tic Review ransAtlan T

Volume 1, Number 1  September/October 2010 



Bimonthly Magazine published by the North Atlantic Integrations Promotion Organization (NAPO) from Zagreb, Croatia

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TransAtlantic Review

2 Editorial Intro

As William Hague said in a speech to the British American International Advisory Board at the New York Stock Exchange: "we are part of each other’s success", the sentence that best describes the relationship between people on both sides of the Atlantic and allies from Europe, U.S. and Canada. The two of our continents are connected more than any other in today's world, and as we reach new age of the global village, we need to remember, in that same village, who is our partner, a friend and a good neighbor. There is a reason for that, as US Ambassador to Croatia James Foley said for one of our (NAPO) publications few months ago, "Whenever Western democracies acted together, there was no unsolvable problem". Today we have problems that look like insurmountable, they are more than difficult, and now, perhaps more than ever before, we must act together! Allow me to jump on the beginning of this entry or intro. The way how we are connected is hard to be described. It is almost impossible to count number of people who are connecting the two continents, or more then two Europe and North American nations. Since I'm from Croatia, let me start with famous
Nikola Tesla, an ethnic Serb born in Croatia, with his great inventions made in US. Or for people interested in history and armed conflicts, the less well-known name of Croat Vjekoslav Lujo Čukela could be interesting. He was the United States Marine numbered among only the nineteen two-time recipients of the US Medal of Honor. Čukela was awarded the Medal by both the US Army and the US Navy for the same action during the Battle of Soissons in World War I. He was also awarded with highest honors from France (Legion d’Honneur, the Médaille militaire) and Italy (Croce al Merito di Guerra). A brave men like Vjekoslav Lujo Čukela connected more than two allied nations, and he has made a cornerstone of our curent cooperation. Taking the step of many famous or les famous investors, academics, inventors and scientists like Tesla or soldiers like Čukela, today we are starting a project in which we hope that will help in our bonding and cooperation.

EYE ON AFGHANISTAN 3 4 5 The Civil Aspects of Croatia’s Engagement In Afghanistan Allied Report: Afghan Elections Show Courage And Vision Zapatero: "We Must Stay In Afghanistan As Long As There Is A Risk To Security"… Remarks By The US President Barack Obama At The Pentagon Memorial 2010 For our nation, this is a day of remembrance, a day of reflection, and, with God’s grace, a day of unity and renewal, said US President Barack H. Obama in his speech at the Pentagon Memorial on 11 September 2010. 8 Angela Merkel Stepping Up European Cooperation German Chancellor Angela Merkel has called for the better integration of the Baltic states in the European energy market. During her visit to Riga at the beginning of September 2010 she also praised the "extremely rigorous and clear line" that Latvia has taken to deal with the economic crisis. 9 NATO Secretary General Previews Preparations For November Lisbon Summit Expose: NATO Summit Meetings From History: The Battle Of Britain And Canadian Role The summer of 1940 was a dark time for the Allied Forces during the Second World War. Most of continental Europe had fallen to the Nazis and Hitler was preparing to launch a full-scale invasion of Great Britain. But first, he needed to dominate the airspace over the English Channel. To do so, his Luftwaffe (air force) needed to destroy the Royal Air Force… 16 The UK And US: "No Commercial Relationship More Important To Britain" About NAPO


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So with great pleasure, I'm presenting you the first issue of the TransAtlantic Review, magazine covering news and stories that connect allies and partner countries on both sides of the Atlantic. ■ Denis Avdagić - denis.avdagic@opsa.hr


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Deputy civil affairs team chief of the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) Feyzabad Ivan Velimir Starčević delivered on 8 September 2010 a presentation at the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration on "The Civil Aspects of Croatia’s Engagement in Afghanistan". The presentation laid out Croatia’s contribution to the civil reconstruction of Afghanistan through concrete projects that are part of the Afghanistan National Development Strategy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration has been taking part in these projects since 2005, i.e. since joining the German PRT in Badakshan, the most northern and least accessible of Afghanistan’s 34 provinces. As the most important project he singled out the construction of the Layoba health center, which covers the area populated by some 10,000 people. The center was completed in 2009, and sees two doctors and two medical technicians who, in accordance with the standards of the Afghan Ministry of Health, treat 60-100 patients daily. He also mentioned the recently-opened drinking water pump in a village near Mazar-e-Sharif. The pump significantly improved the drinking water distribution for the 500 families numbering 4,000 people, who previously have had no access to it. The project was carried out in cooperation with the Croatian Ministry of Defence. The presentation also listed the planned projects, such as building a protective wall around the Feyzabad elementary school and launching sewing courses to be attended by single mothers and female inmates from the local prison. Both projects have received support from the relevant governmental bodies of Badakshan. In regard to civil projects, Starčević pointed out the importance of mutual trust between the assistance providers and the local community, which bears a direct influence on the project’s profitability.

Ivan Velimir Starčević Photo: Hrvatski vojnik

The gathered parties were also presented with the theoretical project framework and a short overview of the current security situation in Afghanistan, nine years after the onset of ISAF. ■

- IMPRESSUM TransAtlantic Review - Bimonthly Magazine - vol. 1, № 1 - covering news and stories that connect allies and partner countries on both sides of the Atlantic Published by North Atlantic Integrations Promotion Organization (NAPO) - www.opsa.hr - opsa@opsa.hr Address: Organizacija za promicanje sjeverno-atlantskih integracija (OPSA), Poljana Zvonimira Dražića 9, HR-10000 Zagreb Web: http://www.publications.opsa.hr E-mail: tar@opsa.hr Fax: +385(0)1/556 736 Representing Publisher: Denis Avdagić, Director of North Atlantic Integrations Promotion Organization (NAPO) Editor: Denis Avdagić Editorial Board: Denis Avdagić, Petar Jukić, Robert Mikac, Vedran Obućina, Vedran Tare, Ana Marija Vojković Questions, proposals, press releases and/or articles are welcomed by e-mail to tar@opsa.hr Cover Page (front): Photo by Sgt. Mark Fayloga, Official US Marine Corps photographer (photo: Cpl. Anthony Patris, a vehicle commander from Jump Platoon, Headquarters Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd US Marine Regiment, listens in as his interpreter, Nasrullah Sadat, speaks with Afghan boys after an improvised explosive device detonated in Pinjadoo, Afghanistan, Sept. 6, 2010. No Marines or Afghans were injured by the explosion.) Cover Page (back): Made by E. Spreckmeester for European Recovery Programme "Marshall Plan" - contest (The flags of European nations form the blades of a windmill while the American flag forms the tail.)

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This Afghan led election is a milestone on the way to a peaceful Afghanistan free of Taliban safe havens, said ISAF Spokesman, Brigadier General Josef Blotz on 19 September 2010, in an interview to Reuters the day after the Afghan Parliamentary elections.
Of note, the Afghan National Security Forces did an excellent job ensuring security during the elections. The number of 294 insurgent attacks and only 34 effective attacks provides clear evidence of this fact. In comparison to the presidential election in 2009, the number of security related incidences decreased by 40 percent. Furthermore, the ISAF Spokesper- The crew of an Afghan Air Force helicopter brinson stated that there are significant developments ging ballot boxes for elections and improvements to acknowledge. Particularly, Photo by SSgt Romain Beaulinette, ISAF there were approximately 400 female candidates which equated to 16 percent of Parliamentary canrity effort today, with the NATO-led International didates. Additionally, the high women voter turnSecurity Assistance Force in a supporting role. out underlines improved conditions for a better future for Afghanistan. US President Barak Obama issued statement about Afghan elections on 20. September 2010: The Commander of international forces in Afghanistan Gen. David Petraeus praised those who participated in, organized and secured the nation's parliamentary elections. "The people of Afghanistan sent a powerful message today," said Gen. Petraeus. "The voice of Afghanistan's future does not belong to the violent extremists and terror networks. It belongs to the people." Gen. Petraeus also stated, "I commend, in particular, the Afghan National Security Forces, who performed so bravely in safeguarding a weapon with greater potential than any other - the people's right to vote and to have a say in the future of their country. It was an honor on this day, especially, for NATO ISAF forces to support our Afghan partners." NATO Secretary General said: On behalf of the NATO Alliance, I congratulate the Afghan people today on the Parliamentary Elections, despite the violence carried out by those attempting to deny the people's most basic democratic right. Afghan voters and parliamentary candidates have once again shown their determination to resist intimidation as they choose their own leaders and path for their country. I also pay tribute to the Afghan National Security Forces who have demonstrated their growing strength and capability to plan and lead the secuThis is an important step forward in ensuring a credible process for the Afghan people which results in a government that reflects their will. I congratulate the Afghan people on the patience and resilience they have shown throughout this long election process. Given Afghanistan’s recent history, it is extraordinary that they were able to overcome threats and violence to express their democratic right to choose their leader. Insecurity in the country prevented some Afghans from voting, but it is a testimony to the bravery of the Afghan people that so many of them did come out to vote in the first round under tremendously difficult circumstances. I congratulate President Karzai and Dr. Abdullah, who both earned the support of voters from across the country. I also commend all of the other Presidential candidates who made this such a vibrant campaign. It is now vital that all elements of Afghan society continue to come together to advance democracy, stated among other Barak Obama. This year elections were the first parliamentary elections planned, organized and managed by Afghans since the fall of the Taliban in 2001. Security was led by Afghan National Security Forces with support from ISAF. ■

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The President of the Spanish Government José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero spoke before the Plenary Session of the Lower House of Parliament (Congreso de los Diputados) on 15 September 2010 to report on the Spanish mission in Afghanistan. Zapatero began his speech by remembering the two Guardia Civil officers and their interpreter who were killed in Afghanistan on August 25.
The President of the Government announced that four people have already been arrested for their alleged involvement in this attack and said that they will not stop until all those persons responsible are in the hands of the justice system and pay for those terrible murders. His tribute went on to include all 93 Spaniards who have lost their lives during this mission. Zapatero reiterated Spain's commitment to the efforts being made by the international community to stabilize Afghanistan and assured that "we are in Afghanistan for reasons of international security and the security of Spain". We must stay in Afghanistan, he said, "assuming our current responsibilities, as long as is necessary, while the security of the country and the region, global security and the security of the Spanish people are at risk, but always within the framework of legitimacy and with the consensus of the international community". Every effort must be made for this mission to reach a conclusion as soon as possible, he maintained. He added that "Spain is making a very important human and financial effort" and expressed his conviction that, "despite the difficulties, these sacrifices will contribute towards making the world a safer place". José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero reminded the House that the presence of the international community in Afghanistan is taking place at the request and under the auspices of the United Nations, forms part of an initiative by the Atlantic Alliance and has the

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero Photo: Government of Spain support of the European Union. Therefore, he added, the actions undertaken by Spain, and by the other 46 countries that are present in Afghanistan, is supported by "widespread international consensus". More than 80,000 soldiers from 47 countries are on the ground in Afghanistan in an endeavour to avoid extremist terrorism from gaining a foothold in a State of great geostrategic importance, whose stability is closely linked to that of Pakistan and, to a lesser extent, that of Iran, India and the Central Asian Republics. For that reason, what happens in Afghanistan concerns us all, "our security today has no borders". The President of the Government recalled that, since 2002, the Socialist Group, which was then in opposition, has supported this mission because it represented "legal, consensual and fair" intervention. The objective for the 1,500 Spanish military personnel stationed in the Afghanistan is, explained the Prime minister, to collaborate with the Afghan authorities on maintaining security and rebuilding the country, as well as to help train the country's security forces.

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Two members of a Spanish Army in ISAF watch as the aircraft lands at Qual-eh-ye Now airport Photo: TSgt Laura K. Smith, US Air Force Spanish troops, Zapatero said, are providing protection to the civilian population, helping avoid new victims, and intensifying the training activities being undertaken with the Afghan Army and Police in order to enable them to deal with the insurgency. Spanish Prime minister added that the Spanish troops are equipped and trained to deal with the risks arising from the conflict and violence that is present in a "dangerous war zone". As regards civilian matters, Spain has contributed some 220 million Euros to Afghanistan between 2006 and 2012. The President of the Government described this effort as significant and can be added to the more than 1,900 million Euros contributed globally by Spain to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) over the course of the last nine years. The Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID in Spanish) has also contributed some 50 million Euros via a Reconstruction and Political Stability Programme for the 2006-2010 period. That programme covers various lines of action, such as those related to agricultural development, the improvement of infrastructures, education, healthcare, institutional consolidation, access to drinking water and gender equality. As can be seen, explained the President of the Government, the intervention in Afghanistan transcends a strictly military dimension and is aimed at the progressive assumption by the Afghan people of the responsibility for security and the economic and social development of their own nation. The question of "how and when to make that transition" is precisely what will be assessed at the NATO summit to be held in Lisbon in November. ■

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For our nation, this is a day of remembrance,
a day of reflection, and, with God’s grace, a day of unity and renewal, said US President Barack H. Obama in his speech at the Pentagon Memorial on 11 September 2010. "We gather to remember, at this sacred hour, on hallowed ground, at places where we feel such grief and where our healing goes on. We gather here, at the Pentagon, where the names of the lost are forever etched in stone. We gather in a gentle Pennsylvania field, where a plane went down and a "tower of voices" will rise and echo through the ages. And we gather where the Twin Towers fell, a site where the work goes on so that next year, on the 10th anniversary, the waters will flow in steady tribute to the nearly 3,000 innocent lives", said Obama. Obama described victims of 11 September 2001: "They were fathers and mothers, raising their families; brothers and sisters, pursuing their dreams; sons and daughters, their whole lives before them. They were civilians and service members. Some never saw the danger coming; others saw the peril and rushed to save others, up those stairwells, into the flames, into the cockpit. They were white and black and brown, men and women and some children made up of all races, many faiths. They were Americans and people from far corners of the world. And they were snatched from us senselessly and much too soon, but they lived well, and they live on in you". to say that we define the character of our country, and we will not let the acts of some small band of murderers who slaughter the innocent and cower in caves distort who we are. They doubted our will, but as Americans we persevere. Today, in Afghanistan and beyond, we have gone on the offensive and struck major blows against al Qaeda and its allies. We will do what is necessary to protect our country, and we honor all those who serve to keep us safe. They may seek to strike fear in us, but they are no match for our resilience. We do not succumb to fear, nor will we squander the optimism that has always defined us as a people. On a day when others sought to destroy, we have chosen to build, with a National Day of Service and Remembrance that summons the inherent goodness of the American people." Obama also said that those who attacked U.S. sought to demoralize, to divide and to deprive the very unity, the very ideals, that make America America, those qualities that have made U.S. a "beacon of freedom" and hope to billions around the world. Obama added: "today we declare once more we will never hand them that victory.

Barack Obama stated: "Our remembrance today also requires a certain reflection. As a nation, and as individuals, we must ask ourselves how best to honor them, those who died, those who sacrificed. How do we preserve their legacy, not just on this day, but every day? We need not look far for our answer. The perpetrators of this evil act didn’t From left: US Admiral Michael Mullen, President Obama simply attack America; they attacked the and US Defense Secretary Robert Gates very idea of America itself, all that we stand Photo: Official White House Photo by Pete Souza for and represent in the world. And so the highest honor we can pay those we lost, indeed our greatest weapon in this ongoing war, is to As Americans, we will keep alive the virtues and do what our adversaries fear the most, to stay true values that make us who we are and who we must to who we are, as Americans; to renew our sense of always be." ■ common purpose;

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Chancellor Angela Merkel has called for the better integration of the Baltic states in the European energy market. During her visit to Riga at the beginning of September 2010 she also praised the "extremely rigorous and clear line" that Latvia has taken to deal with the economic crisis.

"Latvia has had to comply with a great many conditions set by the IMF. I think the country has managed this admirably," said Angela Merkel after a meeting with the Latvian President Valdis Zatlers. Latvia was the second stop on the Chancellor’s visit to the Baltic states, after Lithuania. In the field of energy supply, the Baltic states would like to reduce their dependence on Russia. After a meeting with Prime Minister Valdis Dombrovskis, Angela Merkel said that Latvia and the other Baltic states are still not properly integrated into the European energy market. Location of Latvia - dark green on map of Europe European continent, EU is light green In Riga, the Chancellor praised the excellent relations that exist between Latvia and Germany. The two countries work closely together within the EU and collaborated on preparing the NATO summit in Portugal and on the new NATO strategy. They are also allies when the EU is deliberating on sound financial policy for the future and on ensuring compliance with the provisions of the Stability and Growth Pact. There is still scope to step up economic contacts, said Angela Merkel. The Latvian Prime Minister gave her a list of proposals for cooperative projects in this regard. The Chancellor’s itinerary then also included meetings with representatives of Latvian and German businesses. The Chancellor believes that the time has come for relations between Latvia and Russia to be strengthened. Germany, she said, welcomes the border agreement between Latvia and Russia. President Valdis Zatlers thanked the Chancellor for Germany’s support in the negotiations leading to this border agreement. ■

Merkel underscored the importance of creating an internal energy market and, in this connection, the Energy Council of EU heads of state and government that is scheduled for February 2011. At this meeting it must become clear what form greater integration and networking of European electricity grids and gas pipelines can take in future, she declared.

Angela Merkel greets Latvian schoolgirls Photo: REGIERUNGonline/Bergmann

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On 15 September 2010, NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen outlined NATO's priorities ahead of the November summit of Heads of State and Government in Lisbon. Addressing the media at NATO Headquarters, Mr Fogh Rasmussen stated that securing an agreement at Lisbon on a new Strategic Concept for NATO is a key priority.
Allies will have the chance to discuss the draft concept at a joint meeting of NATO Foreign and Defence Ministers on 14 October this year. Discussions will revolve around responds on a modern threats to NATO populations, including identifying the most effective measures for cyber and missile defence; not less important is a question how NATO can learn from operational experiences such as Afghanistan; and the future breadth of NATO’s partnership programmes. The Secretary General also expects that the strategic concept will mandate a process of continual reform to ensure that NATO taxpayers get the best value for money through, for example, commonly funded programmes and joint procurement. The second main item on the Summit’s agenda is Afghanistan. The Secretary General challenged recent skeptical views on progress in Afghanistan, explaining that the Taliban are under pressure all across the country, and that although the NATO strategy is neither quick nor easy, it is making steady progress to enable the Afghans to take care of their own security. He highlighted that the Afghan Government and NATO now have clear political and security criteria to allow the start of transition to Afghan lead in the first half of 2011: "At the Kabul Conference in late July, the whole International Community agreed that transition to Afghan lead will begin next year, with an aim to complete it throughout the country by 2014," said Rasmussen. The Secretary General expects the Lisbon summit to endorse the way forward and launch the process of transition. Furthermore, the summit is expected to agree a long-term partnership between NATO and Afghanistan that will endure beyond the completion of NATO's combat mission. "It is very important that Afghans, but also all the

Anders Fogh Rasmussen addressing the media Photo: NATO countries of the region, understand that NATO’s support for Afghanistan is for the long run," he said. According to the Secretary General, the third key priority will be to "put new energy into our practical cooperation with Russia." There are areas of common interest where NATO and Russia can work together: Afghanistan and the fight against drugs, counter-terrorism, counter-piracy, proliferation and missile defence protection for our troops. Fogh Rasmussen went on to explain his hope that NATO can cooperate with Russia on missile defence for Europe. He will deliver a speech on NATO-Russia relations in Rome on Friday, 17 September 2010. ■

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meetings provide periodic opportunities for Heads of State and Government of member countries to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities. NATO summits are not regular meetings, but rather important junctures in the Alliance’s decision-making process. Summits have been used to introduce new policy, invite new members into the Alliance, launch major new initiatives and build partnerships with non-NATO countries. From the founding of NATO in 1949 until today there have been twenty-three NATO summits. The last summit meeting to date was held in Strasbourg and Kehl, France and Germany, in April 2009. Next one will be held in Lisbon, Portugal, this year in November. NATO summit meetings are effectively meetings of the North Atlantic Council (NAC) - the Alliance’s principal political decision-making body - at its highest level, that of Heads of State and Government. Due to the political significance of summit meetings, agenda items typically address issues of overarching political or strategic importance. Items can relate to the internal functioning of the Alliance as well as NATO’s relations with external partners. Summits as milestones of Aliance Many of NATO’s summit meetings can be considered as milestones in the evolution of the Alliance. For instance, the first post-Cold War summit was held in London, 1990, and outlined proposals for developing relations with Central and Eastern European countries. A year later, in Rome, NATO Heads of State and Government published a new Strategic Concept that reflected the new security environment. This document was issued as a public document for the first time ever. At the same summit, NATO established the North Atlantic Cooperation Council – a forum that officially brought together NATO and partner countries from Europe, Central Asia, and the Caucasus. The 1997 Madrid and Paris Summits invited the first countries of the former Warsaw Pact – Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland – to join NATO, and established partnerships between NATO and Russia and Ukraine, while the 2002 Prague Summit saw major commitments to improving NATO’s capabilities and transformed the military command structure.

NATO summit

These are just a few of the many decisions that have been taken over the decades (a full summary of all NATO summit meetings can be found under “Previous summit meetings”). Typically, the decisions taken at a summit meeting are issued in declarations and communiqués. These are public documents that explain the Alliance's decisions and reaffirm Allies’ support for aspects of NATO policies.

The decisions are then translated into action by the relevant actors, according to the area of competency and responsibility: the NAC’s subordinate committees and NATO’s command structure, which cover the whole range of NATO functions and activities. Summits are convened upon approval by the NAC at the level of Permanent Representatives (or Ambassadors) or foreign and defense ministers. They are usually called on an ad hoc basis, as required by the evolving political and security situation. From the founding of NATO until the end of the Cold War – over forty years – there were ten summit meetings. From 1990, their frequency increased considerably in order to address the changes brought on by the new security challenges. In total, twenty-three summit meetings have taken place between 1949 and 2009. NATO summit meetings are held in one of the member countries, including Belgium, at NATO HQ. Members will volunteer to host a summit meeting and, after evaluating all offers, the NAC makes the final decision concerning the location. In recent years, summit locations have held some thematic significance. For example, the Washington Summit of 1999 commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in that city.

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Istanbul – which hosted a summit meeting in 2004 – connects Europe and Asia and is where the Alliance launched the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative. Previous summit meetings The first time that Heads of State and Government from NATO countries met was at the actual signing ceremony of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949, but this was not a summit meeting. The first summit meeting was held six years later, in Paris in 1957, and subsequent summits occurred at key junctures in the history of the Alliance. Paris, 16-19 December 1957 Brussels, 26 June 1974 Brussels, 29-30 May 1975 London, 10-11 May 1977 Washington D.C., 30-31 May 1978 Bonn, 10 June 1982 Brussels, 21 November 1985 Brussels, 2-3 March 1988 Brussels, 29-30 May 1989 Brussels, 4 December 1989 London, 5-6 July 1990 Rome, 7-8 November 1991 Brussels, 10-11 January 1994 Paris, 27 May 1997 Madrid, 8-9 July 1997 Washington D.C., 23-24 April 1999 Rome, 28 May 2002 Prague, 21-22 November 2002 Istanbul, 28-29 June 2004 Brussels, 22 February 2005 Riga, 28-29 November 2006 Bucharest, 2-4 April 2008 Strasbourg/ Kehl, 3-4 April 2009 Organizing and holding these events As with meetings at the levels of Permanent Representatives and ministers, the work of the NAC is prepared by subordinate committees with responsiParticipation NATO summit meetings normally involve member countries only. However, on occasion, and provided Allies agree, meetings can be convened in other formats although there is no formal obligation to hold such assemblies. They include, for instance, meetings of defence or foreign ministers, Heads of State and Government of countries belonging to the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the NATO-Russia Council, the NATOUkraine Commission or the NATO-Georgia Commission. They can also include leaders from ISAF troop-contributing countries, as was the case at the Bucharest Summit. External stakeholders can also be involved. For instance President Karzai, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, EU Commission President Barroso... ■ bility for specific areas of policy. Much of this work involves the Deputies Committee, consisting of Deputy Permanent Representatives, sometimes "reinforced" by national experts. In such cases it is known as the SPC(R). This committee has particular responsibility for issuing declarations and communiqués, including those published after a summit. Other aspects of political work may be handled by the Political and Partnerships Committee. Depending on the topic under discussion, the respective senior committee with responsibility for the subject assumes the leading role in preparing Council meetings and following up Council decisions. Support to the Council is provided by the Secretary of the Council, who is also Director of the ministerial and summit meeting Task Forces. The Secretary of the Council ensures that NAC mandates are executed and its decisions recorded and circulated. A small Council Secretariat ensures the bureaucratic and logistical aspects of the Council’s work, while the relevant divisions of the International Staff support the work of committees reporting to the NAC.

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The summer of 1940 was a dark time for the Allied Forces during the Second World War. Most of continental Europe had fallen to the Nazis and Adolf Hitler was preparing to launch a full-scale invasion of Great Britain. But first, he needed to dominate the airspace over the English Channel. To do so, his Luftwaffe (air force) needed to destroy the Royal Air Force...
Prelude to the Battle of Britain With shocking rapidity, Hitler’s military machine had overrun France. The Battle of France began on 10 May 1940 with the invasion of the Netherlands and Belgium; Poland, Denmark and Norway had already fallen. Within three days, the German forces crossed into France and by the end of May French and British forces had been pushed back to the English Channel. It was then that the "Miracle of Dunkirk" occurred; between 27 May and 4 June, more than 300,000 men escaped from France, taken off the beaches of Dunkirk by naval ships and civilian boats of all shapes and sizes that ferried back and forth between England and France. The amount of materiel that the army had been forced to abandon at Dunkirk meant that they now faced a substantial shortage in fighting equipment. "The RAF were successful in keeping the majority Famous photo of British Prime Minister Winston of German bombers and fighting away, shooting Churchill, taken in Ottawa in 1941. down 150 aircraft," states the RAF Battle of Britain Photo: Yousuf Karsh website. "However, they lost 100 precious fighters and 80 irreplaceable pilots." These losses added to belatedly," says Canadian historian Hugh Halliday. the perilous situation in which the Allies now found "Following the Dunkirk evacuation and the capituthemselves. lation of France in 1940, Hitler expected Britain to On 14 June, Paris fell and eight days later France face facts and sue for peace. However, when days signed an armistice with Germany. passed and no indication came from Britain that A few days later, Winston Churchill, the newlythey were willing to sue for peace or even negotiate, elected Prime Minister of Great Britain, spoke in Hitler decided to launch Operation Sea Lion. Only the British House of Commons about the dire situaon July 16, 1940, did he issue Directive No. 16, tion facing the Allies: "The Battle of France is over. which itself was couched in hesitant terms." The Battle of Britain is about to begin… Hitler "Since Britain still shows no sign of willingness to knows that he will have to break us in this island or come to an agreement in spite of her hopeless mililose the war. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our tary situation, I have decided to prepare and, if necduties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British essary carry out, a landing operation against EngEmpire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand land," Hitler said. "The purpose of this operation years, men will still say, this was their finest hour." will be to eliminate the English homeland as a base for continuation of the war against Germany and, if necessary, to occupy it completely." Directive 16 "Operation Sea Lion (Seelöwe), the plan for the invasion of Great Britain, was conceived hastily and

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The directive also said that "the British Air Force must be eliminated to such an extent that it will be incapable of putting up any sustained opposition to the invading troops". "For the Germans to invade, the (German) navy must dominate the Channel. But before it could do that the Luftwaffe must dominate the air over the channel. ... it must gain control of the airspace over northwest France and the Low Countries, the Channel, and southeastern England," explains Canadian historian Jim Stokesbury. "The problems faced by both sides were enormous, and they had never been faced before. Never in history had one nation tried to defeat another from the air. The whole Battle of Britain was so new, and in the end such a near-run thing, that it is probably the most tantalizing of all the single episodes of World War II. The previous day the Luftwaffe heavily damaged but did not destroy the southern chain of radar stations. On Adlertag, "the Luftwaffe came out in force, hitting radar stations, airfields, and aircraft factories," says Stokesbury. "They flew almost fifteen hundred sorties, and the British responded with about seven hundred." On 20 August, as Adlerangriff was in full flight, Churchill delivered his speech praising the airmen fighting the Battle in words that have echoed through the decades: "The gratitude of every home in our island, in our Empire and indeed throughout the world, except in the abodes of the guilty, goes out to the British airmen who, undaunted by odds, unwearied in their constant challenge and mortal danger, are turning the tide of the world by their prowess and their devotion.

Neither the British nor the Germans knew what was going to Never in the field of huhappen. No one even knew what German Heinkel He 111 bombers during man conflict was so it would take to achieve the kind the Battle of Britain much owed by so many of conditions desired," Stokesto so few. bury continues. All hearts go out to the fighter pilots, whose brilliant actions we see with our own eyes day after The Battle of Britain begins day…" - Phase I – The Channel Battles (Kanalkampf) The attacks continued throughout the month and Phase I of the battle began on 10 July and lasted for a month. During this time, the Luftwaffe attacked convoys in the English Channel and Channel ports. They also began attacking radar stations on the south coast of England. - Phase II – Eagle Attack (Adlerangriff) Phase II, the main assault, was marked by further attacks on radar positions and massive attacks against airfields to destroy Great Britain’s fighter capability in the air and on the ground. In particular, the airfields of 11 Group, located in the southeast of England, came under fire. The only Royal Canadian Air Force squadron in the Battle – No. 1 (Canadian) Squadron, later renamed 401 Squadron – was part of 11 Group. The launch of the main assault took place on 13 August, called Eagle Day (Adlertag) by German High Command. into September; "the situation in 11 Group became desperate," says the RAF website.

However, the Germans "decided that their attacks on the radar stations were not paying off – just as they were beginning to – and they discontinued them, another in their chain of fatal mistakes," notes Stokesbury. - Phase III – The Blitz On 1 August, 1940 Hitler issued Directive No. 17, which said that "the war against England is to be destructive attacks against industry and air force targets…" However, he said, "I reserve to myself the right to decide on terror attacks as measures of reprisal" – i.e., attacks against civilians. Later in the month, when it appeared that the Luftwaffe was winning, the Battle of Britain took another unexpected turn.

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There had already been some bombing of military locations on the outskirts of London and the docks. However, on the night of 24/25 August a Luftwaffe aircraft mistakenly dropped its bombs on the city of London. In retaliation, more than 80 British bombers raided Berlin. As the bombing of Berlin continued, a furious Hitler rescinded Directive 17, ordering "disruptive attacks on the population and air defences of major British cities, including London, by day and night". The Blitz, which lasted for 57 nights, began on 7 Sept., and the Battle of Britain began to swing in favor of the British. "In a contradictory way, it was just what the British needed. London was like a vast sponge, and it absorbed damage as a sponge does water," says Stokesbury. September raids were of much lesser scale, especially as the weather began to worsen. On 12 October, Hitler "formally advised his service chiefs that Operation Sea Lion had been put off to the spring of 1941. In fact, he had already turned his thoughts and energies eastwards – towards Russia – and would never return to Sea Lion," says Halliday. By the end of October the Battle of Britain was over; as some historians say, it simply "petered out". The Blitz continued in an effort to destroy Britain’s will to fight. For 57 consecutive nights, bombs rained down on London and the British suffered nine months of aerial bombardment of their cities.

The shift in targets gave 11 Group in southeast England a chance to repair their airfields "It would be misleading and radar sites. As well, the Nine Hawker Hurricanes from 85 Squadron, to say that RAF German raids heading for RAF, in October 1940. Fighter Command London were now within "defeated" the Luftstriking range of 12 Group, located in the Midlands waffe in the Battle of Britain. As of late October and East Anglia. 1940 both sides actually had more aircraft and piSunday, 15 September was the high point of the lots than they had possessed in early August. Yet it battle according to most – and is now celebrated as was an RAF victory in that the enemy was denied Battle of Britain Day. The Germans launched a his objective – obliteration of British air defences, massive attack on London by 123 bombers escorted rendering impossible any air attacks on invasion by more than 650 fighters. The Luftwaffe suffered forces," says Halliday. huge losses but were back again the next day. The "Yet, like the Battle of Waterloo, the Battle of Britfighting was fierce, but ultimately the Allied airain was a "near-run thing". … By early September men were victorious. (the Luftwaffe) had come dangerously close to Twelve days later, the Luftwaffe made one last ma(gaining air superiority over the intended invasion jor effort to bomb London by day. Henceforth bombareas). That the enemy failed was due in large ing raids would be by night, and "any serious aerial measure to their overestimation of the damage they fighting to be done during daylight hours would were causing and frequent changes in plans," he have to take place over occupied Europe," says the concludes. Official History of the RCAF. The Luftwaffe had clearly failed to destroy the Royal Air Force; two days later, Hitler announced the postponement of Operation Sea Lion and partially dispersed the invasion fleet. - Phase IV – The end of the Battle The Battle of Britain continued with Luftwaffe heavy bomber raids against cities and nuisance raids against towns and military targets, but the Germans had lost the initiative. After midCanadian Contribution The airmen who Churchill dubbed "the few" comprised 2,353 pilots and air crew from Great Britain and 574 from overseas. All flew at least one authorized operational sortie with an eligible unit of the Royal Air Force or Fleet Air Arm from 10 July to 31 October and were awarded the Battle of Britain clasp to the 1939-45 Star.

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More than 100 Canadians are deemed to have participated in the Battle of Britain, and 23 lost their lives. A Royal Canadian Air Force squadron fought during the Battle; No. 1 (Canadian) Squadron, whose pilots were from both a regular force unit and an auxiliary unit, became operational on 17 August 1940. It was known as "Canadian" to distinguish itself from the RAF’s No. 1 Squadron but in February 1941 it was designated 401 Squadron. Three members of No. 1 (Canadian) Squadron received the Distinguished Flying Cross for their efforts during the Battle of Britain: the commanding officer, Squadron Leader Ernest McNab (left, on photo); his second-in-command, Flight Lieutenant Gordon Roy McGregor; and Flight Officer "Dal" Russel. Replacing experienced pilots throughout the Battle had been a significant challenge, especially in the early days of the Battle. Later in the Battle replacements became less of an issue, but the pilots became exhausted and replacements were less experienced. The last 10 days of August, according to the Official History of the RCAF, "had cost Fighter Command 231 pilots or almost one-quarter of (Fighter Command’s) initial strength, and 60 per cent of those casualties were experienced flyers who could only be replaced by inexperienced graduates of Operational Training Units and as time wore on less and less experienced pilots were taking to the air. …as pilots gained practical experience they were likely to be killed, wounded, or mentally exhausted by the strain, or else promoted into other squadrons."

Ernest McNab Canadians also fought in the RAF’s 242 The Battle of Britain would not have "All-Canadian" Squadron, which was been won without the contribution of heavily, although not exclusively, Canadian. It was another Canadian: Max Aitkin Lord Beaverbrook. led by RAF Squadron Leader Douglas Bader during Churchill appointed Lord Beaverbrook, a newspaper the Battle of Britain. (S/L Bader has gone down in tycoon, Minister of Aircraft Production in May 1940. Air Force history for losing both legs in a flying acIn a series of moves and innovations that upset the cident in 1931; he successfully re-enrolled in the senior leadership at the Air Ministry, Beaverbrook RAF at the outbreak of hostilities and serving until dramatically increased the production of fighters for 1946 – including being shot down, taken as a pristhe war effort. "He rode roughshod over all the oner of war and even escaping from captivity once.) happy dilatory routines of peace," says Stokesbury. Many more flew with other RAF squadrons – as well as Bomber and Coastal Commands providing support to operations to prevent the German invasion. An untold number served as ground crew, keeping the fighters flying. "Ground crews who serviced No. 1 (Canadian) Squadron’s Hurricanes, sometimes under fire and routinely under pressure, received belated recognition in June 1942," says Halliday, "when Flight Sergeant John R. Burdes was awarded a British Empire Medal and Flight Sergeant Cecil M. Gale was mentioned in dispatches." The citation to Gale’s award read, in part: "Working under trying conditions, he has maintained the squadron aircraft in a capable manner. Owing to the intense operational activity during the latter part of August and September, the flight maintenance crew was called upon to work to the limit. Flt. Sgt. Gale carried out his duties, often working from very early morning until late into the night, with a result that sufficient aircraft for flight use were available at all times." "Factory managers and senior air force officers alike came to hate him, but without him, or someone equally acerbic, it is hard to see how the British would have lasted through the summer. He provided a steadily increasing flow of aircraft, so that in spite of loses of well over 100 per cent of strength, the RAF still ended the battle stronger than it went into it." In the month before Beaverbrook’s appointment, 256 fighters were produced. In the critical month of September, as RAF losses reached their height, Beaverbrook’s system produced 465 fighters. And now, with the Nazi’s plan to invade Britain in tatters, another key Canadian contribution to the war in the air would begin to show its effect. "As the Battle of Britain ended, the first young pilots, observers and gunners were emerging from the schools of the (British Commonwealth) Air Training Plan in Canada," says Canadian journalist Leslie Roberts. "Soon their tide would be in full flood." ■ Source: Canadian Department of National Defence

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The Foreign Secretary of UK William Hague gave a speech to the British American International Advisory Board at the New York Stock Exchange on 22 September 2010. In the speech the Foreign Secretary explained the importance of the commercial relationship between Britain and the US. "Our commercial relationship supports jobs, helps create growth and adds value to both our economies – as well as helping the global economy battle its way out of recession". He described an "extraordinary level of personal connection" that makes the relationship between the UK and US irreplaceable – "quite apart from our like-mindedness in international affairs, our shared military sacrifices and our essential defence and intelligence cooperation. We are part of each other’s success. We have immense reserves of goodwill towards each other and a unique sense of shared interests and values." The Foreign Secretary confirmed that the "British Government is determined to do all it can to help trade thrive between Britain and America". William Hague also said: "A million people on each side of the Atlantic go to work each day for British companies in the US, or for American companies in the UK. American investment into the UK is seven times larger than its investment into China, and it is around a thousand times larger than the scale of Chinese investment in Britain. In 2005 the UK earned £50 billion from its investments in the US, fifty times what we earned from our Chinese investment activity. We are each other’s single largest foreign investors, biggest partners in trade in services, and most important partners in science and innovation. I would also add that our investment in each other’s

William Hague economies is underpinned by a sense of solidarity and affinity that the statistics, as impressive as they are, simply cannot do justice to. Every single state in America has workers in jobs that are created and sustained by British companies. And scores of American firms are household names in Britain not only because their products are in virtually every home but because they employ a million of our people. Our commercial relationship supports jobs, helps create growth and adds value to both our economies – as well as helping the global economy battle its way out of recession..."   ■

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