You are on page 1of 10

Speed vs. Power Jumpers in High Jump, Part I | VSAAV http://www.vsaav.co.

za/393-2/

VSAAV
Vrystaat Skole Atletiekafrigtersvereniging

Soek 

OOR ONS AKTIWITEITE BESTURE ARTIKELS ROOIMIER FOTOS

KONTAK

Speed vs. Power Jumpers in High Jump, Part I

Nuwe Artikels
Strategy for the
B y A n n e r i n e We n h o l d , A S A Le v e l 400m-race

II and VSAAV Level III coach August 15, 2018
by Mike Rosenbaum ,

 Introduction Updated May 25,
2018 The following advice …Lees Meer »

As coaches, we all know the importance of providing
Spiesgooi: Die
coaching based on an athletes individual needs. But do we aanloop
really apply this in practice?  We often group our athletes
together and train them on a single ‘best-practice’. March 17, 2018
Die aanloop van die
In this article, the importance of both speed and power as spiesgooi-atleet.
deur Ané van Rooyen, VSAAV VlakIII
key high jump variables will be discussed. I will argue that it
…Lees Meer »
is necessary to distinguish between the so-called speed
and power jumpers in training.  This will be substantiated Balansoefeninge is
with the mechanics of the jump (with a specific focus on the die grondslag tot
sukses
power and speed variables) and the sub-categorisation of

1 of 10 8/17/18, 9:12 PM

2017 In the run-up. Glide Shot Put: Technical Checklist   November 19. January 21. as well as force. Op 16 Junie [Jeugdag] 2017 wonder Rooimier of almal belangstel … T h e c a s e f o r s p e e d ( ve l o c i t y ) Op 5 April is Rooimier nog ongelukkig oor Speed (velocity) plays an important role in all three jumping 2017 SA’s phases. 2018 Deur Rudolph Note that for the purpose of this article. 2017 an arc towards the bar.vsaav. April 6. Part I | VSAAV http://www. the terms of speed Cloete. ASA Vlak II en VSAAV Part II of this article will build on this foundation. has purposefully been excluded from this discussion. ASA Vlak III en VSAAV Vlak III  …Lees Meer » and velocity. 2017 Mechanisms of high jump Glide Shot Put: Technical Checklist Phase 1:        Grip and Load                                 Speed (velocity) and power (force) as well the direction of …Lees Meer » its application are important variables in the quest for increased height.  The importance of other training skole components. such as periodization. and Vlak III …Lees Meer » provide further material for practical consideration and Talentidentifikasie in application in training. Op 24 November 2017 is daar ‘n onrustigheid in Rooimier … Phase 3: Projectile motion of the jumper off the ground towards clearance of the bar. accelerating in November 24.Speed vs. 9:12 PM . deur Gys Smith. 2018 their jumps as well as their body types. Op Jeugdag dink Rooimier aan ons skool- atlete … The role which speed and force play in each of the phases June 16. power and strength are being used interchangeably.co.za/393-2/ jumpers based on the application of speed and force in February 28. 2017 will now be discussed. These variables will be discussed at the hand of the following jumping phases:[i] Rooimier Phase 1: Jumper starting the approach and gradually Op 24 November is daar ‘n onrustigheid in accelerate towards the control point. Rooimier se gemoed … Phase 2: As second phase of the approach. controlled horizontal velocity is important to Op 5 April is Rooimier nog ongelukkig met 2 of 10 8/17/18. Power Jumpers in High Jump.

an increase in horizontal velocity will directly have a positive impact on the angular momentum. 2017 Op 21 Januarie 2017 sê Rooimier dat hierdie die dekade … horizontal velocity (r the radius of trajectory and m the athlete’s mass).[ii]. and characterized by a constant horizontal velocity (obtained through the approach run) and constant downward acceleration (due to gravity).  The jumper’s centre of mass path through the air follows a parabolic trajectory towards the clearance of the bar (third phase)   This path is velocity dependant. 9:12 PM .co. This velocity is determined by both the horizontal velocity obtained through phases 1 and 2 of the jump. the centrifugal force (F) is crucial.vsaav. The acceleration equation Op 12 Februarie 2017 bespiegel Rooimier   with a the acceleration and v the oor atletiektabelle February 12. 2017 Elke jaar word die skole gevra om die horizontal velocity over time (t) applies.[iv] where y0 is the distance that the athletes centre of mass is from the ground. where v is again the January 21. nuutste weergawe … In the second phase.Speed vs.za/393-2/ set the jumper up towards the acceleration into the jump dit wat … and the jump itself.[iii] The standard projectile motion equation from Newtonian mechanics provides insight into the relationship between these elements towards optimal height:   . Power Jumpers in High Jump. Part I | VSAAV http://www. Op 21 Januarie sê Rooimier … Defined as  . Vi is the initial velocity prior to the jump. and the vertical velocity before the jump 3 of 10 8/17/18.

results in 4 of 10 8/17/18.za/393-2/  g is the gravitational forces. force is required. then accelerating towards the bar (2nd law). 9:12 PM . Part I | VSAAV http://www.vsaav. F=force in direction of acceleration and m the athlete’s mass) equation with the momentum equation. Power Jumpers in High Jump. Combining Newton’s 2nd law of motion (F=ma.co. overcoming inertia (Newton’s 1st law). the horizontal velocity at plant will influence the vertical velocity and therefore the height reached in the jump. T h e c a s e f o r p o w e r ( f o r c e) All of Newton’s laws of motion applies to high jump. In the approach (phases 1 and 2). and lastly during the plant (3rd law – for every force there is an equal in quantity but opposite in direction). t is the time   Figure: Parabolic flightpath of a high jumper Thus.Speed vs.

a balance needs to be achieved between force impartation over the greatest range of motion. the height reached in the jump.[v] Individual make-up and 5 of 10 8/17/18. Furthermore. as well as the parabolic trajectory. as previously with speed. the force applied at plant will influence the vertical velocity and therefor. Part I | VSAAV http://www. 9:12 PM . With a deeper knee bend at plant. Furthermore. the jumper can only influence the momentum and parabolic trajectory up to the point of plant. Thus. The velocity of the approach. Thus. more force can be applied.Speed vs. The posture of the athlete at plant will thus influence the amount of force and velocity that are transferred into the jump. force is redefined as the rate at which the momentum is change (the angular momentum).za/393-2/ . This needs to be achieved over the least amount of time (thus highest velocity) at the time of plant. Whilst with less flexion in the knee. an increased amount of horizontal velocity can be maintained and transferred to generate the vertical lift. Once off the ground.co. Power Jumpers in High Jump. and the steepness of the launching angle will contribute to the parabola of flight. the centre of mass’s parabolic curve (including its angle as well as velocity) is unchangeable. as well as less time spend on plant.vsaav. A balancing act For an optimal jump. the rate of change in momentum is directly proportional to the resultant force applied with movement being in the direction of this force.

Part I | VSAAV http://www. it is necessary to look at their genetic and central nervous system tendencies. Based on the individual make-up of your jumper. 9:12 PM .za/393-2/ identifi ficcation of the different types of jumpers Jumpers can thus manipulate these variables towards gaining height. including body type:           6 of 10 8/17/18. Power Jumpers in High Jump.vsaav.Speed vs.  This difference have contributed to the sub- categorization of jumpers into two distinct categories:  speed and power jumpers.co. the relative contribution of these variables will differ. So how can these jumpers be identified? To answer this question.

As a typical ectomorph.Speed vs. Leaning more to the mesomorph body type. Their last step toward take-off will typically be with little knee bend (and lowering of the centre of mass) to allow for the rapid take-off contact. they might find it difficult to build muscle – and thus to influence the power variable in their jump considerably. small joints and a low body fat percentage. Power Jumpers in High Jump. These jumpers usually rely on their reactive ability (elastic strength).and Mesomorph body types[[v i ] . with thicker muscles and joints. with long legs and Achilles tendons. and naturally favours the least amount of time at plant. Po w e r j u m p e r s Power jumpers are generally naturally stronger in the lower body.co. 9:12 PM .v these athletes typically have high metabolisms.  They are the hip dominant jumpers with strong ankles to allow for the short amortization phase (the time spend changing direction as you are on the ground just before a very fast take-off). [ v i i ]   Speed jumpers Speed jumpers are typically those gifted in the structural department. They use their ankles and hips well in the last portion of the bar clearance by extending their ankles and hips completely and quickly.vsaav. long jump or hurdling. With their natural power. can build muscle easily due to responsive muscle cells but can also gain fat easier than their ectomorph counterparts. they by and large run with tall hips and good mechanics (if that skill has been acquired). as they typically excel in sprints.za/393-2/ Figure B: Edric (13yrs) and Pieter (15yrs) displaying the Ecto.iv. In the approach. Part I | VSAAV http://www. 7 of 10 8/17/18. Another way to identify this type of athlete will be by looking at his/her other events.

and needs to be considered in athlete development.freelapusa. The relative contribution of these variables towards an optimal jump will vary between jumpers. Part I | VSAAV http://www. and many talented jumpers are a combination of the ectomorph/mesomorph body types.com/7- 8 of 10 8/17/18. In Conclusion Both velocity and force are important variables in high jump.vii and may display a combination of the factors presented above based on their unique characteristics. The power jumper on the other hand. 9:12 PM . are knee dominant and will apply that force in the jump.za/393-2/ they favour a larger degree of range of motion at the plant in order to apply their absolute strength and explosive power. References [i] Smith. Power Jumpers in High Jump.vsaav. with their higher natural strength level and potential lesser speed. The speed jumper is your typical hip dominant jumpers who will rely on their velocity and ectomorph build to gain jumping height. Freelap. “7 Philosophies on Increasing Vertical Jump Skill and Power”.Speed vs.co. Considering the exceptions Strength as a physical characteristic is best developed after puberty. and the athlete who is best equipped to apply most force in the shortest period of time will jump the highest. https://www. Joel. It is worth noting that body types and its tendencies aren’t set in stone. Woman – with higher percentage of elasticity than strength[viii] – and youth will thus typically favour the velocity take-off mechanisms.  This is evident in a deeper knee bend before take- off.

http://www.html. Power Jumpers in High Jump. viewed 13 March 2017 [viii] Dick. “Projectiles”. AtomJack. viewed 13 March 2017 [vii] “Your Body Type – Ectomorph. Part I | VSAAV http://www. 9th edition. Joel. http://www. viewed 13 March 2017 [iii] Mohan.cgi?article=4849&context=ujmm. ‘High Jump”.Speed vs.co. 1993 Rudolph Cloete April 5.vsaav.co. 21 December 2016. 9:12 PM . Frank W. Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modelling: One+Two.coachmag. Paige.com /articles/body-types-ectomorph-mesomorph- endomorph. 2014. http://scholarcommons. Issue 1.highjumpcoach. Coach. “Ectomorph.usf. Endomorph and mesomorph: How to train for your body type”. http://www.net /blog/2014/12/9/dev-blog-designing-a-jump.uk/lifestyle/4511/ectomorph- endomorph-or-mesomorph-what-is-your-body-type. “High Jump Analysis”. Article 4. MS. “Dev Blog: Designing a Jump”. 2017 Spronge ← Jaarindeling: BAANITEMS 9 of 10 8/17/18. 2012 Fall. ‘High Jump”. viewed 13 March 2017 [iv] Cooke. August 11. https://www. viewed 8 March 2017 [ii] Stone. Mesomorph or Endomorph?”.atomjack. Glen. Volume 5. High Jump On-line book. High Jump Coach.edu /cgi/viewcontent.muscleandstrength. 1980 [vi] Snape. Frank W. viewed 13 March 2017 [v] Dick.za/393-2/ philosophies-on-increasing-vertical-jump-skill-and-power/.com/HJCbook /Phy/Proj. 8th edition. Rajagopalan.

p o s : vis@2mail.za/393-2/ Speed vs.co. 10 of 10 8/17/18.co 1947 m E-pos: cornewessels1@gmail. Power Jumpers in High Jump.vsaav. 9:12 PM . Part II → Kontak Ons Kontak Skakels Vir enige navrae of Besonderhede Facebook inligting.Vrystaat Skole Atletiekafrigtersvereniging.Speed vs. posbus of e-pos adresse. kontak ons gerus by die volgende Te l : 016 976 1069 Twitter nommers. Power Jumpers in High Jump.co. Part I | VSAAV http://www.za Copyright © 2016 VSAAV . S e l : 082 862 7497 Going 4 Gold Athletics F a k s : 086 587 3915 Posbus 1116 E-pos: Sasolburg rudolphcloete@yahoo.co m E .