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CONSULTAIR MAINTENANCE TRAINING BOEING B-737/200 POWER PLANT ENGINE JT8D

ENGINE COWLINGS

Various ports and panels are provided in the cowls.

Left Cowl
a) Fuel heater exhaust D. Gearbox breather port
b) Accessory drain
c) Precooler exhaust
d) Oil tank service door
e) Constant Speed Drive service door
f) Start valve manual override hole
g) Two pressure relief doors

Right Cowl

Generator cooling air exhaust

Tailpipe Cowlings Left and Right

The tailpipe left and right cowl panels’ fair with the engine cowls fixed fairing and thrust reverser. The cowls are hinged and removed in the
same manner as engine cowls.

Interchangeability

The only sections of the nacelle that are interchangeable between the two engines are the side and tailpipe cowlings.

Forward, Mid and Aft Fairings

The engine to wing fairing, in three sections, acts as a cover between the engine and wing. The removable aft fairing is cantilevered aft from
the wing rear spar, mid fairing is attached to the lower wing skin between spars, removable forward fairing is attached to mid fairing and top of

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CONSULTAIR MAINTENANCE TRAINING BOEING B-737/200 POWER PLANT ENGINE JT8D

nose cowl by latches. On the mid fairing are three access panels for various system connections to engine. Below the forward fairing are
located all engine electrical disconnects.

Nose Cowl

The nose cowl is shaped to provide a smooth airflow over the nacelle and optimum airflow for the engine. It is attached to the forward engine
Flange by 23 bolts. An anti-icing air duct, is located on the rear face of nose cowl, which continues into the cowl leading edge as
a spray tube.

Engine Cowlings, Left and Right

The engine loft and right cowl panels join with the nose cowl, fixed fairing and tailpipe cowl panels.

Six hook latch fasteners attach the left and right cowl panels to the fixed fairing and serve as cowl hinges. Two of these six latches on each
cowl panel are safety latches which prevent an open cowl from being removed until the latches are depressed. The safety latches
automatically trip into the locked position when the panels are closed. Hold open rods, installed in each , panel allow the panels to be propped
in the open position. Safety pins are provided to lock the rods in either the open or stowed position. Six other hook latch fasteners join the left
and right cowl panels together at the underside of the engine. A pin latch near the forward lower corner. of the right cowl panel engages a
Fitting on the left cowl panel to provide a positive safety backup.

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CONSULTAIR MAINTENANCE TRAINING BOEING B-737/200 POWER PLANT ENGINE JT8D

JT8D ENGINE CROSS SECTION

General

The Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D turbo fan engine is an axial flow, twin-spool design of moderate bypass ratio utilizing six stage low
pressure compressor, driven by a three stage turbine, and a seven stage high pressure compressor, driven by the single high pressure turbine
through concentric shafting.

Fan Inlet Case

The foremost section of the engine is the fan inlet case to which the airframe inlet duct is mounted. This case contains a single row of inlet
guide vanes. The bearing support is concentrically located in the inlet case and incorporates on its front face an external pad for mounting a
low pressure compressor (NO tachometer generator plus nose dome. A front bearing oil scavenge /Amp is incorporated within this bearing
support case.

Front and Rear Fan Cases

These cases house the engine fan section which consists of the first two blade stages of the low compressor rotor plus a row of stator vanes
between these fan blade stages.

Fan Exit Case

Air leaving the fan is separated into two flow paths, one stream passing through the basic engine and the other through the annular fan
discharge duct which surrounds the basic engine for its full length. The fan exit case contains the leading edge of the flow separator and the
fan exit guide vanes in the fan discharge air passage plus the third stage compressor blades in the main air stream.

Front Compressor Fan Duct

This section of the engine houses the balance of the front compressor assembly as well as the annular fan duct surrounding it.

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Compressor Intermediate Fan Case

The rear of the front compressor rotor plus the front ends of the front compressor drive turbine shaft and the rear compressor rotor are
supported by anti-friction bearings. Loads from these bearings are transmitted through a bearing support via inter-compressor guide vanes to
the outer wall of the compressor intermediate fan case, directly underneath a pair of external flanges used for attaching the engine front
mounts.

The main accessory drive case tower shaft is enclosed in the bottom guide vane. The accessory gearbox is mounted on the compressor
intermediate fan case at the bottom of the engine.

N2 Accessory Drive Case

The accessory drive case provides a drive pad for the fuel pump and fuel control which are furnished as standard equipment. In addition, one
10-inch and two 5-inch drive pads are available for airframe-furnished accessories such as generator, starter, and hydraulic pump. A standard
pad is provided for an N2 tachometer generator. In addition, oil pressure, oil scavenge pumps, an oil pressure relief valve, and an oil strainer
are incorporated.

Rear Compressor Fan Duct

This duct houses the rear compressor and provides 8th stage bleed ports for airframe pneumatic requirements. Also located in this duct is a
bleed valve which is actuated automatically by the pressure bleed control.

Combustion Chamber and Turbine Fan Duct

Within this duct are nine separate combustion chambers arranged annularly, each containing a single duplex fuel nozzle. These chambers are
interconnected with tubes to aid flame propagation during engine starts. Two chambers are equipped with spark igniters for engine starting
and/or continuous ignition purposes.

Two combustion chamber fuel drain bosses are located on the bottom vertical centerline of this duct to provide for external drainage of
residual fuel.

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The basic engine turbine section is also contained within the combustion chamber and turbine fan duct. This consists of four turbine stages
each with its respective nozzle guide vanes. The intershaft anti-friction bearing plus the turbine front anti-friction bearing are located within this
section of the engine.

Fan Exhaust Duct

This duct contains four exit vanes located between the inner wall and the rear turbine anti-friction bearing support housing. Loads are
transmitted via rods to the outer duct external flanges to which the engine rear mounts are attached. Located in this section are 6 pressure
probes for engine pressure ratio indicator and 8 thermocouples for exhaust gas temperature indication.

Diffuser Fan Duct

This duct houses an air passage which diffuses the rear compressor exit air, thereby reducing its velocity and increasing its pressure prior to
entering the burner section. A row of guide vanes is provided at the entry to the diffuser section. Further downstream are connecting passages
to two 13th stage bleed ports available for airframe pneumatic requirements. This duct also houses provisions for flowing high compressor
discharge air into the fan air stream to preclude engine compressor instability. These provisions consist of two bleed valves located at
approximately the four and eight o'clock positions and a third bleed valve in the 8th stage located at the six o'clock position. They are actuated
automatically by the pressure bleed control.

The rear of the rear compressor rotor and the front of the rear compressor drive turbine are supported by anti-friction bearings located at the
center of the diffuser fan duct.

The fuel pressurizing and dump valve plus external connections to the fuel manifolds are mounted externally on the bottom of this duct.

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JT8D – LEFT SIDE

General

the JT8D engine prior to build up is equipped with the necessary components for operating the engine.

Components

Top forward – engine anti-icing duct and valve.

Bottom forward – oil tank attached to the front of accessory drive case, above oil tank is the oil cooler.

Top center – air bleed orts for 8th and 13th stages.

Bottom center – oil distribution lines, pressurizing valve, ignition exciter unit and igniter plug.

Aft center – fan air bleed pad for the CSD oil cooler and exhaust gas temperature harness.

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JT8D – RIGHT SIDE

General

The JT(D prior to build up is equipped with the necessary components for operating the engine.

Components

Top forward – engine anti-icing duct valve, fuel heater duct and valve.

Bottom forward - fuel pump, filter, fuel control unit and control rods forward of the accessory drive case.

Top center – air bleed ports for 8th and 13th stages.

Bottom center – pressure ratio bleed control and igniter plug.

Aft center – fan air bleed pad for the pneumatic precooler.

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CONSULTAIR MAINTENANCE TRAINING BOEING B-737/200 POWER PLANT ENGINE JT8D

ENGINE FRONT VIEW

General

Air entering the engine passes through the 19 inlet guide vanes. The guide vans have a shroud at mid-span.

The engine anti-icing air passes through the hollow inlet guide vanes into the nose dome area and is discharged back to the engine.

On the central hub, behind the nose dome, is the drive pad for N1 tachometer generator and connection for Pt2 pressure sense line for engine
pressure ratio system. The wires from N1 drive pad and Pt2 pressure line together with 3 oil system lines (supply, scavenge and breather for
No. 1 bearing) pass through the 6 O'clock position inlet guide vane.

At the bottom of the inlet are located Tt2 temperature sensor, at 5 o'clock position, for fuel control unit and Pt2 pressure sensor, at 7 o'clock
position, for pressure ratio bleed control.

Under the engine is located the accessories drive case. Mounted on the front of the drive case are oil tank, fuel pump, fuel filter and fuel
control unit. Forward of the drive case, in the center is the fuel heater.

Above the oil tank is located the oil cooler.

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ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE CASE

General

The engine accessory drive case supports and drives various accessories required for the operation of the powerplant. The drive case is
driven by a "tower shaft" from the high pressure compressor and is located under the engine.

Accessory Drive Components

a) Engine controls cross shaft, concentric thrust crank (inner) and start crank (outer) directs input from left to right side of engine.
b) N2 tachometer drive pad, right side, turns counterclockwise.
c) Hydraulic pump drive pad, right aft face, turns clockwise below drive pad is seal drain connection.
d) Constant Speed Drive and generator drive pad, center aft face, turns clockwise. The drive pad is in the cavity which is equipped with a
drain plug and standpipe/overflow line with plug.
e) Oil supply line for No. 2 and No. 3 bearings, above the CSD drive pad.
f) Starter drive pad, left aft face, turns clockwise, below drive pad is seal drain connection.
g) Oil filter, left side, with provision for a differential pressure switch.
h) Oil pump, combination pressure and scavenge, bottom of drive.
i) Oil pressure regulator and sense line from oil cooler outlet, left aft side. Breather connection, left side, connects bearing No. 4, 4 1/2, 5
and 6 cavities to enter the accessory drive case.
j) Overboard breather port fitting left side, mates with hole in left cowling.
k) Engine oil tank, left front face, with three lines integral with the tank, oil supply to pump, oil return to tank and tank vent to drive case.
l) Fuel pump pad, right front face, turns clockwise, below drive pad is seal drain connection.
m) Gearbox drains plug and magnetic chip detector, right side.

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COMPRESSOR BLEED CONTROL AIR DISTRIBUTION

General

Compressor stall or surge results from an unstable air condition within the compressor. It is caused by air accumulating in rear stages of
compressor during engine operation at low thrust.

To prevent compressor stall, high pressure compressor discharge air is bled into the fan duct and is controlled by the bleed control system.

Components

The compressor bleed control unit is located on engine lower right side at the diffuser section. It receives two pressure sensing inputs:
a) Engine inlet pressure, Pt2 from pickup located in engine inlet at 5 o'clock position.
b) Low pressure compressor discharge pressure, Ps3, from tapping on engine upper side at the diffuser section. A filter is installed in the
Ps3 line at outlet from diffuser.

13th stage discharge pressure, Ps4 is used for bleed-control and bleed, valve operation.

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COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE SCHEDULE

General

During an initial engine run the engine bleed valves are required to be checked for proper operation. The operation of the valves is a function
of engine inlet temperature (Tt2), engine inlet pressure (Pt2) and low pressure compressor speed (N1). (During static operation Tt2 and Pt2
are ambient.)

Procedure

From the graph, knowing Tt2 and Pt2, N1 % RPM is determined at which valves should close and open during acceleration and deceleration
respectively.

During acceleration, when valves close, a sudden increase in N1 % RPM of approximately 8% and EPR of approximately 0.06 units will be
observed.

During deceleration, when valves open, a sudden decrease in N1 % RPM of approximately 8% and EPR of approximately 0.07 units will be
observed.

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COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVES CONTROL

General

In order to prevent the stall, the compressor bleed system permits compressor discharge air, 8th and 13th stage, to bleed into the fan
discharge duct.

Components

The compressor bleed system consists of three bleed valves located on the diffuser case. The control unit is located on lower right side of
engine. The inputs to the control unit are engine inlet pressure (Pt 2 ), low pressure compressor discharge air .(Ps ) through a filter and 13th
stage compressor discharge air (Ps 1 ) wh1 h is used for valve operation.

Operation

The control unit operates so as to schedule the bleed valve operation as a function of the pressure rise across the low pressure compressor.
Ps3 pressure ported through the metering plug and control venturi resulting in reduced pressure Ps3 acting on a diaphragm. Under the
diaphragm is Pt2 pressure and spring. The position change of the diaphragm is transmitted by a yoke to two pilot valves linked together.
Position of the pilot valves allows Ps4 . pressure to operate a servo valve, through which Ps4 pressure for bleed valve operation is either vented
or maintained at bleed valve.

In the static position, (engine not running), the bleed valves may be either open or closed, depending upon drag caused by contact of valves
with cylinder walls. At engine idle operation, the force exerted on diaphragm by Ps,' pressure is lower than combined Pt pressure and spring.
Ps, pressure through lower pilot valve move servo valve to allow backside of bleed valves to be vented to ambient. Compressor pressure
above bleed valves forces bleed valves open.

As engine speed increases, Ps3 and hence Ps3 increases, overcoming Pt2 and spring, thus repositioning the pilot valves. Ps, pressure via
upper pilot valve moves servo valve to allow Ps4 on to backside of bleed valves. This pressure acts on a larger area than the top of the bleed
valves, hence valves close. If any of the bleed valves remain open at high engine speed, the takeoff thrust cannot be developed before
contacting the maximum stop, RPM and EGT limits will be exceeded, and slow acceleration and the throttle levers will be misaligned.

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ENGINE EXTERNAL OIL DISTRIBUTION

General

The engine oil distribution system consists of a pressure system which supplies lubrication to the engine bearings, accessory drives and a
scavenge system. A breather system interconnects the individual bearing compartments the accessory drive gearbox, and the oil tank.

Oil Pressure System

Oil flows by gravity from the oil tank to the engine driven pump, located inside the accessory drive case. Pressure oil from the pump flows
through an oil filter to a fuel cooled oil cooler and passes to the various engine bearings. Bypass valves are provided in the filter and in the oil
cooler. An adjustable pressure regulating valve, installed in the accessory drive case maintains system pressure and flow bypassing oil back
to the pump inlet.

Scavenge Oil System

Scavenge pumps return oil from the bearing cavities to a sump in the accessory drive case. The scavenge stage of the engine driven pump
then returns the oil to the tank.

Oil Breather System

An oil breather system interconnects the engine bearing cavities, the accessory drive case, and the oil storage tank.

Detection

Optional magnetic chip detectors can be installed in the scavenge lines, oil tank and accessory case.

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ENGINE OIL TANK

General

The engine is provided with a single oil tank for oil storage used for engine lubrication.

Location

The oil tank is located on the left forward face of the accessory drive case. It is held at the drive case by three bolts and is secured at the front
by a strap.

Components

The tank consists of oil outlet tube to pressure pump and oil, return tube from scavenge pump. The returning oil is sent to a decelerator where
oil and air/fumes are separated by centrifugal action of swirling oil. The air/fumes mixture is vented to the accessory drive case and hence
overboard through the breather system. The tank vent system consists of a climb and dive/normal ports, thus providing an all attitude venting
system. Quantity indication is provided by a capacitance probe and by a dipstick which is integral with the filler cap. On the left side of the tank
are provisions for optional sight glasses and pressure servicing ports.

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ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM DIAGRAM

Control

The fuel control is provided with two control levers; one to control engine starting and shutdown the engine speed during all forward and
reverse thrust operations, and the other to control the fuel control accurately governs the steady state selected speed, acceleration and
deceleration, and it indirectly governs the maximum turbine temperature of the engine during both forward and reverse thrust operation.

Pressurizing and Dump Valve

From the fuel control, the fuel flows through the fuel flowmeter and the fuel oil cooler to the pressurizing valve. The pressurizing valve
schedules flow to the secondary fuel nozzles as a function of pressure drop across the primary nozzles.

Manifolds and Fuel Nozzles

The divided fuel flow from the pressurizing valve is delivered through the annular duct to the dual-tube fuel manifolds mounted on the diffuser
case. The fuel then enters the nine fuel nozzles.

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CONSULTAIR MAINTENANCE TRAINING BOEING B-737/200 POWER PLANT ENGINE JT8D

ENGINE START CIRCUIT

General

The engine start circuit is used for engine starting on the ground, continuous ignition (if necessary) during engine operation and engine re-start
in flight.

Components

Start system components consist of a solenoid controlled, pneumatically operated start valve located on left aide of engine, pneumatically
driven starter located on left aft side of accessories drive case, ignition exciter unit on left side of diffuser case and two igniters located in No. 4
and No. 7 combustion chambers.

A four position, (GRD, OFF, LOW IGN, FLT), rotary type engine start switches with holding coils are located on P5 forward overhead panel.

Operated by the engine start lever are two ignition switches located in the control pedestal. The engine start circuit receives 28V DC and 115V
AC electrical power from P8-2 circuit breaker panel.

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STARTING SYSTEM

Operation

a) Using air supply from Auxiliary Power Unit. With APU operating, the APU bleed valve is opened by a switch on the P5, forward over-
head panel. Air from APU through the isolation valve and engine No. 2 bleed valve is supplied to the No. 2 start valve, or through
engine No. 1 bleed valve to the No. 1 start valve. During the time when the APU bleed valve, isolation valve, engine No. 1 bleed valve
and engine No. 2 bleed valve are open, the DUAL BLEED amber light on P5 panel will be illuminated. The "dual bleed" condition is
allowed to exist only during engine starting. Upon completion of engine starting, the APU bleed valve must be closed and the light will
he extinguished.

b) Using air supply from ground air supply cart. Air from ground cart through engine No. 2 bleed valve is supplied to No. 2 start valve or
through isolation valve and engine No. 1 bleed valve to No. 1 start valve.

c) Using bleed air from opposite operating engine. Adequate pressure is provided from the 8th stage bleed of the engine operating at
approximately 80% N 2 RPM. Air from the operating engine through its bleed valve, isolation valve and bleed valve of engine to be
started, is supplied to the start valve.

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ENGINE CONTROLS

General

The engine control system transmits control lever movement in the control cabin to the fuel control unit on the right side of the engine.

The system consists of three sub-systems:


a) Start system
b) Forward thrust control
c) Reverse thrust control

Start System

The start system consists of a start lever, connected to fuel control unit by control cables, push-pull cable and rod linkage. It energizes the
ignition system and initiates fuel flow.

Forward Thrust Control

The forward thrust control system consists of a thrust lever, connected to fuel control unit by control cables, push-pull cable and rod linkage.

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THRUST REVERSER HYDRAULIC / ELECTRICAL SCHEMATIC

Operation

In order to operate the thrust reverser, the isolation valve must be energized. The valve is normally energized when-the fire switch is in the
NORMAL position, airplane is on the ground and engine is operating. An override switch is provided for energizing the isolation valve when
airplane is not on the ground and/or engine is not operating. With hydraulic pressure available, movement of reverse thrust lever allows
selector valve to port fluid to lock actuators first by virture of check valve/restrictors and then to the door actuators. The return flow from the
actuators is through the selector valve.

Whenever the reverser doors are unlocked, the proximity switches energize circuits in Engine Accessory Unit M528, allowing the Isolation
Valve to be energized open regardless of aircraft "on-ground", or "air" mode. Through these circuits REVERSER UNLOCKED amber light on
P2 panel is illuminated also.

Stowing of the reverser is accomplished by repositioning of the selector 1 valve by the reverse thrust lever. Hydraulic fluid is supplied to
reposition the lock actuators and then to the door actuators, return flow is through the selector valve.

When the isolation valve is de-energized, the lock and door actuators are slowly depressurized through the restrictor and isolation valve.

The pressure switch, located downstream of the isolation valve, is connected to circuits, in Engine Accessory Unit, M528 for the ISOLATION
VALVE light on P5 Aft Overhead Panel.

With isolation valve energized, illuminated light indicates low pressure.

With isolation valve de-energized, illuminated light indicates high pressure.

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