B 6=: O5 O9?O= D5<KEN6
:8: OEA=: M O9>9;9>=: =: O5 ;5;= 865 :D9 ?5FG D8B= O5 >9S9B5;= 86 9:B5KI6 F9>;E;=
689S5 U5<EBE5 M 865 689S5 E;96DE;5; ;9 B5 <569>5 ?=<= U>9?896D9<96D9 D>5D5<=:
;9<Q:- 9:D9 9: :IB= 9B 56DE?EF= 789 @5>56DEH5 ?=6 9B O9?O= ;9 :9> ?=6D>=B5;=: F=> =D>5:
B= 789 9:DQ F>9F5>5;= F5>5 6=:=D>=: =: O5 F9>:=65:" BSE;5<=: 789 ;9K9<=:
:96D5;= 96 B=: B8@5>9: ?9B9:DE5B9: & 96 B5 5>>9F96DE>6=: ;9 689:D>=: ;9:9=: 9@=G :D5:
<E:<G :E<5 F>9:96?E5 ;9 E=: & M 6=: ;5 9B E6 5>>9F96DE<E96D=- 689:D>=: ;9:9=:
F>ESEB9@E= ;9 <=>5> ?=6 NB F5>5 :E9<F>9 F9><569?96 :E96;= 9B F86D= U=?5B 96 S9H ;9
:9>B= B5 @B=>E5 ;9 E=:
=: O5 ?56?9B5;= B5 ;98;5 F9>= 6= 6=: ;9AI
?=<= <96;E@=: :E6 ;98;5:- :E6= 789 D5<KEN6 =<5 DE9<F= M ?=6:E;9>5 ?8Q6D5: ;9 D8:
6=: OEH= >E?=: :5 9: 865 ;98;5 789 F89;9 69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5: O56 :E;= 96
BB9S5>6=: 5B >9@=?EA= >95BE;5; ;9<56;5: M ;9:9=: ;E:U>5H5;=:

O=>5 ?=<F>96;= 78N9: B= 789 <9 <56D96G 5
K5A= 9B D9<=> ;9B O=<K>9 586 ?856;= ?=6=?G 5 2 =6=?9 D8: S9>;5;9>5:
9B 9S56@9BE= <8M KE96 = :IB= 69?9:ED5K5 69?9:E;5;9:
?>9?9> 96 9B D9<=> ;9B 9T=>- :E6= D5<KEN6
69?9:ED5K5 5>>9F96DE><9 E: 69?9:E;5;9: 9@>9:9<=: 5O=>5 5 B5 F>9@86D5" + 8EN69:
:96DE;5:- ;9:9=:- = F5:E=69: 9>5 @>56;9: :=<=:, 9<=: ?=6:E;9>5;= M5 ?I<= 5B@865:
>56 D56 @>56;9: 789 K8:?5K5 5 D=;=: F5>5 ;9 689:D>5: 69?9:E;5;9: :96DE;5: 6= :=6
:9> BB965;=- D56D= 5 E=: ?=<= 5 B5 @96D9 F5>D9 ;9 B5 E<5@96 ;9 E=: 96 6=:=D>=:- F9>=
9<G 5 5 B=: ;9<Q: F=>789 9BB=: 9>56 @>56;9:- 6= O9<=: ;E:?8DE;= 586 789 9: B5 E<5@96 ;9
<E: ;9:9=: 9>56 586 <Q: @>56;9:- M E=: 9>5 E=: 96 6=:=D>=: + 8QB9: :=6 B5: 5BD9>65DES5:
F9789T= KGKBE?5: ;EU9>96D9: 5 B5 E;95 ;9 789 B5:
F9>:=65: :=6 D5H5: S5?G5:,
5 >5HI6 F>E6?EF5B F=> B5 789 O5M 86 S5?G =
9FE;N<E?= 9: 789 O9<=: ?>95;= M <8BDEFBE?5;= 89:D= 789 B5 E<5@96 ;9 E=: 96 9B O=<K>9
689:D>5: 69?9:E;5;9: !) DE969 789 S9> ?=6 689:D>5 :9<9A56H5 =
tu cónyuge muere, te sentirías vacío. Te deberías sentir vacío. Algo hermoso ha sido
26
Los deseos desordenados no son la única razón del vacío. Otra explicación de ese retirado de tu vida. Hay un gran sentimiento de pérdida. No obstante, este vacío es el
vacío surge del hecho de que vivimos en un mundo pecaminoso donde pecan contra resultado de la maldición y la muerte causando dolor en nuestra psiqué, y no es el
nosotros, y estamos viviendo en un mundo que está bajo la maldición. Por ejemplo, si resultado del haber sido creado con necesidades psicológicas.

205 206
:E<EBED8; ?=6 E=: W N69:E: %"(X- 9B F86D= ;9 ?=:5: NB :95 B5 @B=>E5 F=> :E9<F>9
F5>DE;5 ;9K9 :9> + 8EN6 9: E=:, 85B78E9> W =<56=: "%)X
;=?D>E65 ;9 B5 E<5@96 ;9 E=: ;9K9 E> M S96E>
?=6 D=;5 U5?EBE;5; M U>9?896D9<96D9 96D>9 9B =D9<=: 789 M5 O5 :8>@E;= 865 ;EU9>96?E5
?=6=?E<E96D= ;9 E=: M 9B ?=6=?E<E96D= ;9 96D>9 9:D5 F9>:F9?DES5 M B5 689S5 F:E?=B=@G 5
6=:=D>=: <E:<=: =B5<96D9 O5:D5 789 ;9 B5: 69?9:E;5;9: 6 B5 F:E?=B=@G 5 ;9 B5:
=KD96@5<=: 86 96D96;E<E96D= ?=>>9?D= ;9 69?9:E;5;9:- B5 >5HI6 65D8>5B F5>5 5B5K5> 5
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+ 8EN69: :=6 B5: F9>:=65:, KE96- F9>= 6= BB9@5 B= :8UE?E96D9<96D9 B9A=:
9:;9 B5 F9>:F9?DES5 KG KBE?5- E=: <9>9?9
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69?9:E;5;9: , F86D= U=?5B 65D8>5B F5>5 689:D>=:
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69?9:E;5;9: ;9B D>E6= E=:, = DE969 96D96;EN6;=B5 ?=>>9?D5<96D9- 9:D5 @B=>E5 B=
69?9:E;5;9: :DQ D=D5B<96D9 ?=<FB9D= B ?=6:8<9 D=;= =: :>59BED5: 6= BB9@5>=6 5
F5;>9 5<5 5B EA= B EA= 9:DQ 9<K9B9:5;= ?56D5> F=>789 :8: ;9:9=: F:E?=BI@E?=: O5KG 56
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D=;5: 9:D5: E;95:
27
Una discusión útil sobre este tema se puede encontrar en el libro “The Pleasures of
God” de John Pipper

207 208
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211 212
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213 214
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215 216
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;E:?EFBE65 F5D9>65B- 689:D>5 E<ED5?EI6 D5<KEN6
F89;9 :9> 9VF>9:5;5 96 B5 F5D9>6E;5; =<= :G 789 5;9<Q: ;9B F9>;I6 ;9 F9?5;=:-
:8 :56DE;5; 9: ;9<=:D>5;5 5B :9> D>5K5A5;=>- +D969<=: 5B@865 =D>5 69?9:E;5;,
5:G ;9K9 :9> 96 6=:=D>=: E=: 6=: O5 + 9?9:ED5<=: >9B5?E=69: :G= 6=, 5 >9:F89:D5
:9>SE;=- M 5:G;9K9<=: E<ED5>B9 M :9>SE> 5 ;9F96;9 ;9 B= 789 96DE96;5: ?=6 9B DN><E6=
=D>5: F9>:=65: => B= D56D=- 86 F5;>9 69?9:E;5; E 9:D5<=: O5KB56;= 5?9>?5 ;9 B5:
?>E:DE56= 789 :9 D=<5 9B DE9<F= F5>5 A8@5> 69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5:- 96D=6?9: B5
UCDK=B ?=6 :8: OEA=:- 9:DQ E<ED56;= 5 E=: 789 >9:F89:D5 9: 6=\6= 69?9:ED5<=: >9B5?E=69: 4
F5:5 DE9<F= ?=6 :8 F89KB= 6 OEA= 789 F=69 ?=6 E=: = ?=6 B5 @96D9 & F5>5 BB965> 689:D>5:
B5 <9:5 = B5S5 B=: FB5D=: ;9 B5 ?965 F=> 56O9B=: ;9 :E@6EUE?5;= M 5<=> !1 :D= :9>G5
=K9;E96?E5 5 >E:D= 9:DQ E<ED56;= 5B E=: :9<9A56D9 5 ;9?E> 789 69?9:ED= 5 E=: F5>5
:E9>S= M 5:GB9 @B=>EUE?5 86 =K>9>= 789 :5DE:U5?9> <E 69?9:E;5; ;9 :96DE><9 @>56;9 9
>95BEH5 D>5K5A= :9?8B5> ?=6 9B ;9:9= ;9 :9>SE> 5 E<F=>D56D9 5: 69?9:E;5;9: 9@=G :D5: 6=
>E:D= 9:DQ E<ED56;= 5B EA= 78E96 O5 =K>5;= 5 ;9K96 :9> :5DE:U9?O5: :E6= <5D5;5:
689:D>= U5S=>
+ 9>= 789 ;9?E<=: ;9B O9?O= ;9 789 B5
78GO5M :IB= 5B@865: <569>5: 96 B5: 789 :?>ED8>5 =>;965 789 6=: 5<9<=: B=: 86=: 5
E<ED5<=: 5 689:D>= E=:" B=: =D>=:, + E@6EUE?5 9:D= 789 69?9:ED5<=:
5<=>, = 69?9:5>E5<96D9 E?O= ?=6 <Q:
=<= OEA=: W 856 %" X F>9?E:EI6- 9:D= :E@6EUE?5 789 69?9:ED5<=: 5<5>
! =<= 9:?B5S=: W =< )"!!X 96 S9H;9 789 D969<=: 86 ;NUE?ED F:E?=BI@E?=
% =<= 5<E@=: W856 (" 'X
' =<= ?=<F5T9>=: ;9 D>5K5A= W U9 )" X 28
Algunos han sugerido que el hecho de que los infantes necesiten cuidados, tales como
( =<= 9:F=:5 W F=? ! "%X abrazos u otras expresiones de amor para florecer o inclusive vivir, significa que
) =<= @89>>9>=: W U )" 34 1X tenemos anhelos profundos psicológicos. Yo pienso que no. Esto se parece a estar
comparando manzanas con naranjas. No es correcto hablar de los anhelos y deseos de
/ =<= FE9;>5: SES5: W 9;>= !"(X los infantes por una relación. Sería más preciso decir que necesitamos a otras personas
para poder vivir. Somos criaturas que se apoyan en otras personas todos los días. No
obstante, esto es diferente a poner nuestra fe y confianza en ellos.

217 218
789 ;9K9 :9> BB965;= ?=6 5<=> W M :E@6EUE?5;=-
E<F=>D56?E5- 9D? X 56DN6 96 <96D9 789 =: <56;5D=: ;9 >9F>=;8?E>:9 M :=A8H@5> B5
O9<=: :E;= ?>95;=: 5 B5 E<5@96 ;9 E=: :D= DE9>>5 :=6 B=: 56D9?9:=>9: ;9 B5 >56 =<E:EI6
:E@6EUE?5 789 :9 6=: O56 ;5;= ;=69: 789 6=: ;9B 89S= 9:D5<96D=- 9B <56;5D= ;9
F9><ED96 >9F>9:96D5> 9 E<ED5> 5 NB 89:D= F>9;E?5> 5 >E:D= 5 B5: 65?E=69: 78G- ;9
789 O9<=: :E;= ?>95;=: 96 5<=> M :=<=: 689S=- 9:D= 6= F89;9 :9> BB9S5;= 5 ?5K= F=>
:=:D96E;=: 5O=>5 F=> 9B 5<=> F5?E96D9 ;9 865 :=B5 F9>:=65 =: 69?9:ED5<=: B=: 86=:
E=:- D>59<=: @B=>E5 5 E=: 5B E<ED5> :8 5<=> 5 B=: =D>=: 5>5 9B D>5K5A= <E:E=69>=
F9>:E:D96D9 <5<=: 6= F=>789 B5 @96D9 69?9:ED5<=: @>56A9>=:- ?O=U9>9:- E6@96E9>=:-
DE969 86 ;NUE?ED F:E?=BI@E?=\ 5<5<=: F=>789 ?=6:D>8?D=>9:- ?=<9>?E56D9:- <E:E=69>=:-
E=: 6=: 5<IF>E<9>= <5;>9:- F5;>9:- F5:D=>9:- <59:D>=: ;9
:?89B5 =<E6E?5B M ?=6:9>A9: 5 ?=>68?=FE5
5 E<5@96 ;9 E=: 96 6=:=D>=: 6= :9 D>5D5 ;9 ;9 ;=69: 9: 9:96?E5B :E 9: 789 B5 E@B9:E5 S5 5
69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5:\ :9 D>5D5 ;9 B=: U86?E=65> ?=<= E=: 78E9>9 W => !" !4!/X
;=69: 5K86;56D9: 789 E=: O5 ;5;= 5 :8 =: F=>D5;=>9: ;9 B5 E<5@96 6= :=6 ?=<= 9B
F89KB= B569>= =BED5>E=

E6 9<K5>@=- O5M 86 :96DE;= >95B 96 9B 789 => B= D56D=- B5 :?>ED8>5 ;9A5 ?B5>= 789 :=<=:
69?9:ED5<=: 5 =D>5: F9>:=65: B O9?O= ;9 @96D9 69?9:ED5;5
789 E=: ?>9I 5 ;Q6 M 5 S5 6=: E6;E?5 789
B5 E<5@96 ;9 E=: 96 9B :9> O8<56= 6= F=;G 5 =<=: ?>95;=: ?=6 69?9:E;5;9:
9:D5> ?=<FB9D5 96 865 :=B5 F9>:=65 6= ;ESE65 KE=BI@E?5: 9?9:ED5<=: 5BE<96D= M
B :9> E<5@96 ;9 E=: 6= F=;G 5 O5?9>:9 5 F>=D9??EI6 ;9B ?BE<5 :9S9>=
:=B5:\:9 O5?9 96 ?=<F5T9>E:<= 8@B=>E5 9: 9?9:ED5<=: 5 E=:- M :9?86;5>E5<96D9-
;9<5:E5;= E6<96:5 ?=<= F5>5 :9> >9UB9A5;5 5 =D>5: F9>:=65: F5>5 :5DE:U5?9> 9:D5:
?=6 ?B5>E;5; :IB= F=> 865 ?>E5D8>5 5 E<5@96 69?9:E;5;9:
;9 E=: 9: ?=>F=>5DES5 96 9B :96DE;= ;9 789 ! =<=: F9?5;=>9: 78E969: DE9696
D=;=: B5 ?=<F5>DE<=: 6 86 :96DE;= <8M 69?9:E;5;9: 9:FE>ED85B9: E6 B5 =K>5
F>Q?DE?=- 9B <56;5D= 789 E=: ;E= ;9 >9;96D=>5 M :=:D969;=>5 ;9 >E:D=-
>9F>=;8?E>:9 ?=<= 865 <569>5 ;9 D>59> @B=>E5 9:D5<=: <89>D=: 9:FE>ED85B<96D9
5 NB- :E<FB9<96D9 9: E<F=:EKB9 ;9 ?8<FBE> F=> 9?9:ED5<=: 5 9:C: 9?9:ED5<=: 789
86 :=B= E6;ESE;8= => B= D56D=- E=: ?>9I 5B :9 6=: 96:9T9 5?9>?5 ;9 NB M :9 6=:
S5>I6 M 5 B5 <8A9> ?=<= B=: F=>D5;=>9: ;9 :8 >9F>96;5 96 5<=> ?856;= 6=:
E<5@96 5F5>D5<=: ;9 NB ;9<Q:- ?=<=

219 220
789;5>Q ?B5>= 96 9B F>IVE<= ?5FG D8B=- ?=6:E;9>5;= :56D= :D5 9: 689:D>5 <Q:
69?9:ED5<=: ?=6=?9> :8E6<96:= 5<=> @>56;9 69?9:E;5;\9:D5 9: B5 69?9:E;5; <Q:
% 8E<=: ?>95;=: ?=<= F9>:=65: ?=6 @>56;9 ;9B <86;= 5 =>5?EI6 6= O5KB5 ;9 B5:
;=69: M O5KEBE;5;9: BE<ED5;5: =;=: 69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5: = O5KB5 ;9 B5
9:D=: ;=69: ;9 E=: 6= 9:DQ6 ?=6D96E;=: U9BE?E;5; F9>:=65B 96 B5 DE9>>5 GO5KB5 ;9
F=> 865 :=B5 F9>:=65 => B= D56D=- 689:D>5: 69?9:E;5;9:- F9>= B5: 69?9:E;5;9:
69?9:ED5<=: 5 B5: ;9<Q: F9>:=65: F5>5 :=6 KE=BI@E?5: M 9:FE>ED85B9:- M 5C6 9:D5:
F=;9> ?8<FBE> B=: F>=FI:ED=: ;9 E=: M 69?9:E;5;9: 6= :=6 F>E<5>E5: 5 <Q: @>56;9
>9UB9A5> ?=6 <5M=> ?B5>E;5; :8 @B=>E5 69?9:E;5; ;9 D=;5 B5 O8<56E;5; 9: 789 E=:
EBE<ED5;5 :95 >9?=6=?E;= M 5;=>5;= ?=<= 9B 56D= ;9
:>59B
E D=;5SG
5 O5M ;8;5: 5?9>?5 ;9 689:D>5:
69?9:E;5;9: S9>;5;9>5:- F=;9<=: 9V5<E65> 9:C: =>I 5 :8 5;>9 6= <8?O= 56D9: ;9 :8
5B@865: ;9 B5: =>5?E=69: ;9 B5 EKBE5 5: <89>D9 5 =>5?EI6 F5>5 9:C: 9>5 5B@=
=>5?E=69:- ;9:F8N: ;9 D=;=- :=6 B=: ?B5<=>9: ?=DE;E56=- F9>= 9:D5 =>5?EI6 U89 C6E?5
;9 86 ?=>5HI6 69?9:ED5;= 6 B5 >E<9>=- 9:DQ >9@E:D>5;5 96 9B 9S56@9BE= 9
;9:9:F9>5?EI6 ;9 B5: =>5?E=69: >9@E:D>5;5: 96 B5: <8?O5: S9?9: 789 9:C: =>I 96 B5 6=?O9-
B5 :?>ED8>5 F=;9<=: S9> B= 789 >95B<96D9 9:D5 9: 865 ;9 B5: ?856D5: =>5?E=69: 789
69?9:ED5<=: 5<KEN6 9: 96 9:5: =>5?E=69: D969<=: 9B F>ESEB9@E= ;9 9:?8?O5> 9@86;=-
;=6;9 96?=6D>5<=: 78N ;5 E=: 5 B5 @96D9 ;5;= 789 9: A8:D= 56D9: ;9 :8 ?>8?EUEVEI6-
69?9:ED5;5 ;9K9 :9> 865 ;9 B5: =>5?E=69: <Q:
;9:9:F9>5;5: 789 9:C: =>I =<= D5B- 6=:
:G- 96D=6?9:- 9: ?=<= ;9K9<=: =>5>" 5;>9 ;5 865 E;95 ;9 B= 789 >95B<96D9 B9 E<F=>D5K5
689:D>= 789 9:DQ: 96 B=: ?E9B=:- 56DEUE?5;= 6?=6D>5<=: B= 789 NB >95B<96D9 69?9:ED5K5
:95 D8 6=<K>9 96@5 D8 >9E6= Q@5:9 D8
S=B86D5;- ?=<= 96 9B ?E9B=- 5:GD5<KEN6 96 B5 :D5 =>5?EI6 :E@89 9B <=;9B= ;9 5D9= )"
DE9>>5 B F56 689:D>= ;9 ?5;5 ;G5- ;Q6=:B= 5;>9- B5 O=>5 O5 BB9@5;=\@B=>EUE?5 5 D8 EA=-
O=M F9>;I656=: 689:D>5: ;98;5:- ?=<= F5>5 789 D5<KEN6 D8 EA= D9 @B=>EUE789 5 DE
D5<KEN6 6=:=D>=: F9>;=65<=: 5 689:D>=: = >89@= 789 B=: 78ED9: ;9B <86;=- :E6= 789
;98;=>9: 6= 6=: <9D5: 96 D96D5?EI6- <5: B=: @85>;9: ;9B <5B 56DEUG?5B=: 96 D8
BGK>56=: ;9B <5B W 5D9= )"24 %X S9>;5; W856 /" - (- /X

5 F>E<9>5 F9DE?EI6 ;9B 5;>9 89:D>= 9: 789 5M ;=: F9DE?E=69: ?>G DE?5:" W X 789 E=: :95
9B 6=<K>9 ;9 E=: :95 :56DEUE?5;=- = @B=>EUE?5;=- M W
!X 789 9B F89KB= ;9 E=: ?>9H?5

221 222
96 =K9;E96?E5 :D5: 9>56 B5: ;=: 69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5: : 865 D5H5 ;9
69?9:E;5;9: KQ:E?5: ;9 9:C: 5<KEN6 :=6 69?9:E;5;9: 9:FE>ED85B9: 856;= B5 D5H5 ;9
B5: 689:D>5: B5: 69?9:E;5;9: :9 >=<F9- 865 ;9 689:D>5:
U=><5: 789 F9><569?9 9: B5 ;9 865 D5H5
65 ;9 B5: =>5?E=69: <9A=> ?=6=?E;5: 96 B5: :D5 D5H5- :E6 9<K5>@=- 6= 9: 865 D5H5 789
9FG :D=B5: 9: B5 =>5?EI6 ;9 5KB= 96 U9:E=: % ;E?9- 9:C: O5H<9 U9BEH- = 9:C: O5H<9
=> 9:D5 ?58:5 ;=KB= <E: >=;EBB5: 56D9 9B :96DE><9 <9A=> ?=6<E@= <E:<= : 865 D5H5
5;>9 ;9 689:D>= 9T=> 9:8?>E:D=- ;9 78E96 789 :E<FB9<96D9 ;E?9- 9?9:ED= 5 9:C:
D=<5 6=<K>9 D=;5 U5<EBE5 96 B=: ?E9B=: M 96 B5 =M 86 <96;E@= 9:FE>ED85B 789 6= F89;9
DE9>>5- F5>5 789 =: ;N- ?=6U=><9 5 B5: =>5>- =K9;9?9> = 586 D969> 865 SE;5 UG :E?5
>E789H5: ;9 :8 @B=>E5- 9B :9> U=>D5B9?E;=: ?=6 :9F5>5;= ;9B 5<=> ;9 >E:D= :D=M <89>D=
F=;9> 96 9B O=<K>9 E6D9>E=> F=> :8 :FG >ED8\ :9F5>5;= ;9 >E:D=- M 69?9:ED= :8 @>5?E5 ?5;5
F5>5 789 O5KED9 >E:D= F=> B5 U9 96 S89:D>=: <=<96D= 5>5 9:D5: 69?9:E;5;9:- 9:C:
?=>5H=69:- 5 UE6 ;9 789- 5>>5E@5;=: M ;9>>5<5 :8 5<=> O5:D5 D5B F86D= 789 9:
?E<96D5;=: 96 5<=>- :9QE: FB965<96D9 E<F=:EKB9 789 865 :=B5 F9>:=65 B= ?=6D96@5
?5F5?9: ;9 ?=<F>96;9> ?=6 D=;=: B=: :56D=:
?8QB :95 B5 56?O8>5- B5 B=6@ED8;- B5 :D= 6=: BB9S5 5 689:D>= :9@86;= F86D=- 9B
F>=U86;E;5; M B5 5BD8>5- M ;9 ?=6=?9> 9B 5<=> ?85B 9: 789 9:D5 O9><=:5 =>5?EI6 96 U9:E=:
;9 >E:D=- 789 9V?9;9 5 D=;= ?=6=?E<E96D=- 9: F5>5 6=:=D>=: 5 =>5?EI6 ;9 5KB= 9:
F5>5 789 :9QE: BB96=: ;9 D=;5 B5 FB96ED8; ;9 FB8>5B :DQ O5KB56;= ;9B ?89>F= ;9 >E:D= 96
E=: W U9:E=: %" '4 2X U9:= B ?=6=?E<E96D= F=> 9B 789 =>5 9:
?=<F5>DE;= A86D5<96D9 ?=6 D=;=: B=: :56D=:-
:F9>5 86 <=<96D=- +5?5:= 9:D9 9: 9B M 9B >9:8BD5;= ;9 9:9 ?=6=?E<E96D= 9: 789
>9@>9:= 5 B5 D5H5 ;9 5<=>, + :DQ =>56;= 5KB= D=;=: BB9@89<=: 5 B5 86E;5; ;9 B5 U9 M 5B
789 689:D>5: D5H5: ;9 5<=> :956 BB965;5:, ?=6=?E<E96D= ;9B EA= ;9 E=: W U '" %X
P 8EHQ ;9K5<=: :5BD5> 9:D5 =>5?EI6R 9>=- =D>5 9UB9A5<=: ?=6 <5M=> ?B5>E;5; 5 >E:D=
S9H- 78EHQ 9:D5<=: :=K>9F=6E96;= B5: ?856;= O5M 86E;5; 96 9B F89KB= ;9 E=: W U
69?9:E;5;9: F:E?=BI@E?5: ;96D>= ;9 9:D5 !" 24!!X 5B 86E;5; 6= :9 B=@>5 ?856;=
=>5?EI6 96 S9H;9 96D96;9> B= 789 5KB= 9:DQ :=<=: D5H5: F:E?=BI@E?5:- :E6= ?856;= :=<=:
FE;E96;= :E9>S=: ;9 E=:

5M ;=: ?=:5: 789 ;9K9<=: >9?=>;5> 5?9>?5 => :8F89:D=- 9:D= 5:8<9 789 B=: E6;ESE;8=:
;9 9:D9 F5:5A9 >E<9>=- 5KB= 9:DQ 8:56;= B5 ;9K96 ?=6=?9> 9B 5<=> ;9 >E:D= 9>= B=:
<9DQU=>5 ;9 B5 D5H5- F9>= 6= 9: B5 D5H5 ;9 B5: <E:<=: E6;ESE;8=: ;9K96 ;5>:9 ?896D5- 789

223 224
9BB=: <E:<=:- 6= ?=6:DED8M96 9B ?89>F= ;9 865 ;9UE6E?EI6 ?=6?E:5, B :9> ?>95;=: 5 B5
>E:D= 9 >978E9>9 ;9 B5 E@B9:E5 96D9>5 F5>5 E<5@96 ;9 E=: :E@6EUE?5 789 :=<=: ?=<=
F>=S99> 865 E<ED5?EI6 S5@5 ;9 B5 @B=>E5 ;9 E=: 96 D=;= :96DE;= 96 9B 789 865 ?>E5D8>5
E=: :D9 O5 :E;= 9B <96:5A9 5 D>5SN: ;9 F89;9 :9> ?=<= NB- F5>5 5B5K56H5 ;9 :8
D=;5 B5 :?>ED8>5 @B=>E=:5 @>5?E5 W U ")- !- 'X :D= E6;E?5
789 E=: 6=: O5 ;5;= ;=69: F5>5 :9>SE> 96
9 5?89>;= ?=6 U9:E=:- +78N 69?9:ED5<=: S9H ;9 69?9:E;5;9: F5>5 :9> :9>SE;=
>95B<96D9, 9?9:ED5<=: :9> 86 ?89>F= 85B78E9> =D>5 F9>:F9?DES5 9: <96=: 789
965<=>5;= ;9 B5 @B=>E5 ;9 E=:- KGKBE?5 M 6=: BB9S5>Q- 5B UE65B ;9 ?896D5:- 5 B5
?=<F>=<9DE;= ?=6 B5 86E;5; ;9 B5 E@B9:E5- <E:9>E5 96 B8@5> ;9 5B @=H=
E686;5;= ;9 :8 5<=>- M UE9B 5B ?5<E65> A86D=:
96 B5 =K9;E96?E5 5 NB- 586 96 689:D>= :?>EK9 D>9E6D5 5FBE?5?E=69: ;9 B5
:8U>E<E96D= 9?9:ED5<=: 69?9:ED5> <96=: 5 F9DE?EI6- 56DEUE?5;= :95 D8 6=<K>9
B5 @96D9 M 5<5>B5 <Q: + I<= F89;9: :56DEUE?5> 9B 6=<K>9 ;9
E=: 96 9B D>5K5A=, + B ;9:?56:5>, + =6
=;= 9:D= 6=: BB9S5 F=> D=;= 86 ?G>?8B= 5 D8U5<EBE5, + 6 B5 @B9:E5,
F>9@86D5 9>5- + 8EN69: :=<=:, 9>= 689:D>5 ! =<E96H5 5 B99> 5B@865: ;9 B5:
>9:F89:D5 6=: ;9A5 <E>56;= 5 9:C: = =>5?E=69: 96 B5 :?>ED8>5 5 D>5SN: ;9 B=:
F89;9 :9> ;9 =D>5 <569>5 6 ?=6=?E<E96D= B96D9: ;9 :D= 9: B= 789 69?9:ED= "
F>9?E:= ;9 6=:=D>=: <E:<=: 6=: U89>H5 5 % =6:E;9>5 ?I<= 9:D9 ?=6=?E<E96D= ;9
<E>5> O5?E5 9:C: 9:F8N: ;9 D=;=- ;9K9<=: E=: M ?=6=?E<E96D= ;9 DE <E:<= F89;9
:9> BB965;=: ;9 >E:D=- M >9UB9A5> :8 @B=>E5 56E<5>D9 5 D=<5> F5:=: F9789T=: ;9
?=<= 9:F9A=: 5>5 :9> >9UB9VE=69: =K9;E96?E5 96 D8 D>5K5A= M D8:
S9>;5;9>5: ;9 B5 :56DE;5; ;9 E=:- ;9K9<=: >9B5?E=69:
<E>5> 5 9:C:- B5 S9>;5;9>5 E<5@96 ;9 E=:
=<=: B5 ;9:?96;96?E5 789 78E9>9 :9> ?=<= 3 9BNED5D9 96 9B E=: 789 6=:
689:D>= 5;>9 :G789 S9<=: 5B 5;>9 96 BB965
5??EI6 <ED5<=: :8:56DE;5;
5;E9 F89;9 9:D8;E5>:9 5 :G<E:<=- :E6 789
5>5 96:5> E6<9;E5D5<96D9 :9 S89BS5 5 B5 ?=6D9<FB5?EI6
;9 E=: 96 78E96 SES9 M :9 <89S9 !2 :D= 9:
:D9 ?5FG
D8B= ?B5>EUE?5 B5 F9>:F9?DES5 KGKBE?5 9:F9?E5B<96D9 ?E9>D= ;9:F8N: ;9 O5K9> SE:D=
5?9>?5 ;9 78E969: :=<=: 896U=789 O5 :E;=
29
Juan Calvino, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. J. Allen (Philadelphia:
B5 E<5@96 ;9 E=: 96 6=:=D>=: + 5 DE969: Presbyterian Board of Christian Education, 1936), 1. 1. 1.

225 226
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F5@5;= 9B F>9?E=- :95: :9 ;E>E@EI O5?E5 F9>:=65B9: = 789 >9F=>D5 :E<FB9<96D9 9:
=<9> 9 OEH= 5B@= 789 ;9KEI O5K9> ;9A5;= 5 789 :9 :=<9DEI5 :8 9T=> M =K9;9?EI
B5 @96D9 <8><8>56;=" NB ?8K>EI :8 ;9:68;9H
8EHQ =<9> 6E :E78E9>5 >9?=6=?G 5 5 :95: + I<= O5 :E;= D=;= 9:D= F5>5 689:D>= E=:
D=;5SG 5- F9>= 6= E<F=>D5K5 E@8E96;= 9B 56D=, 6 ?=6D>5:D9 ?=6 :95:- E=: :G6=: O5
<56;5D= ;9 E=:- :95: B5 D>5DI ;5;= 86 96D96;E<E96D= F>=U86;= ;9 :8
E6<9;E5D5<96D9 ?=<= :8 9:F=:5 95UE><I ?=>5HI6 =;9<=: 96?=6D>5>B= 96 :95:
:8 F5?D= ;9 <5D>E<=6E= ?=6 9BB5 9>= 56D9: ;9 ?=6:E;9>5> 9B ?=>5HI6 ;9 E=:
:96?E5B<96D9 ;EA=- =M D8M= M DC 9>9: <G 5 F=> :8F89KB=- ?=6:E;9>5 6= DE969 F>9?9;96D9:
9 F9>D969H?= :IB= 5 DE- DC<9 F9>D969?9: M 6= 9B O9?O= ;9 789 5B@8E96 ?=<F5>D5
5B@8E96 <Q: FCKBE?5<96D9 :8: :96DE<E96D=: <Q: F>=U86;=:
96 <9;E= ;9 86 5<=> ;=B=>=:= + = 9:
O8<EBB56D9 789 B5 @96D9 :9F5 789 9>9: 9B

235 236
K8:?5;=> 5F5:E=65;= 789 6E :E78E9>5 9: ?856;= :9 8:5 F5>5 ;9:?>EKE> 865 9VF9>E96?E5
>9?=6=?E;= F=> 5789BB5 78E96 9: K8:?5;5, 9 9<=?E=65B- DE969 B5 ?=66=D5?EI6 ;9 5B@= 789
:E96D9: ?=<= 86 D=6D= = =K:D56D9- E=: :9 >9<89S9 B5: SG :?9>5: E=: 9:DQ ;E?E96;= 789
5K>9 5 6=:=D>=: 96 86= ;9 B=: F5:5A9: <Q: :8 E6D9>E=> 9:DQ6 5BK=>=D= F=> :8 F89KB= =
;>5<QDE?=: ;9 B5 EKBE5 9: D56D= 865 9VF>9:EI6 ;9B ;=B=> ;9 E=: F=>
B5 D>5E?EI6 ?=<= B= 9: ;9 :8E6D96:5 ?=<F5:EI6
6 9B F5:5A9 789 :E@89- >9?89>;5 789 6=:=D>=: F=> :8 F89KB= 9S9B5 B5 F>=U86;E;5; ;9 :8
<E:<=: :=<=: U>5G 6\6=:=D>=: :=<=: :>59B ;9:9= ;9 D>59> 5 :8 F89KB= ;9 >9@>9:= O5?E5
+ I<= F=;>N 5K56;=65>D9- =O U>5G 6, + 9 NB
96D>9@5>NM=- :>59B, + I<= F=;>NM= O5?9>D9
?=<= ;<5- = F=69>D9 ?=<= 5 $9K=E<, E + 9 :=>F>96;9 9:D=, <G:G =;5SG 5 5 S9?9:
?=>5HI6 :9 ?=6<89S9 ;96D>= ;9 <G - :9 :E96D= 789 E=: 5F965: <9 ;9A= 9:?8>>E><9
E6UB5<5 D=;5 <E ?=<F5:EI6 = 9A9?8D5>N 9B F=> B5 F89>D5 ;9 :8 9E6= =: ?OE?=: K896=:
5>;=> ;9 <E E>5- 6E S=BS9>N F5>5 ;9:D>8E> 5 M5 9:DQ6 5;96D>= = 96D>N F=>789 E=: D8S=
U>5G
6\ F=>789 E=: :=M- M 6= O=<K>9- 9B 789 ;9A5><9 96D>5> 5KG5 F>=U9:5;= U9 96
56D= 96 <9;E= ;9 DE\ M 6= 96D>5>N 96 B5 9:C: ?=<= 9B 9T=> >9:8?ED5;= M >E:D=- M F=>
?E8;5; W :95: "142X B= D56D=- E=: 6= D8S= =D>5 =F?EI6
E=: ?=<E96H5 O5?E96;= 865 F>9@86D5-
+ I<= F=;>N 5K56;=65>D9, 89@= B9 E6 9<K5>@=- E=: :GD8S= =D>5 =F?EI6- M NB
>9:F=6;9 E6<9;E5D5<96D9- P = F89;=R : 9:?=@EI 5<5>6=: ?=6 86 5<=> 5F5:E=65;= M
E<F=:EKB9 C 9>9: <G = E=: ;E?9 789 6= UE9B 5 >5HI6 F=> B5 789 =?5:E=65B<96D9 B=
D>5D5>Q 5 :8 F89KB= >9K9B;9 ;9 B5 <E:<5 ;8;= 9: F=>789 FE96:= 789 E=: 9: ?=<=
<569>5 ?=<= F9><EDEI 789 U89>56 ;9:D>8E;5: 6=:=D>=: & = ?=<= M= E =<9> U89:9 <E
;=: ?E8;5;9: @9<9B5: ;9 =;=<5 W 98D 9:F=:5- <E E6:DE6D= :9>G 5 ;9A5>B5 E> M ;9?E>B9"
!2"!%X K896 SE5A9 = 789>>G5 D9><E65> ?=6 <E:
FN>;E;5: M 9SED5> B5 O8<EBB5?EI6 ;9 9:D5>
O=>5 6=D5 B5 F5B5K>5 ?=6<=S9> : B5 K8:?56;= 5 5B@8E96 789 <9 E@6=>5 9>= 9B
F5B5K>5 789 E=: 8:5 F5>5 ;9:?>EKE> :8 F>=FE= F5:5A9 ;E?9 789 E=: 6= 9: ?=<= M= E=: 9:
?=>5HI6- E ?=>5HI6 :9 ?=6<89S9 ;96D>= ;9 E=:- 6= 9: 86 O=<K>9 E :=<=: E6UE9B9:- NB
<G :D5 F5B5K>5 >5>5: S9?9: 9: 8:5;5 96 B5 F9><569?9 UE9B- NB 6= F89;9 69@5>:9 5 :G
EKBE5 ?=<= 865 ;9:?>EF?EI6 ;9 B5 9VF9>E96?E5 <E:<= W ! E< !" %X ;9<Q:- 9:D5 6= 9:
9<=?E=65B ;9 5B@8E96 6 S9H ;9 9:=- 865 UE;9BE;5; 9:D=E?5 : S8B69>5KB9 M
8:85B<96D9 :9 8:5 F5>5 ;9:?>EKE> B5 ?=678E:D5 5F5:E=65;5 : 865 UE;9BE;5; D56 E6D96:5 789
M ;9:D>8??EI6 ;9 865 ?E8;5; =<= D5B- E=: B5 ;9:?>EK9 ;9:@5>>Q6;=B9 :8E6D9>E=>

237 238
?856;= :8 9:F=:5 :95 @B=>EUE?5;5 M 9:DN96 :8
=> 9:D= F89;9: 96D96;9> ?8Q6 ?=6U8:= 9: F>9:96?E5 F5>5 :E9<F>9
A8H@5> 5 E=: ;9:;9 B5 F9>:F9?DES5 ;9 B= 789
6=:=D>=: O5>G 5<=: 96 865 :ED85?EI6 = 5 9:?965 :9>Q :E<EB5> 5 5B@865: ;9 B5:
D9<F=>5B M F9?5<E6=:= 686?5 F89;9 :9> 9B <9A=>9: ?9>9<=6E5: 68F?E5B9: 789 O5: SE:D=-
9:DQ6;5> F5>5 B= :56D= E A8H@5<=: F=> F9>= F89:D= 789 9: 865 K=;5 :56D5- :9>Q
689:D>5 F>=FE5 9VF9>E96?E5- 5:8<E>G5<=: 789 ;EU9>96D9 5 5789BB5: 789 O5: SE:D= 65
E=: 9S96D85B<96D9 :9 O5>D5>Q ;9 6=:=D>=: M ;EU9>96?E5 :9>Q 9B F86D= U=?5B ;9B 9S96D= 6
6=: ;9A5>Q ;9:68;=: 96 9B <9>?5;= ;9 B5: K=;5: =??E;96D5B9: D>5;E?E=65B9:- B5 6=SE5
9:?B5S=: 9>= E=: 6=: ;E?9- =>789 E=: 9: 5 78E96 :9 O=6>5 =;=: 96 B5 K=;5 O5KB56
:=M- M 6= O=<K>9- 9B 56D= 96 <9;E= ;9 DE\M 5?9>?5 ;9 B= O9><=:5 789 9: =;=: B=: =A=:
6= 96D>5>N96 B5 ?E8;5; 9:DQ6 F89:D=: :=K>9 9BB5 E6 9<K5>@=- 96 B5
?9>9<=6E5 9D9>65B ;9B ?E9B=- 689:D>5 <E>5;5
+ 8N >9DE969 :8 E>5- ?=6:E;9>56;= 9:D5>Q UEA5 96 =D>= 5 6=SE5- ?E9>D5<96D9-
9:F9?E5B<96D9 789 E=: 9: <=> 56D= M :9>Q 9V5BD5;5- O=6>5;5 M @B=>EUE?5;5- F9>= :8
8:DE?E5 56D5, 5 >5HI6 F=> B5 789 6= SE6= K9BB9H5 9V5BD5>Q 586 <Q: 5B D>E6= E=: 89 NB
96 E>5 U89 789 :8 A8:DE?E5 :56D5 9:D5K5 78E96 B5 K8:?I- 965<=>I- B5 D>5A= M B5
9:F9>56;= 9B DE9<F= ?856;= 9:C: :9 D>56:U=><I 85B78E9> K9BB9H5 ;9 B5 6=SE5 9:
?=6S9>DE>G 5 96 9B 9:?B5S= F=> 6=:=D>=: B 86 >9UB9A= ;9 B5 K9BB9H5 586 <Q: @>56;9 ;9B
BB9S5>G 5 B5 S9>@[96H5 M >9?O5H= 789 9>56 6=SE=
689:D>=: A8:D5<96D9 =: F9>;=65>G 5
?=<FB9D5<96D9 M 6=: A8:DEUE?5>G 5 86 <Q:- + 5 D9 9:DQ: :E6DE96;= BB96=, :D= 9: B= 789
6=: @B=>EUE?5>G
5 W =< 1"%3X =: 9V5BD5>G
5 >E:D= ;5 5 5789BB=: 789 O56 BB9@5;= 5 ?=6=?9>
5 >E:D= 5 D>5SN: ;9 B5 U9"
E=: <E>5 :8 ?>95?EI6 ;9:;9 B5 F9>:F9?DES5 ;9
B5 ?=6:8<5?EI6 9:;9 9:9 F86D= ;9 SE:D5 S9 5 S9>@[96H5 O5 :E;= ?8KE9>D5 M
B= 789 :9>Q :8 =<9> 9>Q 865 6=SE5 @B=>EUE?5;5 5 6= DE9696 789
>5;E56D9- O=6>5;5 M @B=>EUE?5;5 9>Q 9:?=6;9>:9 ;9 B5 <E>5;5 ;9 B=: ;9<Q: =
F>9:96D5;5 ;9B56D9 ;9 B5 @B=>E=:5 F>9:96?E5 ;9 B5 ;9 E=: =6 SE:D=: ;9:;9 B5
E=: :E6 <56?O5- M :9>Q >9?EKE;5 F=> NB ?=6 F9>:F9?DES5 ;9 B5 9D9>6E;5; 9BB=:-
:8<= @=H= W8;5: !'X E E=: 9:DQ ;E?9 9:C:" 96E;- S96E;
5F5:E=65;= ?=6 >9:F9?D= 5 B5 KC:789;5 ;9 ! =: 5<965H5;=: :=6 ?=6:=B5;=: M
865 9:F=:5 5;8BD9>5- F89;9: 9:D5> :9@8>= ;9 @B=>EUE?5;=: =6 ?=6:=B5;=: F=>789
789 O5K>Q 865 @>56 ?9B9K>5?EI6- >E:5 M @=H= :5K96 789 :89:F=:= 9: 9B 9M :=K9>56=

239 240
;9 D=;5 B5 DE9>>5 + 5K>Q :8U>E<E96D=:, F96:5K5 789 9:D5 <569>5 ;9 :9> F=> B= <96=:
G B F9><EDE>Q 789 S96@5 :8U>E<E96D= :9>G
5 <96=: ;=B=>=:5
F8>EUE?5;=> :=K>9 :8 6=SE5- F9>= :9>Q
:8U>E<E96D= 789 BB9S5 5B KE96 6:9T5>Q B5 B8H ;9 :95:- D5B 9:D>5D9@E5 6= 9: 6E
5 :8 6=SE5 5 ?=6UE5> :IB= 96 NB =<= :E78E9>5 865 =F?EI6 F5>5 9B ?>E:DE56= B 5<=>
>9:8BD5;=- B5 K96;E?EI6 :=K>9F5:5>Q 5B ;9 E=: 9: 865 5<=> ?=:D=:= 86?5 D=<5 9B
;=B=> 5 K96;E?EI6 ;9 :9> <Q: ?=<= ?5<E6= UQ?EB ;9 5B9A5>:9 ;9 B5: >9B5?E=69: B
9:C: 9: <5M=> 789 B5 ;EUE?8BD5; ;9B ?=6D>5>E=- FB5695 ?=<= <=S9>:9 >8<K= 5 B=:
U89@= F8>EUE?5;=> ;9<Q: E96:5 96 <569>5: ?>95DES5: ;9
% =: >9?O5H5;=: :=6 5?9FD5;=: M :=>F>96;9>B=: ?=6 5<=>
@B=>EUE?5;=: :D5>Q6 <5>5SEBB5;=: ;9
789 E=: 9:DQ 5F5:E=65;= F=> 9BB=: 8 B ?5<E6= ;9B 5<=> ;9 E=: 6= 9: 86= :E6
5?9FD5?EI6 6= 9: OEFI?>ED5 B ?=6D>5>E=- :8U>E<E96D= 9 O9?O=- 5789BB=: 789 5<56
9:DQ 5?=<F5T5;5 ?=6 :8 >9@=?EA= M <Q:- :8U>E>Q6 <Q: = =K:D56D9- 9B ?5<E6=
?56D= ;9B 5<=> ;9 E=: 9: 86 ?5<E6= 789 6=: ;9A5
>9K=:56D9: 89:D>5 D5H5 6= F89;9 ?=6D969>
89:D>= E=: M5 6= 6=: BB5<5 9:?B5S=: B= 789 E=: ;9>>5<5 :=K>9 6=:=D>=:
D>5SN: ;9 9:C:- 6=: BB5<5 5<E@=:- OEA=:- M :8 6D=6?9:- :E<FB9<96D9 9: 65D8>5B 789 9B
9:F=:5 D>5SN: ;9B :FG>ED8- 6=: ?=6?9;9 9B ?=6:89B= 789 >9?EKE<=: ;9 >E:D= >9K=:5>Q
<Q: @>56;9 >9@5B= 789 A5<Q: O9<=: D96E;= O5?E5 B5: SE;5: ;9 =D>5: F9>:=65: W! => "%4
B <E:<= :9 6=: 96D>9@5 B ;E?9- = 9:D=M /X 89:D>5 <9D5 9: 5<5> 5 B5 @96D9 <Q: 789
?=6 S=:=D>=: W856 ' !/4!1X 6= D9 69?9:ED5>B5 =<=: A5>>5: >9K=:56D9:- 6=
;9:5<F5>5>N- 6E D9 ;9A5>N\ ;9 <569>5 789 D5H5: ?=6 5@8A9>=:
F=;9<=: ;9?E> ?=6UE5;5<96D9" B 9T=> 9: <E
5M8;5;=>\6= D9<9>N = 789 <9 F89;5 O5?9> 5>5 96:5>
9B O=<K>9 W 9K %"(4)X
8?O5 @96D9 F>9@86D5- + I<= F89;=
=6=?G 5 86 O=<K>9 789 ;9?E;EI 96 9B ?=6=?9> >95B<96D9 9B 5<=> ;9 E=:, =
<=<96D= 789 :8 9:F=:5 B= ;9AI 789 686?5 78E9>= ?=6=?9>B=- F9>= F5>5:9 9:D5> D56
<Q: ?=6UE5>G5 96 5B@865 F9>:=65 86?5 :9 ;E:D56D9 5 >9:F89:D5 9: 5>>9FEN6D9D9 ;9
5K>G5 ?=6 65;E9 86?5 :9 5?9>?5 5 B=: 9:D5> K8:?56;= 5 E=: F5>5 :96DE>D9 <9A=>
;9<Q:- 6E F9><EDG5 789 5B@8E96 :9 B9 5?9>?5:9 ?=6DE@= <E:<= 89@= FE96:5 96 9:C: 5
=> :8F89:D=- :9 ;5K5 ?896D5 ;9 789 D=;5SG 5 D>5SN: ;9 B5 OE:D=>E5 ;9 :95: G
;9B9 5 ;E=:
9:D5K5 :E96;= ?=6D>=B5;= F=> :8 9:F=:5- F9>= 789 D9 96:9T9 5?9>?5 ;9 9:D9 5<=>- F5>5 789

241 242
F89;5: D56D= ?=6=?9>B= ?=<= ;5>B= E;9 5 9?Z- 96 :8 BEK>= <8M S96;E;=- O9
?=DD
=D>5: F9>:=65: 789 =>96 F=> DE 96 D56D= B99: =5; 9:: >5S9B9;- :8@E9>9 789 F=;9<=:
E=: F>=<9D9 789 NB D9 96:9T5>Q ?=6S9>DE> 5 B=: ;9<Q: 96 =>@56E:<=:
O=:F9;5;=>9: = 9: 86 ?85;>= <8M
<5 5 D8: 969<E@=: M 5 D8 O9><=:=" B5 @96D9 :=6 B=: E6D9:DE6=:- 6=:=D>=:
F>IAE<= :=<=: B=: F5>Q:ED=:

= ;9:9= SESE> = F89;= SESE> :E6 <E 9:F=:=
=;5SG5 O5M 86 F5:= <Q: 5:D5 5O=>5- W9:F=:5- 6=SE=- 6=SE5X = 5<= D56D=
O9<=: ?=6:E;9>5;= 9B D9<=> ;9B 9T=>- M ?856;= B9: >9:F=6;=- ?=<= U>9?896D9<96D9 B=
O9<=: ?=6:E;9>5;= 689:D>=: F>=FE=: O5@=- :DQ: 978ES=?5;5\ DC 6= 5<5: 5 D8
?=>5H=69: O=>5 ;9K9<=: 96D96;9> B= 789 9:F=:= W 9:F=:5- 6=SE=- 6=SE5X 5 >9:F89:D5
E=: ;E?9 5?9>?5 ;9 B5: ;9<Q: F9>:=65: 5E>5;5 9:" + 8N 9:DQ ;E?E96;=, 9 5?5K=
+ 8EN69: :=6 9BB=:, 6 5<E@= F>9@86DI + 5>5 ;9 ;9?E> 789 6= F89;= SESE> :E6 NB W 9BB5X
789 :E>S9 B5 ;9<Q: @96D9, + 8N DEF= ;9 6D=6?9:- B9: D>5D= ;9 9VFBE?5>" = 789
U=><5 = E;96DE;5; DE9696, + I<= ;9UE6E<=: ;9:?>EK9: 6= 9: 5<=>- :E6= 5B@= F5>9:E;= 5 86
6=:=D>=: 5 B=: ;9<Q:- M ?I<= E=: B=: ;9UE69, F5>Q:ED= %3

=D9<=: 5B@865: ;9 B5: U=><5: = E;96DE;5;9: 5 EKBE5 >9:8<9 9:D5: U=><5: S5>E5;5: ;9
789 6=:=D>=: B9: ;5<=: 5 B=: ;9<Q:" 9:D5 <569>5" 5 @96D9 :=6 689:D>=: G ;=B=:
5D9:=>5;=: =: 5;=>5<=:- 9:F9>56;= 789
5 @96D9 :=6 K=<K5: ;9 @5:=BE65 789 ?8E;5>Q6 ;9 6=:=D>=:- 9:F9>56;= 789 6=: ;96
6=: BB9656 B= 789 :96DE<=: 69?9:ED5> = 789 >95B<96D9
! 5 @96D9 :=6 K=B9D=: O5?E5 B5 5?9FD5?EI6 69?9:ED5<=: :=6 U=><5: 9 E;96DE;5;9: KGKBE?5:
M B5 U5<5 O5?E5 =D>5: F9>:=65: 6D=6?9:- 96 S9H ;9
% 5 @96D9 :=6 :5?9>;=D9: 789 DE9696 9B 69?9:ED5> 5 B5 @96D9 F5>5 :5DE:U5?9> 689:D>=:
F=;9> ;9 O5?9>6=: :96DE> BE<FE=: M KE96 ;9:9=:- F=;>9<=: 5<5> 5 B5 @96D9 F5>5 B5
' 5 @96D9 :=6 D9>>=>E:D5: 86?5 @B=>E5 ;9 E=: M ?8<FBE> 9B F>=FI:ED= F=> 9B
:5K9<=: ?856;= :9>Q 9B F>IVE<= ?85B U8E<=: ?>95;=:
5D5789
( 5 @96D9 :=6 ;E?D5;=>9: ?8M5 F5B5K>5 9: 5>5 <G9:D9 CBDE<= F5:= 9: 9B <Q: ;EUG
?EB =
B9M :DQ6 96 ?=<FB9D= ?=6D>=B 9: <8M ;EUG
?EB 96D96;9> B= 789 B5 EKBE5 ;E?9

30
M. Scott Peck, The road Less Traveled (New York: Simon &Schster, 1979), 98

243 244
5?9>?5 ;9 B5 @96D9 & D=;=: :5K9<=: 789 :9 =<= ?=6:9A9>= B9 O9 >9?=>;5;= 5 <8?O=:
:8F=69 789 ;9K9<=: 5<5>B5 & F9>= 9: ;EUG ?EB >E:DE56=: 789 5B@865 F9>:=65 9: :8969<E@=
5FBE?5> 9:D9 ?=6=?E<E96D= B 5<5> 5 B=: :85B<96D9 B5 @96D9 6= 78E9>9 9:?8?O5>B=-
;9<Q: O5?9 789 9:D5 SE;5 :95 <96=: ?I<=;5 F9>= 9: S9>;5; 9>= 586- <8?O=: ;9 9:D=:
E@6EUE?5 789 ;9K= >9686?E5> 5 <E F>=FE= 969<E@=: 9>56 5<E@=: = U5<EBE5>9:
F>=@>5<5 F5>5 9B :QK5;= 96 B5 <5T565 ?=6 9B
UE6 ;9 5M8;5> 5 <E F>IAE<= E@6EUE?5 789 <9 =>789 6= <9 5U>96DI 86 969<E@=- = ?85B
:E96D= <Q: B5:DE<5;= ?856;= 5B@8E96 :9 <8;5 O5K>G 5 :=F=>D5;=\ E :9 5BHI ?=6D>5 <G9B 789
;9 ;=<E?EBE= E@6EUE?5 789 B5 @96D9 9:D5>Q 96 <9 5K=>>9?G 5- =>789 <9 O8KE9>5 =?8BD5;= ;9
689:D>5 ?5:5 ?856;= M= F>9U9>E>G 5 9:D5> NB\ E6= DC- O=<K>9- 5B F5>9?9> G 6DE<= <G =- E
>=;95;= :IB= ;9 <E U5<EBE5 E6<9;E5D5 @8G5- M <E U5<EBE5>\ 89 A86D=:
?=<86E?QK5<=: ;8B?9<96D9 B=: :9?>9D=:-
+ = :9 F5>9?9 9:D= 5 B5 5B5K>5 ;9 E=:, 56;QK5<=: 96 5<E:D5; 96 B5 ?5:5 ;9 E=:
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249 250
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251 252
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253 254
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<5>E;= ;5>B9 B= 789 9B ;9:95 96 9B 5>>9@B= ;9B
B 5BE<96D5> 5 B=: 969<E@=: 9: 865 5FBE?5?EI6 ;ES=>?E=, + 9K9 D>5D5> 5 :8 <5>E;= ;9 B5
;9B F>E6?EFE= @969>5B ;9 5<5> 5 D8: 969<E@=: <569>5 ?=<= ;9:95>G 5 :9> D>5D5;5, B :96DE;=
E=: ;E?9 789 D>5D9<=: 5 B=: 969<E@=: ;9 B5 ?=<C6 ;E?9- =- 6= B9 ;9: 5 9:5 >5D5 65;5
<E:<5 <569>5 ?=<= D>5D5<=: 5 B=: 5<E@=: M 9>= + : 9:D5 865 <569>5 KG KBE?5 ;9 F>=?9;9>
5 B5 U5<EBE5 +<F=:EKB9, => :8F89:D= 9>= W78ED56;= B= ;9 >5D5X, 5B S9H:G B 5<=>- 96
6= ?856;= D969<=: 9B D9<=> ;9B 9T=> 9:D9 ?5:=- :E@6EUE?5>Q F9>;=65> 5B 969<E@=- 6=
856;= :5K9<=: 789 9B F=;9> ;9 E=: 9: <Q: ?5B8<6E5>B= 56D9 =D>=:- M 6= 5D5?5>B= ?=6
@>56;9 789 9B ;9 689:D>=: 969<E@=:- ?856;= F5B5K>5: F5>5 =KD969> ?E9>D= @>5;= ;9
:5K9<=: 789 NB 9: A8:D=- M ?856;= :5K9<=: S96@56H5 9>= 9B 5<=> 6= 9: B5 C6E?5
789 NB 6=: 5<I586 ?856;= N>5<=: 969<E@=:- ?5D9@=>G5 789 :9 5FBE?5 5 9:D5 :ED85?EI6
96D=6?9: :=<=: BEK>9: F5>5 :9> :E9>S=: 5<KEN6 9:DQ B5 A8:DE?E5 E 9B <5>E;= 9:DQ
:96?EBB=: 789 E<ED56 M =K9;9?96 5B 5;>9 B 5<965H56;= M FE;E96;= ?=:5: 789
K96;E?9 5 A8:D=: 9 E6A8:D=: ?=6 B5 BB8SE5 M 9B :96?EBB5<96D9 :=6 E6A8:D5:- B5 <8A9> ;9K9
5BE<96D=- M 5:GD5<KEN6 6=:=D>=: ;9K9<=: :9> 5F9B5> 5 B5 A8:DE?E5 M B5 E@B9:E5 ;9K9 5F=M5>B5
K96;E?EI6 W 5D ("'(X
B 5<=> 5 B=: 969<E@=: 9: 9B FE6Q?8B= ;9 B5
5>5 5<5> ;9 9:D5 <569>5- 69?9:ED5<=: D56D= =K9;E96?E5 ?>E:DE565 O5?E5 E=: =<= E6;E?5
F=;9> ?=<= ;E:?9>6E<E96D= 9?9:ED5<=: 9B :9><I6 ;9B <=6D9- 9: UQ?EB 5<5> 5 B5 @96D9
F=;9> F=>789 :=<=: E6?5F5?9: ;9 5<5> ;9 B5 789 6=: 5<5 9>= :9 >978E9>9 ;9 B5 =K>5
<569>5 ?=<= >E:D= 6=: O5 5<5;= F=;9>=:5 ;9B :FG >ED8 ;9 E=: F5>5 5<5> 5
9?9:ED5<=: ;E:?9>6E<E96D= F=>789 5 S9?9: 9: 5789BB=: 789 9:DQ6 ;9;E?5;=: 5 ;5T5>6=:
;EUG?EB :5K9> ?I<= :9 ;9K9 <56EU9:D5> 9B 5<=>
=<= >9:8BD5;=- ?5;5 S9H 789 6=: 5M =D>5 ?=:5 789 ;9K9: :5K9> 5?9>?5 ;9
F9>?5D9<=: 789 D969<=: 86 969<E@= 5<5> 5 D8: 969<E@=: B5 B8H ;9B BEK>= ;9
9:F9?G UE?=- ;9K9<=: K8:?5> 9B ?=6:9A= ;9 B5 :95:- 9:D= 6= ;9K9 :9> 865 :=>F>9:5
E@B9:E5 F5>5 ;E:?9>6E> ?I<= 9VF>9:5> 9:9 8F9>UE?E5B<96D9- 9B 5<=> 5 B=: 969<E@=:

255 256
:8965 ?=<= 86 58D=?5:DE@= = 865 D=6D9>G 5 3" 2X B BEK>= ;9 8D D>5D5 5?9>?5 ;9 865
:D= S5 96 ?=6D>5 ;9B ?=6:9A= F=F8B5> 789 D9 9VD>56A9>5 & 865 <=5KED5 & 78E96 U89 E6?B8E;5
;E?9 789 9?O9: F=> B5 K=>;5 5 B5 @96D9 789 96 B5 BG
695 >95B ;9 5SE; M 9:C:
;5T5 D858D=9:DE<5 9>= :E E=: B= ;E?9- ;9K9
:9> K896= E9<F>9 O5M K96;E?EI6 96 B5 =;= 9:D= 9>5 865 E<ED5?EI6 ;9B 5<=> ;9 E=:
=K9;E96?E5 5 K96;E?EI6 F89;9 :9> 789 6= O5?E5 :>59B- 78E969: O5KG 56 :E;= 9VD>56A9>=:
:95 B5 >9?=6?EBE5?EI6 = 9B 5>>9F96DE<E96D= ;9B W V !!"! \ !%"2\ 9S 2"%'X 9 O9?O=-
969<E@= 5B S9H :95 9B F>ESEB9@E= ;9 6= :9> :E9<F>9 U89>=6 9VD>56A9>=: :D5 DE9>>5 9:
?=6D>=B5;= F=> 9:9 969<E@= :E<FB9<96D9 <G 5 ;EA= 9B 9T=>- M 8:D9;9: :=6 9VD>56A9>=:
F89;9 :9> 9B @=H= ;9 BB9@5> 5 :9> <Q: M U=>5:D9>=: W9S !("!%X =<=
:9<9A56D9 5 9:C: 95 B= 789 :95- :E9<F>9 9VD>56A9>=: 789 U89>=6 K96;9?E;=: F=> E=:-
O5M 865 K96;E?EI6 96 B5 =K9;E96?E5 9BB=: ;9KG56 D>5D5> 5 B5: F9>:=65: ;9 B5 <E:<5
<569>5 ?=<= O5KG 56 :E;= D>5D5;=:
>IAE<=: M VD>56A9>=:
B 89S= 9:D5<96D= 9:DQ >9FB9D= ;9
6 :9@86;= @>8F= ;9 F9>:=65: :=6 5789BB5: <56;5<E96D=: ;9 5<5> 5 E=: M 5B F>IAE<=
789 6= :=6 F5>D9 ;9 B5 E@B9:E5 SE:EKB9 6 9B W 5D !!"%2\ 56DE5@= !"1X 5 5<FBE5?EI6
6DE@8= 9:D5<96D= D5B9: F9>:=65: 9>56 ?BQ:E?5 ;9 9:D9 <56;5<E96D= 9: B5 OE:D=>E5 ;9B
BB5<5;5: 9VD>56A9>=: = U=>5:D9>=:\ 96 9B K896 5<5>ED56= W8?5: 3!(4%/X 6 9:D5
89S= 9:D5<96D= :9 B9: BB5<5 F>IAE<=: OE:D=>E5- 9:C: 9VF56;9 B=: BG <ED9: 6=><5B9:
;9 B= 789 9: 86 F>IAE<= O5:D5 BB9@5> 5B F86D=
6 5<=> K5:5;= 96 B5 ;96DE;5; ;9 E6?B8E> 96 B5 OE:D=>E5 5 ;=: 969<E@=:- 86
A8;G= M 86 :5<5>ED56= 89@=- 9:C: O5?9 789
B :>59B ;9B 6DE@8= 9:D5<96D= D96G 5 B9M9: 9B ON>=9 ;9 B5 OE:D=>E5 :95 86 :5<5>ED56=- 5
<8M ?B5>5: 789 F>=D9@G 56 5 B=: 9VD>56A9>=: 78E96 B=: A8;G =: ?=6:E;9>5K56 ?=<= E6U9>E=>
789 SESG 56 96 B5 DE9>>5 5B=<I6- 96 865 <=>5B<96D9 = F8;= O5K9> >9<5>?5;= 9:D9
=>5?EI6 E6:FE>5;5- =>I F5>5 789 E=: F86D= ?=6 <Q: U89>H5
?=6D9:D5>5 D=;5: B5: =>5?E=69: ;9 B=:
9VD>56A9>=:- F5>5 789 D=;=: B=: F89KB=: ;9 B5 :D= 9: <8M >9B9S56D9 F5>5 5B@865: ;9 <E:
DE9>>5 ?=6=H?56 D8 6=<K>9 M D9 D9<56 W ;E:?8:E=69: U5<EBE5>9: F5:5;5: E 9:F=:5 M
9M9: 1"'%X =: 9VD>56A9>=: 6= ;9KG56 :9> M= D969<=: ;=: OEA5: 856;= 9>56 <Q:
<5B D>5D5;=: W V !!"! X = F>ES5;=: ;9 B5 F9789T5:- 9BB5: 9>56 B5: 6ET5: <Q:
A8:DE?E5 W 5B %"(X\ 96 S9H ;9 9:D=- :9 B9: 9:?56;5B=:5: ?856;= 9:D5K56 ?=6 6=:=D>=:-
;9KG 5 ;5> DE9>>5 W H '/"!!X M 5<=> W 98D F9>= F5>9?G56 9:D5> :=>;5: M <8;5: ?856;=

257 258
9:D5K56 ?=6 S9?E6=: = ?=6 @96D9 789 6= B5 @>5?E5 ;9 E=: E: OEA5: 5O=>5 >5>5: S9?9:
?=6=?G56 KE96 :9 ?=<F=>D56 ?=<= H=<KE: ?856;= ?=6=?96 5
689S5: F9>:=65: BB5: ?5<KE56 ?856;= B5:
89;96 E<5@E65> :8 9VFBE?5?EI6 ?856;= B9: F>9F5>5<=: M =>5<=: F=> 9BB5:
:9T5B5<=: 9:D= =<=: DG<E;5: ;EA9>=6
=:=D>=: >9FBE?5<=:" =6 ;9:?=>D9:9: => :8F89:D=- :E 9BB5: 78E:E9>56 F=69>6=: 5
:8;5> :IB= D96;>G 56 789 ;9?E>- 9S56@9BE:<=
89;9 :9> ?E9>D= 789 5B@86=: 6ET=: :=6 F=> B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9 6= >9:F9D5 5 65;E9 89;9
65D8>5B9H5 <Q: DG
<E;=: ?856;= 9:DQ6 :9> BB5<5;= ?=;9F96;96?E5 96 B5 SE;5 5;8BD5-
>=;95;=: ;9 @96D9- F9>= 86 K896 D56D= ;9 B5 F>9:EI6 ;9 @>8F= 96 B5 5;=B9:?96?E5- M DE<E;9H
DE<E;9H 9: B5 S9>:EI6 E6U56DEB ;9B D9<=> 5 B5 96 B5 6ET9H- F9>= ?=<= :95 789 :9 BB5<9-
@96D9 :DQ6 :E96;= ?=6D>=B5;=: F=> B=: :E9<F>9 >9S9B5 9B <E:<= ?=>5HI6 E;IB5D>5
;9<Q: 5>5 9SED5> 9:D9 96>9;= 69?9:ED= 789 <E: OEA5:
=>96 M <9 9VO=>D96 ;9 B5 <E:<5 <569>5
B <9A=> D>5D5<E96D= U89 789 O9>E M M= ?=<= 69?9:ED56 789 O9>E M M= =>9<=: F=>
;E:?8DEN>5<=: ?=6 689:D>5: OEA5: 5B@865: 9BB5:
5FBE?5?E=69: ;9B <56;5<E96D= ;9 9:C: ;9
5<5> 5 689:D>= F>IAE<= 5KB5<=: ;9 ?I<= 5 F>9:?>EF?EI6 F5>5 B=: 9S56@9BE:D5: DG
<E;=:
9:C: 6=: O5KG 5 ;5;= B5 KE96S96E;5- B89@= 9:DQ 5O=>5 96 :8 :EDE= 65 S9H 789
?=6:E;9>5<=: ?I<= D>5D5> 5 B=: ;9<Q: ?=<= 96D96;9<=: B5 F>=U86;E;5; ;9B F>=KB9<5
789>9<=: :9> D>5D5;=: W 5D /" !X F=;9<=: ?=<96H5> 5 K8:?5> 9B D9<=> ;9B
>=<95<=: ?=6 9BB5: 5?9>?5 ;9 B5 5UBE??EI6 9T=> : <8?O= <Q: UQ?EB O5KB5> ;9 9:C:
>9F96DE65 789 ;9:5>>=BB5K56 ?856;= 9:D5K56 ?856;= :8 SE;5 ?=6:D56D9<96D9 6=: DE969
5B>9;9;=> ;9 F9>:=65: 689S5:- M A8@5<=: <5>5SEBB5;=: 6D=6?9: 6=: 5>>9F96DE<=: ;9
>9F>9:96D56;= 5B@865: 5BD9>65DES5: ?=6 9BB5: 689:D>= D9<=> ;9B >9?O5H= ;9 =D>5: F9>:=65:
9: :8@9>E<=: 789 >9:F89:D5: <=6=:G B5K5: = + = 9:5 5?5:= B5 >5HI6 F>=<E696D9 ;9 689:D>5
@>8TE;=: 9>56 EB9@5B9: DE<E;9H, ;=>5<=: D969> B5 5?9FD5?EI6 M 9B
U5S=> ;9 D=;5 B5 @96D9 =: ;9:<=>=65<=:
B F>=?9:= U89 B96D= 89:D>5: OEA5: :=6 ?=<= ?856;= :96DE<=: B5 <Q: B9S9 FEH?5 ;9
6=:=D>=:" 5F>96;96 5 D>5SN: ;9 >9F9DE?EI6 >9?O5H= E65B<96D9- >9?=>;5<=: B= 789 E=:
E6?9:56D9- F>Q?DE?5 M =>5?EI6 5 :56DEUE?5?EI6 ;E?9 5?9>?5 ;9 B=: ;9<Q:" ;9K9<=:
9: ?=<= 86 56;5> D=>F9 M B96D= 96 S9H;9 :9> 69?9:ED5>B=: <96=: M 5<5>B=: <Q: = B=:
?=<= 865 E6D9>>8FD=> ;9 ?=>>E96D9 789 69?9:ED= F5>5 BB965> <E D5H5 ;9 5<=>\ 5B
96?96;9<=: M 5F5@5<=: 9>= ?>9?9<=: F=> ?=6D>5>E=- 9:D=M 96 ;98;5 ?=6 9BB=: 9: ;9K=

259 260
865 ;98;5 ;9 5<=> 789 F89;9 :9> F5@5;5- 5B ?==F9>5?EI6 69?9:ED5<=: F5>5 >9F>9:96D5> 5
<96=: 96 865 F9789T5 F5>D9- 5B BB9S5>B9: 5B >E:D=
5<=> ;9 9:C:
B 5FI:D=B 5KB= ;EA=- :G 789- :9@C6
5>5 96:5> D96@5<=: =F=>D86E;5;- O5@5<=: KE96 5 D=;=:-
M <5M=><96D9 5 B=: ;9 B5 U5<EBE5 ;9 B5 U9
B <56;5<E96D= ;9 5<5> 5 B=: 969<E@=: M 5 W 5B )" 3X E9>D5<96D9 9:D= 6= ;E:<E68M9
B=: F>IAE<=: 9: 865 E<FBE?5?EI6 E69SED5KB9 ;9B 689:D>5 F>9=?8F5?EI6 F=> 9B F>IAE<= M B=:
?=6=?E<E96D= ;9 E=: M 9B ?=6=?E<E96D= ;9 969<E@=:\ :E6= 789 D5B DEF= ;9 E6D9>N: 96
6=:=D>=: <E:<=: E O9<=: :E;= B=: 969<E@=: 689:D>=: O9><56=: 9: 86 >9:8BD5;= ;9 :9>
;9 E=:- M E=: :9 O5 5?9>?5;= M 6=: O5 U5<EBE5 96 9B :96DE;= <Q: G6DE<= ;9 B5 F5B5K>5
>9?=6?EBE5;= ?=6 NB- +78N F=;9<=: O5?9> 789
6= :95 D>5D5> 5 B=: ;9<Q: ?=<= O9<=: :E;= :D9 DEF= ;9 5<=> M 86E;5; 6= SE969 :E6 865
D>5D5;=:, B E<ED5> 5 9:C: ;9 9:D5 <569>5 K5D5BB5 =: <E:<=: 5;S9>:5>E=: 789 :9
:9>9<=: :5B M B8H96 689:D>5 @969>5?EI6 =F=696 5B D9<=> ;9B 9T=> & 9B <86;=- B5
?5>69 M 9B ;E5KB= & D5<KEN6 :9 =F=696 5 B5
:?=@9 5 5B@C6 969<E@= M 5B@C6 F>IAE<= 9VO=>D5?EI6 ;9 5<5> M 9:D5> 86E;=: 5 689:D>=:
M ?=<E96H5 5 =>5> F=> 9BB=: O9><56=: M O9><565: : ;9 :5KE=: 9:D5>
! 8:?5 =F=>D86E;5;9: F5>5 :=>F>96;9> F96;E96D9: ;9 9:D=: 969<E@=: 5B O5KB5> ;9 B5
?=6 5<=> 5 5B@8E96 ;9 5U89>5 ;9B ?89>F= @B9:E5 ?=<= 865 U5<EBE5
;9 >E:D=
9?89>;5- W X B5 ?5>69 DE969 865 E6?BE65?EI6
! <5 5 D8: O9><56=: M F9?5<E6=:5 O5?E5 B=: E6D9>9:9: F9>:=65B9:
O9><565: : B95B 5 B5 F>9@86D5" + 8N O5M F5>5 <G ,
W!X 5D56Q: 9: 86 <96DE>=:= M 969<E@= ;9 B5
9:C: E6;E?I 789 D=;5: B5: F9>:=65: :=6 86E;5; =D9<=: 789 B5 <5M=> 96:9T56H5
689:D>=: F>IAE<=:- M ;9K9<=: <=:D>5> @>5?E5 9VFBG ?ED5 :=K>9 B5 @89>>5 9:FE>ED85B W U9:E=: )X
M <E:9>E?=>;E5 5 D=;=: F=>789 E=: O5 D96E;= B5 96?=6D>5<=: 96 9B BEK>= 789 96U5DEH5 B5
@>5?E5 M <E:9>E?=>;E5 O5?E5 6=:=D>=: = 86E;5; 5 9:D>5D9@E5 <Q: F>=<E696D9 9:
=K:D56D9- 5789BB=: 789 9:DQ6 96 9B ?89>F= ;9 U>5?D8>5> M ;ESE;E> W%X 9B <86;= D>5D5 ;9
>E:D= :=6 F5>D9 ;9 689:D>5 U5<EBE5 ;9 865 E6:DED8?E=65BEH5> 9:D5: D96;96?E5:
U=><5 9:F9?E5B =6 5789BB=: ?=6 78E969:
F5:5>9<=: B5 9D9>6E;5;- M :=6 5789BB=: ?8M5 9><GD56<9 ;9:96<5:?5>5> 586 <Q: 5 9:D=:
=F=696D9:

261 262
;EA9>=6- E96:= 96 <E U5<EBE5 <5@E6= 789
B 9S56@9BE:D5 ;EA=" 8E9>= 789 :9 =BSE;96 ;9 <E U5<EBE5 9:DQ ?=6<E@=0 5 >9:F89:D5
B5: E6:DED8?E=69: B 9S56@9BE= 6= :9 D>5D5 ;9 9:D5;=86E;96:9 DG FE?5<96D9 9>5- 0 = F89;=
E@B9:E5: : 865 ;9?E:EI6 789 O5?9: ;9B56D9 :8F9>5> 9:D=- :=B5<96D9 ;9K= D>5K5A5> <Q:
;9 9:C: M 65;E9 <Q: U89>D9<96D90 8DEBEH5K56 865 ?=6S9>:5?EI6
?=6 9BB=: <E:<=: ?=6 B5 E6D96?EI6 ;9 E6UB5> :8
+ 8N FE96:5: ;9 :8 96U=789, B 9:DQ 96 B= 0M=0 69?9:ED5;=" 0 =M @>56;E=:= :D5
?=>>9?D= ?856;= ;E?9 789 B=: E6;ESE;8=: ;9K96 F9>:=65 6= F89;9 S96?9><9 =M <9A=> ;9 B=
5>>9F96DE>:9 M K58DEH5>:9 W 9?O=: !"%1X 789 NB 9:0 6 =D>5: F5B5K>5:- SESE<=: 96 865
F89;= 96D96;9> 789 5B@865: F9>:=65: DE9696 ?8BD8>5 789 96U5DEH5 5B E6;ESE;8= F=> :=K>9 B5
865 SE:EI6 ;9U=><5;5 ;9 B5 E@B9:E5- 5:G789 9B ?=<86E;5;
9S56@9BE:D5 6= 789>G5 789 9:5:
F>9:8F=:E?E=69: 68KB5>56 B=: 5:86D=: =: 9:D5;=86E;96:9: 5 <968;= 8DEBEH56 B5
9:FE>ED85B9: 9>= +6= 9: ?E9>D= 789 9B U>5:9 0;9F96;E96D9 96 86= <E:<=0 W :9BU4
BB5<5<E96D= 5 ?=6UE5> M =K9;9?9> 9: 86 >9BE56?9X :D5 U>5:9 9: 86 F>=KB9<5 6=D=>E=
BB5<5<E96D= <Q: 5<FBE= 789 :IB= 9:C: M F5>5 B=: D>5;8?D=>9: => 9A9<FB=- 96
M= , 5 F>=<9:5: ;9 E=: :=6 F5>5 S=:=D>=: 5DE6=5<N>E?5- B5 D>5;8??EI6 <Q: ?9>?565 5 B5
M F5>5 S89:D>=: OEA=: M F5>5 D=;=: B=: 789 789 BB9@56 9: 865 F5B5K>5 <Q: F5>9?E;5 5 B5
9:DQ6 B9A=:\ F5>5 ?856D=: 9B 9T=> 689:D>= F5B5K>5 96 6@BN: 0E6;9F96;96?E50 6
E=: BB5<5>9 W 9?O=: !"%2X + = 9: 5?5:= 5B@86=: F5G :9: 5:EQDE?=: B5 U>5:9 6= DE969
B5 F9>:=65 BB5<5;5 5 S96E> 5 >E:D=- 78E96 9: :96DE;=- = 9: 865 :9T5B ;9 E69:D5KEBE;5;
B5 ?5K9H5 ;9 865 E6:DED8?EI6, 6 9B BEK>= ;9 <96D5B 9 5?89>;= ?=6 B5 <5M=>G 5 ;9 B5:
9?O=:- ?856;= B5 @96D9 :9 ?=6S9>DG 5- :9 D>5;E?E=69: 5:EQDE?5:- B5 F9>:=65 686?5 ;9K9
5:8<G 5 789 :9>G56 F5>D9 ;9 86 ?=<F5T9>E:<= :9> ;9F96;E96D9 96 :G<E:<= 5 F9>:=65
B=?5B = F8;= O5K9> :E;= ;9 =D>5 <569>5 ;9K9 :9> E6D9>;9F96;E96D9
5KG56 :E;= E6D9@>5;=: 5 865 ?=<86E;5; ;9 B5
>9:8>>9??EI6- 865 ?=<86E;5; ;9B :FG >ED8 6 865 =?5:EI6 9:?8?ON 865 S5>E5?EI6
?>E:DE565 ;9 B5 ?56?EI6 ;9 >56Z E65D>5 0 <E
9?E96D9<96D9 :9 OEH= 86 9:D8;E= E6D9>9:56D9 <569>50 9 BB5<5K5 0 8 <569>50 =>
?=6D>5:D5K5 B5 >95??EI6 789 <=:D>5K56 B=: U5S=> 6= FE96:96 789 9:D=M :E96;= 9VD>9<E:D5
A5F=69:9: M B=: 9:D5;=86E;96:9: 56D9 B5: E<FB9<96D9 ;9:9= <56D969> <E: =A=:
;EUE?8BD5;9: F9>:=65B9: 5 F>9@86D5 9>5 5KE9>D=: 5 B5: <569>5: >9?8>>96D9: 96 B5: 789
+?I<= :9 ?=6U=>D5 B5 @96D9 ;8>56D9 9:D5: F96:5<=: ;9 865 <569>5 F>ES5;5 96 S9H ;9
;EUE?8BD5;9:, =: A5F=69:9: ?=6:E:D96D9<96D9 F96:5> ?=>F=>5DES5<96D9 + 89;96 6=D5> <E

263 264
F>9=?8F5?EI6 ?=6 >9:F9?D= 5B 689S= DG
D8B= ;9 :96DE;= ;9 S9>@[96H5 6 =D>5: F5B5K>5:-
9:D5 ?56?EI6, E9>D5<96D9 0 80 9: <9A=> 789 F89:D= 789 F=;9<=: S9> B5: ?=:5: 96
0<G0- F9>= +6= :9>G 5 <Q: F>9?E:= ;9?E> 689:D>5: SE;5: 789 6=: 5S9>@[96H56-
06=:=D>=:0 96 S9H;9 0M=0, 5 ?56?EI6 >9DE969 5:8<E<=: 789 B=: ;9<Q: D5<KEN6 B5: S96
:8 :96DE<E96D= ;9 5E:B5<E96D= 9 D>5D5 ;9 :85B<96D9- :E6 9<K5>@=- D>5D5<=: 5 B5
0 9:C: M M=0 E@B9:E5 ?=<= 86 969<E@= F=>789 6= O9<=:
:E;= 96:9T5;=: F=> B5 :?>ED8>5 = :5K9<=:
+ 9?89>;56 5 B5 <8A9> ?>E:DE565 789 ;9?G 5 789 B= 789 E=: ;E?9 5?9>?5 ;9 8?89>F=
E=: B9 O5KG5 ;E?O= 789 :9 ?5:5>5 ?=6 5B@8E96
789 6= 9>5 ?>E:DE56=, 5B S9HU89 86 9A9<FB= :D= DE969 <8?O= 789 S9> ?=6 9B D9<=> 5B
9VD>9<=- +?856 5 <968;= ?=6:8BD5<=: ?=6 9B O=<K>9 E96D>5: F96:9<=: 5?9>?5 ;9
F5:D=>- B=: 56?E56=: = B5: O9><56=: ;9 B5 6=:=D>=: <E:<=: ?=<= :=B=: = 5E:B5;=:-
E@B9:E5 ?856;= 9:D5<=: F96:56;= 5?9>?5 ;9B 9:D5>9<=: :E9<F>9 F>=F96:=: 5 D9<9> 5 B=:
<5D>E<=6E=- 86 ?5<KE= ;9 D>5K5A=- 8 =D>5 ;9<Q: B 5E:B5<E96D= M 9B D9<=> 5B O=<K>9
;9?E:EI6 E<F=>D56D9, + 8Q6 5 <968;= FE;= :=6 ?=<F5T9>=: ?9>?56=: = =K:D56D9-
=>5?EI6 F=> F5>D9 ;9 B5 E@B9:E5 ?856;= 9:D=M :=<=: BEK9>5;=: ?856;= 96D96;9<=: 96
9:?>EKE96;= = ;56;= ?=6U9>96?E5:, E9<F>9 S9>;5; 789 E=: 6=: O5 BB5<5;= 5 F5>DE?EF5>
9VE:D9 <8?O5 ;E:?8:EI6 9 E6:D>8??EI6 5?9>?5 96 865 U5<EBE5 <Q: @>56;9 W 9:D= 9:- B5
;9 ?=6=?9> B5 S=B86D5; F9>:=65B ;9 E=: F5>5 @B9:E5X B ?8BD= ?=6 B5 E@B9:E5 ?=<E96H5 5
689:D>5: SE;5:- F9>= +O5: 9:?8?O5;= 5 B5 :96DE>:9 86 F=?= <Q: ?=<= 865 U5<EBE5
@96D9 O5KB5> 5?9>?5 ;9 B5 S=B86D5; ;9 E=: :96D5;5 ?=6 6=:=D>=: 96 689:D>5 :5B5 86
F5>5 B5 E@B9:E5 = 586 F5>5 :8: U5<EBE5:, <9A=>- 6=: :96DE<=: ?=<= 865 U5<EBE5
:96D5;=: A86D=: 5 B=: FE9: ;9 9:C:- :96D5;=:
+ 5: 6=D5;= 789 <8?O5 @96D9 6= ?=6?EK9 B5 5B>9;9;=> ;9B D>=6= =6 B5 U5<EBE5 6= O5M
E@B9:E5 ?=<= 865 U5<EBE5, 5 <5M=>G 5 ;9 B5: E6?=<=;E;5;- F965 = D9<=>
S9?9: 9:?8?O= 5 B5 @96D9 O5KB5> ;9 B5 E@B9:E5
?=<= :E U89>5 :8 969<E@5 B@865: S9?9: 89;9 :9> 789 6= O5M5: S96E;= ;9 865 U5<EBE5
9:D5: F9>:=65: O56 :E;= B5:DE<5;5: F=> @96D9 :IBE;5 89;9 :9> 789 D8 O=@5> U89 86 B8@5>
;9 B5 E@B9:E5 M O56 D=<5;= B5 ;9?E:EI6 ;9 6= ;=6;9 :E9<F>9 U8E:D9 ?>EDE?5;= M :E9<F>9 D9
:9> B5:DE<5;5: ;9 689S= 969>5BEH56 5 F5>DE> F>9@86D5K5: 789 9:D5>G 56 F96:56;= B=:
;9B ?5:= 9:F9?G UE?= 5 B5 E@B9:E5 96D9>5" E 865 ;9<Q: E 9:D9 9: 9B ?5:=- 6= F9><ED5: 789 D8
F9>:=65 <9 B5:DE<I- 96D=6?9: B5 E@B9:E5 <9 9VF9>E96?E5 ;9 B= 789 9: 865 U5<EBE5 ?=>>=<F5
B5:DE<I B@865: S9?9:- 5?D85<=: ?=<= :E B5 D8 96D96;E<E96D= ;9 B= 789 E=: ;E?9 5?9>?5
E@B9:E5 U89>5 86 969<E@= F=> 689:D>= F>=FE= ;9 9BB5 9K9: ?>99> 789 5789BB=: 789

265 266
F9>D969?96 5B ?89>F= ;9 >E:D= :=6 D8 U5<EBE5 =>96 UE9B<96D9- M <8?O5 =D>5 @96D9 ;9B ?89>F=
F>96;9 789 :=<=: 86 F89KB= ;9 E@85B F5>5 789 86 <E:E=69>= S5M5 M O5@5 ;E:?G F8B=:
<569>5 ?=<= :=<=: F9>:=65: E6;ESE;85B9: F5>5 ?8<FBE> 9B <56;5D= ;9 =>5> :E6 ?9:5>-
:D5 B9??EI6 6= 69?9:5>E5<96D9 9: <Q: UQ?EB 69?9:ED= 5 B5 E@B9:E5 F=>789 69?9:ED= ;=><E> ;9
F5>5 B5: F9>:=65: 789 O56 S96E;= ;9 K8965: S9H96 ?856;=- M D96@= 789 E> 5 D>5K5A5> 5
U5<EBE5: :D= =?8>>9 F=>789 B5 B9??EI6 9: =>5?EI6 F>5?DE?5;5 B5: S9E6DE?85D>= O=>5: ;9B
5F>96;E;5 F=> U9- 6= :E<FB9<96D9 F=> B5 ;G5 :IB= F89;9 :9> B=@>5;5 F=> B5 E@B9:E5 5
9VF9>E96?E5 F>9SE5 6ES9B <86;E5B

=D9<=: B=: >9:8BD5;=: :E :=<=: 69@BE@96D9: 5 <5@96 =>F=>5DES5 ;9 E=:
96 S9> B5 E<F=>D56?E5 ;9 B5 ?=<86E;5; KGKBE?5
E F>ES5DEH5<=: B5 :?>ED8>5- ?=6SE>DE96;= 9B B U86;5<96D= ;9 B5 96:9T56H5 ;9 B5 86E;5;-
6=:=D>=: F=> 86 M= - D96;>9<=: B=: 5<=> M B5 U5<EBE5 ;9 E=: :9 >9<=6D5 5 B5
:E@8E96D9: ;EB9<5:" E<5@96 ;9 E=: 96 9B O=<K>9 9> E<5@96 ;9
E=: :E@6EUE?5 E<ED5> M >9F>9:96D5> 5 E=: 96
= D96@= 789 E> 5 D=;= 9B <86;= M O5?9> K969UE?E= ;9 8@B=>E5 E@6EUE?5 789 ;9K9<=:
;E:?GF8B=: W 5D !1" 1X :9> :9<9A56D9: 5 E=: 96 D=;5: B5: <569>5:
! = D96@= 789 =>5> :E6 ?9:5> W 9: 96 B5: 789 B5: ?>E5D8>5: F89;96 :9>
(" /X :9<9A56D9: 5B >95;=> 5>5 E<ED5>
% = D96@= 789 ;5> 9B ?8E;5;= 5F>=FE5;= 5 >9<=D5<96D9 D5B @B=>E5 E6<96:5 ?E9>D5<96D9
B5: SE8;5: 789 9:DQ6 96 69?9:E;5; W :9 >978E9>9 ;9 86 @>8F= @>56;9 ;9 F9>:=65:-
E< ("%X F=>789 B5: ?>E5D8>5: 9:DQ6 BE<ED5;5: <E96D>5:
' = D96@= 789 96:9T5> 5 B=: O=<K>9: 789 B5 @B=>E5 ;9 E=: 9: EBE<ED5;5 B ?5FG
D8B=
<5M=>9:- 5 B=: AIS969: M 5 B5: AIS969: 2 >9:8<EI 5B@865: ;9 B5: U5?9D5: ;9 9:D5
W ED= !" 41X @B=>E5- M F=> B= D56D=- ;9:?>EKEI5B@865: ;9 B5:
<569>5: 96 B5: 789 6=:=D>=: F=;9<=: E<ED5>
;9 5B@865 <569>5- 96 B=: <=<96D=: 789 5 E=:- F9>= O8K= 865 789 ;9:?8E;5<=:
<9 789;96 BEK>9:- M= ;9K= D>5K5A5> M @565>
:8UE?E96D9 ;E69>= F5>5 <E U5<EBE5 M9 :>59B- 9B 9T=> 689:D>= E=: 86= 9:
U=>D865;5<96D9- 9:D=: <56;5D=: :=6 ;5;=: W 98D )"'X
5 B5 @B9:E5 =B5<96D9 ?=<= ?89>F= 9: 789
F=;9<=: 9S56@9BEH5> 5B <86;= 9 >978E9>96 E 9VE:DE9>5 865 FB8>5BE;5; ;9 ;E=:9:- :9>G 56
F9>:=65: 789 5F=M96 9?=6I<E?5<96D9- 96D96;EKB9: B5: ;ESE:E=69: M U5??E=69: 96D>9 B5
5@96?E5: <E:E=69>5:- 5<E@=: 9 E@B9:E5: 789 @96D9 >9BE@E=:5 = :=M ;9 $98: = :=M ;9

267 268
9>?8>E= 9>= 689:D>= E=: 9: 86=- M :8 856;= ?Q6 F9?I 5B D=<5> ;9B K=DG 6 ;9
F89KB= B= E<ED5 M B9 D>59 @B=>E5 ?856;= 9>E?I- B=: OEA=: ;9 :>59B ?=<9DE9>=6 865
<56DE969 B5 86E;5; F>9S5>E?5?EI6 W=: /" X B 9T=> ;EA= 789
:>59B O5KG 5 F9?5;= B ?5:DE@= F=> B5
+ 8QB 9>5 B5 E;96DE;5; <Q: F>=<E696D9 F5>5 ;9:=K9;E96?E5 ?5MI :=K>9 D=;= 9B F89KB=
B=: E:>59BED5:, =M 86 E:>59BED5- 9B F89KB= 789 ?856;= 9B 9AN>?ED= U89 ;9>>=D5;= F=> B=:
F9>D969?9 5 E=: 6D96D5 96?=6D>5> 9B O=<K>9 ;9 5E 5>5 D>5D5> 9B F9?5;=- D=;=
?=6?9FD= ;9 E=: M M= 96 B=: ?E6?= BEK>=: ;9 :>59B ;9KG5 ?=6:5@>5>:9 ;9B56D9 ;9B 9T=>
=E:N: = B= 96?=6D>5>Q: B F5?D= ;9 E=: => :8F89:D=- B5 EKBE5 9: ?B5>5 96 ?856D= ;9
U89 O9?O= ?=6 86 F89KB= M9 :>59B - ;EA= 9B 789 ?5;5 E6;ESE;8= 9: >9:F=6:5KB9 F=> :8
9T=> F>=FE= F9?5;=- F9>= 9VE:D9 86 :96DE;= 96 9B
789 D=;= 9B F89KB= :9 ?=6D5<E65 ?856;= O5M
6;5; 5B>9;9;=> ;9 E=6- M >=;95;B5\ =6D5; F9?5;= 96 86= ;9 :8: <E9<K>=:
:8: D=>>9: =6:E;9>5; 5D96D5<96D9 :8
56D9<8>=- E>5; :8: F5B5?E=:\ 5>5 789 B= 56E9B 9:D5K5 <8M ?=6:?E96D9 ;9 789 586 96
?=6DNE: 5 B5 @969>5?EI6 S96E;9>5 =>789 9:D9 9B 9VEBE= 9:D5K5 E69VFBE?5KB9<96D9 ?=69?D5;=
E=: 9: E=: 689:D>= 9D9>65<96D9 M F5>5 ?=6 9B F89KB= ;9 E=: = 789 :9 ;9?G 5 ;9
:E9<F>9\ B 6=: @8E5>Q 586 <Q: 5BBQ ;9 B5 9BB=: F=;G5 ;9?E>:9 ;9 NB :D5K5 5S9>@=6H5;=
<89>D9 F=> 9B 9VEBE=- M :96DG
5 9B F9:= ;9B F9?5;= ;9B
F89KB=
=: E:>59BED5: ;9B 6DE@8= 9:D5<96D= D96G 56
U9:DESE;5;9: ?=>F=>5DES5:- B5 5:?85 :9 O=>5- 9T=>- E=: @>56;9- ;E@6= ;9 :9>
?9B9K>5K5 ?=6 B5: U5<EBE5:- M O5KG 5 86 ;G 5 D9<E;=- 789 @85>;5: 9B F5?D= M B5 <E:9>E?=>;E5
5685B ;9 F>=FE?E5?EI6 F=> B=: F9?5;=: ;9B ?=6 B=: 789 D9 5<56 M @85>;56 D8:
F89KB= ?=<= 86 D=;= W9S )X B=: <56;5<E96D=:\ O9<=: F9?5;=- O9<=:
E:>59BED5: :9 B9: =>;96I 789 O5KB5>56 ;9B E=: ?=<9DE;= E6E78E;5;- O9<=: O9?O= E<FG 5<96D9-
M :8 B9M 5 :8: OEA=: M B=: 86=: 5 B=: =D>=: M O9<=: :E;= >9K9B;9:- M 6=: O9<=: 5F5>D5;=
W 98D )X 5: F>=<9:5: U89>=6 F>=<9:5: ;9 D8: <56;5<E96D=: M ;9 D8: =>;9656H5:
O9?O5: 5 86 F89KB= 5B E@85B 789 5 B=: = O9<=: =K9;9?E;= 5 D8: :E9>S=: B=:
E6;ESE;8=: 9 E@85B <=;=- B5: <5B;E?E=69: F>=U9D5: O 9O=SQ- 689:D>5 9: B5 ?=6U8:EI6
F=> B5: ;9:=K9;E96?E5: ;9 B=: E6;ESE;8=: 5 ;9 >=:D>=- ;9 689:D>=: >9M9:- ;9 689:D>=:
<968;= 9>56 <5B;E?E=69: 789 ?5G 56 :=K>9 F>G6?EF9: M ;9 689:D>=: F5;>9:\F=>789 ?=6D>5
D=;5 B5 @96D9 DE F9?5<=: W 56 2"'41X

269 270
9?89>;= 865 D5>95 789 6=: ;9A5>=6 96 ?85>D= ;9:?96;E96;=- ;9:?96;E96;=- ;9:?96;E96;=
;9 F>E<5>E5 96 B5 789 D96G 5<=: 789 9:?>EKE> 5B ?85;>= 9:DQ >9:9>S5;= F5>5 B5 K96;E?EI6
865 ?5>D5 :E6 8:5> B5 F5B5K>5 M= =;5SG5 6= <Q: @>56;9 789 E=: F89;9 ;5> 5 :8 F89KB="
96DE96;= ?8QB U89 9B F>=FI:ED= & 5 S9?9: B5 K96;E?EI6 ;9 B5 86E;5;
FE96:= 789 F89:D= 789 N>5<=: 86 @>8F= D56
<5B=- B5 <59:D>5 8:I 9:D5 D5>95 F5>5 :9T5B5> P E>5; ?8Q6 K896= M ?8Q6 ;9BE?E=:= 9:
689:D>= 9@=G :<= & F9>= :9 789 D=;=: 5KED5> B=: O9><56=: A86D=: 96 5><=6G5R :
F96:5<=: 789 9>5 ?5:E E<F=:EKB9 ?=<= 9B K896 IB9= :=K>9 B5 ?5K9H5- B ?85B
;9:?E96;9 :=K>9 B5 K5>K5- 5 K5>K5 ;9 5>I6-
65 D5>95 ?>E:DE565 978ES5B96D9 :9>G 5 =>5> :E6 K5A5 O5:D5 9B K=>;9 ;9 :8: S9:DE;8>5:\
F9;E> F=> B5: F>9=?8F5?E=69: 9:F9?G UE?5: =<= 9B >=?G = ;9 9><I6- 89 ;9:?E96;9
F9>:=65B9: 5>5 <G - D5B =>5?EI6 9: D56 ;EUG?EB :=K>9 B=: <=6D9: ;9 E=6\ =>789 5BBG96SG 5
?=<= 9:?>EKE> 865 ?5>D5 :E6 8:5> M= 856;= 9O=SQ K96;E?EI6- SE;5 9D9>65
=>=- DGFE?5<96D9- D96@= ?G >?8B=: ?=6?N6D>E?=:
96 <E <96D9 B ?G>?8B= ;9 5;96D>= 9: <E 5 F>E<9>5 E<5@96 9: B5 ;9 B5 =>;965?EI6 ;9
U5<EBE5- 9B :E@8E96D9 ?G >?8B= :=6 <E: F5>E96D9:- 5>I6 ?=<= :5?9>;=D9 89 86 @>56 ;G 5- 86
9B :E@8E96D9 9: <E E@B9:E5- 9B :E@8E96D9 :=6 B5: ;G5 ;9 @>56 ?9B9K>5?EI6 :D9 9S96D= ?=6UE><I
<E:E=69:- M 5:G:E@= 8M 5 <968;=- <9 9B F5?D= ;9 E=: ?=6 :8F89KB= => <9;E= ;9
U5DE@= 56D9: ;9 :5BE> ;9B :9@86;= ?G >?8B= 9:D5 =>;965?EI6- E=: 9:D5K5 ;E?E96;= 789 NB
<=>5>G 5 ?=6 :8 F89KB=- M 9B F89KB= D96;>G 5
+ I<= O5: E6D96D5;= =>5> 96 @>56;9 , :D9 5??9:= 5 :8 E=: 5 D>5SN: ;9 B=: :5?9>;=D9:
9: 86 9V?9B96D9 >9<9;E= 96 ?=6D>5 ;9B D9<=> 6D=6?9:- 5B F>9:96?E5> B5 =>;965?EI6- 9B
5B O=<K>9 6D96D5 =>5> 5B >9SN: F5>DE96;= ;9B 5?9ED9- 9B ?85B :IB= :9 5FBE?5 5 B5 ?5K9H5- :9
?G>?8B= ;9 <Q: 5U89>5 O5?E5 9B ?G >?8B= ;9 <56DE969 ?5M96;= O5:D5 ?8K>E> D=;= 9B ?89>F=
5;96D>=\9: ;9?E>- =>56;= F=> 9B <86;= M B5 ;9 5>I6 B 5?9ED9 ;9 ?=6:5@>5?EI6 6= F=;G5
E@B9:E5 @B=K5B 56D9: ;9 BB9@5> ?9>?5 ;9B O=@5> :9> ?=6D96E;= 9 <56D8S= ?5M96;= M
>5 B5: =>5?E=69: ;9 B5 EKBE5 >5 B=: ?5M96;=
5B<=: =: 5B<=: :=6 F5>5 B5 <9;ED5?EI6
F>ES5;5 M F5>5 B5 5:5<KB95- F9>= :=6 <Q: 9 865 <569>5 :E<EB5>- 9B =6D9 9><I6 9>5
5F>=FE5;=: F5>5 B5 5:5<KB95 B5 <=6D5T5 <Q: @>56;9 ;9 B5 >9@EI6- M EI6
6= 9>5 <Q: 789 865 ?=BE65 E 9B >=?G
= ;9
B 5B<= %% 9: 86 9A9<FB= ;9 86 5B<= 9><I6 ?5M9>5 :=K>9 EI6- :9>G5 865
?=>F=>5DES= 9VFBG
?ED= : 86 ?85;>= ;9 B5: 5K86;56D9 K96;E?EI6 ;9 U>8D=: 96 865 H=65
K96;E?E=69: 789 6= F89;96 :9> ?=6D96E;5: Q>E;5

271 272
F5B5K>5:- 5 SE:EI6 789 5KB= D96G 5 ;9 B5
:D9 5B<= 9: 865 =>5?EI6 <8M E<F=>D56D9 E@B9:E5 9: 789 N:D5 :9>G 5 B5 ;9?B5>5?EI6 <Q:
F5>5 9B F89KB= ;9 E=: 856;= D9<9<=: 5 B5 @>56;9 ;9 E=: D56D= F5>5 9B <86;= ?=<=
@96D9 M 6=: 5E:B5<=: = F>=D9@9<=: ;9 9BB=:- F5>5 B=: :9>9: ?9B9:DE5B9: 5 @B9:E5 9:DQ
6=: 5E:B5<=: M F>=D9@9<=: ;9 865 F5>D9 :E96;= =K:9>S5;5 M 9:D8;E5;5 F=> F=;9>9:
E<F=>D56D9 ;9B >9<9;E= F>=SE:D= F=> E=:- 9:FE>ED85B9:- M 9: 5 D>5SN: ;9 B5 E@B9:E5 ?=<=
9:D= 9:- 5<=> M 86E;5; ?=6 :8 F89KB= 6 ?89>F= 789 9:DQ6 :E96;= 5686?E5;5: B5:
5B<= D5B ?=<= 9B %% 6=: >9?89>;5 789 @>56;9: >E789H5: ;9 B5 :5KE;8>G 5 ;9 E=:
=>9<=: F=> 9B >9<9;E= F>=SE:D= F=> E=: =: + 8QB 9: 9B FE6Q?8B= ;9 9:D5 :5KE;8>G 5, 89
>9?89>;5 789 865 ;9 B5: @>56;9: K96;E?E=69: E=: O5 ;9<=:D>5;= :8 @B=>E5 5B D>59> 5 86
;9 B5 DE9>>5 9: 86E>6=: 5B F89KB= ;9 E=: 96 @>8F= <8M S5>E5;= M 86E>B= 96 >E:D=
S9H;9 D9<9>B9 = 5E:B5>6=: ;9 NB
5>5 B=@>5> 9:D5 86E;5;- >E:D= O5 ;5;=
6E;5; M <=> & 65 F>E=>E;5; KG
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273 274
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275 276
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277 278
8M F>=K5KB9<96D9 >9?89>;5: 865 BE:D5 ;9
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279 280
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281 282
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?9>?5 5 B5 F>9:96?E5 ;9 B= :56D= 5KG56
;E>9?D>E?9: 9VD96:5: F5>5 B=: :5?9>;=D9: 789 =6 9B UE6 ;9 O5?9> 86 F896D9 96D>9 B5 A8:DE?E5
:9 8:5K56 ?=<= <9;E;5: ;9 F>9?58?EI6- M B5 M 9B 5<=>- 8D9>= E6D96DI D>5K5A5> ?=6 <Q:
E:5 O5KG 5 :E;= ?9B9K>5;5 <EB9: ;9 S9?9: 5OG 6?= =<= B5 <5M=>G 5 ;9 B5 @96D9- NB
56D9>E=><96D9- F9>= 9:D5 :9@8>E;5; 6= F96:I 789 F=;G 5 @565> 9B 5<=> ;9 E=: =>
?=6:=BI 5 8D9>= E=: 9>5 D=;5SG5 9B D=;=4 B= D56D=- K8:?5K5 B5 :56DE;5; F9>:=65B ?=6 865
5D9>>5;=> E=: >5 5D>5?DES= 96 5B@865: ;EBE@96?E5 :E6 F5> 6D96DI;9 D=;=" 5M86=: ;9
<569>5:- F9>= 9>5 <Q: F5>5 9SED5>:9 789 F5>5 D>9: ;G5:- ?=6U9:E=69: ;9 :9E: O=>5:- ;=><E> 96
5K>5H5>:9 => B= D56D=- 8D9>= 9:D5K5 ?5:E :E6 9B U>G= :E6 ?=K9>D=>9:- M =>5?EI6 ?=6:D56D9-
O5KB5 ?856;= ?=<96HIB5 ?9>9<=6E5 D=;= 9BB= O5:D5 9B F86D= ;9 789 F9BE@>5K5 :8
SE;5 9>= B5 D>5678EBE;5; 6= BB9@5K5
:D5K5 ?=<FB9D5<96D9 9:D8F9U5?D= M
5D9>>5;= 96:5K5" + =6 78N B96@85 <9
;E>E@E>N 5 :9<9A56D9 5A9:D5;- SE96;= 789
31
Roland Bainton, Here I Stand: a Life of Martin Luther (New York: New American
D=;=: B=: O=<K>9 ;9K96 D9<KB5> 96 B5 Library, 1950), 30.

301 302
E6 9<K5>@=- E=: 9:D5K5 =K>56;= 96 B5 SE;5 5M8;5><9 => B= D56D=- 6= 5<5K5 5 86 E=:
;9B <=6A9 8D9>= 9>5 86 K896 9>8;ED= 789 A8:D= M 5E>5;=- :E6= 789 B= =;E5K5 M
9:D8;EI B=: E;E=<5: KG KBE?=: M B5: :?>ED8>5: <8><8>5K5 96 :8 ?=6D>5 = =K:D56D9-
6 (32 >9?EKEI 9B @>5;= ;9 K5?OEBB9> 96 F9><569?G5 5D96D= 5B 789>E;= 5KB= M D96G
5 86
9:D8;E=: KG KBE?=:- M 96 ( ! >9?EKEI 9B @>5;= @>56;9 56O9B= ;9 :5K9> 78N789>G5 ;9?E>
;9 ;=?D=> 96 D9=B=@G 5 :D=: 9:D8;E=: B=
F>9F5>5>=6 F5>5 :8?5>@= ;9 F>=U9:=> ;9 EKBE5 =?O9 M ;G 5 F96:5K5 9:D= O5:D5 789 SE B5
96 JEDD96K9>@- 96 ;=6;9 :8 >9:F=6:5KEBE;5; ?=69VEI6 96D>9 B5 A8:DE?E5 ;9 E=: M B5
9>5 ;5> ?=6U9>96?E5: 9V9@NDE?5: 5?9>?5 ;9 B=: ;9?B5>5?EI6 9B A8:D= F=> B5 U9 SESE>Q
BEK>=: KG KBE?=: 5?E96;= 9:D5 D5>95 NB :9 6D=6?9: 96D96;G789 B5 A8:DE?E5 ;9 E=: 9:
:96DG 5 ?=<= F9H96 9B 5@85 9:5 >9?DED8; F=> B5 ?85B 5 D>5SN: ;9 B5 @>5?E5 M
B5 <E:9>E?=>;E5 F8>5- E=: 6=: A8:DEUE?5 5
6 ( %4 ( ;E= ?=6U9>96?E5: :=K>9 B=: D>5SN: ;9 B5 U9 F5>DE> ;9 9:9 <=<96D=-
5B<=:- 96 ( (4 ) :=K>9 =<56=:- 96 :96DG789 >965?GM 789 9>5 D>56:F=>D5;= 5
( )4 / :=K>9 QB5D5:- M 96 ( /4 1 :=K>9 D>5SN: ;9 F89>D5: 5KE9>D5: 5B F5>5G := :
9K>9=: B 9S56@9BE= :9 B9 9<F9HI5 5?B5>5> ;9?E>- S9> 5 E=: ?=6 U9- 9: S9> :8 ?=>5HI6
B SE= 5 >E:D= ?=<= 9B D=;=4<E:9>E?=>;E=:= 96 F5D9>65B M 5<E:D=:=- 96 9B ?85B 6= O5M 96=A=
B=: 5B<=: 89@=- ?856;= 9:D8;EI =<56=:- 6E U5BD5 ;9 @>5?E5 789B 789 S9 5 E=: ?=<=
D=;= ?85AI 5>5 8D9>=- 9B >9:8<96 ;9 B5 96=A5;= 6= B9 9:DQ SE96;= ?=>>9?D5<96D9 :E6=
=K>5 ;9 :5BS5?EI6 ;9 E=: :9 S=BSEI" 5 789 9:DQ <E>56;= :IB= 5 D>5SN: ;9 865
A8:DEUE?5?EI6 :IB= F=> U9 E65B<96D9 8D9>= ?=>DE65- ?=<= :E O8KE9>56 F89:D= 865 68K9
9:D5K5 ?=6=?E96;= 5 E=: 96 >E:D= ?=<= 9B 69@>5 96U>96D9 ;9 :8>=:D>= %!
E=: D=;=4A8:DE?E5 M D=;=4<E:9>E?=>;E5
6 D9<=> ;9B 9T=> >=K8:D= :9 O5KG 5 68D>E;=
9:95K5 @>56;9<96D9 96D96;9> B5 9FG :D=B5 F=> <9;E= ;9B 9:D8;E= M B5 <9;ED5?EI6 ;9 B5:
;9 5KB= 5 B=: =<56=: M 65;5 <9 9:D=>K5K5 :?>ED8>5: 8M F>=6D= :9>G5 F89:D= 5 F>89K5
?=<= B5 9VF>9:EI6- B5 A8:DE?E5 ;9 E=: -
F=>789 M= ?=6:E;9>5K5 789 :9 >9U9>G 5 5 B5 8D9>= 9: <Q: ?=6=?E;= F=> :8 >95??EI6 96
A8:DE?E5 F=> B5 ?85B E=: 9: A8:D= M D>5D5 ?=6D>5 ;9 B5: E6;8B@96?E5: 6 :8: ;G5:- B5
A8:D5<96D9 5B ?5:DE@5> 5B E6A8:D= E :ED85?EI6 E@B9:E5 5 <968;= >9?58;5K5 ;E69>= F=> <9;E=
9>5 789- 586789 9>5 86 <=6A9 E<F9?5KB9- ;9 S96;9> B= 789 9BB=: F9>?EKG
56 ?=<= U5S=>9:
9:D5K5 ;9B56D9 ;9 E=: ?=<= F9?5;=> ;ESE6=: E D96G
5: ;E69>= ?856;= :9 =U>9?G56
5D>EK8B5;= 96 :8 ?=6:?E96?E5- M 6= D96G 5
?=6UE56H5 96 789 <E <N>ED= F8;E9>5 32
Ibid., 50.

303 304
E6;8B@96?E5:- 96D=6?9: F=;G 5: BEK9>5> 5 5B@C6 K>EK=69:- F=> <9;E= ;9 B=: ?85B9: 96@5T56 B5:
U5<EBE5> = 5 DE <E:<= ;9B F8>@5D=>E= :D9 5B<5: M ;9:D>8M96 B=: KE969: ;9 B=: UE9B9:
:E:D9<5 SE=B5K5 ;9 D5B <569>5 9B F>E6?EFE= ;9
B5 A8:DEUE?5?EI6 F=> B5 U9 789 8D9>= :9 :E6DEI 5B ?B5:9 ;9 :5>?5:<= <8BDEFBE?I D56D= 9B
?=<F9BE;= 5 >9:F=6;9> :GB= OEH= 5B ?B5S5> 6C<9>= ;9 :8: 5<E@=: ?=<= 9B ;9 :8:
B5: 6=S96D5 M ?E6?= D9:E: 96 B5 F89>D5 ;9 B5 969<E@=:
E@B9:E5 ;9B ?5:DEBB= ;9 JEDD96K9>@
5 5F9B5?EI6 UE65B ;9 8D9>= ?=6 9B DE9<F= B=
:D5: D9:E:- 5B E@85B 789 ;=?965: ;9 BB9SI 5 865 >986EI6 56D9 865 F>9:DE@E=:5
F8KBE?5?E=69: :8K:9?896D9:- F8:E9>=6 5 8D9>= 5:5<KB95 96 J=><: 9:F8N: ;9 <8?O5
96 D5B ;E:F5>E;5; ?=6 B5 E@B9:E5 ?5DIBE?= ;E:?8:EI6 5?9>?5 ;9 :E :9 B9 F9><EDE>G
5 O5KB5> 5
>=<565 789 9:D5K5 96 ?=6:D56D9 F9BE@>= 8D9>= = 6=- 9B ) ;9 5K>EB ;9 (! - 8D9>=
=;G5 F5:5> 789 :8: 969<E@=: D>5D5>56 ;9 BB9@I 5 J=><: B ;9K5D9 9:F9>5;=
5:9:E65>B= = 789 B5 E@B9:E5 B= 789<5>5 ?=<= :E<FB9<96D9 U89 86 A8E?E= FCKBE?= = :9 B9
86 O9>9A9 85B78E9>5 789 U89>56 B=: <9;E=:- F9><EDE>G5 5 8D9>= B5 =F=>D86E;5; ;9 ;E:?8>:5>
8D9>= 5:8<G 5 789 B5 <89>D9 9>5 E69SED5KB9 :=K>9 :8: ?=6?B8:E=69: 9:F8N: ;9 <=:D>5>
8: BEK>=: M5 O5KG 56 :E;= 789<5;=: B=: BEK>=: ;9 8D9>=- 9B 9V5<E65;=> OEH= 865
FCKBE?5<96D9 96 =<5 = =K:D56D9- B5: :E<FB9 F>9@86D5" + =: ;9UE96;9: F=>
5<965H5: 6= B=@>5>=6 789 8D9>= ;9A5>5 ;9 ?=<FB9D=- = ;9:95: >9?O5H5> 865 F5>D9,
9:?>EKE> <Q: F56UB9D=: 789 5F=M5>56 B= 789 NB
96D96;G 5 ?=<= B5: F5B5K>5: ;9 E=: <E:<= 5 >9:F89:D5 ;9 8D9>= U89 ?8>E=:5-
9:F9?E5B<96D9 5 B5 B8H ;9 :8: 9:?>ED=: D56
=: A8E?E=: 9?B9:EQ:DE?=: 6= B9 ;E9>=6 5 8D9>= =:5;=: 8EHQ :9 :E6DEI E6DE<E;5;= F=> 9B
B5 =F=>D86E;5; F5>5 ;9K5DE> 6 S9H ;9 9:=- ?=6A86D= ;9 B=: O=<K>9: <Q: F=;9>=:=: 789
9>56 5D5789: 96 :8?=6D>5- ;9<56;Q6;=B9 789 A5<Q: :9 O8KE9>5 >986E;= 96 9:5 >9@EI6
:9 >9D>5?D5>5 ;9 :8: 9:?>ED=: M O8<EB;9<96D9 9:F=6;EI ?=6 S=H 5F965: 58;EKB9- 9?E>
:9 :=<9DE9>5 5 B5 E@B9:E5 8D9>= E6?B8:ES9 :9 ;9<5:E5;= = F=?= :9>G
5 F9BE@>=:= 9: :8FBE?=
>9D>5?DI ;9 86 F86D= 789 <9 ;96 DE9<F= F5>5 F96:5>B=

:D5K5 978ES=?5;=- B= 5;<ED=- ?856;= ;EA9 5>9?G5 9:D5> S5?EB56;= 96D>9 9B D9<=> 5B
789 B5: E6;8B@96?E5: 9>56 86 96@5T= FE5;=:= O=<K>9 = 9B D9<=> 5B 9T=>- F9>= 5B@= =?8>>EI
5 B=: UE9B9: 9 >9D>5?D= M ;E@=- B5: 5B ;5> B5: :9E: 96 F86D= ;9 B5 6=?O9 :E@8E96D9
E6;8B@96?E5: :=6 B=: U>58;9: <Q: 96@5T=:=: 9 8D9>= ;9<=:D>I B5 =:5;G 5 789 ?5>5?D9>EH5K5
E<F=:D=>9: ?=<9DE;=: F=> B=: F=6DG UE?9: <Q: :8: 9:?>ED=: 5B :9@8>E;5; 6= 9>5 865

305 306
58D=?=6UE56H5 F=>789 ?5<E65K5 96 O8<EB;5; :E;= 9VEBE5;=- M 5KEB=6E5 O5KG 5 E6S5;E;= 8;Q
;9B56D9 ;9 E=:- :E6= U89 865 ?=6UE56H5 96 B5 M 9:D5KB9?E;= >9M9: 789 9>56 :8: DG D9>9: B
5B5K>5 ;9 E=: F>E6?EFE= ;9 B5 =?8F5?EI6 K5KEBI6E?5- BB9S5>=6 5
B=: AIS969: <Q: K>EBB56D9: ;9 B5: U5<EBE5:
=6 :8: ?=<96D5>E=:- ;9U96;EI :8: 9:?>ED=: M 6=KB9: ;9 8;Q F5>5 789 :E>SE9>56 96 B5 ?=>D9
B9: ;EA= 5 B=: O=<K>9: 789 D96G 56 9B F=;9> ;9 ;9 5K8?=;=6=:=>- 96D>9 9BB=: 9:D5K56 56E9B
<5D5>B=- 9K= ?5<E65> 96 9B D9<=> ;9B M :8: 5<E@=:
9T=> B ?=6?B8MI :8: ?=<96D5>E=:
;9?B5>56;=- E ?=6?E96?E5 9: ?58DES5 ;9 B5 = :5K9<=: 5 ?E96?E5 ?E9>D5 ?I<= 5F>96;EI
5B5K>5 ;9 E=: = F89;= M 6= <9 >9D>5?D5>N 56E9B 9B D9<=> ;9B 9T=> B >9M ;9 A8;Q 789
;9 65;5- F=>789 E> 96 ?=6D>5 ;9 B5 ?=6:?E96?E5 >9E65K5 ;8>56D9 B5 =?8F5?EI6 K5KEBI6E?5 9>5 9B
6= 9: ?=>>9?D= 6E :9@8>= E=: <9 5M8;9 F9>S9>:= =578G 6- M NB U89 F>9?9;E;= F=> 9B
78G9:D=M UE><9- 6= F89;= O5?9> =D>5 ?=:5 >9E65;= K>9S9 ;9 =D>= >9M <5BS5;= =
<N6 =K:D56D9- ?5D=>?9 5T=: 56D9: ;9 B5 ?58DESE;5;
K5KEBI6E?5- =:G 5: O5KG 5 :E;= >9M M 9B D>5A= 86
8D9>= ;9<=:D>I 789 9: F=:EKB9 D9<9> 5B 5SES5<E96D= 5B >9E6= : <8M F>=K5KB9 789
9T=> 5B <E:<= DE9<F= 789 DE969: <E9;= 56E9B M :8: 5<E@=: U89>=6 9;8?5;=: 96 9B
9:F8N: ;9 D=;=- 9:D5K5 56D9 86 58@8:D= 9:FG >ED8;9 =:G 5:
D>EK865B ;9 @>56;9: F=;9>9: 9:FE>ED85B9: M B F9BE@>= ?=6 9B BEK>= ;9 56E9B 9: 789 689:D>5
F=BGDE?=: = 9: 6E6@865 :=>F>9:5 :8 D9<=> U5<EBE5>E;5; ?=6 B5: OE:D=>E5: M B5 5F5>96D9
9>=- 96 <9;E= ;9B D9<=>- 9:?=@EI ?=6UE5> M U5?EBE;5; ?=6 B5 789 9:D=: O=<K>9: 9:?=@E9>=6
=K9;9?9> 5 E=: :D9 9: 9B D9<=> ;9B 9T=> D9<9> 5B 9T=>- O5@5 :=65> 9:D9 BEK>= K5:D56D9
96 :8U=><5 <Q: 9B9@56D9 =>;E65>E= => 9A9<FB=- 9B BEK>= ?=<E96H5 ?=6
B5 69@5DES5 F=> F5>D9 ;9 56E9B ;9 ?=<9> B5
6 F>=U9D5 O9K>9= M :8: 5<E@=: ?=<E;5 5:E@65;5 F=> 9B >9M B ?=<9> D5B
?=<E;5 O8KE9>5 D>5G ;= E6<86;E?E5 ;9 5?89>;=
=: <=;9B=: 789 8D9>= 9:D5K5 :E@8E96;= ?=6 B5 B9M <=:5E?5- M 56E9B 9:?=@EI :9@8E>
:9@8>5<96D9 U89>=6 B=: O=<K>9: ;9B BEK>= ;9 9:5 B9M 5>5 56E9B :8;9K9> 9>5 =KSE=
56E9B" 56E9B- 5;>5?- 9:5? M K9;69@=
9:F8N: ;9 9:C: <E:<=- 6= O5M =D>=: 9>= 56E9B ?=6 U5?EBE;5; F8;= O5K9> :E;=
<=;9B=: <Q: @>56;9: 789 9BB=: ?=6 >9:F9?D= :96D96?E5;= 5 <89>D9 F=> :869@5DES5 5 ?=<9>
5B D9<=> ;9B 9T=> :D=: O=<K>9: BB9@5>=6 5 ;9 B5 ?=<E;5 ;9B >9M B 9>5 86 F>E:E=69>=
:9> F>=<E696D9: 96 9B F9=> DE9<F= F5>5 9B O9K>9=- M 5K8?=;=6=H=> ?E9>D5<96D9 6=
>9<5696D9 ;9 :>59B B >9E6= ;9 6=>D9 O5KG
5 O8KE9>5 D=B9>5;= 5 D5B K8:?5;=> ;9 F>=KB9<5:

307 308
6D9 D5B9: ?E>?86:D56?E5: :=:F9?O= 789 <8?O5 <E:9>E?=>;E5 :E6 F>9?9;96D9:- 5K8?=;=6=H=>
@96D9 O8KE9>5 F5:5;= F=> 5BD= B5 B9M- O5?E96;= B9: ;E= B5 =F=>D86E;5; ;9 >9D>5?D5>:9 M
B5 >5?E=65BEH5?EI6 ;9 789 5B@865: B9M9: :=6 =K9;9?9>B9- F9>= B=: O=<K>9: 6= 69?9:ED5>=6
<Q: E<F=>D56D9: 789 =D>5: :D=M :9@8>= 789 865 6=?O9 F5>5 F96:5>B= 8 >9:F89:D5 5B
B=: U5>E:9=: O8KE9>56 F=;E;= ;E:9T5> 865 =U>9?E<E96D= ;9B >9M 9: 5K:=B8D5<96D9
E6D9>F>9D5?EI6 789 5?5BB5>5 :8 ?=6:?E96?E5 96 5;<E>5KB9
?89:DEI6 ;9 <E68D=: +F5>5 78N O5?9> D56D=
9:?Q6;5B= F=> ?=<E;5 E6<86;5 = ?=<E;5 789 = 9: 69?9:5>E= 789 D9 >9:F=6;5<=: :=K>9
O5KG 5 :E;= :5?>EUE?5;5 5 B=: G
;=B=:, 9>= 9:D= 9:D9 5:86D= 9 578G689:D>= E=: 5 78E96
9:D5K5 5K:=B8D5<96D9 ?B5>= F5>5 56E9B :9>SE<=: F89;9 BEK>5>6=: ;9B O=>6= ;9 U89@=
E;EI- F=> D56D=- 5B A9U9 ;9 B=: 9868?=: 789 5>;E96;=\M ;9 D8 <56=- =O >9M- 6=: BEK>5>Q
6= :9 B9 =KBE@5:9 5 ?=6D5<E65>:9 W 56 "1X :E 6=- :9F5:- =O >9M- 789 6= :9>SE>9<=: 5
E6 9<K5>@=- 9:D= :IB= U89 865 ?=>D9:G 5 = D8: ;E=:9:- 6E D5<F=?= 5;=>5>9<=: B5 9:D5D85
E<F=>D5K5 B= 789 9B =UE?E5B ;EA9>5- 56E9B O5KG5 789 O5: B9S56D5;= W 56 %" )4 1X
;9D9><E65;= :8?8>:= ;9 5??EI6
5>5 <G - 9B O9?O= ;9 789 O5M56 :=K>9SESE;= 5
B D9<=> ;9B 9T=> :E<FBEUE?5 B5 SE;5 5>9?9 B5 F>89K5 ;9B O=>6= 6= 9: 9B ?BG <5V ;9 B5
:9> ?=<= :E 9B BEK>= ;9 56E9B 9: 9B :5BI6 ;9 B5 OE:D=>E5 B O9?O= ;9 789 E=: F89;5 B9S56D5>
U5<5 ;9B D9<=> ;9B 9T=> =: :E@8E96D9: O=<K>9: ?=<= 9:D=: F5>5 <G9: :8UE?E96D9
U89>=6 B=: D>9: O9K>9=: & 5;>5?- 9:5?- M BB=: :=6 9SE;96?E5: ;9 :8@>56 F=;9>
K9;69@= 9 B9: E6;E?I 789 5;=>5>56 865
@>56 9:D5D85 ;9 5K8?=;=6=H=> 5: 5 D9>?9>5 OE:D=>E5 F>=<E696D9 5?9>?5 ;9B
E6:D>8??E=69: 9>56 <8M ?B5>5:" 856;= D9<=> 5B O=<K>9 9:DQ >9B5?E=65;5 ;9 689S=
9:?8?O96 B5 <C:E?5- ?5E@56 5B :89B= M 5;=>96 ?=6 56E9B E96D>5: 9B =>@8BB= U89 B5 >5HI6
B5 E<5@96 E 6= B= O5?96- :9>Q6 9?O5;=: ;9B 9;E?D= ;9 5K8?=;=6=H=> 789 ?=6;965K5 5
E6<9;E5D5<96D9 5B O=>6= ;9 U89@= B=: D>9: O=<K>9: O9K>9=:- B=: ?9B=: U89>=6 9B
<=DES= ;9D>Q: ;9B ;9?>9D= >95B 789 5U9?DI 5
B D9VD= KG
KBE?= 6= 6=: <96?E=65 ?I<= SE9>=6 56E9B 56E9B 9>5 86= ;9 9:=: O=<K>9:
B=: O=<K>9: ;9 5K8?=;=6=H=> 789 B=: 6=D5KB9: 789 D96G 5 @>56;9: D5B96D=: ;5;=: F=>
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309 310
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311 312
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313 314
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NB ;9<Q:- ?=<= 96 D=;=: B=: ?5:=: ;9 D9<=> 5B
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315 316
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317 318
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