[edit] History

A scene from Raja Harishchandra (1913) – The first full-length motion picture.

A scene from the first motion picture of the Assamese film industry, Joymati (1935).

Devika Rani and Ashok Kumar in Achhut Kanya (1936).

Following the screening of the Lumière moving pictures in London (1895) cinema became a sensation across Europe and by July 1896 the Lumière films had been in show in Bombay (now Mumbai).[11] The first short films in India were directed by Hiralal Sen, starting with The Flower of Persia (1898).[12] The first full-length motion picture in India was produced by Dadasaheb Phalke, a scholar on India's languages and culture, who brought together elements from Sanskrit epics to produce his Raja Harishchandra (1913), a silent film in Marathi. (Interestingly, the female roles in the film were played by male actors.)[13] The first Indian chain of cinema theaters was owned by the Calcutta entrepreneur Jamshedji Framji Madan, who oversaw production of 10 films annually and distributed them throughout the Indian subcontinent.[13] During the early twentieth century cinema as a medium gained popularity across India's population and its many economic sections.[11] Tickets were made affordable to the common man at a low price and for the financially capable additional comforts meant additional admission ticket price.[11] Audiences thronged to cinema halls as this affordable medium of entertainment was available for as low as an anna

(4 paisa) in Bombay.[11] The content of Indian commercial cinema was increasingly tailored to appeal to these masses.[11] Young Indian producers began to incorporate elements of India's social life and culture into cinema.[14] Others brought with them ideas from across the world.[14] This was also the time when global audiences and markets became aware of India's film industry.[14] Ardeshir Irani released Alam Ara, the first Indian talking film, on 14 March 1931.[13] Following the inception of 'talkies' in India some film stars were highly sought after and earned comfortable incomes through acting.[13] As sound technology advanced the 1930s saw the rise of music in Indian cinema with musicals such as Indra Sabha and Devi Devyani marking the beginning of song-and-dance in India's films.[13] Studios emerged across major cities such as Chennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai as film making became an established craft by 1935, exemplified by the success of Devdas, which had managed to enthrall audiences nationwide.[15] Bombay Talkies came up in 1934 and Prabhat Studios in Pune had begun production of films meant for the Marathi language audience.[15] Filmmaker R. S. D. Choudhury produced Wrath (1930), banned by the British Raj in India as it depicted actors as Indian leaders, an expression censored during the days of the Indian independence movement.[13] The Indian Masala film—a slang used for commercial films with song, dance, romance etc.—came up following the second world war.[15] South Indian cinema gained prominence throughout India with the release of S.S. Vasan's Chandralekha.[15] During the 1940s cinema in South India accounted for nearly half of India's cinema halls and cinema came to be viewed as an instrument of cultural revival.[15] The partition of India following its independence divided the nation's assets and a number of studios went to the newly formed Pakistan.[15] The strife of partition would become an enduring subject for film making during the decades that followed.[15] Following independence the cinema of India was inquired by the S.K. Patil Commission.[16] S.K. Patil, head of the commission, viewed cinema in India as a 'combination of art, industry, and showmanship' while noting its commercial value.[16] Patil further recommended setting up of a Film Finance Corporation under the Ministry of Finance.[17] This advice was later taken up in 1960 and the institution came into being to provide financial support to talented filmmakers throughout India.[17] The Indian government had established a Films Division by 1949 which eventually became one of the largest documentary film producers in the world with an annual production of over 200 short documentaries, each released in 18 languages with 9000 prints for permanent film theaters across the country.[18] The Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA), an art movement with a communist inclination, began to take shape through the 1940s and the 1950s.[16] A number of realistic IPTA plays, such as Bijon Bhattacharya's Nabanna in 1944 (based on the tragedy of the Bengal famine of 1943), prepared the ground for the solidification of realism in Indian cinema, exemplified by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas's Dharti Ke Lal (Children of the Earth) in 1946.[16] The IPTA movement continued to emphasize on reality and went on to produce Mother India and Pyaasa, among of India's most recognizable cinematic productions.
[19]

[edit] Golden Age of Indian cinema

A scene from Ritwik Ghatak's Nagarik (1952), considered Bengali cinema's earliest intellectual art film.

Wide open eyes, a continual motif in Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy (1955–1959).

Guru Dutt in Pyaasa (1957), for which he was the director, producer and leading actor.

Following India's independence, the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s are regarded by film historians as the 'Golden Age' of Indian cinema.[20][21][22] Some of the most critically acclaimed Indian films of all time were produced during this period. In commercial Hindi cinema, examples of famous films at the time include the Guru Dutt films Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) and the Raj Kapoor films Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955). These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life.[23] Some of the most famous epic films of Hindi cinema were also produced at the time, including Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film,[24] and K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960).[25] V. Shantaram's Do Aankhen Barah Haath (1957) is believed to have inspired the Hollywood film The Dirty Dozen (1967).[26] Madhumati (1958), directed by Bimal Roy and written by Ritwik Ghatak, popularized the theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture.[27] Other mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt. While commercial Indian cinema was thriving, the period also saw the emergence of a new Parallel Cinema movement, mainly led by Bengali cinema.[23] Early examples of films in this movement include Chetan Anand's Neecha Nagar (1946),[28] Ritwik Ghatak's Nagarik (1952),[29][30] and Bimal Roy's Two Acres of Land (1953), laying the foundations for Indian neorealism[31] and the "Indian New Wave".[32] Pather Panchali (1955), the first part of The Apu Trilogy (1955–1959) by Satyajit Ray, marked his entry in Indian cinema.[33] The Apu Trilogy won major prizes at all the major international film festivals and led to the 'Parallel Cinema' movement being firmly established in Indian cinema. Its influence on world cinema can also be felt in the "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the midfifties" which "owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy".[34] Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak went on to direct many more critically-acclaimed 'art films', and they were followed by other acclaimed Indian independent filmmakers such as Mrinal Sen, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Mani Kaul and Buddhadeb Dasgupta.[23] During the 1960s, Indira Gandhi's intervention during her reign as the Information and Broadcasting Minister of India further led to production of off-beat cinematic expression being supported by the official Film Finance Corporation.[17] The cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who made his debut with Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy, also had an importance influence on cinematography across the world. One of his most important techniques was bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He pioneered the technique while filming Aparajito (1956), the second part of The Apu Trilogy.[35] Some of the experimental techniques which Satyajit Ray pioneered include photo-negative flashbacks and X-ray digressions while filming Pratidwandi (1972).[36] Ray's 1967 script for a film to be called The Alien, which was eventually cancelled, is also widely believed to have been the inspiration for Steven Spielberg's E.T. (1982).[37][38][39] Some of Ritwik Ghatak's films also have strong similarities to later famous international films, such as Bari Theke Paliye (1958) resembling François Truffaut's The 400 Blows (1959) and Ajantrik (1958) having elements that resemble Taxi Driver (1976) and the Herbie films (1967–2005). Other regional industries also had their 'Golden Age' during this period. Commercial Tamil cinema experienced a growth in the number of commercially successful films produced. Some of the most famous Tamil film personalities at the time included M. G. Ramachandran, Sivaji Ganesan, M. N. Nambiyar, Asokan and Nagesh.[40] Marathi cinema also ushered in a 'Golden Age' at this time, with some of its directors such as V. Shantaram later playing in instrumental role in mainstream Hindi cinema's 'Golden Age'.[41]

Ever since Chetan Anand's social realist film Neecha Nagar won the Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival,[28] Indian films were frequently in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival for nearly every year in the 1950s and early 1960s, with a number of them winning major prizes at the festival. Satyajit Ray also won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival for Aparajito (1956), the second part of The Apu Trilogy, and the Golden Bear and two Silver Bears for Best Director at the Berlin International Film Festival.[42] Ray's contemporaries, Ritwik Ghatak and Guru Dutt, were overlooked in their own lifetimes but had belatedly generated international recognition much later in the 1980s and 1990s.[42][43] Ray is regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of 20th century cinema,[44] while Dutt[45] and Ghatak[46] are also among the greatest filmmakers of all time. In 1992, the Sight & Sound Critics' Poll ranked Ray at #7 in its list of "Top 10 Directors" of all time,[47] while Dutt was ranked #73 in the 2002 Sight & Sound greatest directors poll.[45] A number of Indian films from this era are often included among the greatest films of all time in various critics' and directors' polls. A number of Satyajit Ray films appeared in the Sight & Sound Critics' Poll, including The Apu Trilogy (ranked #4 in 1992 if votes are combined),[48] The Music Room (ranked #27 in 1992), Charulata (ranked #41 in 1992)[49] and Days and Nights in the Forest (ranked #81 in 1982).[50] The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll also included the Guru Dutt films Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool (both tied at #160), the Ritwik Ghatak films Meghe Dhaka Tara (ranked #231) and Komal Gandhar (ranked #346), and Raj Kapoor's Awaara, Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra, Mehboob Khan's Mother India and K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam all tied at #346.[51] In 1998, the critics' poll conducted by the Asian film magazine Cinemaya included The Apu Trilogy (ranked #1 if votes are combined), Ray's Charulata and The Music Room (both tied at #11), and Ghatak's Subarnarekha (also tied at #11).[46] In 1999, The Village Voice top 250 "Best Film of the Century" critics' poll also included The Apu Trilogy (ranked #5 if votes are combined).[52] In 2005, The Apu Trilogy and Pyaasa were also featured in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list.[53]

[edit] Modern Indian cinema

Shaji N. Karun's Vanaprastham (1999).

Some filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal continued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s,[54] alongside Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, Buddhadeb Dasgupta and Gautam Ghose in Bengali cinema; Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Shaji N. Karun, John Abraham and G. Aravindan in Malayalam cinema; Nirad Mohapatra in Oriya cinema; and Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta in Hindi cinema.[23] However, the 'art film' bent of the Film Finance Corporation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976, which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema.[55] The 1970s did, nevertheless, see the rise of commercial cinema in form of enduring films such as Sholay (1975), which solidified Amitabh Bachchan's position as a lead actor.[55] The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released in 1975.[55] Another important film from 1975 was Deewar, directed by Yash Chopra and

including Adoor Gopalakrishnan.[53] Another Tamil director S. Darr (1993). Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988). Some of the most acclaimed Indian filmmakers at the time were from the Malayalam industry. Aravindan. Rahman and Ilaiyaraaja have since acquired a large national. Kamal Hassan as Velu Nayakar in Mani Ratnam's Nayagan was included in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies The 1990s also saw a surge in the national popularity of Tamil cinema as films directed by Mani Ratnam captured India's imagination. Aamir Khan and Salman Khan. Nantes. many of which starred Shahrukh Khan. R.[55] Such films included Roja (1992) and Bombay (1995). Shankar also made waves through his film Kadhalan. who is often considered to be Satyajit Ray's spiritual heir. as well as Mathilukal (1989) which won major prizes at the Venice Film Festival. Karun. and the Film Festival of Russia.written by Salim-Javed. in which Kamal Haasan portrayed 10 historical roles. South India's Malayalam cinema of Kerala experienced its own 'Golden Age' in the 1980s and early 1990s.[57] Some Tamil filmi composers such as A.[55] Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995) and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998). following. a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan". portrayed by Amitabh Bachchan. Ratnam's earlier film Nayagan (1987).[56] Commercial cinema further grew throughout the 1980s and the 1990s with the release of films such as Ek dhuje ke liye (1981) Mr India (1987). while his second film Swaham (1994) was in competition for the Palme d'Or at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival. Maine Pyar Kiya (1989). Dasavathaaram (2008). was screened at various film festivals including Tashkent. including Elippathayam (1981) which won the Sutherland Trophy at the London Film Festival.[62] Shaji N. Tabarana Kathe. and later international. G. it was described as being “absolutely key to Indian cinema” by Danny Boyle. The South Indian film industry not only released cinema with national appeal but also featured multicultural music which found appreciation among the national Indian audience.[59] Long after the Golden Age of Indian cinema. Chandran and Shaji N. V. Karun's debut film Piravi (1989) won the Camera d'Or at the 1989 Cannes Film Festival. starring Kamal Haasan. Rahman's debut soundtrack for Roja was included in Time Magazine's "10 Best Soundtracks" of all time. alongside four earlier Indian films: Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy (1955–1959) and Guru Dutt's Pyaasa (1957). Chandni (1989). was included in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies. a Kannada film. Baazigar (1993).[63] . Tezaab (1988).[58] and he would later go on to win two Academy Awards for his international Slumdog Millionaire (2008) soundtrack. [61] directed some of his most acclaimed films during this period. Tokyo. went on to achieve significant success.[60] Adoor Gopalakrishnan. T. A crime film pitting "a policeman against his brother. famous for its music and actor Prabhu Deva's dancing.

Sandip Ray. Other art film directors active today include Mrinal Sen. Shyam Benegal.[64] urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai.Three Idiots. Homi Adajania. Mani Kaul. Chandran in Malayalam cinema. [edit] Influences Prasads IMAX Theatre houses at Hyderabad. directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. Karun and T. In the late 1990s. Ram Gopal Varma's Company (2002) and its prequel D (2005). and Deepa Mehta. Nagesh Kukunoor.[66] PVR Cinemas in Bangalore is one of the largest cinema chains in India . Sudhir Mishra and Nandita Das in Hindi cinema. Australia). Vijay Singh and Sooni Taraporevala in Indian English cinema. Shaji N. Adoor Gopalakrishnan. Mani Ratnam and Santosh Sivan in Tamil cinema. Govind Nihalani. a low-budget film based on the Mumbai underworld. Nirad Mohapatra in Oriya cinema. largely due to the critical and commercial success of Satya (1998). in Ashutosh Gowarikar's Lagaan (2001). The film's success led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai noir. the 2nd largest IMAX-3D in the world (2nd to the world's largest in Sydney.[23] Mira Nair. Anurag Kashyap's Black Friday (2004).[65] Later films belonging to the Mumbai noir genre include Madhur Bhandarkar's Chandni Bar (2001) and Traffic Signal (2007). Gautam Ghose. 'Parallel Cinema' began experiencing a resurgence in Hindi cinema. Ketan Mehta. Aparna Sen and Rituparno Ghosh in Bengali cinema. Anant Balani. Buddhadeb Dasgupta. V. and Irfan Kamal's Thanks Maa (2009). is the highest grossing Indian movie of all time Bhuvan (Aamir Khan) with his cricket team consisting of village folk. Kumar Shahani.

particularly in Coolie (1983).[71] Like mainstream Indian popular cinema.[69] The third influence was the traditional folk theatre of India. earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation. dating back to ancient Sanskrit drama. with its highly stylized nature and emphasis on spectacle. while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films. where musicals were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s.MG Road Gurgaon. a fiction. fairy stories and so on through song and dance. Indian filmmakers. the Hollywood musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. which became popular from around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre. narrative and spectacle. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story."[67] All of these influences are clearly evident in the masala film genre that was popularized by Manmohan Desai's films in the 1970s and early 1980s. which "blended realism and fantasy. Indian Parallel Cinema was also influenced also by a combination of Indian theatre (particularly Sanskrit drama) and Indian literature (particularly Bengali literature). Satyajit Ray .[68] and internationally-acclaimed Bengali films directed by Satyajit Ray. music and dance. characterizing them as spectacular dance-dramas which has continued in Indian cinema. back-story and story within a story." Sanskrit dramas were known as natya. "whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant.[67] The Rasa method of performance. nationally-acclaimed Hindi films like Rang De Basanti (2006). particularly in its narratives. the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh. The first was the ancient Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of Indian popular cinema. though Indian filmmakers departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. but differs when it comes to foreign influences. The Parsi plays contained crude humour. which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s. history. sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft. integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama. and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu. melodious songs and music. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots. where it is more influenced by European cinema (particularly Italian neorealism and French poetic realism) rather than Hollywood. Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation. empathetic "emotions are conveyed by the performer and thus felt by the audience. as can be seen in the pace." The rasa method of performance is clearly apparent in the performances of popular Hindi film actors like Amitabh Bachchan and Shahrukh Khan. one of the longest commercial streets in Asia There have generally been six major influences that have shaped the conventions of Indian popular cinema. where music. derived from the root word nrit (dance). an illusion.[68] The fifth influence was Hollywood. However." in contrast to the Western Stanislavski method where the actor must become "a living. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology. dance and gesture combined "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience. and to an extent in more recent critically-acclaimed films such as Rang De Basanti. "For example. they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day to day lives in complex and interesting ways. These regional traditions include the Yatra of Bengal." In addition. such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish. particularly MTV. The fourth influence was Parsi theatre. used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. dance sequences and music of recent Indian films. is one of the fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema from that of the Western world. The second influence was the impact of ancient Sanskrit drama. In the Rasa method. An early example of this approach was in Mani Ratnam's Bombay (1995). breathing embodiment of a character" rather than "simply conveying emotion."[70] The final influence was Western musical television. camera angles.

Bilat Ferat was the IBFC's first production in 1921. The Madan Theatres production of Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie.[69] Bimal Roy's Two Acres of Land (1953) was also influenced by De Sica's Bicycle Thieves and in turn paved the way for the Indian New Wave.cited Italian filmmaker Vittorio De Sica's Bicycle Thieves (1948) and French filmmaker Jean Renoir's The River (1951). and many other Hollywood-inspired names. Ritwik Ghatak and others having earned international acclaim and securing their place in the history of film. The complicated doctrine of Rasa "centers predominantly on feeling experienced not only by the characters but also conveyed in a certain artistic way to the spectator. who brought the revolution of moving images to India with his first indigenously made silent film Raja Harishchandra in 1913. Mrinal Sen. as Mumbai (then called Bombay) later overtook Tollygunge as the center of the Indian film industry. Billwamangal. [edit] Marathi cinema Main article: Marathi cinema Marathi cinema (मराठी िचतपट) refers to films produced in the Marathi language in the state of Maharashtra. the first Bengali Feature film. was produced in 1919. Classic Theatre. producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows at the Star Theatre. as influences on his debut film Pather Panchali (1955). the Bengali industry's net output was 57 films. the first seeds of the industry was sown by Hiralal Sen. the first Bengali owned production company. However. Following a long gap after Sen's works. the name "Tollywood" was coined for the Bengali film industry due to Tollygunge rhyming with "Hollywood" and because it was the center of the Indian film industry at the time. when the first "bioscopes" were shown in theatres in Calcutta.[75] The history of cinema in Bengal dates back to the 1890s.[74] In 1993. which began around the same time as the French New Wave and the Japanese New Wave. Marathi Cinema is as old as Indian Cinema.[72] Recent Bengali films that have captured national attention include Rituparno Ghosh's Choker Bali. It later inspired the name "Bollywood". Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen among its most acclaimed. Minerva Theatre. which he assisted. The duality of this kind of a rasa imbrication" shows in The Apu Trilogy. particularly the Rasa method of classical Sanskrit drama. India. Dhirendra Nath Ganguly (Known as D. A long history has been traversed since then. Besides the influence of European cinema and Bengali literature. Calcutta. Ray is also indebted to the Indian theatrical tradition. considered a stalwart of Victorian era cinema when he set up the Royal Bioscope Company.[73] Bengali filmmaking also includes Bangla science fiction films and films that focus on social issues. Bengali filmmaker. with stalwarts such as Satyajit Ray. In fact the pioneer of cinema in Union of India was Dadasaheb Phalke. starring Aishwarya Rai. under the banner of Madan Theatre.[77] The 'Parallel Cinema' movement began in the Bengali film industry in the 1950s.G) established Indo British Film Co.[32] [edit] Bengali cinema Satyajit Ray.[76] In 1932. which is considered by IFFI and NIFD part . Within a decade. Main articles: Bengali cinema and Cinema of West Bengal The Bengali language cinematic tradition of Tollygunge in West Bengal has had reputable filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray. in 1918.

also directed and produced by Kapoor. Ravi Kissan.. being sent as India's official entries for the Oscars. directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular. directed by S. to superstardom. the extremely rapid success of their films has led to dramatic increases in Bhojpuri cinema's visibility.. the rich guy. Ajay Deogan. and both films. made on extremely tight budgets." 1963. Marathi cinema has grown in recent years.[82] This success was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful films.. Oceania. there is a large market for these films in other bhojpuri speaking countries of the West Indies. Bhojpuri City[85]." 2005. Maharashtra. who was also a distinguished poet. tell me when I will marry. Ayodhyecha Raja[1] (produced by Prabhat Films) was released in 1932. Nitish Kumar is going to start a film Industry in Rajgir ( distance from Patna is 80 km). I will offer you a yellow sari"). Bhojpuri language film's history begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges. Although the beginning of the 21st century has seen Bollywood-style Assamese movies hitting the screen.of Marathi cinema as it was made by a Marathi crew." 2005). including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest. He was instrumental in the production of the first Assamese film Joymati[78] in 1935. under the banner of Critrakala Movietone.. just one year after "Alam Ara" the first Hindi talkie film. directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law.. and South America[80]. N." directed by Mohan Prasad).. . Today the industry is based in Mumbai. and the industry now supports an awards show[84] and a trade magazine. [edit] Assamese cinema Main article: Cinema of Assam The Assamese language film industry traces its origins works s of revolutionary visionary Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Agarwala. but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s. earned back more than ten times their production costs[83]. That film industry will provide job for a lot of people belongs to Bihar and East UP. which was directed by Kundan Kumar. the industry has not been able to compete in the market. Nagama. Besides India. playwright. The first Marathi talkie film. both of these did much better business in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time. The industry experienced a revival in 2001 with the super hit Saiyyan Hamar ("My Sweetheart. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges. [edit] Hindi cinema Nargis and Raj Kapoor in Awaara (1951). In a measure of the Bhojpuri film industry's rise. Although a smaller industry compared to other Indian film industries.. worked it and supported to Bhojpuri film industry. There are many films in which the bollywood actors such as Amitabh Bachchan." 1965. films were produced only in fits and starts. Mithun Chakravarti etc.. which shot the hero of that film. Bhojpuri film have got a distuingsed name in whole world.[81] Throughout the following decades. with two of its films. [edit] Bhojpuri cinema Main article: Bhojpuri cinema Bhojpuri language films predominantly cater to people who live in the regions of Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. composer and freedom fighter. namely "Shwaas" (2004) and "Harishchandrachi Factory" (2009). These films also have a large audience in the cities of Delhi and Mumbai due to migration to these metros from the Bhojpuri speaking region. Films such as Bidesiya ("Foreigner. The chief minister of Bihar Mr. but it sprouted and grew first from Kolhapur and then Pune. significantly overshadowed by the larger industries such as Bollywood [79].

fine camerawork and won two awards: National Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration and an award at the Nantes Three Continents Festival in France. grew at a growth rate of 15% annually. Marutirao. earned as much as 12. The years 1948. Gujarati films such as Leeludi Dharti reflect the rural world with its fertility rituals. Cineblitz. Thus. another social movie. The first Gujarati movie. 1950. directed by Chaturbhuj Doshi. Since then Gujarati films immensely contributed to Indian cinema.[87] International visibility came to the industry with Raj Kapoor's Awara. Gujarati films were further enriched by the brilliant performances of the film personalities. and Gulam Rasool. The film industry in Gujarat experimented with issues. Amoo. became popular. Hun Hunshi Hunshilal. Alimiya. The film featured a `resident son-in-law` (ghar jamai) and his escapades as well as his problematic attitude toward the freedom of women. and Hindi cinema. The film starred Heera. directed by Chandrakant Sangani presents highlights the little-known side of Akbar who is usually presented as a consistently benign ruler. [[File:Mallika Sarabhai in play AKABR directed by Arvind Gaur. . Anupama. was released in the year 1932 and was directed by Nanubhai Vakil.[10] Female stars such as Madhuri Dixit. Master Manhar. Gadano Bel directed by Ratibhai Punatar and Leeludi Dharti directed by Vallabh Choksi brought immense success to the industry.5 million (US$276. It was of the `Saint film` genre and was based on the life of the saint Narasinh Mehta who observed a creed that was followed centuries later by Mahatma Gandhi. and Miss Mehtab. Kiran Kumar. Baby Nurjehan.3 million) per film by the year 2010. Besides these. 1968. The Gujarati movies such as Kariyavar. The film starred Mohanlala.jpg|thumb|Mallika Sarabhai]] Many famous actors have worked in Gujarati film industry like Sanjeev Kumar. there can be no turning away from the essential humanity of these Gujarati cinema. Arvind Trivedi.[9] With growth in commercial appeal the earnings of known Indian stars such as Shahrukh Khan.[10] Institutions such as the Industrial Development Bank of India also came forward to finance Hindi films. directed by Sanjiv Shah was sought to be post-modern. The film was matchless as it avoided any depiction of miracles.[9] In 1995 the Indian economy began showing sustainable annual growth.Main article: Bollywood The Hindi language film industry of Mumbai—also known as the Bombay Film Industry—is the largest and most popular branch of Indian cinema. Stardust. Ghar Jamai was released. In 1975 Tanariri. Gujarati cinema has gained popularity among the regional film industry in India. The problems of modernisation are the underlying concern of several films. Aruna Irani.[89] [edit] Gujarati cinema Main article: Gujarati cinema This regional film industry of Gujarat started its journey in 1932. 1971 moved in a wide variety of dimensions. Jamshedji. Narasinh Mehta. The first cinemascope film of Gujarati cinema was Sonbaini Chundadi. Aamir Khan and Hrithik Roshan reached 150 million (US$3. Since its origin Gujarati cinema has experimented with stories and issues from the Indian society.[88] Hindi cinema grew during the 1990s with the release of as many as 215 films in 1991. The scripts and stories dealt in the Gujarati films are intrinsically humane. too. The movies like Gadano Bel had strong realism and reformism. Gujarati films thus proceeded with several other important social. Gujarati cinema is always based on scripts from mythology to history and social to political.[9] Many actors signed contracts for simultaneous work in 3–4 films. etc. as a commercial enterprise. Mallika Sarabhai. political as well as religious issues. Asha Parekh. Vadilona Vank directed by Ramchandra Thakur.and family-oriented subjects with human aspirations and deal with Indian family culture.[86] Hindi cinema initially explored issues of caste and culture in films such as Achhut Kanya (1936) and Sujata (1959). Gujarat has immense contribution to Bollywood as several Gujarati actors have brought glamour to the Indian film industry. and Asrani. Jamna. directed by Homi Master. Bhavni Bhavai released in 1980 was directed by Ketan Mehta.250) for a film. directed by Girish Manukant released in 1976. They include relationship. Furthermore. Rajendra Kumar. In 1935. Bindu.. It was a comedy-oriented movie that was a major success in the industry. It boasted superlative performances. Hindi cinema registered its commercial presence in the Western world.[10] A number of magazines such as Filmfare. In 1992.[9] With Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge.

The popular actors include Vishnuvardhan. Narayan Rajgor. Arvind Trivedi. Pandari bai. Yograj Bhat. Nagabharana. Umashri and Ramya. Sudharani. [edit] Kannada cinema Main article: Kannada cinema A painting of Rajkumar in a streetboard in Bangalore Kannada film industry.S. G. Shivaraj Kumar. ganesh. T. Girish Karnad.[citation needed] Some noted Kannada directors include Girish Kasaravalli. Ashvin Patel. is based in Bangalore and caters mostly to the population of state of Karnataka. Kamalhassan and Amala in the poster of Pushpak. Prabhakar. Anjana. Ambarish. Tara. Ramesh Mehta and Veljibhai Gajjar.Upendra Trivedi. B Sarojadevi. Kalpana. Suri. Deepika Chikhalia. Sohil Virani. Bindu Desai. Ramesh. Ananth Nag. a black comedy film directed by Singeetham Srinivasa Rao . Rajkumar is an icon for Kannada film industry. Sudeep. also known as Sandalwood. Shankar Nag. Dr. Girija Mitra. Jay Patel.V. Darshan. Manmohan Desai. In his career. Premshankar Bhatt.Iyer. Bharathi. Ranjitraj. Upendra. he performed versatile characters and sung nearly 3. Renuka Sahane and Priti Parekh are celebrities who have contributed a lot to the Gujarati film industry. Jayanthi. Kalyanji Anandji. Ravichandran. Puttanna Kanagal. Dilip Patel. Sanjay Gadhvi.000 songs for movies and albums. Malashri. Puneet Rajkumar.

G. a silent movie released in 1928 produced and directed by J. Aravindan. G. Malayalam films were mainly produced by Tamil producers till 1947. along with Bengali and Malayalam movies. based in the southern state of Kerala. Uttarayanam by G. Chemmeen (1965). C. Chomana Dudi by B. was the first Malayalam "talkie". This period also marked the beginning of movies rich in well-crafted humour like Ramji Rao Speaking (1989). went on to become immensely popular. T. marked the beginning of Malayalam cinema. is known for films that bridge the gap between parallel cinema and mainstream cinema by portraying thought-provoking social issues. V. Hamsalekha and Gurukiran are noted music directors. Malayalam is the original version . Venkatesh. Padmarajan. has contributed to Indian parallel cinema. Dweepa are other acclaimed "arthouse" movies. Sasi. Shaji N. Sheela and Sharada. directed by Ramu Kariat and based on a story by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai. This period of popular cinema is characterized by the adaptation of everyday life themes and exploration of social and individual relationships. and directed by P. Some of the influential movies in this genre are Samskara (based on a novel by U.[93] These movies interlaced themes of individual struggle with creative humour as in Nadodikkattu (1988).K. Sathyan. Vijaya Bhaskar. Ananthamurthy). Adoor Gopalakrishnan captured international acclaim through his debut film Swayamvaram (1972). Uroob. Rajan-Nagendra. was established in Kerala. Chomana Dudi. Karun was the first Malayalam film to win the Caméra d'Or-Mention at the Cannes Film Festival. Priyadarsan and Bharathan. Karanth. Karun. Accident. In 1954. Kannada cinema. Balan. Paniyamma. TG lingappa. Bhaskaran and Ramu Kariat. released in 1938. R. This early period of Malayalam cinema was dominated by actors Prem Nazir. Tabarana Kathe. Kraurya. and became the first Malayalam film to win the National Film Award for Best Film[91][92]. Priyadarsan. Tabarana Kathe. Noted filmmakers include Adoor Gopalakrishnan. Kadu Kudure. Sathyan Anthikad. Vamshavruksha.V. Vigathakumaran. when the first major film studio. Other noted movies of the period include Nirmalyam by M. Mooru Dhaarigalu. Thaayi Saheba. A. Scripted by the well-known Malayalam novelist. Vasudevan Nair. Daniel. The period from late 1980s to early 1990s is popularly regarded as the 'Golden Age of Malayalam Cinema' with the emergence of actors Mammootty and Mohanlal and filmmakers like I. Siddique-Lal and Sreenivasan. Lohithadas. Sathyan Anthikad. Mane. The 70s saw the emergence of 'New Wave Malayalam Cinema'. it is often considered as the first authentic Malayali film[90]. Bharathan. Cheriyachante Kroorakrithyangal (1979) and Amma Ariyan (1986) by John Abraham etc. [edit] Malayalam cinema Main article: Malayalam cinema Adoor Gopalakrishnan. Padmarajan. Hamsageethe. Udaya. The Malayalam film industry. K. Piravi (1989) by Shaji N. the film Neelakkuyil captured national interest by winning the President's silver medal. Akramana. Ghatashraddha. Aravindan. Bannada Vesha. Malayalam filmmaker.

Sometimes called Ollywood a portmanteau of the words Oriya and Hollywood. Prashanta Nanda started the revolution in the Oriya film industry by not only securing a huge audience but also bringing in a newness in the his presentation.[94] The first Oriya talkie Sita Bibaha was made by Mohan Sunder Deb Goswami in 1936.[95] Then the 1st color film was made by Nagen Ray and photographed by a Pune Film Institute trained cinematographer Mr. [edit] Punjabi cinema Main article: Punjabi cinema K. G. is the third largest film industry in India in terms of number of movies it produces. Jayalalitha. Malayalam cinema witnessed a shift towards formulaic movies and slapstick comedies. M. But the golden phase of Oriya Cinema was 1984 when two Oriya films 'Maya Miriga' and 'Dhare Alua' was showcased in 'Indian Panorama' and Nirad Mohapatra's 'Maya Miriga' was invited for the 'Critics Week' in Cannes. it plummeted to seven in 1996 and touched a low of five in 1997. it ran very successfully and was a hit across the province. unlike its northern counterpart. North America. having held political offices. Mehra made the first Punjabi film Sheila (also known as Pind di Kudi). As of 2009. Kannada cinema. and J. its true. Singapore. including Telugu cinema. During late 1990s and 2000s. [edit] Tamil cinema Main article: Tamil cinema The Tamil language film industry. Sheila was made in Calcutta and released in Lahore. Tamil films are distributed to theatres around the world: Sri Lanka. Punjabi cinema has produced between 900 and 1. although the origins of the name are disputed. in the 1980s. the number of films released was 11. In 1993 the Tamil industry's net output was 168 films. Malaysia. six.[96] Tamil films are screened by the Tamil diaspora all over the world and people of all states of South India.[97] Tamil cinema has been a force in the local politics of the Tamil Nadu state with some of the industry's personalities. such as M.[75] Tamil star Kamal Hassan shares the record for the most National Film Awards won with Mammootty and Hindi actor Amitabh Bachchan and also shares the record for the actor with the most films submitted by India in contest for the Academy Award for Best . Tamil films have good portrayal of Tamil culture which has subdued sexual expressions and moderate glamour. home grown stars as well as bollywood actors of Punjabi descent taking part.000 movies. with Chennai becoming a hub for the filmmaking industries of other languages. Since 2000s the Punjabi cinema has seen a revival with more releases every year featuring bigger budgets. Malayalam cinema. Tamil Nadu. His movies heralded in the golden era of the Oriya commercial industry by bringing in freshness to Oriya movies.meaning although its a story. the capital of Punjab. Surendra Sahu titled " Gapa Hele Be Sata".[98] The renowned actor Chevalier Sivaji Ganesan found fame for his versatility and expressive prowess in Tamil cinema. Due to the success of this first film many more producers started making Punjabi films. and other significant Tamil diaspora regions. Baby Noor Jehan was introduced as an actress and singer in this film. South Korea. Karunanidhi. Tamil Nadu cinema has had a profound effect on the filmmaking industries of India. The film received 'Best Third World Film'award at Mannheim Film Festival. Sinhalese cinema and Sri Lankan Tamil cinema in the 1900s. With the establishment of the Madras Film Institute the quality of Tamil cinema improved during the 1980s and it further gained international exposure with the works of filmmakers like Mani Ratnam. Tamil-language films are further made in other countries. eight. Today. In 1995. a notable film producer of Kerala. Hindi cinema. Ramachandran.D. and in the 1990s. known as Tamil cinema. The Malayalam film industry in recent times has also been affected by the rise of satellite television and widespread film piracy. [edit] Oriya cinema Main article: Oriya cinema The Oriya Film Industry refers to the Bhubaneswar and Cuttack based Oriya language film industry. South Africa. Mauritius.of first 3D movie in India (My Dear Kuttichattan 3D) by Navodaya Appachan. Jury Award at Hawaii and was shown at London Film Festival. The average number of releases per year in the 1970s was nine. It is based in the Kodambakkam district of Chennai. Western Europe.

Bhanumati.Madhusudan Rao. Jandhyala. the two Academy Award winner A.[99] The state of Andhra Pradesh has the highest number of cinema halls in India. Many of these films also tend to be musicals. Balumahendra. [edit] Telugu cinema Main article: Cinema of Andhra Pradesh The Telugu language film industry of Andhra Pradesh is currently the second largest in India in terms of number of movies produced in a year. and are frequently listed among the greatest films of all time.[75] B. The genre is named after the masala. with about 245 films produced that year. The film industry of India comprises several smaller regional industries. Bharathiraja. Legendary directors like Kailasam Balachander. Singitham Srinivasarao. a term used to describe a mixture of spices in Indian cuisine. successfully stradling art and commercial cinema. each catering largely to a specific language audience. Ritwik Ghatak. V. The movement was initially led by Bengali cinema (which has produced internationally acclaimed filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray. An early example of this was Bimal Roy's Two Acres of Land (1953). The film's success paved the way for the Indian New Wave. Mrinal Sen.[96] Great music directors like Maestro Ilaiyaraja. Ramgopal Varma. Shankar are from the Tamil cinema industry. closely followed by Ritwik Ghatak.[75] However. in which there is a mix of various genres in one film.[52][53][102][103] [edit] Film music . KV Reddy. Mani Ratnam. and others) and then gained prominence in the other film industries of India. ANR. comedy. winning the International Prize at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival.N. Plots for such movies may seem illogical and improbable to unfamiliar viewers. Aparajito (1956) and The World of Apu (1959). The three films won major prizes at the Cannes. LV Prasad. romance and melodrama all together. Bapu. which was both a commercial success and a critical success. Some of the films in this movement have garnered commercial success. CS Rao. Pullayya. drama.[97] Ray's most famous films were The Apu Trilogy. Dasari Narayana Rao. are some of the best directors of Telugu cinema history. especially in Bollywood and South Indian films.Foreign Language Film with Bachchan while Rajinikanth is the highest paid actor in India. K Vishwanath.[100] The largest film studio complex in the world – Ramoji Film City is in the outskirts of Hyderabad. [edit] Genres and styles [edit] Masala films Main article: Masala (film genre) Masala is a style of Indian cinema. Berlin and Venice Film Festivals. C. Ramakrishna (Bharani). In 2006. including songs filmed in picturesque locations. K.R. a film can portray action. Legendary actors SV Ranga rao. Reddy. Bala and India's expensive filmmaker S. also known as Art Cinema or the Indian New Wave. the capital city of Andhra Pradesh. Adoor Gopalakrishnan[23] and Girish Kasaravalli. Savitri are from Telugu Industry. who is the first Asian composer to score a symphony for the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.[31][32][101] The most famous Indian "neo-realist" was the Bengali filmmaker Satyajit Ray. the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India. which is now very common in Bollywood films. B.Gopal. P. Shyam Benegal. Chiranjeevi a recent politician in Andhra Pradesh started his career as an actor in the Telugu film industry. known for its serious content. This movement is distinct from mainstream Bollywood cinema and began around the same time as the French New Wave and Japanese New Wave. consisting of Pather Panchali (1955). with a keen eye on the social-political climate of the times. is a specific movement in Indian cinema. Rahman are from Tamil Film Industries. For example.NTR. Pullayya.Raghavendra Rao. [edit] Parallel cinema Main article: Parallel Cinema Parallel Cinema. Mrinal Sen. a significant degree of regional interaction is seen between the various regions as filmmakers and actors from one region often contribute to films meant for another region. Adurti Subba Rao. realism and naturalism.

[34] Subrata Mitra's cinematographic technique of bounce lighting also originates from The Apu Trilogy.[10] The major film music companies of India are Saregama.[105] Artists from Indian diaspora blended the traditions of their heritage to those of their country to give rise rise to popular contemporary music.Indian film dances usually follow filmi songs.[104] The demands of a multicultural. See also: Filmi Music in Indian cinema is a substantial revenue generator.[35] Since the 1980s. some previously overlooked Indian filmmakers such as Ritwik Ghatak [121] and Guru Dutt [122] have posthumously gained international acclaim.[116] Jean-Luc Godard.[104] Playback singers such as Lata Mangeshkar drew large crowds with national and international film music stage shows. with the music rights alone accounting for 4– 5% of the net revenues generated by a film in India.[113] James Ivory.[118] Gregory Nava. Middle East.[124] The . François Truffaut. with his films gaining success among European. film music accounts for 48% India's net music sales. Madan and Abdulally Esoofally traded in global cinema.[10] Commercially. and many others such as Akira Kurosawa praising his work.[106] Pre-independence businessmen such as J. Baz Luhrmann stated that his successful musical film Moulin Rouge! (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood musicals.[117] Isao Takahata. and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the genre in the Western world.[115] Steven Spielberg.[112] Ray's work subsequently had a worldwide impact.[110][111] Indian films also appeared in international fora and film festivals. which had managed to infiltrate into India. Ira Sachs and Wes Anderson[119] being influenced by his cinematic style. Many Asian and 'South Asian' countries increasingly came to find Indian cinema as more suited to their sensibilities than Western cinema.[13] Indian cinema's early contacts with other regions became visible with its films making early inroads into the Soviet Union. some of which showed the Indian army pitted against the axis powers. spreading over to the many parts of the world where Indian diaspora was present in significant numbers. Mainstream Hindi film stars like Raj Kapoor gained international fame across Asia[108][109] and Eastern Europe.[104] The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 21st saw extensive interaction between artists from India and the western world.[105] [edit] Global discourse Indians during the colonial rule bought film equipment from Europe. Southeast Asia. American and Asian audiences. F.[14] The British funded wartime propaganda films during the second world war.[120] The "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy". Sony Music etc. with filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese. and becoming an alternative to other international cinema. which depicted civilian resistance offered to Japanese occupation by the British and Indians present in Myanmar.[37][38] [39] Carlos Saura.[107] and China. specifically the Empire of Japan.[106] One such story was Burma Rani.[107] This allowed 'Parallel' Bengali filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray to achieve worldwide fame.[114] Abbas Kiarostami.[107] Jigna Desai holds that by the 21st century Indian cinema had managed to become 'deterritorialized'.[10] A film in India may have many choreographed songs spread throughout its length. Elia Kazan. increasingly globalized Indian audience often led to a mixing of various local and international musical traditions.[104] Local dance and music nevertheless remain a time tested and recurring theme in India and have made their way outside of India's borders with its diaspora. [123] Indian cinema has more recently begun influencing Western musical films.

. subsequently fueling a renaissance of the genre. Global Indian Film Awards. an agent who had brought equipment and films from France first showed his moving pictures in Bombay. Government of India 54 19 Directorate of Film Festivals. with more than 800 Indian films produced annually. the Nandi Awards. Apart from popular entertainment through commercial cinema.[28] Other Indian filmmakers are also making attempts at reaching a more global audience. with upcoming films by directors such as Vidhu Vinod Chopra.[56][126] and is considered to be a "homage to Hindi commercial cinema". Government of India 69 19 STAR TV (Asia) 95 19 Government of Kerala 68 19 Zee Entertainment Enterprises 98 19 Asianet 98 20 International Indian Film Academy 00 Other awards include the International Tamil Film Awards. That was an important day in the social and cultural history of the Indian people. Africa and West Asia. There has been widespread recognition of Indian artists and directors at film festivals in different parts of the world. 1896. The major production of Indian movie centers are Mumbai.[125] Danny Boyle's Oscar-winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008) was also directly inspired by Indian films.[127] [edit] Awards Award Si nc e Awarded by Bengal Film Journalists' Association 19 Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards.critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre. Stardust Awards. On July 7. Indian films command a huge domestic market and are popular abroad. Bollywood Movie Awards. particularly in Asia. Government of Awards 37 West Bengal Filmfare Awards Filmfare Awards South National Film Awards Dadasaheb Phalke Award Star Screen Awards Kerala State Film Awards Zee Cine Awards Asianet Film Awards IIFA Awards 19 Filmfare 54 19 Directorate of Film Festivals. Apsara Film and Television Producers Guild Awards. India leads the world in the output of films. Chennai and Kolkata. Movies arrived in India less than a year after the Lumieres first exhibited their cinematographie in Paris. art cinema deals with a serious themes particularly relevant to Indian society. Sudhir Mishra and Pan Nalin. Jahnu Barua.

held in Bombay in 1951. Phalke's company alone produced about a hundred films. romance. suspense.The first Indian-made feature film (3700 feet long) was released in 1913. 1953). Film and Television Institute of India. They still want song and dance but not the running around tree sequences. This is where a nice fast track is made only for a great dancer to dance and increase the sales. There is nobody you can call the hero of the film but it’s realistic and humorous. The late Satyajit Ray was awarded many prestigious international awards including the Oscar in 1992 for Lifetime Achievement in Cinema. Everybody who goes to Bombay or now known as Mumbai wants to see this ever growing industry and its stars. In India a movie has to have song. A lot of directors use other characters and bring in another funny plot. thrill. Based on a story from the Mahabharata it was a stirring film concerned with honour. Movies in India are basically made with a lot of spices.A NEW ERA The Indian film industry is called Bollywood because it is based in Bombay. It was made by Dadasaheb Phalke and was called Raja Harishchandra. Documentary and short film makers have also played an important role in spreading knowledge and awareness among sections which are yet to get the benefits of modern education. At times in stories there may not be any scope for comedy. draws on codes of psychological representation . Earlier the hero carried the entire movie on his shoulders but now the load is evenly spread.hallucinations and dreams that feature strongly in 1940s Hollywood melodrama. So when a movie is made the makers have to keep in mind both the masses and the classes. and his involvement with populist themes and issues make him a good example of popular cinema of the time. Mehboob's tendency to make a visual spectacle of his material. Pune. Hindi Movies made by the students of this Institute have won many national and international awards in festivals in India and abroad BOLLYWOOD. Some of the top songs have been Babuji zara dhere chalo. But now the viewers want to see good movies with great stories. cry and be excited and so it’s a tough task for the directors but then hats off to all Indian directors as they come up with something spicy enough to fulfill the needs of all types of viewers. Movies were made particularly for the masses and the multiplex crowd. comedy. So now there is a new market for item songs. Each movie has the main story and a lot of other small stories that build around it. an upperclass love triangle founded on a tragic misunderstanding. a portrait of father and son eking out a living in Calcutta that strongly echoes the narrative of Vittorio de Sica's Bicycle Thief (1948). imparts training in film making and televisions programme production. Whether a business tycoon or a cycle rickshaw driver all want to watch movies. In three hours the audience wants to laugh. A good example for this would be Khosla Ka Ghosla. The influence of Neorealism can be seen in films such as Do Bigha Zamin/Two Measures of Land (Bimal Roy. showed Italian works for the first time in India. family drama etc. action. People in India work for ten hours a day and that too during the main part of the day and so many of them return to a home with no entertainment. khallas etc. Indian cinema has improved drastically and now the audience is very mature too. Mehboob Khan's Andaz/Style (1949). dance. The First International Film Festival. A movie will do well even if you don’t have a great star cast but have a great story and your actors do a job. From then on many "mythologicals" were made and took India by storm. sacrifice and mighty deeds. The only available entertainment is movies. This .

Every movie which shows any function has to do it in the right way. It becomes a part of every Indian wedding. This is where the director’s ability is tested. It’s only up to the hero to do all the running around. This is apna bollywood with all these errors but still it is the biggest film industry in the world. Very often you will find that a lot of Hindi movies are remakes of hit Tamil movies. The heroine can cry without glycerin. It has to have a great story. Born in 1950.Rajnikant. Big stars like Amitabh Bachchan. English. Captain. If you can’t cry or deliver the dialogues properly the audience rejects the star immediately. Ilaya Talapathi Leader of the youth). In the past people accepted this kind of comedy too but nowadays the audience accepts comedy only when it’s a part of the main story. Nearly thrice the number of movies is made each year than the number of days in a year. He has done a double role and has proved to the world that his talent alone is enough to carry the movie through. The heroines will always be wearing great makeup even if its in the middle of the night. This is the second biggest industry in India and is based at Chennai. Kannada. saving and bashing up.comedy has no link with the movies. Each male star has a different nick name by which his fans know hi like-Super star. People who want to watch emotions are very particular about the quality of the emotions too. This year another big thing was that the industry hits were all given by Malayalam actresses. Some Tamil movies have been such big hits that they have been dubbed and released in Hindi too and they have been very big hits like Roja. Now the industry is crowded with a lot of young stars. This year Jyothika married Actor Surya and now there aren’t any more Hindi actresses.Vijaykant. Normally Kollywood is ruled by the Hindi actresses. there is nothing that can stop this star.Ajith. This is true bollywood ishtyle where anything can happen. The top two movies were extremely different movies for the Tamil folks. The police will never reach on time to save people. His last movie was Chandramukhi where he plays a psychologist. If there is a wedding song in a movie it not only becomes a hit. If you are a movie buff then there is no place like bollywood because there is nothing that you can’t find here. Salman Khan and Anil Kapoor are known to have acted in Tamil remakes. A movie about two serial . great dance steps and of course a really bad villain whom the hero has to bash up even if he is on the death bed. his movies sell like hot cakes both in Singapore and Japan. TAMIL FILM INDUSTRY OR KOLLYWOOD Like bollywood gets its name from Bombay and Hollywood. Tamil movie makers unlike their Hindi counterparts are far more original in their scripts. Bombay etc. Mother in laws can’t be good and the daughter in law will only worry about everybody else’s happiness and not hers. This is an actor who has been acting in the Tamil film industry from the black and white era and is still going very strong. The comedy has to be timed properly and the tears have to be realistically shed. Vettaiyaadu Valaiyaadu was another different movie. Irony of life but here looks just didn't matter the story and the performance just carried the movie through. Movies like Hum Saath Saath Hain and Hum Apke Hain Kaun have been very very big hits because each and every scene of the movie is actually what happens in joint families and in weddings. The stars have to be convincing enough. lovely music. Movies in India have been made with a lot of respect for family values and traditions. touching performances.Vijay etc. breath taking locations. Rajnikant is not only a hit in India. The hero can beat up any number of guys. 23am Pulikesi was a period film with comedian playing the hero. Hindi. The current Big B of the Tamil industry is Rajnikant. Bengali and Malayalam. Telugu. the Tamil industry gets its name from Kodambakkam where the industry is based and Hollywood. The villain is always ugly to look at. The year 2010 has been a very different year for Kollywood as many movies came out this year but only the movies which were different stood out. He has acted in Tamil. Ultimate star. A movie when made in India has to be made in such a way that both a 5 year kid and an 85 year old grand father both have to enjoy it.

The latest and the most popular Indian awards are the IIFA awards.killers and a cop who tracks them down. The National award is not only for Hindi movies but is for the regional movies too. It was like watching Discovery's Medical Detectives with a lot of mirch masala. Any award is surrounded by many entries in each category. Then in 1954 came in the National awards which are the most prestigious award to be won. This award has now been in the industry for the last 52 years. Stars like Amitabh Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan have won the filmfare award many times in a row. AWARDS If a movie has been made then there has to be some reward for the people who excel in this industry and this is where come in the awards. King Khan After winning the National film award 2008 . People loved the music and debutant Kamalinee Mukherjee has become a star over night. Some of the other popular awards now are Star Screen Awards. Zee Cine awards etc. Amithabh With LIFA Award Amitabh Bachchan : To list a few awards that the Big B has won just scroll down. While the Filmfare is the Oscars of bollywood it is only for Hindi movies. The stars are rated for their movies in the previous year and awarded by a panel of ten jury members. The first and the oldest award to be given in India was the prestigious black Lady or the filmfare awards.

and one man's struggle to become a star.. Bottom of Form Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema.[6] Contents [hide] • • 1 Etymology 2 History ○ ○ • • • • • • • • • • • • 2.Shah Rukh Khan:. which includes several regional film industries sorted by language. a sweeping portrait about a country finding its identity.1 Golden Age 2. It is common to see films that feature dialogue with English words phrases.[2][3][4] Bollywood is formally referred to as Hindi cinema.[5] though frequent use of poetic Urdu words is fairly common. a movie industry that changed the face of India.[1] Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centers of film production in the world. There has been a growing presence of Indian English in dialogue and songs as well. or even whole sentences.Here is the astonishing true story of Bollywood. it is only a part of the total Indian film industry.1 Africa .2 Modern cinema 3 Influences for Bollywood 4 Influence of Bollywood 5 Genre conventions 6 Cast and crew 7 Sound 8 Bollywood song and dance 9 Dialogues and lyrics 10 Finances 11 Advertising 12 Awards 13 Film education 14 Popularity and appeal ○ 14. India.

filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna.4 North America 14. Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931) .[10] The naming scheme for "Bollywood" was inspired by "Tollywood". the name that was used to refer to the cinema of West Bengal. which rhymed with "Hollywood" and was the center of the cinema of India at the time.3 Europe 14. "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name. the center of the American film industry.2 Asia 14.[7] However.6 South America 15 Plagiarism 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links Etymology The name "Bollywood" is derived from Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood. unlike Hollywood.[9] and the journalist Bevinda Collaco. Though some deplore the name. Bollywood does not exist as a physical place.[11] History Film poster for first Indian sound film. arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. Credit for the term has been claimed by several different people.5 Oceania 14. including the lyricist. Dating back to 1932. The term "Bollywood" has origins in the 1970s. when India overtook America as the world's largest film producer. The name "Bollywood" later arose as the Bombay-based film industry overtook the one in Tollygunge as the center of the Indian film industry.[7][8] it has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • • • 14.

[12] The first Indian sound film. the industry was producing over 200 films per annum. of Alam Ara fame. Ardeshir Irani.[17] and K. by Dadasaheb Phalke. Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream. Examples include the Guru Dutt films Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) and the Raj Kapoor films Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955).[13][14][15] Some of the most critically-acclaimed Hindi films of all time were produced during this period. Kisan Kanya. or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. However. and the violence of the Partition. while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. for which he was the director. he made another colour film.[16] Some of the most famous epic films of Hindi cinema were also produced at the time. made the first colour film in Hindi.[12] In 1937. Successful actors at . Mother India. including Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957). It was nominated for the Grand Prize of the 1951 Cannes Film Festival. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist. popularized the theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture. the Indian independence movement. was the first silent feature film made in India. but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues.Nargis and Raj Kapoor in Awaara (1951). Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960). was a major commercial success. At this time. which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. producer and leading actor. Raja Harishchandra (1913). Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931). It is one of Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies. Golden Age Following India's independence. There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals.[18] Madhumati (1958). By the 1930s. directed by Bimal Roy and written by Ritwik Ghatak. Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression. the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s are regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi cinema. The next year. Guru Dutt in Pyaasa (1957).[19] Other acclaimed mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt. colour did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. also directed and produced by Kapoor. World War II. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India. lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema.

[20] While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving. while successful actresses included Nargis. Madhuri Dixit.[16] However. directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. alongside the more famous Indian Bengali filmmaker Satyajit Ray. making stars out of a new generation of actors (such as Aamir Khan. which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema. Raj Kapoor and Guru Dutt. Kumar Shahani. directed by Yash Chopra and written by Salim-Javed. romantic confections made way for gritty. Meena Kumari. including Raj Kapoor's Awaara (1951). Madhubala. Tabu and Urmila Matondkar.[26] Some of his films are now included among the greatest films of all time. romance movies and action films starred actors like Rajesh Khanna and Dharmendra. action and comedy films were also successful. Actresses from this era included Hema Malini. Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra (1952). with Pyaasa (1957) being featured in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list. The 1970s thus saw the rise of commercial cinema in the form of enduring films such as Sholay (1975). the pendulum swung back toward family-centric romantic musicals with the success of such films as Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988). The critical and commercial success of Satya led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai noir.[21] Hindi films were frequently in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival throughout the 1950s and early 1960s. the 1950s also saw the emergence of a new Parallel Cinema movement.[31] The most internationally-acclaimed Hindi film of the 1980s was Mira Nair's Salaam Bombay! (1988). which solidified Amitabh Bachchan's position as a lead actor.[16] Though the movement was mainly led by Bengali cinema. as well as the latter's commercial success. which won the Camera d'Or at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. violent films about gangsters (see Indian mafia) and bandits.[20] In that point of time.[29] alongside Mani Kaul. with actors like Govinda and Akshay Kumar and actresses such as Raveena Tandon and Karisma Kapoor appearing in films of this genre. During the late 1980s and early 1990s. Govind Nihalani. Nutan. Salman Khan and Shahrukh Khan) and actresses (such as Sridevi. while overlooked in his own lifetime. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released in 1975. this decade marked the entry of new performers in arthouse and independent films.[27] and with both Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) tied at #160 in the 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of all-time greatest films. a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan".[33] This led to a resurgence of Parallel Cinema by the end of the decade. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960) all tied at #346 on the list. Several other Hindi films from this era were also ranked in the Sight & Sound poll. the 'art film' bent of the Film Finance Corporation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976. the star known for his "angry young man" roles. . and actresses like Sharmila Tagore. Their critical acclaim.[32] These films often featured actors like Nana Patekar. Jaya Bachchan and Rekha. some of which succeeded commercially.[24] Guru Dutt.[16] Ever since the social realist film Neecha Nagar won the Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival. the most influential example being Satya (1998). Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957) and K. Dilip Kumar. Juhi Chawla and Kajol). Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995). Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta.[30] Another important film from 1975 was Deewar.[28] Modern cinema In the late 1960s and early 1970s.[23] Some of the internationally-acclaimed Hindi filmmakers involved in the movement included Mani Kaul. Kumar Shahani. Leena Chandavarkar and Helen. Ketan Mehta. Manisha Koirala. whose performances were usually critically approved. Furthermore. Mumtaz. had belatedly generated international recognition much later in the 1980s. Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha.the time included Dev Anand. rode the crest of this trend with actors like Mithun Chakraborty and Anil Kapoor. portrayed by Amitabh Bachchan. it also began gaining prominence in Hindi cinema. Early examples of Hindi films in this movement include Chetan Anand's Neecha Nagar (1946)[21] and Bimal Roy's Two Acres of Land (1953).[32] urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai. [24][25] Dutt is now regarded as one of the greatest Asian filmmakers of all time. Manoj Bajpai. A crime film pitting "a policeman against his brother. Maine Pyar Kiya (1989). which lasted into the early 1990s. Ketan Mehta. In the mid1970s. Shyam Benegal and Vijaya Mehta. Amitabh Bachchan. paved the way for Indian neorealism[22] and the Indian New Wave. The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of greatest filmmakers ranked Dutt at #73 on the list. it was described as being “absolutely key to Indian cinema” by Danny Boyle.[20] Some Hindi filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal continued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s. with some of them winning major prizes at the festival.

used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects. Lagaan won the Audience Award at the Locarno International Film Festival and was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 74th Academy Awards. Indian filmmakers." Sanskrit dramas were known as natya. an illusion. with its highly stylized nature and emphasis on spectacle. and films that appeal to urban and overseas audiences. Krrish (2006). animation. Among the mainstream films.[37] Ancient Sanskrit drama. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story. fairy stories and so on through song and dance. This led the nation's filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality. Veer-Zaara (2004).. Rani Mukerji.The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity in the world. dance and gesture combined "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience. earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation. Influences for Bollywood Gokulsing and Dissanayake identify six major influences that have shaped the conventions of Indian popular cinema:[37] • The ancient Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of Indian popular cinema. Chak De India (2007). which became popular from around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre. such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology. particularly Hindi cinema. "whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant. Kareena Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra[35][36]). Abhishek Bachchan. while Devdas and Rang De Basanti were both nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The Hindi film industry has preferred films that appeal to all segments of the audience (see the discussion in Ganti. including Lagaan (2001). where music. and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots. 3 Idiots (2009). back-story and story within a story. and has resisted making films that target narrow audiences. cited in references). Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi (2008). the Hollywood musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. Devdas (2002).[34] Some of the largest production houses."[37] Hollywood. filmmakers may be moving towards accepting some box-office segmentation. while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films. "For example. history. These regional traditions include the Yatra of Bengal. melodious songs and music.. Preity Zinta.[38] The traditional folk theatre of India.[37] The Parsi theatre.[37] The theory of rasa dating back to ancient Sanskrit drama is believed to be one of the most fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema. sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft. from that of the Western world. Lage Raho Munnabhai (2006). It was believed that aiming for a broad spectrum would maximise box office receipts. the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh. Ghajini(2008). 2004. a • • • • . which "blended realism and fantasy. Dhoom 2 (2006). though Indian filmmakers departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. narrative and spectacle. particularly in its narratives. Koi. My Name is Khan (2010) and Raajneeti (2010) delivering a new generation of popular actors (Hrithik Roshan. music and dance. Mil Gaya (2003). Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003). derived from the root word nrit (dance). The Parsi plays contained crude humour. and keeping the popularity of actors of the previous decade. Rang De Basanti (2006). more Bollywood releases abroad and the explosion of multiplexes in big cities. characterizing them as specacular dance-dramas which has continued Indian cinema." In addition. However. Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation. Om Shanti Om (2007).[34] The opening up of the overseas market. Ranbir Kapoor) and actresses (Aishwarya Rai. where musicals were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s. integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama. led to wider box office successes in India and abroad. among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films. between films that appeal to rural Indians. etc.

Burman compositions. was also directly inspired by Bollywood films.[37] Influence of Bollywood In the 2000s. For example.[45] The 2002 song "Addictive". fueling a renaissance of the genre. have also been inspired by Bollywood music. R. which in turn influenced another Hollywood film Chances Are (1989). and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the American musical film genre. Such movies are called masala films. Rent.[40][41] A. the Uzbek artist Iroda Dilroz.[43] The 1975 film Chhoti Si Baat is believed to have inspired Hitch (2005).[21] The theme of reincarnation was also popularized in Western popular culture through Bollywood films. .[39] The film incorporated an Indian-themed play based on the ancient Sanskrit drama The Little Clay Cart and a Bollywood-style dance sequence with a song from the film China Gate. which in turn inspired the Bollywood film Partner (2007).[44] The influence of Bollywood filmi music can also be seen in popular music elsewhere in the world. (literally. The Bollywood musical Lagaan (2001) was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.[50] among others. An early example of this approach was in Mani Ratnam's Bombay (1995). Many Asian Underground artists. The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre. an Indian film composer.[46] The Black Eyed Peas' Grammy Award winning 2005 song "Don't Phunk with My Heart" was inspired by two 1970s Bollywood songs: "Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana" from Don (1978)[47] and "Ae Nujawan Hai Sub" from Apradh (1972). "money's worth"). particularly MTV. Rahman. Baz Luhrmann stated that his musical film Moulin Rouge! (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood musicals.[31][42] and is considered to be a "homage to Hindi commercial cinema". and two other Bollywood films Devdas (2002) and Rang De Basanti (2006) were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film. love triangles. including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon. The Phantom of the Opera. and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun has played in London's West End. was lifted from Lata Mangeshkar's "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" from Jyoti (1981). However. sung by Truth Hurts and produced by DJ Quik and Dr. with Asha Bhosle as the singer. Hairspray.[48] Both songs were originally composed by Kalyanji Anandji. as can be seen in the pace. R. and subsequently films such as Chicago. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. which was nominated for "Best Contemporary World Music Album" at the 2006 Grammy Awards. they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day to day lives in complex and interesting ways. Devo's 1988 hit song "Disco Dancer" was inspired by the song "I am a Disco Dancer" from the Bollywood film Disco Dancer (1982).[51] Indeed. particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora. Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world. wrote the music for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bombay Dreams.[19] which in turn inspired the Bollywood film Karz (1980)."[37] • Western musical television. with Madhumati (1958) inspiring the Hollywood film The Reincarnation of Peter Proud (1975). the American artist Ciara. and featured the dancer Helen. Dreamgirls.[52] Songs and dances. and are expected to contain catchy music in the form of song-anddance numbers woven into the script. Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008). into an album You've stolen my heart . sung by Asha Bhosle. Filmi music composed by A.fiction. D. which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s. with a good entertainer generally referred to as paisa vasool. camera angles. which has won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards. and the German band Löwenherz. Rahman (who would later win two Academy Awards for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack) has frequently been sampled by musicians elsewhere in the world.Songs From R D Burman's Bollywood. Sweeney Todd. Genre conventions See also: Masala (film genre) and Parallel Cinema Bollywood films are mostly musicals. Enchanted and Mamma Mia! were produced. the Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. dance sequences and music of 2000s Indian films. Across the Universe. Indian audiences expect full value for their money.[49] Also in 2005. Dre. the French rap group La Caution. a film's music is often released before the movie itself and helps increase the audience. The Producers. comedy and dare-devil thrills are all mixed up in a three-hour-long extravaganza with an intermission.

television actors. Directors compete to hire the most popular stars of the day. Strangely. however. Models and beauty contestants. and convenient coincidences. it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures. conniving villains. very few succeed. kidnappers.had liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. and Bollywood is no exception. Hence many stars make the most of their fame.[53] Indeed some studies into fashion in India have revealed that some people are unaware that the changing nature of fashion in Bollywood films which are presented to them are often influenced by globalisation and many consider the clothes worn by Bollywood actors as authentically Indian. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad.. Just as in Hollywood. Indian film music directors and Indian playback singers Bollywood employs people from all parts of India. traditional conservative ways of Indian culture continue to exist in India outside the industry and an element of resistance by some to western-based influences. who are believed to guarantee the success of a movie (though this belief is not always supported by box-office results). many foreign extras are employed too. all hoping for a break in the industry. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses. these movies are a mixture of many things such as action."[54] Plots now tend to feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than centering on pre-arranged marriages. There have always been Indian films with more artistic aims and more sophisticated stories. Pictured Achhut Kanya (1936) Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic. Melodrama and romance are common ingredients to Bollywood films.[53] Despite this. The popularity of the stars can rise and fall rapidly. Indian movie actresses.our earliest films.after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. Bollywood conventions are changing. They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers and angry parents. courtesans with hearts of gold. love triangles. both inside and outside the Bollywood tradition (see Parallel Cinema). romance etc. once they become popular. Most films have heroes who are able to fight off villains all by themselves. where . Bollywood continues to play a major role in fashion in India. by making several movies simultaneously. though many have tried from time to time. one recent example is the hit film Rang De Basanti. They often lost out at the box office to movies with more mass appeal. There have been some exceptions. theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai with the hope and dream of becoming a star. family ties. Though these changes can widely be seen in contemporary Bollywood. long-lost relatives and siblings separated by fate.. corrupt politicians. sacrifice.[53] Film critic Lata Khubchandani writes.". dramatic reversals of fortune. Indian film directors.[55] Stardom in the entertainment industry is very fickle. and increased Western influence at home.. A large Indian diaspora in English speaking countries. Like masalas.[53] Cast and crew for further details see Indian movie actors. Only a very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood. have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood models. comedy.

Some of the biggest stars. a famed playback singer. from on-location filming. their careers will falter. The ubiquity of ADR in Bollywood cinema became prevalent in the early 1960s with the arrival of the Arriflex 3 camera. and Shahrukh Khan have succeeded despite total lack of show business connections. which required a blimp (cover) in order to shield the sound of the camera. such as Dharmendra. are known for their lack of ambient sound. The trend was bucked in 2001. Commercial Indian films. not just the Hindi-language variety. Eventually. since the sound in these films usually occurs a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures. once in the studio—and the emotional level on set is often very difficult to recreate. for which it was notorious. Amitabh Bachchan. so there is a silence underlying everything instead of the background sound and noises usually employed in films to create aurally perceivable depth and environment. Bollywood song and dance Further information: Hindi dance songs and Filmi Songs in Bollywood are sung by professional playback singers.the lead actress is Alice Patten. Kisna.[56] This opened up a heated debate on the use and economic feasibility of on-location sound. Pictured here is Mukesh. . an Englishwoman. known for their speed. Lagaan. with the film Lagaan.[56] with the actors reciting their lines as their images appear on-screen in the studio in the process known as "looping in the sound" or ADR—with the foley and sound effects added later. the sound is usually created (or recreated) entirely in the studio. never bothered to blimp the camera. Bollywood can be very clannish. Therefore. For film clans. and the relatives of film-industry insiders have an edge in getting coveted roles in films or being part of a film's crew. see List of Bollywood film clans. and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors. This creates several problems. after a 30-year hiatus of synchronized sound. Industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce and if film industry scions do not succeed at the box office.[56] The actors have to act twice: once on-location. rather than actors. and several Bollywood films have employed on-location sound since then. this became the standard for Indian films. who lipsync the lyrics. in which producer-star Aamir Khan insisted that the sound be done on location. and its excessive noise required that everything had to be recreated in the studio. Sound Sound in Bollywood films is rarely recorded on location (otherwise known as sync sound). Commercial Indian filmmakers.

Saigal. performs a catchy song and dance number in the film. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered. Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. a song is an externalisation of a character's thoughts. through the course of a career spanning over six decades. often while dancing. Hemant Kumar. the event is often two characters falling in love. but due to political unrest in Kashmir since the end of the 1980s. The songs are also often referred to as a "dream sequence". Suraiyya. and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors. Sometimes. often completely unrelated to the main cast and plot of the film. Udit Narayan and Sonu Nigam among male playback singers.P. is primarily modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles. Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers. in several ways. Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favourites. While most actors. L. see Singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema. Mohammed Rafi is often considered arguably the finest of the singers that have lent their voice to Bollywood songs. most notable singers of Bollywood are Lata Mangeshkar. Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie. Talat Mahmood. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song. dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (tawaif). One notable exception was Kishore Kumar. Mohammed Rafi. with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen. A physically attractive female character (the "item girl"). are excellent dancers. Saigal. In this case. for a list. Asha Bhosle. and anything can happen that would not normally happen in the real world. or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie.[57] those scenes have since then often been shot in Western Europe. has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. The dancing in Bollywood films. K. so that a character has a reason to sing. Shamshad Begum and Alka Yagnik among female playback singers.Bollywood dances usually follow filmi songs Bollywood film music is called filmi music (from Hindi. it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. This staging is referred to as a "picturisation". are also well-known. though it is usual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film. S. Kishore Kumar. The actress Helen was famous for . If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet. In older films. Mukesh. who. The composers of film music. or folk dances. Previously song and dance scenes often used to be shot in Kashmir. known as music directors. Manna Dey. few are also singers. the "item number" may be performed by a courtesan (tawaif) dancing for a rich client or as part of a cabaret show. followed by Lata Mangeshkar. Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals). Kumar Sanu. Geeta Dutt. Some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves. especially older ones. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers.Balasubramanyam. and K. particularly in Switzerland[58] and Austria. especially today. a song is worked into the plot. and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films' songs along with the films' regular soundtrack albums. L.[59] Bollywood films have always used what are now called "item numbers". Other times. Remixing of film songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today. meaning "of films"). In modern films. who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer.

the United States. usually featuring a song from the film. such as Lagaan. dancing at celebrations. family. there is an increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels. This phenomenon is like the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals (e.[62] Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. Some movie scripts are first written in Roman alphabet. Indian producers are winning more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India as well. or Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe).[61] As finances are not regulated. and self-sacrifice liberally. this ban has now been lifted. although with some notable exceptions. to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team. bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before the prints are officially released in cinemas. and the gopis. duty. before the main movie release. Finances Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions. have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting. or as stage shows. so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia. especially in the old movies. Canada. frequently use Arabo-Persic Urdu vocabulary. Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. whether in dialogues or lyrics. English in a business setting and Hindi in an informal one). Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie.her cabaret numbers. and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s. However. Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. Song lyrics are usually about love. coupled with rising film budgets. special effects. hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. On occasion. they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals. Another source for love lyrics is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the mythological amours of Krishna. Dialogues and lyrics Main article: Bollywood songs The film script or lines of dialogue (called "dialogues" in Indian English) and the song lyrics are often written by different people. Nowadays. is often melodramatic and invokes God. such as Krrish (2006) which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based Tony Ching.[60] Characters may shift from one language to the other to express a certain atmosphere (for example. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself. the United Kingdom.. mother. some funding also comes from illegitimate sources. or old-fashioned courtly Urdu in Mughal era historical films. Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English. Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned Hindi[5] or Hindustani that would be understood by the largest possible audience. Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios. New Zealand. Devdas and other recent films. Some movies. In modern films. Often. some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie. Manufacturing of . Bollywood song lyrics. with the most expensive productions costing up to 100 crores rupees (roughly USD 20 million). has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres. In 2001. costumes. and are notorious for their patronisation of several prominent film personalities. such as the Mumbai underworld. Recent Bollywood films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas. In January 2000. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos. For the last few decades Bollywood producers have been releasing the film's soundtrack. The Mumbai underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films. the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of the movie Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the movie was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld. Many lyrics compare the singer to a devotee and the object of his or her passion to Krishna or Radha. a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan. However. Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw. Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists. particularly in areas such as action and special effects. continental Europe and elsewhere. item numbers may be inserted as discotheque sequences. Mumbai mafia hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan. The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects. Sets. Cinematic language. Radha.g. however. as tapes or CDs.

the National Film Awards were introduced in 1954. and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is a well established 'small scale industry' in parts of South Asia and South East Asia.[63] Now. Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia.[68] Like the Oscars. where browsers can view trailers. since the Government of Pakistan has banned their sale.F. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India. Modelled after the poll-based merit format of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theatre tickets. before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising. There are also increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom.) of US$1.[69] .bootleg DVD. too. VCD. In the past. is widely practiced in Bollywood. and the UK regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theaters. Advertising Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters (The well-known artist M. stills. which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government. whereas Hollywood films sold 2. television etc.[63] Releasing the film music. (In fact. For an interesting comparison of Hollywood and Bollywood financial figures. Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales.S. awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). a majority of the huge and ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are created with computer-printed vinyl. recouping their investments from many sources of revenue. are becoming increasingly collectible as folk art. they form a growing market for upscale Indian films.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion. the Filmfare awards are frequently accused of bias towards commercial success rather than artistic merit. The old hand-painted posters. in contrast to the National Film Awards. It shows tickets sold in 2002 and total revenue estimates. bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies. and crew. or music videos. most Bollywood films could make money. as used in Hollywood. the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts. the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards. Bollywood sold 3.[66] Bollywood movie stars appear in print and television advertisements for other products. Besides catering to the homegrown market. where Bollywood is slowly getting noticed. Satellite TV. distribution and telecast). and awards were given to the best films of 1953. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the U. Product placement. A dual voting system was developed in 1956. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the piracy problem.[65] Bollywood is also used to advertise other products. now fewer tend to do so. Under this system. demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the Indian diaspora.3 billion. Hussain used to paint film posters early in his career). The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) estimates that the Bollywood industry loses $100 million annually in loss of revenue from pirated home videos and DVDs. while consumer copying adds to the problem. Awards The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India. such as watches or soap (see Celebrity endorsement). and information about the story. As the Filmfare. This was because human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. cast.[64] Bollywood publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising.[67] The Indian screen magazine Filmfare started the first Filmfare Awards in 1954. individuals may submit their votes in separate categories. and the United States. However. The ceremony was referred to as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. most Bollywood producers make money. Since 1973. but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films. including selling ancillary rights. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites. see chart. The DFF screens not only Bollywood films. Canada. once regarded as ephemera. television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. As more Indians migrate to these countries. DVDs.

" where the former is based socialist values and on the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism.[72] Chad and Ethiopia have also shown an interest in the movies. the presence of animals in markets. The latter choice was a failure because "they don't base themselves on the problems of the people. Hindi films have been distributed to some parts of Africa.[73] Several Bollywood personalities have avenued to the continent for both shooting movies and off-camera projects.(different country each year) IIFA Awards . while posters of Indian films adorn the walls of tailor shops and mechanics' garages in the country.[34][71] Africa Historically. Mother India (1957). [74] Dil Jo Bhi Kahey (2005) was shot almost entirely in Mauritius. wedding celebrations. Indian movies also allowed for a new youth culture to follow without such ideological baggage as "becoming western. bearing witness to the cross-cultural appeal of Indian movies. featuring singing. continued to be played in Nigeria decades after its release. porters carrying large bundles. With the strict Muslim culture. Film education • • • Film and Television Institute of India Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute Asian Academy of Film & Television Popularity and appeal See also: List of highest-grossing Bollywood films Besides being popular among the India diaspora. largely by Lebanese businessmen. United States Global Indian Film Awards . such movies rose in popularity despite the lack of a significant Indian audience. New York.(different country each year) Ceremonies held overseas are: Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles. as in many other parts of the world. and there is no nudity. One such explanation for this lies in the similarities between the two cultures. youths riding Bajaj motor scooters. in West Africa.[70] Over the last years of the twentieth century and beyond. The film Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav (2005) was one of many movies shot in South Africa.(different country each year) Zee Cine Awards. where the emerging Islamic Courts Union found a bete noire. based on a religion wholly different. and so forth. where movies are about an alien culture. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Northern Nigeria. chewing sugar cane. Bollywood progressed in its popularity as it entered the consciousness of Western audiences and producers. songs have also been copied by Hausa singers and stories have influenced the writings of Nigerian novelists. . men and women rarely kiss. and. and numerous celebrities. a language that is unintelligble to the viewers. which has a large ethnically Indian population. Unlike in Europe and North America where Indian films largely cater to the expatriate Indian market yearning to keep in touch with their homeland. thus Indian movies are said to "have culture" that Hollywood films lack."[70] Bollywood is also popular among Somalis and the Somali diaspora. In Indian movies women were modestly dressed. for example. Indian movies have also gained ground so as to alter the style of Hausa fashions. such far off locations as Nigeria to Egypt to Senegal and to Russia generations of non-Indian fans have grown up with Bollywood during the years. where Hollywood movies were seen to have "no shame". for the most part. Other similarities include wearing turbans. Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women.Long Island.Additional ceremonies held within India are: • • • • • • Stardust Awards Star Screen Awards Bollywood Movie Awards . dancing.

Kabul Express.[93] Bollywood films are particularly popular in the former Soviet Union. Raj Kapoor was a famous movie star in China. Ashok Sharma. Exceptions were made for a few films. The changing style of Bollywood has begun to question such an acceptance.[87] Some Hindi movies also became big successes in the People's Republic of China during the 1940s and 1950s. including Dharmatma.[75] The emergence of Nollywood. Nepal. a thriving trade in pirated DVDs[77] and illegal cable broadcasts ensured the continued popularity of Bollywood releases in Pakistan. such as Bangladesh. Many Pakistanis watch Bollywood films. the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap . Jordan. Bollywood has progressed in Israel. particularly the films directed by the late Guru Dutt. Since then. Awaara (1951) and Two Acres of Land (1953).[70] The old days of India avidly "advocating decolonization . who are booking large profits after years of poor receipts.[88] The Chinese filmmaker He Ping was impressed by Lagaan. Bollywood films have been dubbed into Russian.[81][82] Hindi films have also been popular in numerous Arab countries. Early in 2008.[92] and the Scandinavian countries.[91] where they frequently enter the UK top ten. including Palestine. the Netherlands. The new era features more sexually explicit and violent films. more westernized picturizations. Hindi films significantly declined in popularity in China.Ominously. Many films. and thus hired the film's music composer A.[80] A number of Bollywood movies were filmed inside Afghanistan while some dealt with the country. however. changing Bollywood seems to be diminishing the popularity on the continent. and India's policy was wholly influenced by his missionary zeal to end racial domination and discrimination in the African territories" were replaced by newer realities. As there was no means of other cheap entertainment. Nigerian viewers. R. such as Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) have been set in London. The most popular Hindi films in China were Dr. Various Bollywood movies are dubbed in German and shown on the German television channel RTL II on a regular basis. Rahman to score the soundtrack for his film Warriors of Heaven and Earth (2003). especially its soundtrack. such as the 2006 colorized re-release of the classic Mughal-e-Azam or the 2006 film Taj Mahal. thus negating the preferred values of an old Bollywood and diminishing Indian soft power. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. the Pakistani government eased the ban and allowed the import of even more movies. However. until the Academy Award nominated Lagaan (2001) became the first Indian film to have a nation-wide release there in decades. as they understand Hindi (due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu). commented that older films of the 1950s and 1960s had culture to the newer. who has served three times in the Commonwealth of Independent States region during his diplomatic career said: The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western countries were banned in the Soviet Union.[90] Europe The awareness of Hindi cinema is substantial in the United Kingdom. Indian Ambassador to Suriname. for example.. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946). It is opposed by ardent nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry. A greater globalised world worked in tandem with the sexualisation of Indian films so as to become more like American films. and the song "Awara Hoon" ("I am a Tramp") was popular in the country. and shown in prominent theatres such as Mosfilm and Lenfilm. Egypt and the Gulf countries. 16 were screened in 2008.[83] Imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic upon the film's release. Bollywood is also appreciated in France.[89] Several older Hindi films also have a cult following in Japan. it is embraced by cinema owners. Khuda Gawah and Escape From Taliban. Since the early 2000s.[84] Bollywood films are also popular across Southeast Asia (particularly the Malay Archipelago)[85] and Central Asia (particularly in Uzbekistan[86] and Tajikistan).. The new policy is controversial in Pakistan. Asia Bollywood films are widely watched in South Asian countries. Germany. Special channels dedicated to Indian films have been displayed on cable television. the popularity of old Bollywood versus a new.[79] Bollywood movies are also popular in Afghanistan due to the country's proximity with the Indian subcontinent and certain other cultural perspectives present in the movies.[76] Pakistan banned the legal import of Bollywood movies in 1965. Africa's local movie industry has also contributed to the declining popularity of Bollywood films.[78] Continued easing followed in 2009 and 2010.

video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks.[99] South America Bollywood movies are not influential in South America. Ideas.source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. In addition. Hollywood occupied the void created in the Russian film market. Lucky: No Time for Love was shot entirely in Russia. though Bollywood culture and dance is recognised. were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses. when it recruited Russian actress Kseniya Ryabinkina for the movie. or entirely. which demonstrated the contrast between the values. which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule. shot in New York. having seen the film. Los Angeles. Toronto and New York City.[96] Following the release of Salaam Namaste. The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values. The Yash Raj Film Salaam Namaste (2005) became the first Indian film to be shot entirely in Australia and was the most successful Bollywood film of 2005 in the country. among other Bollywood films.[34] In other words.[94] The film Mera Naam Joker (1970). Brazil. films from India do more business in the United States than films from any other non-English speaking country. to have more Indian movies shooting in the country to boost tourism. Vancouver and Toronto. However.[97] This was followed by Heyy Babyy (2007) Chak De! India (2007) and Singh Is Kinng (2008) which turned out to be box office successes. one of India's largest production houses and distributors. The films from India. on a visit to India the then Prime Minister John Howard also sought. plot lines. This made things difficult for Bollywood as it was losing market share to Hollywood.[96] Australia is one of the countries where there is a large South Asian Diaspora. and initially used it as the setting for song-and-dance sequences. The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. it ranks second to Hollywood in countries such as Fiji. In 2006.[96] Hindi films shot in Australia usually incorporate aspects of Australian lifestyle. who co-starred in Salaam Namaste.[34] Yash Raj Films. tunes or riffs have been copied from other . However. which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union.[100] Plagiarism Constrained by rushed production schedules and small budgets.[34] Numerous films in the mid1990s and onwards have been largely.[98] Australian actress Tania Zaetta. Australia and New Zealand. Australian locations are becoming more important to the plot of Bollywood films.[96] Indian filmmakers have been attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes.[96] Since 1997 the country has provided a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood films. reported in September 2005 that Bollywood films in the United States earn around $100 million a year through theater screenings. some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to resort to plagiarism. was further tightened with Steve Waugh's appointment as tourism ambassador to India. Bollywood is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well. Oceania Bollywood is not as successful in the Oceanic countries and Pacific Islands such as New Guinea. nowadays.[96] However.[95] North America Bollywood has experienced a marked growth in revenue in North American markets. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. sought to cater to such an appeal and the popularity of Raj Kapoor in Russia. In the contemporary era. where the Bollywood and cricket nexus. Russian newspapers report that there is a renewed interest in Bollywood among young Russians. expressed her keenness to expand her career in Bollywood. with its large Indian minority. Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro. and is particularly popular amongst the South Asian communities in large cities as Chicago. After the collapse of the Soviet film distribution system. Bollywood's immersion in the traditional Hollywood domain was further tied with such films as The Guru (2002) and Marigold: An Adventure in India (2007) trying to popularise the Bollywood-theme for Hollywood.

The makers of Partner (2007) and Zinda (2005) have been targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films.[101] One of the common justifications of plagiarism in Bollywood is that producers often play a safer option by remaking popular Hollywood films in an Indian context. this could be done with impunity. their cars. their diet cokes and also their attitude. He said. Copyright enforcement was lax in India and few actors or directors ever saw an official contract.[104][105] American Studio Twentieth Century Fox brought the Mumbai-based B. Audiences may also not have been aware of the plagiarism since many audiences in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music. Copying is endemic everywhere in India. Screenwriters generally produce original scripts. with Orion Pictures recently securing the rights to remake the Hollywood film Wedding Crashers. Hitch and Oldboy.[101] Screenwriters themselves have been criticised for lack of creativity which happened due to tight schedules and restricted funds in the industry to employ better screenwriters. and due to the long time they take to decide a case.[106] Some on the other hand do comply with copyright law.[101] There have been some notable cases of conflict though.[103] Vikram Bhatt.[102] The Hindi film industry was not widely known to non-Indian audiences (excluding the Soviet states).[103] Certain filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood as an integral part of globalisation where American and western cultures are firmly embedding themselves into Indian culture. director of films such as Raaz. allegedly an illegal remake of its 1992 film My Cousin Vinny. but due to financial uncertainty and insecurity over the success of a film many were rejected.000.Indian film industries or foreign films (including Hollywood and other Asian films). B. paving the way for the film's release. a remake of What Lies Beneath. has spoken about the strong influence of American culture and desire to produce box office hits based along the same lines in Bollywood. in Bollywood films. Films eventually settled out of court by paying the studio at a cost of about $200. While copyright enforcement in India is still somewhat lenient. and Kasoor. Organizations like the India EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between film makers and industry professional between India and the EU. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. who would not even be aware that their material was being copied.[101] In past times. Films to court over its forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai. the free encyclopedia . This has led to criticism towards the film industry. "If you hide the source. Bollywood and other film industries are much more aware of each other now and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign movies and music. you're a genius. We want their films. a remake of Jagged Edge. amongst other mediums.R.[107] See also • • • • • • • • • Cinema of the world Bollywood songs Hindi dance songs Cinema of India List of Bollywood films List of highest-grossing Bollywood films List of Bollywood film clans Central Board of Film Certification Film City Tamil cinema From Wikipedia.R. The American way of life is creeping into our culture.[103] There have been very few cases of film copyright violations taken to court because of serious delays in the legal process."[103] Mahesh Bhatt has said. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere". which is manifested. I would be more secure knowing that a particular piece of work has already done well at the box office. "Financially. their planes.

including Telugu cinema. the State of Madras legislature passed the Entertainment Tax Act 1939. Contents [hide] • 1 History ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • • 1. including Sri Lanka. as well as Oceania. also referred to as the cinema of Tamil Nadu. Tamil films are distributed to various overseas theatres in South Asia. Western Europe. By the end of the 1930s. including Japan and South Korea. North America. Tamil–language films are further made in other countries. Today.[1] Silent movies were produced in Chennai since 1916 and the era of talkies dawned in 1931 with the film Kalidas. and other significant Tamil diaspora regions.1 Distribution business model 5. Tamil cinema (Tamil: தமிழ் சினிமா . see List of Sri Lankan Tamil films and List of Canadian Tamil films.3 Film music 1. or Chennai film industry) is the Tamil language filmmaking industry.2 Exhibition business model • • • • • 6 Industrial trends 7 Domestic exhibitors 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading [edit] History A visiting European exhibitor first screened (date unknown) a selection of silent short films at the Victoria Public Hall in Madras. Hindi cinema. ahead of Mumbai.4 Politics 2 Distribution and popularity 3 Actors 4 Union associations 5 Business model ○ ○ 5. Tamil cinema is known for being India's second largest film industry after Hindi Film Industry in terms of revenue and worldwide distribution.2 Film studios 1. Kannada cinema. with Chennai becoming a hub for the filmmaking industries of other languages. Sinhalese cinema and Sri Lankan Tamil cinema in the 1900s.Jump to: navigation. which has led to a reference to the district and industry as Kollywood (Tamil: ோகாலிவுட் kōlivūṭ). and Malaysia. The films all featured non-fictional subjects. a portmanteau of the words Kodambakkam and Hollywood. Singapore. It is based in Chennai's Kodambakkam district.1 Early exhibitors 1. where Tamil language feature films are produced. they were mostly photographed records of day-to-day events. Tamil Nadu cinema has had a profound effect on the film making industries of India. the Tamil film ா industry. Malayalam cinema. Southern Africa. based in Chennai. East Asia. which makes it a legal claim to be the real Indian film capital. [edit] Early exhibitors . Tamil Nadu. search For other regional Tamil film industries. India.

purchased a film projector and silent films from the Frenchman Du Pont and set up a business as film exhibitor. [edit] Film studios 1916 marked the birth of Tamil cinema with the first Madras production and South Indian film release Keechaka Vaadham (The Destruction of Keechaka). most of the pre-independence era drama and stage actors joined the movie industry from the 1940s. K. made up of a film projector to which a gramophone with a disc containing prerecorded sound was linked. with the undivided Madras Presidency being the Capital to most of South India. there were usually three classes of tickets: the floor. A British company imported a Crone megaphone. Its major attraction was the screening of short films accompanied by sound. a successful photographer. a grand exhibition was organised in Madras. Vijaya Vauhini Studios and Gemini Studios. full-fledged Movie studios were built in Salem (Modern Theatres Studio) and Coimbatore (Central Studios. chair. In tent cinemas. The Lyric Theatre was also built in the Mount Road area. Chennai became the hub of Studio activity with two more movie Studios built in Chennai. It was a favourite haunt of the British community in Madras. AVM Studios shifted its operations to Chennai. Also. His tent cinema became popular and he travelled all over the state with his mobile unit. or he could turn over and take a short nap when the narrative was particularly dull and roll back again when the action was again to his liking—luxuries in which the upper class could never indulge. built in 1912 a permanent cinema in the Mount Road area named Gaiety Theatre. In Madras (now known as Chennai). Neptune. including plays in English. flush with funds. and ballroom dances. Thus. Chennai became the center for Tamil. there was no synched dialogue. This building is now part of a post office complex on Anna Salai (Mount Road). Later. This venue boasted a variety of events. To celebrate the event of King George V's visit in 1909. Silent films were also screened as an additional attraction. Later some movies featuring M. but he enjoyed certain advantages that other patrons did not. and Chennai became the hub for South Indian–language film production and Sri Lankan cinema before independence. took over the equipment after the exhibition and set up a tent cinema near the Madras High Court. In the 1930s AVM set up its makeshift studio in the town of Karaikudi. It was the first in Madras to screen films on a full-time basis. Venkiah. an employee of the South Indian Railways in Trichy. Samikannu Vincent. However. The theatre was shut down after a few years. This theatre is still functioning.and notable Telugu-language movies. In later years. Western classical music concerts. bench and. and Pakshiraja). R. He could sit as he pleased.[2] During the 1920s. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar were shot in Pune and Calcutta. Raghupathy Venkiah Naidu. He erected tents for screening films. silent Tamil-language movies were shot at makeshift locations in and around Chennai. they were sent to Pune or Calcutta. and for technical processing. and both were run in unison.A scene from the Tamil movie Chandralekha released in 1948. and during the same decade. By the mid 1940s. [edit] Film music Main article: Music of Tamil Nadu . the Electric Theatre was established for the screening of silent films. producing picture and sound simultaneously. although under different ownership. The floor-ticket purchaser sat on sand to watch the movie. he produced talkies and also built a cinema in Coimbatore.

[edit] Distribution and popularity See also: List of Tamil-language films and List of highest-grossing Tamil-language films Tamil films constitute India's most popular films along with Hindi films.[8] Tamil films enjoy significant patronage in neighbouring Indian states like Kerala. Many successful Tamil films have been remade by the Hindi and Telugu film industries. Ravikumar-directed Dasavathaaram. N. The film My Magic directed by Singaporean Eric Khoo became Singapore's first film to be nominated for the Palme d'Or at Cannes. where stories. Films like Thevar Magan. . Quite often. dating from the earliest days of regional cinema. and Indira. Kanchivaram. South Africa. Sri Lanka.[3][4] Other prominent Tamil film score and soundtrack composers in the industry include Yuvan Shankar Raja. thus reaching a much wider audience. Singapore.000 Tamil films were produced in the 20th century. It is not uncommon to see movies that feature dialogue studded with English words and phrases. Karthik Raja and Vidyasagar. Ravikumar. Rahman are music directors from the Chennai film industry and have an international following. with interest in Tamil film songs being re-ignited with the audio revolution. They have recently become popular in Japan (particularly Muthu. Aascar Films. M. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs in Chennai films. Jayalalithaa was also an actress. themes and characters derived from Tamil traditional folk ballads have inspired screenplays and have become vehicles for creating future politicians. syncretic style of film music across the world. Harris Jayaraj. S. S. Mani Ratnam's Nayagan (1987) was included in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list. G. Veyyil and Ameer Sultan's Paruthiveeran. directed by Priyadarshan. who was a commercial film actor. with large audience turnout from the Tamil diaspora alongside Hindi films.Ilaiyaraaja and A. Tamil language films are produced in other cinema hubs. In Kerala and Karnataka the films are directly released in Tamil but in Andhra Pradesh they are generally dubbed into Telugu. Some movies are also simultaneously made in two or three languages (either using subtitles or several soundtracks).[6] The first non congress Chief Minister C. Viswanathan was popular. Annadurai and the current Chief Minister M. Ayngaran International and BIG Cinemas have emerged as the top distributors for Tamil films in the UK and US markets respectively.Sekar. S. Karunanidhi were directors and script writers. The current opposition leader J. was distributed by Walt Disney Pictures in Canada. was selected to be premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival. It is estimated by the Manorama Yearbook 2000 (a popular almanac) that over 5. Rajeswara Rao was based in Chennai from the 1940s. as have composers from other film industries. K.[7] They have one of the widest overseas distribution. directed by Suhasini Mani Ratnam). directed by K. Tamil films have also been dubbed into other languages. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Ramachandran. AGS Entertainment. During the 2000's film composer M. [5] [edit] Politics Main article: Tamil cinema and Dravidian politics The Tamil film industry has a long intertwining link with politics. More recently. Indian and Jeans had been selected by India for Best Foreign Language Film for the Academy Awards. The Chennai film industry produced the first nationally distributed film across India in 1948 with Chandralekha. Tamil movies feature Madras Tamil. Canada and Malaysia. Several international composers have used Chennai's studios to record music for projects. R. had served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for more than a decade. such as Mani Ratnam's Kannathil Muthamittal. or even whole sentences. Pyramid Saimira. Tamil films have enjoyed consistent popularity among populations in India. Many Tamil-language films have premiered or have been selected as special presentations at various prestigious film festivals across the world. Within India. S. The most successful Tamil film ever. Chennai's film composers have popularised their highly unique. a colloquial version of Tamil spoken in Chennai. And current members of legislative assembly(MLA) of Tamil Nadu includes Vijayakanth and S.Ve. et al handle distribution.

commission. 2. So. K. show rentals. Rather than forming separate and distinct groups. Rajinikanth and Kamal Haasan have maintained a strong grip on the box office despite the introduction of new technologies and business models. print costs and publicity costs. Formed in 1952 under the leadership of actor Sivaji Ganesan[citation needed]. A more general association that incorporates all kinds of film personalities (actors. the entire risk of box office performance of the film . they govern film or media-related problems or conflicts that may arise to its members. part-financing of film (incase of minimum guarantee / advance based purchase of film rights) 2. in efforts to make positive changes in the Indian and Tamil society. Vijay. the distributor becomes a "financier" in the eyes of the market. localised marketing of film 3. such as lighting technicians and stunt coordinators. etc. Surya and Silambarasan have become dominant. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar during the 1940s. Chinnappa and M. selection of exhibition halls 4. the producer sells the distribution rights for a defined territory for a minimum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. These associations are based on profession in the industry. composers. Minimum Guarantee + Royalty . Commission . Ajith. Specifically. directors. The distributor performs enhanced functions such as: 1.[12] [edit] Distribution business model The distributor purchases theatrical distribution rights from the producer for exhibiting the film in a defined territory. The current president of the association is the actor-turned-politician R. The most notable association is the South Indian Film Artistes' Association which is a group of all prominent Tamil film actors. Ramachandran and Sivaji Ganesan.[edit] Actors Further information: List of Tamil film actors ○ ○ ○ Tamil cinema was dominated by P. each association occasionally collaborate for certain events. This is the most common channel available to high budget producers.[9][10] From the 1950s through the 1970s. Vikram. U.) include the well known Film Employees' Federation of South India (FEFSI). who often meet to make cinema-related decisions. in a pre-set ratio (typically 1:2) after deducting entertainment tax. such as a directors' association or producers' association. ○ [edit] Union associations The industry includes several groups who organize their own events based on different issues of major concern.[11] From the 1980s till date. Effectively. producers. distributor and exhibitor. headed by film producer Rama Narayanan. the industry was dominated by M. Any surplus is shared between the producer and distributor.Here. Other associations include the Association of Tamil Film Directors which is headed by director Bharathiraja and the Tamil Film Producers' Council. cinematographers. Sarath Kumar. the distributor pays the producer the entire box office collection after deducting commission. managing the logistics of physical print distribution There are three popular approaches to transfer of distribution rights via distribution contracts: 1.Here. G. [edit] Business model There are 3 major roles in the Tamil film value chain viz producer. the association has continued to conduct several protests and hunger strikes for certain political and humanitarian issues. Since the 2000s. They often successfully pledge for the welfare of low-income film workers.

This is the most common channel preferred by multiplex screens. the entire box office collection of the film after deducting entertainment tax. DVD and other intellectual property rights. Outright Sale . 3. Revenue Share . Minimum Guarantee + Royalty . This is the most common channel preferred by single screens. Effectively. the exhibitor pays the distributor the entire box office collection after deducting entertainment tax and show rentals. So. Any surplus after deducting entertainment tax and show rental is shared in a pre-set ratio (typically 2:1) between the exhibitor and distributor.Here. This is the most common channel available to low budget producers. the exhibitor pays the distributor a minimum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. The film was released in 609 screens worldwide with subtitles. the entire risk of box office performance of the film is shared between the exhibitor and distributor. the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the distributor.1% of the gross domestic product of the state of Tamil Nadu. celebrity branding. 3. with proven track record. The data excludes the market segments of in-film advertisement. mobile entertainment. Any surplus after deducting entertainment tax is retained by the exhibitor. But risk of deficit remains with the exhibitor. In the year 2007 a record 108 movies were released.Here. the exhibitor shares with the distributor. The Tamil film market accounts for approximately 0. 2. Rental is not chargeable per show. [edit] Exhibition business model There are four popular approaches to transfer of exhibition rights via exhibition contracts: 1. Given below is a chart of trend of box office collections of cinemas in Tamil Nadu with figures in millions of United States Dollars. the exhibitor becomes a "producer" in the eyes of the market.Here. stage. the producer sells all distribution and theatrical rights for a defined territory exclusively to a distributor. So. [edit] Industrial trends Annual film output in Tamil market Average annual film output in Tamil film industry peaked in 1985.Here.Here. returns have to be filed by the exhibitors weekly (usually each Tuesday). Theatre Hire . the distributor becomes a "producer" in the eyes of the market. 4. This is the most common channel for low budget films. casting established front-runners. So. the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the exhibitor. So. Chandralekha produced in 1948 at a cost of almost $600. Effectively. casting rank newcomers. Rental is not chargeable per show. This is the most common channel for high budget films. with unproven track record. [14] Costs of production .[13] For the purpose of entertainment taxes.000 ($28 million in 2008 prices) remains the most expensive Tamil film ever. the exhibitor pays the distributor a maximum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film.remains with the producer. Fixed Hire . the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the distributor. in a pre-set ratio (typically 1:2).

[15] . The first film to be released after the new Order was Unakkum Enakkum. Similarly.[citation needed] The Tamil Nadu government has made provisions for an entertainment tax exemption for Tamil movies having pure Tamil word(s) in the title. This is in accordance with Government Order 72 passed on July 22. 2006. [edit] Domestic exhibitors There are about 1800 cinema-halls located in Tamil Nadu. costs of processing per print have risen from just under 2.000 by 2005.500 in 1980 to nearly 70.have grown exponentially from just under 40 lakhs in 1980 to over 11 crores by 2005 for a typical starstudded big-budget film. The original title had been Something Something Unakkum Ennakkum. a half-English and a half-Tamil title.

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