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Design Optimization of Axial Hydraulic Turbine for Very Low Head Application 2015 Energy Procedia

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© All Rights Reserved

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ScienceDirect

Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273

2nd International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application, ICSEEA 2014

very low head application

Abdul Muisa,b,*, Priyono Sutiknoa, Aryadi Soewonoa, Firman Hartonoa

ᵃBandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia

ᵇTadulako University, Jalan Soekarno-Hatta, Palu, 94118, Indonesia

Abstract

Studies are conducted on axial hydraulic turbine for very low head application which operates on low speed. Design optimization

is generated by optimizing the blade airfoil and blade cascade during development of the turbine blades. Blade airfoil is

optimized to obtain optimum value of ratio of Lift coefficient Cl and Drag coefficient Cd, in the range of turbine operation by

utilizing of XFOIL that controlled via MATLAB. These airfoils are used to develop the blade cascade. To increase the benefits of

fluid flow passing through the turbine blades, the analysis and optimization of the blade cascade is conducted. Vortex panel

method is used to analyze the fluid flow inside cascade to gain the maximum of the lift force, in order to optimize the potential

power of the fluid that can be utilized by the turbine rotor. The cascade optimization is including arrangement of the incidence

angle of the cascade to reduce cascade losses and blade loading by applying the concept of shock-free inflow. Numerical

analyses are conducted to determine the performance of the designed turbine with the commercial CFD. The results of numerical

simulations show that the turbine can be operated at a maximum efficiency of 91% at various ranges of flow rates.

©

© 2015

2015TheTheAuthors. Published

Authors. by Elsevier

Published Ltd. B.V.

by Elsevier This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Scientific Committee of ICSEEA 2014.

Peer-review under responsibility of Scientific Committee of ICSEEA 2014

Keywords: hydraulic turbine; optimization; very low head; matlab; vortex panel method

1. Introduction

One of the major barriers in utilization of the potential energy of the fluid flow is the limited ability of the

conventional turbines to exploit the low head water flow. If there are any, it required a high investment value and

E-mail address: amuis19@gmail.com; amuis@students.itb.ac.id

1876-6102 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Scientific Committee of ICSEEA 2014

doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.03.255

264 Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273

made the utilization of the low head flow becomes unattractive. Types of turbine that are often used for this purpose

is a Kaplan or Bulb turbine type which can work in the range of 2 to 40 meters head. But because of these turbines

require regulating the flow before and after of the turbine to work optimally, the turbine application becomes costly

for the construction of the complex system turbine. To overcome this limitation, the turbine for very low head sites

can be a very valuable solution. The very low head turbine may be designed as a compact turbine using one row of

guide vane and rotor blade. The bloc of turbine used to be positioned inside the canal with a 30 to 50 degree from

vertical axis. The construction of the turbine is suitable in utilization of the very low head flow with high efficiency

without a complex and expensive regulator flow [1-3]. However, the optimization of turbine blades is required to

increase efficiency and make this turbine as an interesting choice for application. Optimized blade design will be

able to maximize the absorbing energy from the fluid flow through the turbine.

There are two main concerns in the design optimization of turbine that will be discussed. Blade Airfoil and

cascade in developing the blade shape has a major contribution to increase performance of the designed turbine.

Airfoil shape has an influence on the flow characteristics that passing through because of the radius of the leading

edge of the airfoil, maximum chamber and maximum thickness position of the airfoil. Small leading edge radius will

result in local high speed acceleration when the airfoil at the incidence position and the flow will then be accelerated

and developed flow separation. Flow separation condition inside the turbine blades can increase the friction drag

thereby reducing the lift force L of the blades airfoil. Changes in the maximum position in the flow chamber with a

certain Reynolds number will affect the lift coefficient ܮܥgenerated by an airfoil. The ܮܥis one variable that affects

the power that may be developed by the turbine blades, which is generated by the static pressure difference on the

bottom and top surfaces of the airfoil. The maximum thickness position of the airfoil will also affect the other

variables, such as the location of the point of minimum pressure and generated pressure distribution. The position of

the minimum pressure point should be as far back towards the trailing edge to ensure the transition from laminar

flow to turbulent emergence as slowly as possible so as to reduce friction drag on the profile. This can be achieved

wherever possible with set the location of maximum thickness profile at 30% - 60% of the chord length [4]. Airfoil

geometry parameters are shown in Fig. 1.

The main characteristics of the selected airfoil are the values of lift coefficient ܮܥ, drag coefficient ܦܥand

pressure coefficient ܲܥ. These values will vary depending on the angle of incidence or angle of attack α, which can

be obtained from the results of the test or numerical study. The most efficient of α can be determined from the ratio

between the maximum of ܮܥand ܦܥ. The lift and drag coefficients can be written in the following equations.

ܮ

ܮܥൌ ͳ (1a)

ʹ ܸ ߩܣ

ʹ

Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273 265

ܦ

ܦܥൌ ͳ (1b)

ʹ ܸ ߩܣ

ʹ

where L and D are lift and drag forces, A is the total area of airfoil, ߩ is fluid density and V is velocity of fluid.

To obtain airfoil blade that has advantages as mentioned above, the particle swarm optimization method was

applied by using the XFOIL analysis engine as controlled by MATLAB. Development and details of the method has

been clearly explained in reference [5]. Design variables are used based on the NACA Report 460 [6] which is the

maximum camber (m), max camber location (p), and max thickness (t). The purpose of optimization is to obtain an

optimal ratio between airfoil lift and drag force over a board range of angles of attack α. In an attempt to achieve

good performance over a range of α, three different angles of attack were averaged in the objective function. The

objective function chosen was:

ܨ݊݅ܯሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ͵

(2)

As a side constraints, the author is using NACA design variables (m, p, t) as fractions of the total units of chord

length, angles of attack α, the aerodynamic pitching moment ݉ܥ, leading edge radius and maximum thickness

location.

Cascade is defined as an infinite sequence of similarly shaped objects with the same distance. Such objects are

usually shaped like airfoils used for the stator or rotor. One of the important features of the design of the stator and

rotor is the flow deflection cascade of airfoils that relates to the lift force L of the blade. Fig. 2 shows the fluid that

passes through the cascade and deflected by the deflection angle ε, where ߚͳ is the inlet flow angle and ߚʹ is the

outlet flow angle.

ߝ ൌ ߚͳ െ ߚʹ (3)

ܹͳ and ܹʹ are the inlet and outlet velocities vectors, ܹλ is the vector average of inlet and outlet velocities with

mean angle ߚλ , and may thus be expressed in terms of the inlet and outlet flow angles.

266 Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273

ܮ

ܮܥൌ ͳ (5a)

ߩܹλ ʹ ݈

ʹ

ܦ

ܦܥൌ ͳ (5b)

ߩܹλ ʹ ݈

ʹ

From Fig. 2, the drag force D taken in the direction normal to lift force L:

The drag coefficient becomes:

ܦܥൌ ͳ ൌ ቆͳ ቇ ܿߚ ݏλ ൌ ߞλ ܿߚ ݏλ (7)

ߩܹλ ʹ ݈ ߩܹλ ʹ ݈ ݈

ʹ ʹ

where ߞλ is the cascade loss coefficient, X and Y are the aerodynamic forces parallel to the x and y axes.

And the lift force L is normal to the vector mean velocity ܹλ :

ܮൌ ߩܹλ ʹ ݐሺ ͳߚ ݊ܽݐെ ʹߚ ݊ܽݐሻ ܿߚ ݏλ െ ሺοݐ Ͳሻ ߚ ݊݅ݏλ (8b)

ܮܥൌ ʹ ሺ ͳߚ ݊ܽݐെ ʹߚ ݊ܽݐሻ ܿߚ ݏλ െ ቆͳ ቇ ሺ ሻ ߚ ݊݅ݏλ (9a)

݈ ߩܹλ ʹ ݈

ʹ

ݐ

ܮܥൌ ʹ ሺ ͳߚ ݊ܽݐെ ʹߚ ݊ܽݐሻ ܿߚ ݏλ െ ߚ ݊ܽݐ ܦܥλ (9b)

݈

For simpler case of friction less fluid flow, the presence of viscous drag forces will be eliminated and we note

that ܮܥwill be strongly affected by the term of ሺ ߚͳ െ ߚʹ ሻ which it closely related to fluid deflection ߝ.

Another thing that bring over the negative effect on the design of cascades is shock waves that caused by

compressibility effects in high speed flow. To conquer the shock, the use of inlet flow angle ߚͳ with leading edge

stagnation point is located precisely on the end of the line profile chamber is required (Fig. 3b). This shock free inlet

flow conditions thus ensure the smoothest entry into the cascade and will close to the minimum loss situation.

Fig. 3. Sample of stagnation streamline and shock free inflow condition at (b) position [7].

Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273 267

To control the aerodynamic loading of the blades cascades, it is necessary to apply the minimum suction pressure

coefficient criterion [8] that is illustrates on Fig. 4. The minimum suction pressure coefficient ݊݅݉ݏܥis defined as

the minimum value of the pressure coefficient on the airfoil cascade at the suction side. The ݅ݏܥand ݏݏܥare the

lower and upper limitof the optimum minimum suction pressure coefficient. By applying shock free inlet flow

condition on the cascade design, will assist in meeting the optimal minimum suction pressure coefficient criterion

[2]. The pressure coefficient ܥis defined as:

െͲ

ܥൌ (10)

ͲǤͷߩܹλ ʹ

where is the static pressure on the blade cascade surface and Ͳis the reference pressure.

Optimization process of the turbine blade cascade is carried out by applying the optimal cascade criterions as

mentioned above. The criterions are; optimal inlet and outlet flow angles, shock free inflow conditions and the

minimum suction pressure criterion. For this purpose, author using a MATLAB computer code that utilizes the

potential flow calculation through a vortex panel method to analyze the cascade design. The boundary integral

equation is solved through a computational method as proposed by Lewis [9].

The specific speed of the hydraulic turbines is expressed by the equation below. This parameter determines the

type and basic geometry of the runner and also the other components of turbine. Where ݊(rps) is the rotating speed,

ܳ(͵ Τሻis the flow rate of fluid, ݃ (Τ;) is the gravitational force and (ܪm) is the available head of fluid flow.

݊ ܳ ͲǤͷ

ܰ ݏൌ ሺ݃ ܪሻͲǤͷ (11)

For the very low head turbine, the ͳͳ values between 0.12 ͵ Τ and 1.2͵ Τ, the ͳͳ values between 65 rpm and

280 rpm [1].

ܳ

ܳͳͳ ൌ (12)

Ͳ ܪ ʹ ܦǤͷ

݊ܦ

ܰͳͳ ൌ (13)

Ͳ ܪǤͷ

The designed turbine parameters are based on the available water flow canal with flow rate 128 liters/s and head

available 0.3 meters. The tip and hub diameters of turbine are 0.6 meters and 0.36 meters respectively. Turbine

designed consists of one row of stator and rotor blade and will be operated with 90 rpm of rotating speed. Number of

268 Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273

blade for stator and rotor are 24 and 8 blades respectively. Optimized blade airfoils are used and stacking to form the

turbine blade with 11 radial stations from hub to tip. The free vortex swirl velocity criterion are applied because of

the limitations in using the other swirl velocity criterions due to the low of axial fluid flow that passing through of

the turbine [3].

There is two of turbine cascades were designed with the main difference on the pitch and chord ratio or solidity.

The first turbine is designed with a pitch and chord ratio ݐΤ݈ equal to 1 and the second one with ݐΤ݈ equal to 0.9. On

both of pitch and chord ratio the lift coefficient cascades obtained are quite high and it is necessary to know the

influence on turbine performance. Parameters of the optimized cascade for the rotor are shown on the Table 1 and

Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. Only suction pressure coefficient at radial section 1 (hub), 6 (mid) and 11 (tip) are shown on Fig. 5

and Fig. 6 that can represent others radial section.

From the Table 1, stagger angle for both of turbine designs are moderately increased from hub to shroud, this

results made the designed blades has a moderate twist as well. The same design process applied for the stator blade,

but mainly to meet the outlet flow direction. From these design parameters, model of rotor and stator blade may be

developed as shown on Fig. 7 and 8.

Radial Station 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Diameter (m) 0.360 0.384 0.408 0.432 0.456 0.480 0.504 0.528 0.552 0.576 0.600

Number of blades 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Inlet angle Ⱦͳ (ιሻ 49.51 54.61 58.55 61.67 64.20 66.29 68.04 69.54 70.83 71.95 72.95

First Turbine

Pith & chord ratio

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(t/l)

Stagger angle ɉ (ιሻ 50.00 56.15 60.00 63.80 66.50 68.15 70.10 72.15 73.15 73.65 75.10

Outlet angle Ⱦʹ (ιሻ 56.5 62.09 66.43 68.34 71.92 72.37 73.87 75.29 77.23 77.28 79

Coeff. Lift 0.406 0.499 0.597 0.552 0.723 0.602 0.634 0.666 0.813 0.703 0.873

Min. Suc. Pressure

-0.3771 -0.3512 -0.2625 -0.2797 -0.2309 -0.2358 -0.2471 -0.2559 -0.1830 -0.2282 -0.1406

Coeff.

Pitch & Chord

0.141 0.151 0.160 0.170 0.179 0.188 0.198 0.207 0.217 0.226 0.236

length (m)

Second Turbine

Pith & chord ratio

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

(t/l)

Stagger angle ɉ (ιሻ 50.00 56.00 60.10 63.85 66.50 68.15 70.12 72.20 73.30 73.75 75.30

Outlet angle Ⱦʹ (ιሻ 56.95 62.66 67.3 69.09 72.75 73.06 74.65 76.14 78.21 78.16 79.98

Coeff. Lift 0.391 0.487 0.607 0.561 0.733 0.614 0.675 0.704 0.870 0.758 0.946

Min. Suc. Pressure

-0.3396 -0.3119 -0.2148 -0.2286 -0.1798 -0.1767 -0.1812 -0.1935 -0.1128 -0.1584 -0.0941

Coeff.

Chord length (m) 0.157 0.168 0.178 0.188 0.199 0.209 0.220 0.230 0.241 0.251 0.262

Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273 269

(a) (b)

Pressure Coef. on Hub blade Pressure Coef. on Mid Blade

1 1.1

0.8

0.6 0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0.1

-0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-0.4 -0.4

(c)

Pressure Coef. on Tip blade

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-0.4

Fig. 5. The suction pressure coefficients of designed cascade on first turbine (t/l=1); (a) on radial station 1, (b) on radial station 6,

(c) on radial station 11.

(a) (b)

Pressure Coef. on Hub blade Pressure Coef. on Mid Blade

1.1 1.1

0.6 0.6

0.1 0.1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-0.4 -0.4

(c)

Pressure Coef. on Tip blade

1.1

0.6

0.1

-0.4

Fig. 6. The suction pressure coefficients of designed cascade on second turbine (t/l=0.9); (a) on radial station 1, (b) on radial station 6,

(c) on radial station 11.

270 Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273

(a) (b)

Fig. 7. Sample rotor and stator blade development; (a) rotor, (b) stator.

(a) (b)

Fig. 8. Stator and rotor turbines development; (a) first turbines, (b) second turbine.

Turbines bloc are positioned inside the canal with a 45 degree from vertical axis. Numerical studies are carried

out by using the commercial CFD code, Ansys. The simulations are using Fluent with analysis type of 3D and

viscous model ݇߱ െ ܵܵܶ. Turbine installation and fluid flow direction results from CFD analysis are shown on Fig.

9. Water power and power of turbine generated by the CFD simulations can be written:

ܲ ܾ݁݊݅ݎݑݐ

ߟܶ ൌ (15)

ܲ ݎ݁ݐܽݓ

where, ߩ is the water density, ݃ is the acceleration of gravity, ܳ is the water flow rate and ܪis the potential head of

site.ܶ ݐݐis the total torsion generated by turbine and ߱ is the angular velocity of turbine.

Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273 271

The static pressure distributions inside turbines are shown on Fig. 10 for design condition 128 kg/s of mass flow

rates and 90 rpm of rotation speed. These pressure distributions also indicate the blade loading of turbine. For the

first turbine (t/l = 1), maximum and minimum pressure are 3797 Pa and -3549 Pa respectively and for the second one

(t/l = 0.9), maximum and minimum pressure are 5170 Pa and -1639 Pa respectively. Both of turbines at the same

operating pressure 101325 Pa. The simulation results indicate that the possibilities of cavitations inception inside

both of turbines due to the pressure drop are not visible and also that the second turbine has an excellent ability to

deal with it. Minimum and maximum pressure on the second turbine are higher because designed turbine blades has

higher solidity (l/t = 1.11), it will affect the fluid velocities that passing through. These situations are identical with

the suction pressure coefficient as shown on Fig. 5 and Fig. 6.

(a) (b)

Fig. 10. Static pressure distributions inside turbines; (a) first turbine, (b) second turbine.

Simulation efficiencies of turbines as shown Fig. 11, both of turbines have an excellent performance indicate by

efficiency 91.36% on first turbine and 91.27% on second turbine at designed operation 128 kg/s of flow rate and 90

rpm of rotation speed. The same results is also shown in the flow rates of 100 kg/s and 150 kg/s, where the

maximum efficiency above of 90% and 91% respectively. Effective head of turbines at each operating conditions are

shown in Fig. 12. Effective head required on the second turbine for the same operating conditions with the first

turbine will be higher due to the higher of solidity of the designed blade. Similar results on the power generated by

turbines on Fig. 13. The second turbine will produce greater power because it runs on a higher head at the same

operating conditions.

272 Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273

95 95

90 90

85 85

Efficiency (%)

Efficiency (%)

80 80

75 75 100 kg/s

100 kg/s

70 70

128 kg/s 128 kg/s

65 65

60 150 kg/s 60 150 kg/s

55 55

50 50

15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150

(a) (b)

Fig. 11. Turbines efficiencies at various rotation speeds and flow rates; (a) first turbine, (b) second turbine.

0.55 0.55

0.50 0.50

Effective head (m)

0.45 0.45

0.40 0.40

0.35 0.35

0.30 100 KG/S 0.30 100 KG/S

0.25 0.25

0.20 128 KG/S 0.20 128 KG/S

0.15 0.15

0.10 150 KG/S 0.10 150 KG/S

0.05 0.05

0.00 0.00

15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150

(a) (b)

Fig. 12. Effective head of turbines at various rotation speeds and flow rates; (a) first turbine, (b) second turbine.

700 700

600 600

500 500

Power (W)

Power (W)

400 400

100 kg/s 100 kg/s

300 128 kg/s 300 128 kg/s

200 150 kg/s 200 150 kg/s

100 100

0 0

15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150

Rotation speed (rpm) Rotation speed (rpm)

(a) (b)

Fig. 13. Power of turbines at various rotation speeds and flow rates; (a) first turbine, (b) second turbine.

6. Conclusions

Numerical studies of two optimized turbines have successfully demonstrated a very good performance by

achieving a maximum efficiency of over 91% in the designed operation conditions 128 kg/s and 90 rpm. Simulation

results on operating conditions with different flow rates also showed a high maximum efficiency. Both turbines that

designed with a different pitch and chord ratio or solidity would require a different of effective head and produce a

Abdul Muis et al. / Energy Procedia 68 (2015) 263 – 273 273

different of power for the same of flow rate and rotation speed. Both of turbines also produce a different of static

pressure inside turbine because of the different velocity of fluids as result of the interaction of the fluid with the

turbine blades.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to express special thanks to BPPS Dikti and ITB for financial support and for a chances to

study and research.

References

[1] R Frazer and C Deschenes. Development of a New Turbine for Very Low Head Sites. Waterpower XV.www.hcipub.com.

[2] Priyono S and Ibrahim K.A. Design. Simulation and Experimental of the Very Low Head Turbine with Minimum Pressure and Free

Vortex Criterions.Internatonal Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01. 2011.

[3] Abdul Muis, Priyono S, Ariyadi S and Firman H. Design and Simulation of Very Low Head Axial Hydraulic Turbine with Variation of

Swirl Velocity Criterion. The 12th Asian International Conference on Fluid Machinery (AICFM12). 2013.

[4] Julian R. Optimization and Design of Two Micro-Hydro Turbines for Medium and Low Head Applications. Thesis of Master of Science.

University of Natal. 2000.

[5] Daniel P, JJ Guerrette, A Regula, M Ozgur. Airfoil Shape Optimization using XFoil and Modified NACA Parameters. 2010.

[6] Eastman NJ, Kenneth EW, Robert MP. The Characteristics of 78 Related Airfoil Sections from Tests in The Variable-Density Wind

Tunnel. NACA Report No: 460.

[7] RI Lewis. Turbo machinery Performance Analysis. Elsevier Science and Technology Books; 1996.

[8] Antonio GB da Cruz, Andre LAM and Claudio JCB.Minimum Pressure Coefficient Criterion Applied in Axial-Flow Hydraulic

Turbines.Journal of the Braz. Soc.of Mech. Sci & Eng. Vol. XXX No. 1. 2008.

[9] R I Lewis. Vortex Element Method for Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Engineering Systems. Cambridge University Press; 1991.

[10] P Pathike, T Katpradit, P Terdtoon. Optimum Shape of Airfoil for Small Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine, J Sci Technol MSU Vol. 31 No.

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