Total Quality Management Dr. Nasir Chaudhari Nasirchaudari@hotmail.

com Cell: 0300-4117568 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
To learn about Total Quality Management, we will divide TQM in three Parts, which are as follows: 1. Total 2. Quality 3. Management TOTAL Total consists of: 1. Product Cycle 2. Marketing Mix Product Cycle Product needs from Marketing Research Research and development Inputs Industrial equipments (Machinery, tools, engineering and labor) Production (planning, organizing, targeting) Manufacturing, quality control and inspection Packaging and labeling Feedback Marketing Mix All the present and potential buyers of a product are its market, where as marketing mix is a combination of 4 P¶s which are mentioned as follows: 1. Product 2. Price 3. Placement (Distribution) 4. Promotion (Advertisements, Promotion, Publicity, Personal relations) QUALITY Meeting the requirements and exceeding the customer needs in called Quality. MANAGEMENT Planning setting goals Organizing, finding ways and means to achieve goals Leading Controlling, checking if the things are moving in right directions

procedures. TQM is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve all the resources in the organization. End the practice of awarding business solely on the basis of price tag. 2. Constantly improve to get better outcomes and reduce variations 6. Encourage coworkers and other employees to drive their fear out so they work properly for the company¶s betterment without any hesitation. These 14 Points also created a challenge for many firms to figure out how to apply them in a way that will result in continual improvement. These points brought an important change in new business competitive environment. poor tools. TQM integrates fundamental management techniques. Break Down Departmental Barriers in Pursuit of a Common Goal. 3. maintenance requirements. existing management efforts and technical approach. 7. Eliminate the need for mass inspection as the if variation is reduced. and all conditions detrimental to quality to obtain institute leadership. Adopt a new philosophy according to the situations in which the organization is working. processes and resources needed to implement quality management. Instead of merely expecting the workforce to adopt new methods and techniques. existing management efforts and technical approach. 4. there is no need to inspect manufactured items for defects there won¶t be any. but also the means to achieve it. TQM integrates fundamental management techniques. There are 3 major QMS philosophies which are described in detail as follows: Deming¶s Philosophy Deming's quality philosophy is based on his famous "14 Points. Quality management is focused not only on product/service quality. reduce operating costs and increase customer satisfaction. A management technique to improve the quality of goods and services. Management must ensure that immediate action is taken on reports of inherited defects.Definition of Total Quality Management TQM is defined as both a philosophy and a set of a continuously improving organization. 8. Or in simple words we can define TQM as both a Philosophy and a set of a continuously improving organization It is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve the resources in the organization. 1.". . Institute train its inadequate employees on the job so they work properly on their jobs. In simple words replace short-term reaction with long-term planning. Adopt long term planning instead of short term profitability. quality assurance and quality improvement. Hence a Quality Management System (QMS) can be defined as the organizational structure. 5. Quality Management System and its Philosophies Quality management has three major components: quality control. Quality management therefore uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality. 9.

Optimize the product features so as to meet our needs and customer needs Control The purposes of quality control is to ensure the process is running in optimal effectiveness. Educate institute employees and self-improvement. Eliminate slogans as it's not people who make most mistakes. 2. it's the process they are working in. Remove barriers to pride of workmanship as it causes work dissatisfaction. 13. It has three components: Quality planning. Its duties are: 1. Improvement Eliminate waste. Also helpful leadership in order to achieve continual improvement of quality and productivity. Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions with minimal inspection 3. may exist due to various factors including deficiencies in the original planning. 14. quality control. 5. which is a cost of poor quality that can exist in any process. Optimize the process. Joseph Juran. Develop a product that can respond to those needs. 2. Evaluate actual quality performance.´ This could be done by making of an effective infrastructure such as the quality council. Chronic waste. 3. Act on the difference to make the product quality better than before. Translate those needs into our language. It results from purposeful Quality Improvement or ³Breakthrough. Identify who are the customers. or to ensure that any level of chronic waste inherent in the process does not get worst. defects and rework that improves processes and reduces the cost of poor quality. Total Participation Starting From the Top Juran Philosophy One of the best approaches is the one developed by Dr. 1. 4.10. 1. and quality improvement Planning The activity of developing products and processes to meet customers' needs is called planning. Determine the needs of those customers. 12. Juran philosophy is also referred to as the Juran Trilogy. Develop a process which is able to produce the product. . It deals with setting goals and establishing the means required to reach the goals. Eliminate management by objectives. 2. The Juran Trilogy is a method for quality in business management. The processes have to be constantly challenged and continuously improved. 7 Such an improvement does not happen of its own accord. 11.

System for causing quality is prevention not appraisal. product returns. not close enough. performed for a specific customer. The obligation of all employees is to understand and eliminate the root causes of customer dissatisfaction. Create quality improvement teams each with representatives from all departments to report properly. Decisions must be based on factual information. and then translating these expectations into specific measurable requirements for the product or service to be delivered. 3. Performance standard is zero defects. 2. 4. using inputs provided by suppliers. This stage deals with the factor of constant improvement.e. Taking action to continuously improve these processes based on the data collected. customer complaints. . warranty. After Process approach he emphasize on the system Approach to management i. According to Crosby quality philosophy there are four absolutes of quality including: 1. Process approach is also an important factor of Crosby¶s quality philosophy.Also its job is to supply the project teams with the proper resources to determine the reasons and causes to find the solutions and establish controls to hold the gains. The quality process should provide each employee with the knowledge and skills to continually improve these work processes. According to him all Work is a Process. Data is obtained from a variety of sources. Quality is defined by conformance to requirements. 5. and c. the management of the organization provides resources and establishes capable processes for: a. Measurement of quality is the cost of nonconformance The major factors of the Crosby philosophy are described as follows: 1. The seventh factor emphasizes the need for collecting and analyzing data about work processes. The first absolute stated by Crosby philosophy deals with the customer focus. Crosby also believed that managers need to create an example for all the employees working under him. Management should be in commitment with the quality of the product/service they are working on as no change process or improvement initiative can be successful without the leadership of committed management. developing capable processes to reliably deliver the products and services and measuring to assure that customers receive what was promised. Determining what customers expect and translating those expectations into materialized form of products or services b. 2. including customer satisfaction measures. 3. no one or very less are satisfied until the work is done right the first time. 7. In other words quality can only be improved with the help of a determining how much a customer is satisfied with the product or service? This is done through a dialog with the customer. Each work process has a defined output. and other process measures. 6. first understanding the customer's expectations. Simply stated. 4. Crosby Philosophy According to Crosby it is cheaper to do it right the first time instead of correcting it later. not on opinions. test failures.

Goodwill 4.8. 3. utilize the product. Response: How people react when they see. High stock price 7. especially they are presented to others. Hold ³zero defects´ days as the only performance standard is zero defects DIMENSIONS OF QUALITY The important characteristics or dimensions of the quality are as follows: 1. 8. Conformance: If the product does not meet the specification it will be non conforming 4. Business growth 6. High demand: More quality will be demanding your product instead of your competitor¶s product. In simple words the relationships between the organization and its suppliers should be developed to assure that customers receive what is promised. Aesthetics: Sensory characteristics. Greater productivity 8. Feature: Secondary characteristic 3. 9. intellectual. This relationship with its suppliers must be based on mutual trust and mutual benefit. 5. Reputation: Past performance and other intangibles is called reputation BENEFITS OF QUALITY Some are the important benefits of the quality which are as follows: 1. emotional and physical communication of an individual. One can easily understand personality as OCEAN which stands for Openness Conscienceless Extraversion Agreeableness Neurosciences . Premium price PERSONALITY Definition The integrated organization of psychological. physiological. Mutual Beneficial Supplier Relationships. Performance: Primary product characteristic 2. Durability: A useful time of a product in which a product or service serves 6. Reliability: it should be appreciated and known by the customer 5. High Market share 2. Credibility: It is the internal confidence that a company haves if he have good customers and business. 7.

Behavioral Psychology: it is the way of talking. Façade Area of personality square which deals with the part of information which is known to self but not known to others. learning. values and behavior of which one is aware as he can use them accordingly in his advantage. attitude. PERSONALITY CIRCLE Personality circle consists of four major parts which are mentioned as explained as below: 1. Blind The area of square which is not known to self but known to others i. Better the appearance better will be the physiology personality.e. Intellectual personality It deals with the knowledge and experiences of a person whom personality is being evaluated Emotional personality . perception. 4. Personality Square 2. It includes one¶s attitude.Personality can be technically understood as follows: 1. It covers beliefs. Exposure and feedback are the two steps through which we can increase the part of ARENA and reduce the part of UNKNOWN. This can be reduced by continuous improvements and by seeking for knowledge. 3. 2. as greater the arena better will be the personality. reactions and perception. Physiology personality It is the physical appearance of the person. Feelings. interaction and attitude of a person. thinking of a person. Unknown The part of square which is neither known by oneself nor known by others. Personality Circle PARSONALITY SQUARE There are four major parts of personality square which are as follows: Arena This part of the personality square deals with the personal expertise and powers that one have. a person¶s behavior. Psychology personality Physiology personality Emotional personality Intellectual personality Psychological Personality It¶s further divided as follows: Cognitive Psychology: it is the memory. impulses that one controls so he creates barriers around himself.

e. Lassie-Faire leader: Type of leaders which work according the rule books and don¶t like to work outside the boundaries.This part of the personality circle deals with the person¶s emotions that one should always control its emotions either in the case of happiness or in the case of sadness. LEADERSHIP Definition Jones Macgregor Burnes defines leadership in this book. Interpersonal qualities . Leading people Influencing people Commanding people Guiding people What is leadership? Listening to juniors Envisioning Anticipate problems Disciples Expecting the best Relying on team (trust the members/followers) Serve the team members Handle problems (handle difficult situation) Ignite enthusiasm in the team Practice everything you preach Types/Styles of leaders There are many kinds of leaders but some of the important are mentioned below: Autocratic leader: selfish/ solo leader who only thinks of leading and nothing else then that. Employee Oriented leader: the type of leader who listens to his followers/ team members and looks after them i.e. 4. ³The one of instills the purpose and not the one who controls by brute force´. Personal qualities 2. for a specific period of time. ³Leadership´ as: 1. In simple words one should never let his emotions show in the business life no matter in what condition he is. Qualities of leaders The two major and important qualities that a leader should have are: 1. 3. Democratic leader: People¶s person to be exact as they mostly work by taking ideas from the surrounding people. 2. from incentives and bonuses to take the best out of them. Task oriented leader: leaders for specific tasks and projects i.

Show some responsibility ii. 3. Administrative and technical abilities 6. Personal qualities are needed to gain respect from others while interpersonal quality is necessary to get maximum out of your followers. To have good memory 4. Prepare yourself ii. Behavioral/Attitude Putting attitude in behavior into practice is your behavior 2. Be proactive i. Follow time management 4. Befitting response Product of cautious choice based on values instead of showing reactive behavior based on feelings 2. which is more important between two choices ii.PERSONAL QUALITIES 1. Enthusiasm 8. According to Allama Iqbal properties of good leader are: 1. Atticates To deal others in a desired way are manners and appropriate way of doing things are atticates. Better organized iii. I can do it. Which is important and which is not. Have to be active iv. Begin with the end of mind i. Taking initiative iii. Emotional control INTERPERSONAL QUALITY 1.e. To accept you mistake is courage 2. Pleasant 9. Self sacrifice 5. Think ³Win-Win´ . 3. To have good will power i. Put first thing first i. Vitality and endurance 7. and then finally perform your planned things. Lofty Vision 2. Starting from one place and planning your every move until u reach the other required designated place. Caring HABITS Seven important Habits of highly efficient People are as follows: 1. Excellent communication skills 3.

manufacturing.an NGO. 7. ISO-8000: It deals social accountability . Same goes for the other party here both arty win something with the sacrifice of something. inspection and testing ISO-9004: It provides guidelines for internal use ISO-14000: It deals with environment. This situation is ³Win-Win´. Process management If every material is good/excellent then the process its going through should also be managed properly. Information should be timely 4. founded on 23. quality is defined as follows: The totality of characteristics and feature of the product or service that bear its ability to satisfy started or implied needs. Synergy Binding the parts collectively into a whole is called synergy.Great people negotiate in the way that both the negotiating parties win something I.e. Try to get rid of personal flaws. is an standard setting body composed of preposition from various standards organizations. Data information management i. Strategic planning 3. Sharpen the saw(renew) Practicing the skills to avoid their loss. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF STANDARDIZATION The international organization for standardization widely known as ISO. ISO-9002: It covers production and installation ISO-9003: it covers final product. Leadership 2. Information should be relevant ii. ISO-9001: It deals with the design. Infrastructure of quality 1. its ability is to set standards that often became law Quality According to ISO standard 8402. Seek first to understand then to be understood Great people first research proper information on the specific topic on which they have to convey their message and learns a lot from the researched information so when they are conveying message they can easily convey that message as well as people to whom the message is conveyed also enjoy receiving the information. February 1947 in Geneva Switzerland. sacrifice something and take something. installation and servicing system. 6. Information should be accurate iii. as every great person tried to bind all together because a chain is as strong as its weakest link. 5.