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Lecture 32

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LECTURE 32

9.3 BEARING CAPCITY contd...

9.3.2 Safe bearing pressure

There are different methods are available to determine the safe bearing pressure on rocks.

However, the applicability of different methods for the determination of safe bearing pressure

on rock for different situations has to be understood. There is some guidelines in IS 12070-

1987 for the basis for design method. Net allowable bearing pressure (q a ) based on rock

material and RMR are also given in IS:12070 - 1987 guidelines.

Table 9.1: IS 12070-1987 guideline for choosing the basis of design method for rock

foundation.

Method basis Rock quality

Rock mass classification Good rock with wide (1-3m) or very wide (>3m) spacing of

discontinuities.

Core strength Rock mass with close discontinuities at moderately close (0.3-

1m) spacing.

Pressure meter Rock of low to very low strength (<500kg/cm2), rock mass

with discontinuities at close (5-30cm) or very close (<5cm)

spacing, fragmented or weathered rock.

Plate load test Rock of very low strength (<250 kg/cm2), rock mass with

discontinuities at very close spacing, fragmented or weathered

rock.

266

Module 9 : Foundation on rocks

Table 9.2 Net allowable bearing pressure (q a ) based on rock material (IS:12070 - 1987)

Table 9.3: Net allowable bearing pressure (q a ) as per RMR (IS: 12070 - 1987)

• The permissible settlement for calculation of safe bearing pressure from plate load test

should be taken as 12mm even for large loaded areas. The low value for settlement of

foundation is due to heterogeneity of rocks.

• In case of rigid structures like silos, the permissible settlement may be increased

judiciously, if required.

• Where site is covered partly by rocks and partly by talus deposits or soil, care should

be taken to account for hetrogeneity in deformability of soil and rocks.

• It is recommended that plate load tests be conducted on talus or soil and bearing

pressure be recommended considering 12 mm settlement.

267

Module 9 : Foundation on rocks

When loaded area is same or slightly less than the spacing of the open vertical joints, ultimate

bearing capacity- UCS

Tarzaghi’s expression may be adopted assuming general shear failure. If the loaded area

much smaller,

q ult = σ ci (RQD/100)2

When rockmass is heavily fractured, and the foundation is located at some depth

As discussed, variety of failure modes are possible for footing under load and the analysis

using limit equilibrium is relatively complex. It is found that in a isotropic rock, safe bearing

pressure often occurs at a settlement approximately equal to 4-6% of the footing width

(Goodman, 1989). Strength of the crushed rock under footing may be analysed considering

zone A and B as shown in Figure 9.4. Considering the zone B in uniaxial compression and

zone triaxial compression with confinement P h , the maximum load q f . The bearing capacity

of rock is depndent on the residual strength of rock in the post peak region rather than the

compressive strength of intact rock.

268

Module 9 : Foundation on rocks

τ

Strength of rock mass

(region B)

Strength of rock

mass after crushing

mass (region A)

Ph qf

σ

The bearing capacity of a homogeneous, discontinuous rock mass can’t be less than the UCS

of the rock mass around the footing. The bearing capacity based on Figure 9.5 is given as,

269

Module 9 : Foundation on rocks

Here, it is assumed that some load For an open jointed rock mass in which laterally across the

joints. Modifying this boundary condition for an open jointed rock mass in which lateral

stress transfer is nil is given by the following equation. It reduces the BC only when the S/B

ratio is in the range of 1-5, upper limit increasing with friction

The stress and deformation behaviour of the near by rock mass for a rock foundation may be

evaluated assuming elastic and isotropic material behaviour using

𝐶𝐶.𝑃𝑃.�1−𝜈𝜈 2 � 𝑎𝑎

Man displacement (u) = 𝐸𝐸

where,

C= Constant dependent on the boundary condition. For perfectly roigid plate C= π/2

and for flexible plate, C=1.7.

a = Plate radius

How a line load is transferred to the rock in the case of a general line load acting on rocks

with various geological structures is very important. If we consider a line load acting normal

to the surface of a semi infinite homogeneous, elastic and isotropic medium as shown in

Figure 9.6. The normal stress acting along any radious with θ constant is principal stress, and

is equal to,

2 𝑃𝑃 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

𝜎𝜎𝑟𝑟 =

𝜋𝜋 𝑟𝑟

The tangential stress and the shear stress referred to these local axes are both zero. The locaus

σ r constant proves to be a circle tangent to the point of application of P and centred at depth

270

Module 9 : Foundation on rocks

P/π.σ r . Family of such circles are know as pressure bulbs. Similarly, when the load acts in

shear Figure 9.7. The radial stress in this situation,

2 𝑄𝑄 𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖

𝜎𝜎𝑟𝑟 =

𝜋𝜋 𝑟𝑟

for inclined line load, if we split to normal and shear load, the problem reduces to normal line

load and shear load. The bulb may be represented as in Figure 9.8. When discontinuties are

presnet, the bulb narroaws down due to limited stress along the discontinuities. The pressure

bulbs from the model studies are shown in Figure 9.9. Figure 9.10 show the equal stress

bulbs from model studies carried out by Gaziev and Erilakhman (1971).

Figure 9.6: Pressure bulb resulting from loading of an elastic half space in

normal line load

271

Module 9 : Foundation on rocks

Figure 9.7: Pressure bulb resulting from loading of an elastic half space in shear line

load

272

Module 9 : Foundation on rocks

Figure 9.9: Narrowing and deepening of the bulb of pressure due to limited shear

stress along discontinuities

Figure 9.10: Line of equal stress or pressure bulbs from model studies

273

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