This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
INTRODUCTION µArchitekton¶ is a Greek word which means µchief worker¶ or µmaster builder¶, from which the term architecture was emerged out. Architecture is a science and art of designing and constructing buildings. It is called a science because it uses systematic knowledge regarding materials of construction, techniques of building, and methods of environmental control. It is said to be an art because it uses the medium of construction to express human emotions and aesthetics. Vitruvius, an ancient Roman architect, stated that the ultimate synthesis of architecture may be of three fold: 1. Utilities (Utility: Functional aspect and adequacy of space to perform the function) 2. Firmitas (Strength: Stability of structure) 3. Venustas (Aesthetics: Delightfulness that the structure imparts on us) 2. TYPES OF ARCHITECTURE (1) Folk architecture: This is the architecture of a small community or particular locality, which is not much affected by other factors. Different countries have different architecture and each is significant of its own locality and people. Examples: 1. Traditional Kerala architecture: The palaces of Kerala have a quite simple facade with a gable end for the roof, but the woodwork encountered here is much more. 2. Architecture of tribal huts 3. House-boat architecture of Alappuzha (2) Monumental architecture: Buildings and other delightful structures may be constructed in memory of a prominent person or an event. This type of architecture deals with the features of such structures which stand as a signature of the past. Examples: 1. The Taj Mahal: This is a mausoleum situated in Agra. The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan had it built in memory of his wife Arjumand Banu Bagam (Mumtaz Mahal). 2. The Pyramids of Egypt: Egyptians built Pyramids to preserve the dead bodies of the Pharaohs. The largest pyramid (Great Pyramid) is the one built for King Khufu, at the site of modern Giza. 3. Stupa: This denotes the tomb of sacred men in Buddhist architecture. (3) Religious / Spiritual Architecture: Buildings may reflect the religious affinity of people. Examples: 1. Synagogue, Church, Mosque and Temple architectures
in Kerala. detached buildings are more in number. These are constructed for typical assembly as such in a school. FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURE The various factors influencing the historic development of architecture can be classified as follows: Influence of nature (a) Geography (b) Geology (c) Climate (d) Topography Influence of man (a) Society (e) History (f) Religion (g) Science (a) Geography: Geographical position is responsible for the development of a place and its architecture. (c) Climate: Tropical climate requires free and open planning. Geographically isolated areas have their own architectural style. sandstone. factory buildings 2. residential. The Buddhist Chaityas and Viharas: Chaitya is a hall of worship. (4) Functional / Utilitarian Architecture: Here the structural and aesthetic prominence is given mainly based on the function of the buildings. It was the capital of the ancient Gandhara region in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent. granite and basalt were abundantly available in Egypt and these have been used for the construction as well as decoration purposes. .2. also known as Takshasila. and Vihara is a monastery. Romans constructed huge buildings with concrete. µwattle and daub¶ architecture originated. Notable examples of early rock-cut monuments in Maharashtra State are the Great Chaitya Hall at Karle. Examples: 1. temples have taken place here. It was quarried sufficiently from the mountains of of their own country. 3. in which compacted mud reinforced with reeds was used to construct buildings and structures like small bunds. In heavily rained regions with plenty of soil and reeds. In Greece. It has converted deserts into green fields. (b) Geology: Strong and durable materials such as limestone. and various temples and monasteries at Ajanta and Ellora. Educational. the material used for construction was marble. Egypt has a very big river Nile which traverses a very long route through Egypt. Taxila. All the cities developed along Nile banks and most of the construction of historic importance like the pyramids. House-boat architecture of Alappuzha was emerged out from the geographical condition in which a number of canals formed the major transportation mean. For example. which was an important ancient cultural and trade centre and seat of learning. and is located in present day Pakistan. and most of the developments in Egypt have taken place along the banks of this river.
A very large country having varied topography and culture in different regions (e. These cottages will affect the architectural style of the hilly region. Thus. The best example is µFalling water House¶ (Kauffmann¶s House). (f) History: Military contact and commercial contact of different groups of people alter the character of architecture. A mountainous region requires architectural treatment entirely different from that in a level terrain. The cantilever members of the house extend over a natural waterfall. (d) Topography: The general terrain of the surface influences the type of building built over it. walls were made thick with minimum openings. And this may further promote the development of the hilly region as an attractive tourist spot. In dry and hot regions. and the house see. thick and heavy walled houses with strong and minimum number of doors were the need of the time. to carry loads from the roof and also to resist the extremities of temperature. India) will have varied character in its architecture. In such stable conditions. Also. the social conditions automatically improved. Open verandahs. fortified cities. there used to be frequent invasions from outside. Mughal rulers were able to construct imposing buildings because of the strong finance they possessed.g. µKota Stones¶ are effectively used to resist the extreme climate. In Rajasthan. There is a saying: ³A house should not be on a hill but of a hill´. The idea is that the structure (often perceived a s man) and nature (often perceived as woman) should be in harmony.s to float over the stream. flat roofs are used. Unsymmetrical planning is suitable for a sloping site. Symmetrical (balanced or formal) planning is suitable for a level site. Indo-Islamic buildings are more attractive than excessively carved type of Hindu style. Also.Closed and compact planning is suitable for the extreme hot or cold climatic conditions. Once stable conditions were created by effective governments. during hot seasons. In ancient days. because in hot climate their mental and physical capabilities get retarded considerably. are typical features of buildings constructed over regions of hot climate. Heavy rainfall and snow fall regions require sloping roofs for effective drainage. which eliminated the necessity of many protective features. people may shift to serene hilly regions. In addition to social development. A small country having uniform topography will generally have a similarity of character in its architecture. comfort and convenience control the architecture and we can do a lot of creative work. Egyptian architecture . and a large number of aesthetic cottages may emerge there. (e) Society: The interest of the people decides the types and appearances of the buildings. the µHaveli¶ architecture of Rajasthan has more number of lattice windows in order to provide better air circulation. central courtyard etc. Architecture is a record of the past age. and naturally. Indo-Islamic architecture contains features of Hindu architecture and Muslim architecture. economic conditions of the society also is important. designed by famous American architect Frank Lloyd Wright. In early times.
glass. While statues and paintings adorn a temple premise. For example. Indian architecture reveals mainly its spiritual content. bed room. kitchen etc. . In an ordinary dwelling unit. CREATIVE PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURE The principles by which modern architecture should be developed are concerned with the function. (g) Religion: In almost all the countries. French architecture shows the pompous life of monarchs. Sun temple of Orissa. The general arrangement in building must be quite suitable and convenient for the purpose of the building. The majestic buildings of Rome clearly show the luxury and construction ability of Roman imperial power. we need not spent a lot of money on decoration and other costly sculpture. In India. ³Form follows function´ is a famous quote by the 20th century American architect Louis Sullivan. What is required her is the convenient arrangements and size of various rooms such as living room. the arrangements are quite different. which composed of small panels of painted glass mounted in a metal framework. Basilicas reflect religious enthusiasm. The physical form of the building is evolved out of the functional requirements to be met with. But Synagogues. e. Juma Masjid at New Delhi. And the requirements too depend on the religious ideologies. (a) Function / Convenient arrangement / Goodness: Every architectural building should posses the principles of goodness. decorated many Gothic buildings. Churches have assumed their particular features and forms according to the religious ideas. Hollow bricks proved to be more effective in thermal insulation property and their low weight is an advantage to be used in high rise buildings. central gathering hall etc. Greek architecture was the product of the democratic belief of the Greek civilization.reflects the absolute power of Pharaohs and slavery of the people. plastic etc. Mosques. In short. The introduction of steel. the arrangements made in a building should have better interaction with the purpose of the building. painting etc. Stained glass windows. in building construction has greatly influenced modern architectural design. 4. generally temples were considered to be for individual worship and the space requirement goes accordingly. Atriums (central halls with skylight) make use of glass. (h) Science: New methods of construction and new materials have significant effect on architecture. Temples. RCC. most of the buildings with architectural significance are in some way or other related to religion. which is becoming simpler and more functional.g. Churches and Mosques are for mass worship and the space requirements for assembly of people are to be met with here. In the case of a school building. It is to be designed with sufficiently large rooms. strength and aesthetics. Modern architecture is highly related to mathematics and astronomy. the chief structures were the outcome of the nation¶s religious beliefs. engraved quotes from the holy Koran decorate the walls of a mosque.
a point may be a point of attraction. A line may be straight or curved. A temple should express itself as a religious building and not as a town-hall. Line: A point extended becomes a line. It has not meant. ³form follows function´. capable of visually expressing length. Background is very important in the existence and appearance. Point 2.(b) Strength / Truth: The building must express the true idea of its purpose. To visibly market position in space or on ground plane. For example. If a point is by nature static. a point can serve to mark: With two ends of a line The intersection of two lines The meeting of lines at the corner of a plane or volume The centre of the field Although it point is conceptually picked out street or form. for the Taj Mahal. the convenient arrangement may not be an important factor. Character of the element selected must be true to the purpose. Any such call another element is seen in plan as a point and therefore retains the visual characteristics of a point. (b) Strength / Truth: The building must express the true idea of its purpose. every element of function must be selected to enhance the religious mood and sentiments. each component and must be true to the purpose.e. Articulate the surfers of planes . A temple should express itself as a religious building and not as a town-hall. The point has no dimension. link.in the field of architecture. movement and growth. Line 3. a line has a length. For example. The use and disposition of the different materials must regard for truth of fitness. A line may serve to: Join. As the train element in the vocabulary of form. with over a depth and is therefore static. The character of the building must be true for the purpose of the construction i. stronger and coarser material must be employed to support lighter and weaker material. 5. Point: it point has no direction or magnitude but has its importance and denotes its position in space. A line is an important element in the formation of any visual construction.Plane 4. ³form follows function´. it begins to make its presence felt when please debate in the visual field.e. Regarding the components within the building. 2. the point must be protected vertically into a linear form as a column. intersect or surround other visual elements. (c) Appearance or aesthetics: The spirit of beauty or aesthetics is another important principle in architectural design. a point the staple and at rest. PRIMARY ELEMENTS AND ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION 1. directionless and centralised. support. direction. but no width or depth. or organising surrounding elements about itself and dominating its field. In a temple construction. At the centre of its environment. obelisk or tower. Conceptually. a line is describing the part of a point in motion. Describe the edges of and give shape to plane. Volume 1. The character of the building must be true for the purpose of the construction i. Such a building has the main consideration of aesthetics.
shape. position etc. 3. It can be elevated to define a sacred place. a plane serves to define the limits or boundaries of a volume.Production or orientation of the line can affect its role in visual construction. These lines can be expressed by joints within or between building materials. In either case. the topographical character of the ground plane influences the form of the building that rises from it. obelisks. Supplementary properties of a plane ± its surface colour. columns. The ground plane can be elevated to provide a platform that structurally and visually supports a building form so as to enhance its image in the landscape e. a plane has length and width but no depth. At a smaller scale. Linear members those possess the necessary material strength can perform structural function such as: Expressed movement across space Provide support for an overhead plane Form a 3-D structural frame for architectural space Beams. In the formation of visual construction. The ground plane supports all architectural construction. Other properties are orientation. which symbolises the human condition.) as well as their spatial relationship to one another will ultimately determine the visual properties of the form they define and the qualities of the space they enclose. The types of planes that are manipulated in architectural design are: (a) Base plane (b) Wall plane (c) Overhead plane (a) Base plane: The base plane can be either the ground plane that serves as the physical foundation and visual base for building forms. or a body at rest. pattern and texture ± affect its visual weight and stability. The building can merge with the ground . colour. the ground plane. Shape is the primary identifying characteristics of a plane. the platform of the Taj Mahal. An oblique line is a deviation from the perpendicular or horizontal. How these linear elements will affect the texture of their surface will depend on their visual weight. It is determined by the contour of the line forming the edges of the plane. Along with climate and other environmental conditions of the site. space and direction. Conceptually. it is dynamic and visually active in its unbalanced state. The ground plane ultimately supports all architectural construction. frame of doors and windows are treated as linear elements in architecture. It can be seen as a vertical line falling down. Architecture is a visual art and it deals specifically with the formation of 3-D volumes out of mas and space. The horizontal line can represent stability. Plane: A line extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a plane. or the floor plane that forms the lower enclosing surface of a room upon which we walk. The properties of each plane (size.g. The floor plane can be manipulated to create platforms for viewing or performing. obelisks and towers have been used throughout history to commemorate significant events and establish particular points in space. or mark the position in space. A vertical line can express the state of equilibrium with the force of gravity. Vertical linear elements such as columns. or horizontal line rising up. by frames around the window or door openings or by structural grid of columns and beams. lines articulate the edges and surfaces of planes and volumes. texture etc. the horizon. The ground plane provides the physical support and the visual base for building forms. The true shape of a plane is seen only when it is viewed frontally.
elevated plane spanning the space between its supports. The depressed field becomes a separate and distinct in itself. It defines a field of space between itself and the ground plane. Like the ground plane. Lowering a portion of the base plane isolates a field of space from a larger context. The . rain and snow. The texture and the density of the flooring material influence both the acoustical quality of a space and how we feel as we walk across its surface. rest firmly on it. because of its vertical orientation. The major overhead plane of a building is its roof plane. It can be raised or lowered to alter the scale of the space. or stepped to allow changes in elevation to be easily traversed. and protection from climatic elements for the interior spaces of the building. The interior wall planes of a building along with the overhead (roof) plane control the penetration of climatic elements into the building¶s interior spaces. is determined by the material. (b) Wall plane: Exterior wall planes isolate a portion of space to create a controlled interior environment. viewing or performing. The wall plane. It can be elevated to define a sacred or honorific place. The configuration of the exterior wall planes together with their openings will describe the building¶s overall form and massing. in turn. is active in our normal field of vision and vital to the shaping and enclosure of architectural space. The ceiling plane of an interior space reflects the form of the structural system supporting the overhead or roof plane. the plane of an exterior wall can be articulated as the front or primary facade of a building. The ground plane can be elevated to honour a sacred or significant place. An important use of the vertical wall plane is as a supporting element in the load bearing wall type structural system. the floor plane can be stepped or terraced to break the scale of the space and create platforms for sitting. or a more artificial. In some cases. it can be elevated to allow cooling breezes to flow through the interior spaces of a building. Since it need not resist any weathering force. In urban situations. Openings in or between the exterior wall planes determine the degree to which the interior spaces will relate to the outdoor spaces. The form of the roof plane. these facades serve as walls that define courtyards. but also has a major impact on the overall form of the building and the shaping of its spaces. The elevated ground plane can be a pre-existing site condition or it can be artificially constructed to deliberately raise a building above the surrounding context or enhance its image in the landscape. carved or terraced to provide suitable platform on which to build. or the ceiling plane that forms the upper enclosing surface of a room. The roof plane can be formed to control the quality of acoustics within the space. or be elevated above it. nor carry any major load. geometry and proportions of its structural system and the manner in which it transfers its loads across the space to its supports. the ceiling plane can also be treated to become a visually active element in space.plane. It not only shelters the interior spaces of a building from sun. to create inte rest and to change or reduce the scale of the space and define a more intimate space within it. As a design element. streets and such public gathering places such as squares and market places. the base plane is depressed for exhibiting variety. (c) Overhead plane: The overhead plane can be either the roof plane that shelters the interior spaces of a building from the climatic elements. while openings provided within or between their boundaries reestablish a connection with the exterior environment. Floor plane is the durable covering of the ground plane. In warm climates. Elevating a portion of the ground plane establishes a platform or podium that simultaneously supports the form and mass of a building. Their construction provides both privacy.
These are f unctional dimensions and will vary according to the nature of activity engage in and the social situation. or a quantity of space displace by mass of the building. width.length. Form is the primary identifying characteristic of a volume. they are normally composed of a number of spaces and are related to one another by function. Space in a building is mainly categorized into three. The minimum space provided for an activity considering the human body proportion is called activity space. as when we speak of water in the form of ice or steam. corners of room. eating and sleeping. 6. FORM Form is an inclusive term that has several meanings. In . walk down a set of stairs or interact with other people. There is a difference between our structural dimensions and those dimensional requirements which result from how we reach for something on a shelf. lines and planes. The dimensions and proportions of the human body affect the proportions of things we handle. Tolerance space = Total space . hear sounds. feel breezes. It can be lowered or elevated to alter the scale of the space or allow natural light to enter it from above. the height and distance of things we try to reach. All volumes can be analyzed and understood to consists of points. Conceptually. (b) Circulation space: The space provided for access or communication is the circulation space. width and depth. a volume can be either solid (space displaced by mass) or void (space contained or enclosed by mass). and the dimensions of the furnishings we use for sitting. there is no limit to the maximum size of a room. Volume: A plane extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a volume.ceiling plane can be treated to articulate zones of space within a room. a volume can be seen to be either a portion of space contained and defined by wall. (a) Activity space: Spaces in architecture are either containers or extensions of the human body and should be therefore determined by its dimensions. It may also indicate a particular condition in which something acts or manifests itself. (c) Tolerance space: It is also known as dead space. Building forms that stand as objects in the landscape can be read as occupying volumes in space. It may refer to an external appearance that can be recognized. . activity and rest. 4. but there is certainly a limit to its minimal dimensions. sit down at a table. Considering these factors. position etc. depth. Through the volume of space. In art and design. As far as buildings are concerned. see forms. surface. we move. Circulation of men and materials are made effective through circulation space. floor and ceiling planes. working. Other properties are length. The efficiency of functional design results in reduction of dead space found in a building. space. The dimensions of the human body affect the volume of space we require for movement. e.g. a volume has three dimensions . As the 3D element in the vocabulary of architectural design. proximity or a circulation path.( activity space + circulation space ) 7. orientation.the manner of arranging and coordinating the elements and parts of a composition so as to produce a coherent image. the term is used to denote the formal structure of a work. SPACE Space is the essence of architecture. In architecture.
short. All the properties of form are in really affected by the conditions under which the view them. (ii) Size: It denotes the physical dimensions of length. Post and lintel (trabeated) construction (e. (iii) Colour: Colour is the attribute that most clearly distinguishes a form from its environment. The following are the factors influencing form: (a) Form perception (Visual properties of form) (b) Function (³Form follows function´) (c) Material and structural system (a) Form perception: (Visual properties of form) (i) Shape: It is the characteristic outline or surface configuration of a particular form. The two methods of roof construction commonly adopted in the earlier stages of development of architecture were 1. its scale is determined by its size relative to other forms in its context. Our distance from a form determines its apparent size. (b) Function (³form follows function´) Refer to µfunction¶ under the section creative principles of architecture (c) Materials and structural system: Bothy the arrangement and the appearance of the buildings are very largely influenced by the materials and the methods of construction. shape. arrangement and proportions of the parts. (iv)Texture: It is a visual and especially tactile quality given to a surplus by the size. (vii) Visual inertia: It is a degree of concentration or stability of the form. The lighting conditions under which we view a form affect the clarity of its shape and structure. traditional Kerala architectureetc. form refers to the 3D mass or volume. It also determines the degree to which the surface of a form reflects or absorbs incident light. The visual inertia of a form depends on its geometry as well as its orientation relative to ground plane and line of sight. (v) Position: It is the location of a form relative to its environment or the visual field within which it is seen. Shape is the principal aspect by which a form is identified and categorised. The visual field surrounding a field influences our ability to read and identify it. It also affects the visual weight of the form. Islamic architecture) .g. While these dimensions determine the proportions of a form. width and the depth of a form. Indian architecture before the period of Mughals.g. Arched / vaulted (arcuated) construction (e.) 2. The following are examples: The change in perspective or angle of view presents different shapes or aspects of form to our eyes. (vi) Orientation: It is a direction of form relative to the ground plane or the person viewing the form. It is the primary identifying characteristics of a volume.
granite of Deccan and sandstone were used in the construction of most of the monumental buildings. erected by Emperor Hadrian of Rome was constructed in pozzolana cement concrete. spacing of supports. The whole structure is based on a raised payment. Lots of domes. In prehistoric times. The plan is simple and regular. delicacy. without any distinction between the supporting structure (wall) and the protective structure (roof). Romans used a variety of shapes for their buildings. The oculus. a sacred chamber and a small treasury behind it. beams and arches was a keynote of Roman architecture in its early stages. consisting of two cells. Excellent building stone in central part and hills predominantly influenced the Indian architecture from the earliest. vaults and walls where constructed of this concrete which they faced with a brick. a round opening at the top. which is having is 142 feet (43. a new material which had a peculiar property when mixed with the lime and water to form a hard and cohesive concrete. The columnthus gradually became the chief medium for obtaining decorative effect. stone and brick as building materials. having all-round veranda type space with a series of columns. cross vaults and domes for roofing the openings and interiors. walls and roofs were made of stone. The Pantheon dome. Egyptians used to limestone and granite for the construction of pyramids. as these materials were abundantly available in those days.The locally available building material together with its size and quality influences the architecture of the most. Romans had Marble. Alluvial soil was used for making bricks. as larger stone slabs were used for constructing roofs. Post and beam construction is well suited to small and medium-sized spans as adjusted in Parthenon by supporting it on columns which are closely spaced. alluvial soil was the only material available for buildings.2 m) diameter on 20 feet thick wall. In regions were stone was not available. They developed pozzolana. stone and marble. Egyptian columns were massive withheavy and flat bases. Building materials available affect the type of supports. Stone and timber were the most commonly used with building materials in primitive stages of development of architecture. In historic times. because masonry stone elements have little bending resistance and a strong connection between the horizontal and vertical structural element is not easily developed here. for workmanship and perfection in all respect.5 m) in diameter and provides the only source of the light for the interior. This type of construction is capable of carrying vertical load but it is unsuitable to resist horizontal loads and hence easily damaged by hurricane winds and earthquakes. which require strong support at frequent intervals. An example is Parthenon temple of the period. the post and beam construction formed the basis of Egyptian and Greek temple architecture. They used vaults. . means used to bridge the span or gaps of construction. The combined use of columns. The famous marble of Rajasthan. is 28 feet (8. Column was necessary in that system of construction. terracotta. It is famous for beauty of design. Column was the most important feature in architecture of Egyptian temples.
forms of the building have tremendously changed both structurally and aesthetically. mental and physical comfort of man. DESIGN PRINCIPLES Architectural composition is an aesthetic assembly of various elements such as point. the forms of olden times were very massive and took a lot of time for completion. Intimate scale is slightly less than the normal scale and is used in . arches. shear wall structure. In short. up to 19th century. steel. The introduction of this factor makes the building to look strong and durable.. Natural scale (true scale) is the scale in which the creations are in normal relationship with human figure. fibre reinforced concrete and composites. With the development of new materials such as cement. There are four types of scales in architecture. (b) Scale: In architecture. When we look at a building. Painted glass was also used to form brilliant transparent pictures in windows coming under pointed vaults. Here the sizes are normal or the same as one expects it to be. line. we do not see the true dimensions due to perspective effect. economy and time. ferrocement etc. 8. The massive pyramids of Egypt also express eternity and stability. The size of the building will appear to change with the distance of the observer from the building. glass. The structural systems adopted today are framed structure. volume etc. ribbed vaulting ± all held in equilibrium. Also. The walls were merely enclosures. Also. The best composition in architecture is related to appearance. the scale means the proper relation of several parts to one another and to the whole from the aspect of size. timber and masonry were the only structural materials available. the structural engineer and architect have indeed a wide range of choices in systems in RCC steel as well as combination of both. plane. The major requirements that a composition should fulfil can be thought in terms of the followings: (a) Mass (f) Contrast (b) Scale (d) Contrast (c) Proportion (e) Colour (d) Rhythm (f) Texture (e) Balance (g) Unity (a) Mass: It is an important factor in the construction of a building. in ancient days. RCC. The massive size of the building is often important to make it durable. the two commonly adopted systems of construction were post and lintel system and arcuated or vaulted system. Today.Gothic architecture of Western Europe was mainly distinguished by the introduction of pointed arches. The entire structure of Gothic style consisted of piers. Here the building size is compared with the human dimensions. the massive and stout columns of Greek temple of Parthenon denote strength and stability. the size of the building can be compared with doors and windows present. in architectural drawings. For example. The introduction of prefabricated system also changed the architectural forms very much. Generally. plastics. So. because these have standard sizes suiting to the purpose. frame-shear wall structures etc. the scale is established with the introduction of a human figure placed in front of the building. bu ttresses.
From the same sized photographs of a man and a child. This type of balance is much suited for monumental design. but each object is occupying the corresponding position on the other side. Perception through five senses by human is also a matter of contrast. shape. Shocking scale is a scale by which the spectator is being shocked by the unreality of the dimensions of the object. or gigantic. Not only in the arrangement. cinema halls etc. Various units of a building should be arranged so that balance exists between them. because usually giant sized doors are provided for auditoria. (f) Contrast: Contrast means absence of monotony. Incorrect proportion may be harmful to the character of the building. The proportion in architecture depends on the function of the structure and the material. so that the masses on either side will balance each other. the size of a garage door should be in proportion with the size of the vehicle. (e) Balance: Balance is the equity of mass about the axis of reference. perceived through comparison which the eye can make between the size. shade to light. It may be the repetition of similar type of line. of elements of various sizes and shapes. (c) Proportion: It is a matter of relationship. A concrete column supporting a heavy load will have different dimensions and slenderness ratio compared to a steel or timber column supporting the same load. It is used inmonuments and all places of worship and in some public buildings. direction and tone of various elements of composition. arches etc. the observer expects the object to be of some other dimensions. For example. Symmetrical balance produceseye satisfaction as the strain to eye is less. It is not the actual size. but finds it quite different and thereby receives an element of shock. Here. The larger and heavier masses are placed near to the central axis. It may be unaccented.designing restaurant and residences. Here. familiar objects are made larger. Monumental scale is a scale which is larger than the natural scale so that it gives a dignified atmosphere of dominance. For example. and is different from the ordinary doors. smooth . Balance can be divided into two: (i) Symmetrical balance: Elements are arranged precisely in the same manner on either side of the central axis. accented. (d) Rhythm: Rhythm is the repetition of a certain element after a fixed interval. ascending or rhythmic repetition types. Rhythm imparts continuity. it would cause confusion about the purpose of the building. There is contrast between sound to silence. while the lighter masses have to be placed away from the centre. Here. and no element balance. there¶s only mass balance. It is proportion by which the various elements are identified. we distinguish each of them because of the proportion of features and their concurrence with our conception. (ii) Unsymmetrical / asymmetrical balance: It is the grouping in an informal manner. It can be either too small. if a giant sized door is provided to a residential building. but the relative size of one form with respect to another. The elements on either side of the central axis are not exactly identical. It is mainly used in dramatics and exhibitions.
dome of a mosque. there must be variety or contrast. The character of buildings likewise finds its expression as an individual makes his gesture as dignified. graceful with repose and festivity. but it incorporates the quality of the idea which the architect is attempting to express in his building. circle or ellipse when used together creates interest. spire and stained glass window of a church etc. (g) Character: Character is referred as style. Very tall and wide windows may be an indicative of a public library. For shapes to be interesting. and smell to scent. Dark coloured wall and light coloured roof of a room. In architectural design of any kind. A tall and wide arched opening with narrow openings on either side becomes a pleasing contrast of shapes. It is by this factor. the presence of which have not changed with time and varying human tastes or the influence of modern construction practices.to rough. certain facades appear to frown. are traditionally followed features.g. while others elegant. Display windows with article on the façade of a building indicate that it is a shop. On the other hand. (i) Functional character: External appearance of the building is the manifestation of its internal function. yet some others more friendlily. A gopuram of a Hindu temple. E. A vertical mass in centre with horizontal masses by sides gives a good composition of contrasting masses.g. the walls with numerous windows in particular order speak for their purpose of admitting side light and the building is meant for school. which is achieved by means of functional character. have their own individual character. The character in architecture may be divided in to three categories depending on the source of ts beginning. (ii) Associated character (Traditional character): This is the character aroused out of the association or due to the influence of tradition. (ii) Contrast of size: Contrast between figures of identical shapes and types may be achieved by the difference in sizes. A few types of contrast are: (i) Contrast of form: Contrast of form may be due to shape or mass. These are features provided in a building which has something to do with the emotion of the observer. The character is not only functional. (iii) Contrast of tones: This is obtained out of the different materials used for the construction and the different colour combinations e. strength and appearance). c ontrast is required for exhibiting variety and thereby creating interest. Certain styles exhibit . A wall without windows. Certain traditional features have long been associated with specific types of buildings. The different shapes such as square. the function of a building must be clear from its appearance. but arrangements for sky lighting indicates the building as a museum. A residential building. sweet to sour. a school etc. (iii) Personal character: Personal character is comparable with similar attributes of the life of an individual. The character grows out of the function of the building and is the skilful blending of all the creative principles of architecture (function. That is.
built by architect B V Doshi.g. In visual term. white. it is determined by the amount of blackness (darkness) or whiteness (lightness) in that colour. It lacks functional character as it looks like a cave. In a colour scene. For example. green are associated with natural elements such as greenery and re serene in nature. sky blue is distinct from slate blue. heat. raise over lower ceilings and add dignity by which the workability may increase or decrease. tertiary colours are obtained. It is impossible to lay down certain rules for achieving any of these personal types of character in architecture. an art gallery cum museum for M F Hussain. we get secondary colours. red is distinct from green or yellow. It also depends on the climatic conditions.dignity to the building. warm colours tend to advance but cool colours tend to go backward. light grey is opposed to dark grey. Colours used in architecture can be classified as primary. Another example is Gufa. Here personal style is more relevant to the building. Colours which are neither warm nor cool are known as neutral colours. blue and yellow. The following terminologies may help in understanding the effect of colour. The primary colours used in architecture are red. By intermixing primary colours. (i) Hue: It is determined by the wave length of light reflected from a surface. It indicates the brightness or dullness of a particular colour. Upon further intermixing of primary and secondary colours. Public buildings may have a dignified gesture but they should not be devoid of Grace. These can well be understood from the concept of colour wheel. grey and brown are neutral in nature. light and are exciting in nature. Ornamental works in buildings give vitality and festivity to buildings. For example. (iii) Value: It is defined as the amount of energy received by the eye. The psychological impact of colour may be summarized as follows: . orange red are associated with elements like fire. Warm colours such as yellow. secondary and tertiary. Colour creates an atmosphere which may be friendly or hostile. e. It indicates the name of the colour which distinguishes one colour from another. Warm colours are giving heavy indent to the surface and are bright in nature but cooler ones give light indent and are dull in nature. The selection of colour must be helpful in avoiding discord and the colour should bring harmony. Black. For example. The colour can change the apparent size of room. But cool colours like blue. (h) Colour: The effect of colour is very important in the general appearance of the building. (ii) Tone / Chroma / Intensity: It is the intensity of colour. Another classification of colour is into warm colour and cool colour.
it is a neutral colour and it balances the polarities between both. cool colours for maximum and warm colours for minimum exposures. It brings brightness and cheer and induces a feeling of well-being. Also. The light is reflected mostly and therefore a cheerful feeling is created even in a small and otherwise dark room. Black: If black is properly used. Violet: As a mixture of red and blue. then it can be made beautiful and represents earthly qualities. Blue: This cool static colour denotes tranquillity and provides a calm atmosphere. However. the ceiling appear to go higher. It affects the atmosphere and makes it hot and intolerable. But too much of blue can be depressing. It cools the environment and is a natural healing agent. Orange: This bright colour combines all the virtues of red and yellow. But its excess use may create confusion and anxiety. for an ideal colour scheme. It repels heat and represents peace and positive thoughts. The wall appear to recede. It helps in increasing concentration and hence is ideal for study room. The impact depends on its value and chroma. It is best suited for furniture upholstery and wood works. Bold colours can be employed in modifying the dimensions of rooms apparently. balance and growth. It promotes relaxation after a day¶s hard work and is ideal for bed room. yellow and black. Brown: It is a mixture of red. Even excess use of this safe colour has not much harm. Green: Green is psychologically the most soothing colour and is largely found in nature. It is best suited for lobby and children¶s room. It can be used to make the apparent space larger.Red: It has a dynamic character and denotes courage and aggressiveness. After colouring the walls and roof of a room. White: White is a combination of all the colours. Grey: As a mixture of white and black. And it represents tradition and conservative taste. Yellow: It is a warm colour and radiates joy and represents beauty and love. Selection of colours should depend on the sunlight exposure for the rooms. Light colours may be used to extend the height of the room. we have to see the colours of all those articles which . too much of strong colours on walls may give a feeling of hostility. It is associated with harmony. Intermediate colours may be used in rooms exposed to sunlight. one of the hues should dominate over all others. only for a part of the day. It should be used in a room where sun rays do not reach. it has intermediate qualities of both. The wall of a long room will be seen nearer or a ceiling will move down if painted with a strong colour.
It also affects the amount of light reflected from a surface. Sometimes. E. by less cost. paints are available with mat finish or glossy finish options.g. The following are major colour schemes: Monochromatic scheme: It is built around one colour. It consists of different shades of the same colour. This can well be understood by the wood pattern. As an example for texture distinction. functional. one may be primary and other secondary. For example. Colour schemes are proposed to be used in architecture. a smaller pattern increases the value of a particular colour tone but not the bigger one or vice versa. a particular colour may not look nice in a texture but the same looks very good with some other texture. the basic principles of design of buildings will be the same. Contrasting colour scheme: It uses complementary colours. Either these articles can be in contrast or in harmony with the room. Sometimes. DESIGN TYPES The design types are related to the different characters of the building viz. (j) Unity: Unity is the combination of all the above stated elements of design. ranging from lighter to darker tones. Accented scheme: It consists of combination of analogous colours accented by the use of a colour from the opposite side of the colour wheel. If a structure has unity. For giving different textures to a surface. but the most charming effect is given by using sharp contrasting colour scheme. Analogous scheme: It is based on two or three colours which are very close to each other. That is. The pattern (grain arrangement) can be smaller or bigger. the design principles of a school building and a college building are almost the same. only the level of education is different. orange and red. (a) Analogue design: In analogue design. (i) Texture: Texture is a surface property which indicates the feel and appearance of a surface. for getting maximum harmony and charming effect. the school building can be changed to a college . Qutb Minar has five storeys and the external surface texture for each storey as seen on a cross sectional plan are different for these five storeys. 9. based on the scientific relationship of different colours in their arrangement.are kept there. A range of yellow. Texture helps to break monotony and helps to create interest by producing contrast in one material. traditional and personal. Among these. there is a better harmony among the elements so as to get a pleasing composition. especially how rough or smooth it is. Flexibility in utility is possible in analogue design.
So the same building can be used for any number of functions with suitable modifications. This type of design is more functional and cost effective. For example. as this type of design is function oriented. these designs are cost effective. yet this does not mean that it is too low cost construction. the function of the structure can be changed but the selection of the function is such that it suits to the form of the original building. the flexibility in function is more. a palace can be changed to a museum but not as an ordinary residential building. (b) Iconic design: Iconic designs are generally form oriented in nature. Here also. For sloping roof construction.building. In framed construction. Standardization in construction helped very much in pragmatic design of buildings. But a flat roof with three storeyed building can be made to six storeys if provisions are given to take the entire load on the foundation. in which the available material is practically used to suite the purpose. as the enclosing of space is by partition walls which no longer need to carry loads. So. future vertical expansion is not possible. It is considered to be more flexible design type. A prehistoric example for pragmatic design is the use of animal skin for making shelters. The flexibility is within the function itself. This design is related to the structures with traditional characters where traditional forms have become the symbols of specific types of structures. as future expansion and flexibility in function are possible. (c) Pragmatic design: Pragmatic design or canonical design is the practical design. .