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A Complete Resource Book in

Mathematics

for JEE Main 2017

Dr Dinesh Khattar

Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi

The aim of this publication is to supply information taken from sources believed to be valid and reliable. This is not an

attempt to render any type of professional advice or analysis, nor is it to be treated as such. While much care has been

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No part of this Book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without the publisher’s prior written

consent.

ISBN 978-93-325-7030-6

First Impression

Published by Pearson India Education Services Pvt. Ltd, CIN: U72200TN2005PTC057128.

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Printed in India by

Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

Chapter 23 Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion 231–2324

viii Contents

Preface

A Complete Resource Book for JEE Main series is a must-have resource for students preparing for JEE Main examination.

There are three separate books on Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics; the main objective of this series is to strengthen

the fundamental concepts and prepare students for various engineering entrance examinations. It provides class-tested

course material and numerical applications that will supplement any ready material available as student resource.

To ensure high level of accuracy and practicality, this series has been authored by highly qualified and experienced

faculties for all three titles.

About the Book

This book, A Complete Resource Book in Mathematics for JEE Main 2019, covers both the text and various types of prob-

lems required as per the syllabus of JEE Main examination. It also explains various short-cut methods and techniques to

solve objective questions in lesser time.

Salient Features

• Complete coverage of topics along with ample number of solved examples.

• Large variety of practice problems with complete solutions.

• Chapter-wise Previous 15 years’ AIEEE/JEE Main questions.

• 5 Mock Tests based on JEE Main pattern in the book.

• 5 Free Online Mock Tests as per the recent JEE Main pattern.

It would have been difficult to prepare this book without aid and support from a number of different quarters. I shall be

grateful to the readers for their regular feedback. I am deeply indebted to my parents without whose encouragement this

dream could not have been translated into reality. The cherubic smiles of my daughters, Nikita and Nishita, have inspired

me to treat my work as worship.

Anuj Agarwal from IIT-Delhi, Ankit Katial from National Institute of Technology (Kurukshetra) and Raudrashish

Chakraborty from Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, with whom I have had fruitful discussions, deserve special

mention.

I earnestly hope that the book will help the students grasp the subject well and respond with a commendable score in

the JEE Main examination. There are a plethora of options available to students for Mathematics, however, ever grateful to

them and to the readers for their candid feedback.

Despite of our best eff orts, some errors may have crept into the book. Constructive comments and suggestions to

further improve the book are welcome and shall be acknowledged gratefully.

Best of luck!

Dinesh Khattar

Set Theory 1.1

CHaPtER

1 Set Theory

Chapter Highlights

Set, Representation of a set, Types of sets, Operations on sets, Algebra of sets, Cartesian product of two sets,

Relations, Types of relations on a set, Equivalence relation, Congruence modulo m.

seT

i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S

A set is a well defined collection of objects such that given

an object, it is possible to determine whether that object In roster form, every element of the set is listed only

belongs to the given collection or not. once.

For example, the collection of all students of Delhi The order in which the elements are listed is immaterial

University is a set, whereas, collection of all good books For example, each of the following sets denotes the same

on mathematics is not a set, since a mathematics book con- set {1, 2, 3}, {3, 2, 1}, {1, 3, 2}.

sidered good by one person might be considered bad or

average by another.

set-builder form

notations In this form, we write a variable (say x) representing any

member of the set followed by a property satisfied by each

The sets are usually denoted by capital letters A, B, C, etc.

member of the set.

and the members or elements of the set are denoted by

For example, the set A of all prime numbers less than

lower-case letters a, b, c etc. If x is a member of the set A,

10 in the set-builder form is written as

we write x ∈ A (read as ‘x belongs to A’) and if x is not a

member of the set A, we write x ∉ A (read as ‘x does not A = {x | x is a prime number less than 10}

belong to A’). If x and y both belong to A, we write x, y ∈ A.

The symbol ‘|’ stands for the words ‘such that’. Sometimes,

we use the symbol ‘:’ in place of the symbol ‘|’.

rePresenTaTion of a seT

Usually, sets are represented in the following two ways: TYPes of seTs

1. Roster form or tabular form empty set or null set

2. Set builder form or rule method

A set which has no element is called the null set or empty

roster form set. It is denoted by the symbol Φ.

For example, each of the following is a null set:

In this form, we list all the members of the set within braces

(curly brackets) and separate these by commas. 1. The set of all real numbers whose square is –1.

For example, the set A of all odd natural numbers less 2. The set of all rational numbers whose square is 2.

than 10 in the roster form is written as: 3. The set of all those integers that are both even and odd.

set.

1.2 Chapter 1

singleton set For example, let A = {3, 4}, then the subsets of A are f,

{3}, {4}, {3, 4}. Here, n(A) = 2 and number of subsets of

A set having only one element is called singleton set.

For example, {0} is a singleton set, whose only A = 22 = 4.

member is 0. Also, {3} ⊂ {3, 4} and {2, 3} ⊄ {3, 4}

A set which has finite number of elements is called a ﬁnite The set of all subsets of a given set A is called the power set

set. Otherwise, it is called an inﬁnite set. of A and is denoted by P(A).

For example, the set of all days in a week is a finite For example, if A = {1, 2, 3}, then

set whereas, the set of all integers, denoted by {…, – 2, – 1, P(A) = [f, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2} {1, 3}, {2, 3}, {1, 2, 3}]

0, 1, 2, …} or {x | x is an integer}, is an infinite set.

An empty set Φ which has no element, is a finite set. Clearly, if A has n elements, then its power set P(A) contains

The number of distinct elements in a finite set A is exactly 2n elements.

called the cardinal number of the set A and it is denoted

by n (A). Trick(s) for Problem solving

or Cardinal Number of P{P[P(f)]} = 4

Two sets A and B are said to be equal, written as A = B, if Since, P (f) = {f}

every element of A is in B and every element of B is in A. Also, P [P (f)] = {f, {f}}

and P {P[P (f)]} = {f, {f}, [{f}], [f, {f}]}

equivalent sets

Hence, n [P {P[P (f)]}] = 4

Two finite sets A and B are said to be equivalent, if n(A) =

n(B).

euler–venn diagrams

caution To express the relationship among sets, we represent them

pictorially by means of diagrams, known as Euler–Venn

Equal sets are equivalent but equivalent sets need not be Diagrams or simply Venn diagrams.

equal.

In Venn diagrams, the universal set U is represented

For example, the sets A = {4, 5, 3, 2} and B = {1, 6, by the rectangular region and its subsets are represented by

8, 9} are equivalent but are not equal.

closed bounded circles inside this rectangular region.

Let A and B be two sets. If every element of A is an element Union of Two sets

of B, then A is called a subset of B and we write A ⊆ B or

B ⊇ A (read as ‘A is contained in B’ or B contains A’). B is The union of two sets A and B, written as A ∪ B (read as

called superset of A. ‘A union B’), is the set consisting of all the elements which

are either in A or in B or in both. Thus,

A ∪ B = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ B}

i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S

Clearly, x∈A∪B

If A ⊆ B and A ≠ B, we write A ⊂ B or B ⊃ A (read as : A ⇒ x∈A

is a proper subset of B or B is a proper superset of A).

or x ∈ B,

Every set is a subset and a superset of itself.

x∉A∪B

and

If A is not a subset of B, we write A ⊄ B.

⇒ x∉A

The empty set is the subset of every set.

If A is a set with n (A) = m, then the number of subsets and x ∉ B.

of A are 2m and the number of proper subsets of A are

For example, if A = {a, b, c d} and B = {c, d, e, f }, then

2m–1.

A ∪ B = {a, b, c, d, e, f }.

Set Theory 1.3

Similarly,

U

B – A = {x: x ∈ B and x ∉ A}

A∪B For example,

if A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9},

A B

then A – B = {2, 4} and B – A = {7, 9}

Fig. 1.1

as ‘A intersection B’) is the set consisting of all the com-

mon elements of A and B. Thus,

A B A B

A ∩ B = {x: x ∈ A and x ∈ B}

Fig. 1.4(a–b)

Clearly, x∈A∩B

⇒ x ∈ A and x ∈ B,

notE

and x∉A∩B

⇒ x ∉ A or x ∉ B. A–B≠B–A

The sets A – B, B – A and A ∩ B are disjoint sets

For example, if A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {c, d, e, f }, then A – B ⊆ A and B – A ⊆ B

A ∩ B = {c, d}.

A – f = A and A – A = f

U

symmetric difference of Two sets

A∩B

The symmetric difference of two sets A and B, denoted by

A D B, is defined as

A B A D B = (A – B) ∪ (B – A).

Fig. 1.2 For example, if A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

then A D B = (A – B) ∪ (B – A) = {2, 4} ∪ {7, 9} = {2, 4,

disjoint sets 7, 9}.

Two sets A and B are said to be disjoint, if A ∩ B = f, i.e., A

and B have no element in common.

For example, if A = {1, 2, 5} and B = {2, 4, 6}, then

A ∩ B = f, so A and B are disjoint sets.

U B

Fig. 1.5

A B

complement of a set

Fig. 1.3 If U is a universal set and A is a subset of U, then the com-

plement of A is the set which contains those elements of

difference of Two sets U, which are not contained in A and is denoted by A′ or Ac.

Thus,

If A and B are two sets, then their difference A – B is defined as

A′ = {x: x ∈ U and x ∉ A}

A – B = {x: x ∈ A and x ∉ B}

1.4 Chapter 1

if U = {1, 2, 3, 4, …} and A = {2, 4, 6, 8, …}, (b) (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′

(c) A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C)

then, A′ = {1, 3, 5, 7, …}

(d) A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C)

1. A ⊆ A ∪ B, B ⊆ A ∪ B, A ∩ B ⊆ A, A ∩ B ⊆ B

A 2. A – B = A ∩ B′

3. (A – B) ∪ B = A ∪ B

4. (A – B) ∩ B = f

A′

5. A ⊆ B ⇔ B′ ⊆ A′

6. A – B = B′ – A′

Fig. 1.6

7. (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ B′) = A

8. A ∪ B = (A – B) ∪ (B – A) ∪ (A ∩ B)

9. A – (A – B) = A ∩ B

notE 10. A–B=B–A⇔A=B

11. A∪B=A∩B⇔A=B

U′ = f

12. A ∩ (B D C) = (A ∩ B) D (A ∩ C)

f′ = U

A ∪ A′ = U

some results about cardinal number

A ∩ A′ = f

If A, B and C are finite sets and U be the finite universal

set, then

algebra of seTs 1. n (A′) = n (U) – n (A)

2. n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A ∩ B)

1. Idempotent Laws: For any set A, we have 3. n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n(B),

(a) A ∪ A = A where A and B are disjoint non-empty sets

(b) A ∩ A = A 4. n (A ∩ B′) = n (A) – n (A ∩ B)

2. Identity Laws: For any set A, we have: 5. n (A′ ∩ B′) = n (A ∪ B) ‘ = n (U) – n (A ∪ B)

(a) A ∪ f = A 6. n (A′ ∪ B′) = n (A ∩ B) ‘ = n (U) – n (A ∩ B)

(b) A ∩ f = f 7. n (A – B) = n (A) – n (A ∩ B)

(c) A ∪ U = U 8. n (A ∩ B) = n (A ∪ B) – n (A ∩ B′) – n (A′ ∩ B)

(d) A ∩ U = A 9. n (A ∪ B ∪ C) = n (A) + n (B) + n (C) – n (A ∩ B)

3. Commutative Laws: For any two sets A and B, we – n (B ∩ C) – n (C ∩ A) + n (A ∩ B ∩ C)

have 10. If A1, A2, A3, … An are disjoint sets, then

(a) A ∪ B = B ∪ A n (A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3 ∪ … ∪ An) = n (A1) + n (A2) + n (A3)

(b) A ∩ B = B ∩ A + … + n (An)

4. Associative Laws: For any three sets A, B and C, we 11. n (A D B) = number of elements which belong to

have exactly one of A or B

(a) A ∪ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∪ C

(b) A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C

5. Distributive Laws: For any three sets A, B and C, we carTesian ProdUcT of Two seTs

have

If A and B are any two non-empty sets, then cartesian

(a) A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)

product of A and B is defined as

(b) A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)

6. For any two sets A and B, we have A × B = [(a, b) : a ∈ A and b ∈ B]

(a) P(A) ∩ P(B) = P(A ∩ B)

(b) P(A) ∪ P(B) ⊆ P(A ∪ B), where P(A) is the power

set of A. caution

7. If A is any set, we have (A′)′ = A.

8. Demorgan’s Laws: For any three sets A, B and C, we A×B≠B×A

have

Set Theory 1.5

⇒ 50 = 35 + 24 – n (A ∩ B)

Trick(s) for Problem Solving

⇒ n(A ∩ B) = 59 – 50 = 9.

If A = f or B = f, then we define A × B = f.

2. Let A = {2, 3, 4} and X = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}, then which of

If A has n elements and B has m elements then A × B has

mn elements.

the following statements is correct?

If A1, A2, …, Ap are p non-empty sets, then their cartesian

(A) {0} ∈ A′ in X

p (B) f ∈ A′ with respect to. X

product, is defined as ∏ Ai = [(a1, a2, a3, …, ap); ai ∈ Ai (C) {0} ⊂ A′ with respect to X

i =1

for all i] (D) 0 ⊂ A′ with respect to X.

Solution: (C)

Key Results on Cartesian Product We have, A′ in X = The set of elements in X which are

not in A = {0, 1}

If A, B, C are three sets, then {0} ∈ A′ in X is false, because {0} is not an e lement

1. A × (B ∪ C) = (A × B) ∪ (A × C) of A′ in X.

2. A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C) f ⊂ A′ in X is false, because f is not an element

3. A × (B – C) = (A × B) – (A × C) of A′ in X

4. (A × B) ∩ (S × T) = (A ∩ S) × (B ∩ T), {0} ⊂ A′ in X is correct, because the only element

where S and T are two sets. of {0} namely 0 also belongs to A′ in X.

5. If A ⊆ B, then (A × C) ⊆ (B × C) 0 ⊂ A′ in X is false, because 0 is not a set.

6. If A ⊆ B, then (A × B) ∩ (B × A) = A2 3. If X = {8n – 7 n – 1/n ∈ N} and Y = {49 (n – 1)/n ∈ N},

7. If A ⊆ B and C ⊆ D then A × C ⊆ B × D then

8. If A ⊆ B, then A × A ⊆ (A × B) ∩ (B × A)

(A) X ⊂ Y (B) Y⊂X

9. If A and B are two non-empty sets having n elements

(C) X = Y (D) None of these

in common, then A × B and B × A have n2 elements in

common. Solution: (A)

10. A × B = B × A if and only if A = B We have, 8n – 7n – 1

11. A × (B′ ∪ C ′)′ = (A × B) ∩ (A × C)

= (7 + 1)n – 7n – 1 = (nC272 + nC373 + … + nCn7n)

12. A × (B′ ∩ C ′) ‘ = (A × B) ∪ (A × C)

= 49(nC2 + nC37 + … + nCn7n – 2) for n ≥ 2

Solved Examples For n = 1, 8n – 7n – 1 = 0

Thus, 8n – 7 n – 1 is a multiple of 49 for n ≥ 2 and

1. If n (U) = 60, n (A) = 35, n (B) = 24 and n (A ∪ B)′ = 0 for n = 1. Hence, X consists of all positive integral

10 then n (A ∩ B) is multiples of 49 of the form 49 Kn. where Kn = nC2 +

(A) 9 (B) 8

n

C37 + … + nCn7n – 2 together with zero. Also, Y con-

(C) 6 (D) None of these sists of all positive integral multiples of 49 including

zero. Therefore, X ⊂ Y.

Solution: (A)

4. The set (A ∪ B ∪ C) ∩ (A ∩ B′ ∩ C′)′ ∩ C′ is equal to

We have,

(A) A ∩ B (B) A ∩ C ′

n(A ∪ B) = n (U) – n(A ∪ B)′ = 60 – 10 = 50 (C) B ∩ C ′ (D) B′ ∩ C ′

Now, n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n(B) – n(A ∩ B) Solution: (C)

U (A ∪ B ∪ C) ∩ (A ∩ B′ ∩ C ′)′ ∩ C ′

(A ∪ B)′

= (A ∪ B ∪ C) ∩ (A′ ∪ B ∪ C) ∩ C ′

A B

= [(A ∩ A′) ∪ (B ∪ C)] ∩ C ′

= (f ∪ B ∪ C) ∩ C ′ = (B ∪ C) ∩ C ′

= (B ∩ C ′) ∪ (C ∩ C ′)

A∩B

= (B ∩ C ′) ∪ f = B ∩ C ′

1.6 Chapter 1

(A – B) ∪ (B – A) equals

= {x : x ∈ R and x ≥ 2} ∪ {x : x ∈ R and x ≤ 0}

(A) (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∪ B) (B) (A ∪ B) – (A ∩ B)

(C) A – (A ∩ B) (D) (A ∪ B) – B Similarly,

Solution: (B) B′ = {x : x ∈ R and x ≤ 1} ∪ {x : x ∈ R and x > 3}

A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ R and 1 < x < 2}

A – B = {x : x ∈ R and 0 < x ≤ 1}

A B 9. If Y ∪ {1, 2} = {1, 2, 3, 5, 9}, then

(A) The smallest set of Y is {3, 5, 9}

(B) The smallest set of Y is {2, 3, 5, 9}

A−B A∩B B−A (C) The largest set of Y is {1, 2, 3, 4, 9}

(D) The largest set of Y is {2, 3, 4, 9}

6. Let A and B two non-empty subsets of a set X such that

A is not a subset of B then Solution: (A and C)

(A) A is subset of the complement of B Since the set on the right hand side has 5 elements,

(C) B is a subset of A \ smallest set of Y has three elements and largest

(C) A and B are disjoint set of Y has five elements,

(D) A and the complement of B are non-disjoint \ smallest set of Y is {3, 5, 9}

and largest set of Y is {1, 2, 3, 4, 9}.

Solution: (D)

10. If A has 3 elements and B has 6 elements, then the

Since A ⊄ B, $ x ∈ A such that x ∉ B

minimum number of elements in the set A ∪ B is

Then x ∈ B ′. (A) 6 (B) 3

\ A ∩ B ′ ≠ f (C) f (D) None of these

7. Two finite sets have m and n elements, then total number Solution: (A)

of subsets of the first set is 56 more that the total number Clearly the number of elements in A ∪ B will be mini-

of subsets of the second. The values of m and n are, mum when A ⊂ B. Hence the minimum number of ele-

(A) 7, 6 (B) 6, 3 (D) 5, 1 (D) 8, 7 ments in A ∪ B is the same as the number of elements

in B, that is, 6.

Solution: (B)

11. Suppose A1, A2, … A30 are thirty sets, each with five

Since the two finite sets have m and n elements, so

elements and B1, B2, …, Bn are n sets each with three

number of subsets of these sets will be 2m and 2n

30 n

respectively. According to the question

m n

elements. Let ∪ Ai = ∪ Bj =S

2 – 2 = 56 i =1 j =1

If each element of S belongs to exactly ten of the Ai′s

putting m = 6, n = 3, we get and exactly nine of the Bj′s then n =

26 – 23 = 56 or 64 – 8 = 56 (A) 45 (B) 35

(C) 40 (D) None of these

8. Let U = R (the set of all real numbers) If A = {x : x ∈

R, 0 < x < 2}, B = {x : x ∈ R, 1 < x ≤ 3}, then Solution: (A)

(A) A ∪ B = {x : x ∈ R and 0 < x ≤ 3} Given Ai′s are thirty sets with five elements each, so

(B) A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ R and 1 < x < 2} 30

(C) A – B = {x : x ∈ R and 0 < x ≤ 1} ∑ n ( Ai ) = 5 × 30 = 150 (1)

i =1

(D) All of these

If there are m distinct elements in S and each element

Solution: (D) of S belongs to exactly 10 of the Ai′s, we have

We have 30

A′ = R – A = {x : ∈ R and x ∉ A}

∑ n ( Ai ) = 10 m (2)

i =1

Set Theory 1.7

\ From Eq. (1) and (2), we get ∵ n (A ∪ B) = n(A) + n(B) – n(A ∩ B)

10 m = 150 65 = 40 + n (B) – 10

\ m = 15 (3) n (B) = 65 – 40 + 10 = 35

30 30

Similarly ∑ n ( B j ) = 3n and ∑ n ( B j ) = 9 m Number of people who like only tennis

j =1 j =1

= n(B) – n (A ∩ B) = 35 – 10 = 25

\ 3 n = 9 m \ Number of people who like tennis only and not

9m cricket = 25.

⇒ n= = 3 m = 3 × 15 = 45 [from (3)]

3

15. In a group of 1000 people, there are 750 people who

Hence, n = 45.

can speak Hindi and 400 who can speak English. Then

12. If A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17}, B = {2, 4, …, 18} number of persons who can speak Hindi only is

and N is the universal set, then A′ ∪ ((A ∪ B) ∩ B′) is (A) 300 (B) 400

(A) A (B) N (C) 600 (D) None of these

(C) B (D) None of these

Solution: (C)

Solution: (B) Here

We have,

n(H ∪ E) = 1000, n (H) = 750,

(A ∪ B) ∩ B′ = A

n (E) = 400

[(A ∪ B) ∩ B′] ∪ A′ = A ∪ A′ = N.

Using n(H ∪ E) = n(H) + n(E) – n(H ∩ E)

13. If X and Y are two sets and X′ denotes the complement 1000 = 750 + 400 – n (H ∩ E)

of X, then X ∩ (X ∪ Y)′ equals

⇒ n (H ∩ E) = 1150 – 1000 = 150.

(A) X (B) Y

(C) f (D) None of these U

Solution: (C)

H E

X ∩ (X ∪ Y)′ = X ∩ (X ′ ∩ Y ′)

[∵ By De-Morgan’s Law (A ∪ B)′ = (A′ ∩ B′)] 600 150 250

14. In a group of 65 people, 40 like cricket, 10 like both

cricket and tennis. The number of persons liking tennis

only and not cricket is Number of people who can speak Hindi only

(A) 21 (B) 25 = n(H ∩ E′) = n(H) – n(H ∩ E)

(C) 15 (D) None of these

= 750 – 150 = 600.

Solution: (B)

Let A be the set of people who like cricket and B the 16. If f : R → R, defined by f (x) = x2 + 1, then the values of

set of people who like tennis. f –1(17) and f –1(–3) respectively are

(A) f, {4, –4} (B) {3, –3}, f

Then n(A ∪ B) = 65 (C) f, {3, –3} (D) {4, –4}, f

n (A) = 40, n(A ∩ B) = 10 Solution: (D)

U Let y = x2 + 1. Then for y = 17,

we have x = ± 4 and for y = –3, x becomes imaginary

A B

that is, there is no value of x.

30 10 25

Hence, f (17) = {–4, 4}

and f–1(–3) = f

1.8 Chapter 1

Kolkata, it was found that 63 families had neither a

n(A ∪ B ∪ C) = n (A) + n(B) + n(C) – n(A ∩ B)

radio nor a TV, 794 families had a radio and 187 had a

TV. The number of families in that group having both – n(B ∩ C) – n(A ∩ C) + n(A ∩ B ∩ C)

a radio and a TV is

Substituting the above values, we have

(A) 36 (B) 41

(C) 32 (D) None of these 92 = 42 + 51 + 68 – 30 – 28 – 36 + n (A ∩ B ∩ C)

Solution: (B) ⇒ n (A ∩ B ∩ C) = 92 – 161 + 94

Let R be the set of families having a radio and T, the ⇒ n (A ∩ B ∩ C) = 92 – 67 = 25

set of families having a TV, then

n (R ∪ T) = The no. of families having at least one Hence, 25% of the people read all the three papers.

of radio and TV 19. Out of 800 boys in a school, 224 played cricket, 240

= 1003 – 63 = 940 played hockey and 336 played basketball. Of the total,

64 played both basketball and hockey; 80 played

n (R) = 794 and n(T) = 187 cricket and basketball and 40 played cricket and

Let x families had both a radio and a TV i.e., hockey; 24 played all the three games. The number of

boys who did not play any game is

∪

(A) 160 (B) 240 (C) 216 (D) 128

R T

Solution: (A)

794 – x

187 – x

n (H ∩ B) = 64, n (B ∩ C) = 80

n (H ∩ C) = 0, n (C ∩ H ∩ B) = 24

n (R ∩ T ) = x n (C c ∩ H c ∩ B c) = n [(C ∪ H ∪ B)c]

The number of families who have only radio = 794 – x = n (U) – n (C ∪ H ∪ B)

and the number of families who have only TV = 187 – x

From Venn diagram, = 800 – [n (C) + n (H) + n (B) – n (H ∩ C)

⇒ 981 – x = 940 or x = 981 – 940 = 41 = 800 – [224 + 240 + 336 – 64 – 80 – 40 + 24]

Hence, the required no. of families having both a radio = 800 – [824 – 184] = 984 – 824 = 160.

and a TV = 41. 20. In a certain town 25% families own a phone and 15%

18. In a city, three daily newspapers A, B, C are published. own a car, 65% families own neither a phone nor a car.

42% of the people in that city read A, 51% read B and 2000 families own both a car and a phone. Consider

68% read C. 30% read A and B; 28% read B and C; the following statements in this regard:

36% read A and C; 8% do not read any of the three 1. 10% families own both a car and a phone.

newspapers. The percentage of persons who read all 2. 35% families own either a car or a phone.

the three papers is 3. 40,000 families live in the town.

(A) 25% (B) 18% Which of the above statements are correct?

(C) 20% (D) None of these (A) 1 and 2 (B) 1 and 3

(C) 2 and 3 (D) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: (A)

Solution: (C)

Let the no. of persons in the city be 100.

Then we have n(P) = 25%, n(C) = 15%,

n (A) = 42, n (B) = 51, n (C) = 68;

n (P ′ ∩ C ′) = 65%, n (P ∩ C) = 2000

n (A ∩ B) = 30, n(B ∩ C) = 28, n(A ∩ C) = 36

n (A ∪ B ∪ C) = 100 – 8 = 92 Since, n (P ′ ∩ C ′) = 65%

Set Theory 1.9

Also, if x ∈ I, then the solution set is {0, 4}.

\ n(P ∪ C) = 35%

Further, since there is no root of the form a + ib,

Now, n (P ∪ C) = n (P) + n (C) – n (P ∩ C) where a, b are real and b ≠ 0,

\ if x ∈ S = {a + ib : b ≠ 0, a, b ∈ R} then the

\ 35 = 25 + 15 – n (P ∩ C)

solution set is f.

\ n (P ∩ C) = 40 – 35 = 5

Thus, n(P ∩ C) = 5% relaTions

But, n(P ∩ C) = 2000 Let A, B be any two non-empty sets, then every subset of

A × B defines a relation from A to B and every relation from

\ 5% of the total = 2000 A to B is a subset of A × B.

2000 × 100 If R is a relation from A to B and if (a, b) ∈ R, then

\ total no. of families = = 40000 we write a R b and say that ‘a is related to b’ and if (a, b)

5

∉ R, then we write a R b and say that a is not related to b.

\ n(P ∪ C) = 35%,

Total no. of families = 40,000 and n(P ∩ C) = 5%. key results on relations

21. If P, Q and R are subsets of a set A, then R × (P ′ ∪ Q′)′ 1. Every subset of A × A is said to be a relation on A.

equals 2. If A has m elements and B has n elements, then A × B

(A) (R × P) ∩ (R × Q) (B) (R × Q) ∩ (R × P) has mn elements and total number of different relations

(C) (R × P) ∪ (R × Q) (D) None of these from A to B is 2mn.

3. Let R be a relation from A to B, i.e. R ⊆ A × B, then

Solution: (A)

Domain of R = {a : a ∈ A, (a, b) ∈ R for some b ∈ B}

R × (P′ ∪ Q′)′ = R × [(P ′)′ ∩ (Q ′)′] Range of R = {b : b ∈ B, (a, b) ∈ R for some a ∈ A}

For example, let A = {1, 3, 4, 5, 7}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8} and

= R × (P ∩ Q)

R be the relation ‘is one less than’ from A to B, then

= (R × P) ∩ (R × Q) R = [(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6), (7, 8)].

Here, domain of R = {1, 3, 5, 7} and range of R = {2,

22. If sets A and B are defined as

4, 6, 8}.

A = {(x, y) : y = ex, x ∈ R}

B = {(x, y) : y = x, x ∈ R} then

notE

(A) B ⊂ A (B) A ⊂ B

(C) A ∩ B = f (D) A ∪ B = A Domain of a relation from A to B is a subset of A and its

Solution: (C) range is a subset of B

x 2 x3

Since y = ex = 1 + x +

+ +…

2 ! 3! identity relation

\ ex > x ∀ x ∈ R so that the two curves given by y = ex

and y = x do not intersect in any point Hence, there is R is an identity relation if (a, b) ∈ R if a = b, a ∈ A, b ∈ A.

no common point, so that A ∩ B = f. In other words, every element of A is related to only itself.

(A) x ∈ N is {4} Let A be any set and R be the set A × A, then R is called the

(B) x ∈ I is {0, 4} universal relation in A.

(C) x ∈ S = {a + ib : b ≠ 0, a, b ∈ R} is f

(D) All of these void relation

Solution: (D) f is called void relation in a set.

We have,

3x2 – 12x = 0

Trick(s) for Problem solving

tively the smallest and the largest relations on A

⇒ x = 0, 4

1.10 Chapter 1

Let R ⊆ A × B be a relation from A to B. Then R–1 ⊆ B × A 1. Since x – x = 0 = 0 . m ⇒ x – x is divisible by m

is defined by ⇒ (x, x) ∈ R ⇒ R is reflexive.

2. Let (x, y) ∈ R ⇒ x – y is divisible by m

R–1 = [(b, a): (a, b) ∈ R] ⇒ x – y = mq, for some q ∈ I

Thus, ⇒ y – x = m (–q)

⇒ y – x is divisible by m

(a, b) ∈ R ⇔ (b, a) ∈ R– 1, ∀ a ∈ A, b ∈ B ⇒ (y, x) ∈ R

Thus, (x, y) ∈ R ⇒ (y, x) ∈ R ⇒ R is symmetric.

i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S 3. Let (x, y) ∈ R and (y, z) ∈ R

⇒ x – y is divisible by m and y – z is divisible by m

dom (R–1) = range (R) and range (R–1) = dom (R) ⇒ x – y = mq and y – z = mq′ for some q, q′ ∈ I

(R–1)–1 = R. For example, if R = [(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)] ⇒ (x – y) + (y – z) = m (q + q′)

then R–1 = [(2, 1), (4, 3), (6, 5)] ⇒ x – z = m (q + q′), q + q′ ∈ I

and (R–1)–1 = [(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)] = R. ⇒ (x, z) ∈ R

dom (R) = (1, 3, 5), range (R) = (2, 4, 6) Thus, (x, y) ∈ R and (y, z) ∈ R ⇒ (x, z) ∈ R, so R is

and dom (R–1) = (2, 4, 6), range (R–1) = (1, 3, 5) transitive.

So, dom (R–1) = range (R) and range (R–1) Hence the relation R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive

= dom (R) and therefore it is an equivalence relation.

caution

TYPes of relaTions on a seT

Every identity relation is reflexive but every reflexive relation

Let A be a non-empty set, then a relation R on A is said to need not be an identity relation. Also, identity relation is

be: reflexive, symmetric and transitive.

1. Reflexive: If a R a, ∀ a ∈ A, i.e., if

(a, a) ∈ R, ∀ a ∈ A congrUence modUlo m

2. Symmetric: If a R b ⇒ b R a, ∀ a, b ∈ A, i.e., if

(a, b) ∈ R ⇒ (b, a) ∈ R, ∀ a, b ∈ A Let m be a positive integer and x, y ∈ I, then x is said to be

3. Anti-symmetric: If a R b and b R a ⇒ a = b, ∀ a, b ∈ A congruent to y modulo m, written as x ≡ y (mod m), if x – y

4. Transitive: If a R b and b R c ⇒ a R c, ∀ a, b, c ∈ A is divisible by m.

i.e., (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ R ⇒ (a, c) ∈ R, ∀ a, b, c ∈ A For example, 155 ≡ 7 (mod 4) as

155 - 7 148

= = 37 (integer)

eQUivalence relaTion 4 4

A relation R on a non-empty set A is called an equivalence 27 - 5 22

But 27 ≡/ 5 (mod 4) as = (Not an integer)

relation if and only if it is 4 4

1. reflexive i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S

2. symmetric and

3. transitive The universal relation on a non-void set is reflexive

The identity and the universal relations on a non-void set

That is, R satisfies following properties:

are symmetric and transitive

1. a R a, ∀ a ∈ A The identity relation on a set is an anti-symmetric relation

2. a R b ⇒ b R a, ∀ a, b ∈ A The relation R on a set A is symmetric if and only if R = R–1

3. a R b, b R c ⇒ a R c, ∀ a, b, c ∈ A If R and S are two equalvalence relations on a set A, then

R ∩ S is also an equivalence relation on A.

For example, let I be the set of all integers, m be a positive The union of two equivalence equivalence relations on a

integer. Then the relation, R on I is defined by, set is not necessarily an equivalence realtion on the set.

R = [(x, y): x, y ∈ I, x – y is divisible by m] The inverse of an equivalence relation is an equivalence

relation.

Set Theory 1.11

caution

| b – a | = | a – b | > 0.

A reflexive relation on a set is not necessarily symmetric. Thus a R b ⇒ b R a

R is not transitive. For example,

consider the numbers 3, 7, 3. Then we have 3 R 7

Equivalence Classes of an Equivalence since | 3 – 7 | = 4 > 0 and 7 R 3 since | 7 – 3 | = 4 > 0.

Relation But 3 R 3 since | 3 – 3 | = 0 so that | 3 – 3 | >/ 0.

Let R be an equivalence relation in A (≠ f), Let a ∈ A. Then 26. Let R be a relation defined as a R b if 1 + ab > 0. Then,

the equivalence class of a, denoted by [a] or { a }is defined the relation R is

as the set of all those points of A which are related to a (A) Reflexive (B) Symmetric

under the relation R. Thus, [a] = {x ∈ A : x Ra} (C) Transitive (D) None of these

It is easy to see that

Solution: (A) and (B)

1. b ∈ [a] ⇒ a ∈[b]

Here relation R is reflexive since 1 + a × a > 0 ∀ real

2. Two equivalence classes are either disjoint or identical

numbers a. It is symmetric since 1 + ab > 0 ⇒ 1 +

ba > 0. However R is not transitive: consider three real

Solved Examples 1

numbers 2, – and –2. We have

6

24. Let n be a fixed positive integer. Let a relation R be ⎛ 1⎞ 2

defined on I (the set of all integers) as follows: a R b 1 + 2 × ⎜ - ⎟ = > 0

⎝ 6⎠ 3

if n/(a – b), that is, if a – b is divisible by n, then, the

relation R is ⎛ 1⎞ 4

and 1 + ⎜ - ⎟ (– 2) = > 0

(A) reflexive only ⎝ 6⎠ 3

(B) symmetric only ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

(C) transitive only Hence, 2 R ⎜ - ⎟ and ⎜ - ⎟ R (– 2)

⎝ 6⎠ ⎝ 6⎠

(D) an equivalence relation

But 2 R – 2 since 1 + 2 (– 2) = – 3 >/ 0

Solution: (D)

R is reflexive since for any integer a we have a – a = 0 27. Let R be a relation defined as a R b if | a | ≤ b. Then,

and 0 is divisible by n. Hence, a R a ∀ a ∈ I. relation R is

R is symmetric, let a R b. Then by definition of R, (A) Reflexive (B) Symmetric

a – b = nk where k ∈ I. Hence, b – a = (–k) n where (C) Transitive (D) None of these

–k ∈ I and so b R a. Thus we have shown that Solution: (C)

a R b ⇒ b R a R is not reflexive, if – a is any negative real number,

R is transitive, let a R b and b R c. Then by definition then | – a | > – a so that – a R – a. R is not symmetric

of R, we have a – b = k1n and b – c = k2n, where k1, k2 consider the real numbers a = – 2 and b = 3. Then a R

∈ I. It then follows that b since |– 2 | < 3. But b R a since | 3 | > – 2.

R is transitive: let a, b, c be three real numbers such

a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) = k1n + k2n = (k1 + k2)n that

where k1 + k2 ∈ I | a | ≤ b and | b | ≤ c.

25. Let R be a relation defined as a R b if | a – b | > 0. Then, But | a | ≤ b ⇒ b ≥ 0, and so | b | ≤ c ⇒ b ≤ c.

the relation R is It follows | a | ≤ c.

(A) Reflexive (B) Symmetric Thus a R b and b R c ⇒ a R c.

(C) Transitive (D) None of these

28. N is the set of natural numbers. The relation R is

Solution: (B) defined on N × N as follows (a, b) R (c, d) ⇔ a + d = b

R is not reflexive since | a – a | = 0 and so | a – a | 0. + c. Then, R is

Thus a R a for any real number a. (A) Reflexive only (B) Symmetric only

(C) Transitive only (D) an equivalence relation

1.12 Chapter 1

Solution: (D) Solution: (B)

We have, (a, b) R (a, b) for all (a, b) ∈ N × N since a + The relation ‘less than’ is only transitive because

b = b + a.

x < y, y < z ⇒ x < z, x, y, z ∈ N

Hence, R is reflexive.

R is symmetric: we have \ x R y, y R z ⇒ x R z

(a, b) R (c, d) ⇒ a + d = b + c ⇒ d + a = c + b 31. If R and R′ are symmetric relations (not disjoint) on a

set A, then the relation R ∩ R′ is

⇒ c + b = d + a ⇒ (c, d) R (a, b)

(A) reflexive (B) symmetric

R is transitive: let (C) transitive (D) None of these

(a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f ). Solution: (B)

Then by definition of R, we have Since R ∩ R′ are not disjoint, there is at least one

ordered pair, say, (a, b) in R ∩ R′.

a + d = b + c and c + f = d + e,

But (a, b) ∈ R ∩ R′ ⇒ (a, b) ∈ R and (a, b) ∈ R′

⇒ a + d + c + f = b + c + d + e since R and R′ are symmetric relations, we get

or a + f = b + e. (b, a) ∈ R and (b, a) ∈ R′

Hence, (a, b) R (e, f ) and consequently (b, a) ∈ R ∩ R′

similarly if any other ordered pair (c, d) ∈ R ∩ R′,

Thus, (a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f ) then we must also have, (d, c) ∈ R ∩ R′

⇒ (a, b) R (e, f ) Hence, R ∩ R′ is symmetric

32. With reference to a universal set, the inclusion of a

29. Let S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and let A = S × S. Define the subset in another, is relation which is

relation R on A as follows (a, b) R (c, d) if and only if

(A) symmetric only (B) equivalence

ad = cb. Then, R is

(C) reflexive only (D) None of these

(A) reflexive only

(B) symmetric only Solution: (C)

(C) transitive only Let the universal set be

(D) equivalence relation

U = {x1, x2, x3 …xn}

Solution: (D) We know every set is a subset of itself. Therefore,

Given that S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and A = S × S inclusion of a subset is reflexive Now the elements of

A relation R on A is defined as follows: “(a, b) R the set {x1} are included in the set {x1, x2} but con-

(c, d)” if and only if ad = cb verse is not true i.e.,

(A) R is reflexive, since ab = ba {x1} ⊂ {x1, x2} but {x1, x2} ⊄ {x1}

⇒ ba = ab, therefore,

Hence, the inclusion of a subset is not symmetric.

(a, b) R (b, a) ∀ a, b ∈ S

Thus, the inclusion of a subset is not an equiva-

(B) R is symmetric,

lence relation.

since (a, b) R (c, d)

⇒ ad = cb ⇒ cd = da 33. Let R be the relation on the set R of all real numbers

⇒ (c, d) R (a, b) ∀ a, b ∈ S defined by a R b if | a – b | ≤ 1. Then R is

(C) R is transitive (a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f ) (A) reflexive (B) symmetric

⇒ ad = cb and cf = ed ⇒ adcf = cb ed (C) transitive (D) anti-symmetric

⇒ cd (af ) = cd (be) ⇒ af = eb

⇒ (a, b) R (e, f ) ∀ a, b, c, d, e, f ∈ S Solution: (A and B)

30. The relation ‘less than’ in the set of natural numbers is | a – a | = 0 < 1 so a R a ∀ a ∈ R.

(A) only symmetric \ R is reflexive

(B) only transitive a R b ⇒ | a – b | ≤ 1 ⇒ | b – a | ≤ 1 ⇒ b R a.

(C) only reflexive

\ R is symmetric

(D) equivalence relation

Set Theory 1.13

Now, z1 R z2 ⇒ is real

Finally, 1 R2, 2 R 3 but 1 R 3 as z1 + z2

| 1 – 3 | = 2 > 1. ( a1 - a2 ) + i (b1 - b2 )

⇒ is real

34. If R is a relation ‘<’ from A = {1, 2, 3, 4} to B = {1, 3, ( a1 + a2 ) + i (b1 + b2 )

5} i.e., (a, b) ∈ R if a < b, then R o R–1 is ( a - a2 ) + i (b1 - b2 ) ( a1 + a2 ) - i (b1 + b2 )

⇒ 1 ×

(A) [(1, 2), (1, 5), (2, 3) (2, 5) (3, 5), (4, 5)] ( a1 + a2 ) + i (b1 + b2 ) ( a1 + a2 ) - i (b1 + b2 )

(B) [(3, 1), (5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4)] is real

(C) [(3, 3), (3, 5), (5, 3), (5, 5)]

(D) [(3, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5)] ( a1 - a2 ) ( a1 + a2 ) + (b1 - b2 ) (b1 + b2 )

+ i [(b - b2 ) ( a1 + a2 ) - (b1 + b2 ) ( a1 - a2 )]

Solution: (C) ⇒ 1

( a1 + a2 ) 2 + (b1 + b2 ) 2

Here is real

R = [(1, 3), (1, 5), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 5), (4, 5)]

⇒ (a1+ a2) (b1 – b2) – (a1 – a2) (b1 + b2) = 0

\ R–1 = [(3, 1), (5, 1), (3, 2), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4)]

⇒ 2a2b1 – 2b2a1 = 0

Hence, a1 b1 a a

R 0 R–1 = [(3, 3), (3, 5), (5, 3), (5, 5)] ⇒ = or 1 = 2

a2 b2 b1 b2

35. A relation R on the set of complex numbers is defined a2 a3

z - z2 and =

by, z1 R z2 ⇔ 1 is real, then the relation R is b2 b3

z1 + z2 Similarly,

(A) equivalence (B) only reflexive a2 a3

(C) only transitive (D) None of these z2 R z3 ⇒ =

b2 b3

Solution: (A) Therefore,

z - z1

Since 1 = 0, which is real ∀ z1 ∈ C, therefore z1 R z2 and z2 R z3

z1 + z1

R is reflexive. a1 a2

⇒ =

z - z2 b1 b2

For z1, z2 ∈ C, z1 R z2 ⇒ 1 is real

z1 + z2 a2 a3

and =

⎛ z - z2 ⎞ ⎛ z - z1 ⎞ b2 b3

⇒ – ⎜ 1 is real ⇒ ⎜ 2 is real

⎟

⎝ z1 + z2 ⎠ ⎝ z2 + z1 ⎟⎠ a1 a3

⇒ =

⇒ z2 R z1. b1 b3

For ⇒ z1 R z3

z1, z2, z3 ∈ C,

\ R is transitive.

let z1 = a1 + ib1, z2 = a2 + ib2 and z3 = a3 + ib3. Hence R is an equivalence relation.

EXERCISES

1. Let F1 be the set of all parallelograms, F2 the set of 2. (i) Let R be the relation on the set R of all real numbers

rectangles, F3 the set of rhombuses, F4 the set of 1

defined by setting a R b if | a – b | ≤ . Then R is

squares and F5 the set of trapeziums in a plane then 2

F1is equal to (A) Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive

(A) F2 ∩ F3 (B) F2 ∪ F3 ∪ F4 ∪ F1 (B) Symmetric and transitive but not reflexive

(C) F3 ∩ F4 (D) None of these (C) Transitive but neither reflexive nor symmetric

(D) None of these

1.14 Chapter 1

3. n/m means that n is a factor of m, then the relation ‘/’ is 12. If A = { x : x2 = 1} and B { x : x4 = 1}, then A D B is

(A) reflexive and symmetric. equal to:

(B) transitive and reflexive. (A) {i, – i} (B) {–1, 1}

(C) reflexive, transitive and symmetric. (C) {–1, 1, i,–i} (D) None of these

(D) reflexive, transitive and not symmetric.

13. Which of the following is a singleton set?

4. Set A and B have 3 and 6 elements respectively. What (A) {x : | x | < 1, x ∈ Z}

can be the minimum number of elements in A ∪ B? (B) {x : | x | = 5, x ∈Z}

(A) 18 (B) 9 (C) 6 (D) 3 (C) {x : x2 = 1, x ∈Z}

5. Let R be a relation defined on the set of natural num- (D) {x : x2 + x + 1 = 0, x ∈R}

bers N as 14. Consider the following relations:

R = [(x, y): x ∈ N, y ∈ N, 2x + y = 41]. Then (1) A– B = A – (A ∩ B)

(A) Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, …, 19, 20} (2) A = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A– B)

(B) Range of R = {39, 37, 35, 9, 7, 5, 3, 1} (3) A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C)

(C) R is reflexive Which of these is/are correct?

(D) R is symmetric (A) 1 and 3 (B) 2 only

6. Let A = {x: x ∈ R, | x | < 1} (C) 2 and 3 (D) 1 and 2

B = {x: x ∈ R, | x – 1 | ≥ 1} 15. Let R be a reflexive relation on a finite set A having n

and A ∪ B = R – D, then the set D is elements, and let there be m ordered pairs in R. Then

(A) {x: 1 < x ≤ 2} (B) {x: 1 ≤ x < 2} (A) m ≥ n (B) m≤n

(C) {x: 1 ≤ x ≤ 2} (D) None of these (C) m = n (D) None of these

7. Consider the set A of all determinants of order 3 with 16. If two sets A and B are having 99 elements in common

entries 0 or 1 only. Let B be subset of A consisting of then the number of elements common to each of the

all determinants with value 1. Let C be the subset A of sets A × B and B × A are

consisting of all determinants with value –1. Then (A) 299 (B) 992 (C) 100

(A) C is empty. (D) 18 (E) 9

(B) B has as many elements as C.

(C) A = B ∪ C. 17. The relation R defined on the set A = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] by

(D) B has twice as many elements as C. R = [(x, y): |x2 – y2| < 16] is given by,

(A) [(1, 1), (2, 1) (3, 1), (4, 1), (2, 3)]

8. Let A and B be two sets then (A ∪ B)′ ∪ (A′ ∩ B) is (B) [(2, 2), (3, 2) (4, 2), (2, 4)]

equal to (C) [(3, 3), (3, 4) (5, 4), (4, 3), (3, 1)]

(A) B′ (B) B (C) A (D) A′ (D) None of these

9. If A is the set of even natural numbers less than 8 and 18. Let L denotes the set of all straight lines in a plane. Let

B is the set of prime numbers less then 7, then the a relation R be defined by a R b ⇔ a ^ b, a, b ∈ L.

number of relations from A to B is Then R is

(A) 29 (b) 92 (C) 32 (D) 29 – 1 (A) reflexive

10. If P, Q and R are subsets of a set A, then R × (P ′ ∪ Q ′)′ (B) symmetric

equals (C) transitive

(D) None of these

(A) (R × P) ∩ (R × Q) (B) (R × Q) ∩ (R × P)

(C) (R × P) ∪ (R × Q) (D) None of these 19. Let R = [(2,3), (3,4)] be a relation defined on the set

of natural numbers. The minimum number of ordered

11. For real numbers x and y, define a relation R, x R y if

pairs required to be added in R so that enlarged rela-

and only if x – y + 2 is an irrational number. Then the

tion be comes an equivalence relation is

relation R is

(A) 3 (B) 5 (C) 7 (D) 9

(A) reflexive

(B) symmetric 20. The solution of 8x ≡ 6 (mod 14) is

(C) transitive (A) [8], [6] (B) [6], [14]

(D) an equivalence relagtion (C) [6], [13] (D) [8], [14], [16]

Set Theory 1.15

21. Let R be the set of real numbers. 22. Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. The number of different ordered

Statement 1: A = {(x, y) ∈ R × R : y – x is an integer} pairs (Y, Z) that can formed such that Y ⊆ X, Z ⊆ X and

is an equivalence relation of R. Y ∩ Z is empty, is

Statement 2: B = {(x, y) ∈ R × R : x = a y for some (A) 52 (B) 35 (C) 25 (D) 53

rational number a} is an equivalence relation of R.

23. Let R be the real line. Consider the following subsets

(A) Statement 1 is false, Statement 2 is true

of the plane R × R.

(B) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true; Statement 2

is a correct explanation for Statement 1 S = [(x, y) : y = x + 1 and 0 < x < 2], T = [(x, y): x – y is

(C) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true; Statement 2 an integer]. Which one of the following is true?

is not a correct explanation for Statement 1 (A) Neither S nor T is an equivalence relation on R

(D) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is false (B) Both S and T are equivalence relations on R

(C) S is an equivalence relation on R but T is not

(D) T is an equivalence relation on R but S is not

24. Let R = {(1, 3), (4, 2), (2, 4), (2, 3), (3, 1)} be a relation S = {(x, y) : y = x + 1 and 0 < x < 2}, T = {(x, y) : x - y

on the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4}. The relation R is [2004] is an integer}. Which one of the following is true?

(A) a function (B) reflexive [2008]

(C) not symmetric (D) transitive (A) neither S nor T is an equivalence relation on R

(B) both S and T are equivalence relations on R

25. Let R = {(3, 3), (6, 6), (9, 9), (12, 12), (6, 12), (3, 9), (C) S is an equivalence relation on R but T is not

(3, 12), (3, 6)} be a relation on the set A = {3, 6, 9, 12} (D) T is an equivalence relation on R but S is not

be a relation the set A = {3, 6, 9, 12}. The relation is

[2005] 29. If A, B and C are three sets such that A ∩ B = A ∩ C

(A) reflexive and transitive only and A ∪ B = A ∪ C, then [2009]

(B) reflexive only (A) A = B (B) A=C

(C) an equivalence relation (C) B = C (D) A∩B=f

(D) reflexive and symmetric only 30. Let S be a non-empty subset of R. Consider the follow-

26. Let W denote the words in the English dictionary. ing statement: [2010]

Define the relation R by: [2006] P: There is a rational number x ∈ S such that x > 0.

R = {(x, y) ∈ W × W | the words x and y have at least Which of the following statements is the negation of

one letter in common}. Then R is the statement P ?

(A) not reflexive, symmetric and transitive (A) There is no rational number x ∈ S such that x ≤ 0

(B) reflexive, symmetric and not transitive (B) Every rational number x ∈ S satisfies x ≤ 0

(C) reflexive, symmetric and transitive (C) x ∈ S and x ≤ 0 ⇒ x is not rational

(D) reflexive, not symmetric and transitive (D) There is a rational number x ∈ S such that x ≤ 0

27. The set S = {1, 2, 3, …, 12) is to be partitioned into 31. Let R be the set of all real numbers. [2011]

three sets A, B, C of equal size. Thus, A ∪ B ∪ C = S, Statement 1: A = {(x, y) ∈R × R : y − x is an integer}

A ∩ B = B ∩ C = A ∩ C = f. The number of ways to is an equivalence relation on R.

partition S is [2007] Statement 2: B = {(x, y) ∈ R × R : x = α y for some

12 ! 12 ! rational number α} is an equivalence relation on R.

(A) (B) (A) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true; Statement 2

3!( 4 !)3 3!(3!) 4

is not a correct explanation for Statement 1

12 ! 12 ! (B) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is false.

(C) 3

(D)

( 4 !) (3!) 4 (C) Statement 1 is false, Statement 2 is true.

28. Let R be the real line. Consider the following subsets (D) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true; Statement 2

of the plane R × R. is a correct explanation for Statement 1

1.16 Chapter 1

32. Let A and B be two sets containing 2 elements and 4 33. Let A and B be two sets containing four and two

elements respectively. The number of subsets of A × B elements respectively. Then the number of subsets of

having 3 or more elements is [2013] the set A × B, each having at least three elements is:

(A) 220 (B) 219 [2015]

(C) 211 (D) 256 (A) 256 (B) 275 (C) 510 (D) 219

Answer keys

1. (B) 2. (A) 3. (B) 4. (C) 5. (A and B) 6. (B) 7. (B) 8. (D) 9. (A)

10. (A) 11. (A) 12. (A) 13. (A) 14. (D) 15. (A) 16. (B) 17. (D) 18. (B) 19. (C)

20. (C) 21. (D) 22. (B) 23. (D)

24. (C) 25. (A) 26. (B) 27. (C) 28. (D) 29. (C) 30. (B) 31. (B) 32. (B) 33. (D)

1. Since every rectangle, rhombus and square is a parallelo- 5. The relation R can be written as

gram so, F1 = F2 ∪ F3 ∪ F4∪ F1 R = [(1, 39), (2, 37), (3, 35), …(10, 21), (11, 19), … (19, 3),

The correct option is (B) (20, 1)]

1

2. R is reflexive since | a – a | = 0 < for all a ∈ R. \ Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, …, 19, 20}

2

1 1 Range of R = {39, 37, 35, 9, 7, 5, 3, 1}

R is symmetric since | a – b | < ⇒|b–a|< R is not reflexive since (x, x) ∉ R ∀ x ∈ N.

2 2

R is not transitive: we take three numbers For example, (1, 1) ∉ R

3 1 1 R is not symmetric since (1, 39) ∈ R but (39, 1) ∉ R.

, , , then

4 3 8 The correct option is (A and B)

3 1 5 1 1 1 5 1 6. We have

- = < and - = < A = {x : x ∈ R, – 1 < x < 1}

4 3 12 2 3 8 24 2

and B = {x : x ∈ R, x – 1 ≤ – 1 or x – 1 ≥ 1}

3 1 5 1

But - = > = {x : x ∈ R, x ≤ 0 or x ≥ 2}

4 8 8 2

\ A ∪ B = R – D,

3 1 1 1 3 1 where D = {x : x ∈ R, 1 ≤ x < 2}

Thus R and R but R

4 3 3 8 4 8 The correct option is (B)

The correct option is (A) 7. We know that the interchange of two adjacent rows (or

3. ‘/’ is reflexive since every natural number is a factor of itself, columns) changes the value of a determinant only in sign and

that is n/n for n ∈ N. ‘/’ is transitive: if n is a factor of m not in magnitude. Hence corresponding to every element D

and m is a factor of p, then n is surely a factor of p. Thus of B there is an element D′ in C obtained by interchanging

‘n/m’ and ‘m/p’ ⇒ ‘n/p’. However ‘/’ is not symmetric: for two adjacent rows (or columns) in D. It follows that

example, 2 is factor of 4 but 4 is not a factor of 2. n (B) ≤ n (C)

The correct option is (B) that is, the number of elements in B is less than or equal to

4. n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A ∩ B) the number of elements in C.

= 3 + 6 – n (A ∩ B) Similarly, n (C) ≤ n (B)

Since maximum number of elements in A ∩ B = 3, Hence, n (B) = n (C)

\ minimum no. of elements in A ∪ B = 9 – 3 = 6. That is, B has as many elements as C.

The correct option is (C) The correct option is (B)

Set Theory 1.17

8. (A ∪ B)′ ∪ (A′ ∩ B) = (A′ ∩ B′) ∪ (A′ ∩ B) 17. Here, R = {(x, y) : |x2 – y2| < 16} and A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

= (A′ ∪ A′) ∩ (A′ ∪ B) ∩ (B′ ∪ A′) ∩ (B′ ∪ B)

\ R = [(1,2), (1,3), (1,4); (2,1), (2,2), (2,3), (2,4); (3,1),

= A′ ∩ [A′ ∪ (B ∩ B′)] ∩ U

(3,2) (3,3), (3,4); (4,1), (4,2), (4,3); (4,4), (4,5); (5,4), (5,5)]

The correct option is (D)

= A′ ∩ (A′ ∪ f) ∩ U

18. Here a ^ b ⇒ b ^ a. Hence, R is symmetric.

= A′ ∩ A′ ∩ U = A′ ∩ U = A′

The correct option is (B)

The correct option is (C)

19. To make it reflexive, we need to add (2, 2), (3, 3), (4,4).

9. A = {2,4,6}, B = {2,3,5}

To make symmetric, it requires (3, 2), (4, 3) to be added.

Number of relations from A to B = 23×3 = 29 To make transitive, (2, 4) and (4, 2) must be added, so, the

The correct option is (A) relation.

10. R × (P′ ∪ Q′)′ = R × [(P′)′ ∩ (Q′)′] R = [(2,2), (3,3), (4,4) (2,3),(3, 2), (3, 4), (4,3), (2,4),(4,2)]

= R × (P ∩ Q) = (R × P) ∩ (R × Q) The correct option is (C)

The correct option is (A) 20. Since 8x ≡ 6 (mod 14) i.e, 8x –6 = 14 k for k ∈ I.

11. Clearly x R x as x – x + 2 = 2 is an irrational number. The values 6 and 13 satisfy this equation, while 8, 14, and 16

Thus, R is reflexive. Also ( 2 , 1) ∈ R as 2 –1 + 2 = 2 do not.

2 – 1 is an irrational number but (1, 2 ) ∉ R as 1– 2 + The correct option is (C)

2 = 1 is a rational number. So, R is not symmetric, 21. Statement 1 is true

1R 2 and 2 2 R 2 We observe that

Since, 1 R 2 and 2 R 2 but 1 is not related to 2 . So R is Reflexivity: xRx as x – x = 0 is an integer, ∀ x ∈ A

not transitive. Symmetric

The correct option is (A) Let (x, y) ∈ A

12. A = {–1, 1}, B = {–1, 1, –i, i} ⇒ y – x is an integer

A – B = f, B–A= {–i, i} ⇒ x – y is also an integer

(A – B) ∪ (B – A) ={–i, i} Transitivity: Let (x, y) ∈ A and (y, z) ∈ A

The correct option is (A) ⇒ y – x is an integer and z – y is an integer

13. | x | < 1 ⇒ –1 < x < 1 (x = 0 integer satisfies it) ⇒ y – x + z – y is also an integer

The correct option is (A) ⇒ z – x is an integer

14. A – B = A – (A ∩ B) is correct ⇒ (x, z) ∈ A

A = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A - B) is correct Because of the above properties A is an equivalence relation

over R

A B

Statement 2 is false as ‘B’ is not symmetric on

We observe that

0Bx as 0 = 0 ⋅ x∀ x ∈ but (x, 0) ∉ B

The correct option is (D)

22. Every element has 3 options. Either set Y or set Z or none, so

number of ordered pairs = 35.

A–B A–(A ∩ B) The correct option is (B)

(3) is false. 23. T = {(x, y) : x – y ∈ I}

\ (1) and (2) are true. as 0 ∈ I T is a reflexive relation.

The correct option is (D) If x – y ∈ I ⇒ y – x ∈ I

15. The set consists of n elements and for relation to be reflexive \ T is symmetrical also

it must have at least n ordered pairs. It has m ordered pairs If x – y = I1 and y - z = I2

therefore m ≥ n. Then x – z = (x – y) + (y – z) = I1 + I2 ∈ I

The correct option is (A) \ T is also transitive.

16. n [(A × B) ∩ (B × A)] Hence, T is an equivalence relation.

= n [(A ∩ B) × (B ∩ A)] = n (A ∩ B) ⋅ n (B ∩ A) Clearly x ≠ x + 1 ⇒ (x, x) ∉ S

= n (A ∩ B) . n (A ∩ B) = (99)(99) = 992 \ S is not reflexive.

The correct option is (B) The correct option is (D)

1.18 Chapter 1

24. (2, 3) belongs to R but (3, 2) is not. 29. The correct option is (C)

Hence R is not symmetric. 30. P: there is a rational number x ∈ S such that x > 0

The correct option is (C) ~P: Every rational number x ∈ S satisfies x ≤ 0

25. R is Reflexive and transitive only so not an equivalence The correct option is (B)

relation. 31. x − y is an integer

e.g. (3, 3), (6, 6), (9, 9), (12, 12) [Reflexive] x – x = 0 is an integer ⇒ A is Reflexive

(3, 6), (6, 12), (3, 12) [Transitive]. x − y is an integer ⇒ y − x is an integer ⇒ A is symmetric

The correct option is (A) x − y, y − z are integers

26. Clearly (x, x) ∈ R ∀ x ∈ W. So, R is reflexive. As sum of two integers is an integer.

Let (x, y) ∈ R, then (y, x) ∈ R as x and y have at least one ⇒ (x − y) + (y − z) = x − z is an integer

letter in common. So, R is symmetric. ⇒ A is transitive. Hence statement 1 is true.

But R is not transitive for example x

Also = 1 is a rational number ⇒ B is reflexive

Particularly if x = DELHI, y = DWARKA and z = PARK, x

x y

then = a is rational ⇒ need not be rational

x x

(x, y) ∈ R and (y, z) ∈ R but (x, z) ∉ R. 0 1

The correct option is (B) i.e., is rational ⇒ is not rational

12! 1 0

27. The required number of ways is 12C4 × 8C4 × 4C4 = Hence B is not symmetric

( 4!)3

The correct option is (C) ⇒ B is not an equivalence relation.

28. Given T = {(x, y) : x - y ∈ I} The correct option is (B)

As 0 ∈ I, T is a reflexive relation. 32. A × B will have 8 elements.

If x - y ∈ I ⇒ y - x ∈ I \ The number of subsets of A × B having 3 or more

\ T is symmetrical also elements is 28 -8 C0 -8 C1 -8 C2 = 256 - 1 - 8 - 28 = 219

If x - y = I1 and y - z = I2 The correct option is (B)

Then x - z = (x - y) + (y - z) = I1 + I2 ∈ I 33. n(A) = 4, n(B) = 2

\ T is also transitive. n(A × B) = 8

Hence T is an equivalence relation. \ Number of subsets having atleast 3 elements

Clearly x ≠ x + 1 ⇒ (x, x) ∉ S

\ S is not reflexive.

( )

= 28 - 1 + 8 C1 + 8 C2 = 219

The correct option is (D)

The correct option is (D)

CHaPtER

2 Functions

Chapter Highlights

Function or mapping, Features of a mapping f : X → Y, Value of a function, Domain and range of a function,

Intervals in R, Method to ﬁnd the domain of a function, Method to ﬁnd the range of a function, Types of

functions, Method to check whether the function f : X → Y is one–one or many-one, Onto or surjective function,

Method to check whether the function f : X → Y is onto or Into, Bijective function, Some important functions,

Identity function, Modulus function or absolute value function, Greatest integer function/step function/ﬂoor

function, Least integer function/ceiling function, Fractional-part function, Signum function, Reciprocal function,

Exponential function, Logarithmic function, Polynomial function, Rational function, Trigonometric functions,

Inverse trigonometric functions, Two ways of deﬁning a function, Explicit and implicit functions, Operations on

functions, Composition of functions, Properties of composite functions, Inverse functions, Method to ﬁnd the

inverse of a function, Properties of inverse functions, Odd and even functions, Properties of odd and even

functions, Periodic function, Short-cut method to check the periodicity of a function.

Let X and Y be any two non-empty sets and there be 1. For each element x ∈ X, there exist a unique element

correspondence or association between the elements of y ∈ Y.

X and Y such that for every element x ∈ X, there exists a 2. The element y ∈ Y is called the image of x under the

unique element y ∈ Y, written as y = f (x). Then we say that mapping f.

f is a mapping or function from X to Y, and is written as 3. If there is an element in X which has more than one

image in Y, then f : X ∈ Y is not a function. But distinct

f : X → Y such that y = f (x), x ∈ X, y ∈ Y

elements of X may be associated to the same element

X Y of Y.

4. If there is an element in X which does not have an

image in Y, then f : X → Y is not a function.

f

x y = f (x)

caution

If f : X → Y is a function, then there may be some ele-

ments in Y, which are not images of elements of X.

i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S But there should not be any x left (element of X) for

which there is no elements in set Y.

If f : X → Y be a function from a non-empty set X to

another non-empty set Y, where X, Y ⊆ R (set of all real

numbers), then we say that f is a real valued function

or in short a real function. value oF a Function

Throughout this chapter a ‘function’ will mean a ‘real

The value of a function y = f (x) at x = a is denoted by f (a).

function’.

It is obtained by putting x = a in f (x).

2.2 Chapter 2

notE

Range

0

If for some value of x say x = a, f(a) takes the form ,

we say that f(a) is indeterminate. 0 Domain Co-domain

If for some value of x say x = a, the denominator vanishes,

we say that f (a) is undeﬁned (or does not exist) A B

f

a p Domain = {a, b, c, d} = A

b q

Co-domain = {p, q, r, s} = B

Solved exaMple c r

Range = {p, q, r}

d s

x −1 2

1. If f (x) = , for every real number x, then the Fig. 2.2

x2 + 1

minimum value of f

(A) does not exist because f is unbounded notE

(B) is not attained even though f is bounded

(C) is equal to 1 Range is the subset of co-domain

(D) is equal to –1 Range can never exceed co-domain for a given function.

Solution: (D) The projection of the graph of y = f(x) on the x-axis is

equal to the domain of f whereas the projection on the

We have, y-axis is equal to the range of f.

x2 −1 2

f (x) ==1– 2 .

x +1

2

x +1

2

f (x) will attain its minimum value when is tRick(S) FoR pRobleM Solving

x2 + 1

maximum, i.e. when x + 1 is minimum i.e. at x = 0.

2

\ minimum value of f (x) is f (0) = –1. The total number of functions from set A to set B containing

m and n elements respectively is nm.

inteRvalS in R

If f : X → Y be a function, then the set X is said to be the

domain of f and range of f The set of all numbers lying between two given real

= set of all image points in Y under the map f. numbers is called an interval in R.

Let a and b be any two real numbers such that a < b,

= f (X) = { f (x) : f (x) ∈ Y; x ∈ X}

then we define the following types of intervals.

The set Y is also called the co-domain of f. Clearly f (X) ⊆ Y

1. Closed interval [a, b]

as shown in Fig. 2.1.

= closed interval from a to b

Y

= {x : x ∈ R; a ≤ x ≤ b}

X f (x)

= set of all real numbers lying between a and b includ-

f Range ing the end points a and b.

x y = f (x)

a b

Domain

2. Open interval (a, b) or ]a, b[

Co-domain = open interval from a to b

Fig. 2.1

= {x : x ∈ R; a < x < b}

= set of all real numbers lying between a and b, exclud-

In other words, we can say ing the end points a and b.

Domain = All possible values of x for which f(x)

exists.

Range = For all values of x, all possible values of f(x) a b

as shown in Fig. 2.2.

Functions 2.3

(a, b]

1. logb a is defined when a > 0, b > 0 and b ≠ 1.

exponential Functions

a b a b

Fig. 2.3

1. ax is defined for all real values of x, where a > 0.

(a, b] = {x : x ∈ R; a < x ≤ b}

4. Real number set R as an open interval (x – a) (x – b) > 0 ⇒ x < a or x > b, for a < b

We introduce two special numbers –∞ and +∞, where (x – a) (x – b) < 0 ⇒ a < x < b, for a < b

–∞ = a number less than any real number, |x| < a ⇒ – a < x < a

+∞ = a number greater than any real number.

|x| > a ⇒ x < – a or x > a

–∞ < x for all x ∈ R, and x < ∞ for all x ∈ R.

⎧a > b k , if b > 1

Hence, the set R can be thought of as the open interval logb a > k ⇒ ⎪⎨

(–∞, ∞), so that ⎩⎪a < b , if b < 1

k

If loga x > loga y, then if a > 1 then x > y and if 0 < a < 1

R = (–∞, ∞) = {x : x ∈ R; –∞ < x < ∞}

then x < y

Also, the infinite intervals in R can be given by, x 2 = |x|

(–∞, a), (a, + ∞), (–∞, a], [a, + ∞)

n

x n = |x|, if n is even and n

x n = x, if n is odd.

notE

Solved exaMpleS

The numbers +∞ and –∞ do not follow the ordinary rules of

0 ∞ 2. The domain of the function f (x) = x − 1 − x 2 is

arithmetic, i.e., ∞ – ∞ ≠ 0, 0 × ∞ ≠ 0, ≠ 1, ≠ 1, ∞ + ∞

0 ∞

≠ 2 ∞, 1∞ ≠ 1, 00 ≠ 1 etc. ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤

(A) ⎢ −1, − ⎥∪ ⎢ , 1⎥

⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦

(B) [– 1, 1]

Method to Find the doMain oF a

⎛ 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎞

Function (C) ⎜ −∞, − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ , + ∞⎟

⎝ 2⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎠

algebraic Functions ⎡ 1 ⎤

(D) ⎢ , 1⎥

1. Denominator should be non-zero. ⎣ 2 ⎦

2. Expression under the even root should be non-negative.

Solution: (D)

trigonometric Functions For f (x) to be defined, we must have

1. sin x and cos x are defined for all real values of x. x– 1 − x 2 ≥ 0 or x ≥ 1 − x2 > 0

2. tan x and sec x are defined for all real values of x except 1

p \ x2 ≥ 1 – x2 or x2 ≥

x = (2n + 1) , where n ∈ Z. 2

2 Also, 1 – x2 ≥ 0 or x2 ≤ 1

3. cot x and cosec x are defined for all real values of x 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞

except x = np, where n ∈ Z. Now, x2 ≥ ⇒ ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x+ ⎟ ≥0

2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

1 1

inverse trigonometric Functions ⇒ x≤– or x ≥

2 2

1. sin x and cos x are defined for – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1.

–1 –1

Also, x ≤ 1 ⇒ (x – 1) (x + 1) ≤ 0 ⇒ – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1

2

2. tan–1x and cot–1x are defined for all real values of x.

3. sec–1x and cosec–1x are defined for x ≤ – 1 or x ≥ 1. 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤

Thus, x > 0, x2 ≥ and x2 ≤ 1 ⇒ x ∈ ⎢ , 1⎥

2 ⎣ 2 ⎦

2.4 Chapter 2

⇒ ≤ x ≤ (1)

⎧ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎫ 3 4

(x) = sin–1 ⎨log 2 ⎜ x 2 ⎟ ⎬ is

f 40–6x

C8x–10 is defined if

⎩ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎭

(A) [– 2, – 1) ∪ [1, 2] (B) (– 2, – 1] ∪ [1, 2] 40 – 6x > 0, 8x – 10 ≥ 0 and 40 – 6x ≥ 8x – 10

(C) [– 2, – 1] ∪ [1, 2] (D) (– 2, – 1) ∪ (1, 2) 20 5 25

⇒ x< ,x≥ and x ≤

Solution: (C) 3 4 7

For f (x) to be defined, we must have 5 25

⇒ ≤x≤ (2)

4 7

⎛1 ⎞ 1

– 1 ≤ log2 ⎜ x 2 ⎟ ≤ 1 ⇒ 2–1 ≤ x2 ≤ 21 From Eq. (1) and (2), we get

⎝2 ⎠ 2

5 25

[Q the base = 2 > 1] ≤x≤

⇒ 1 ≤ x2 ≤ 4 (1) 4 7

But, 24 – x ∈ N,

Now, 1 ≤ x2 ⇒ x2 – 1 ≥ 0 i.e. (x – 1) (x + 1) ≥ 0 \ x must be an integer,

⇒ x ≤ – 1 or x ≥ 1 (2)

\ x = 2, 3.

Also, x2 ≤ 4 ⇒ x2 – 4 ≤ 0 i.e. (x – 2) (x + 2) ≤ 0 Hence, domain ( f ) = {2, 3}.

⇒ – 2 ≤ x ≤ 2 (3) ⎛ 1 − | x |⎞

6. The domain of the function f (x) = cos −1 ⎜ is

From Eq. (2) and (3), we get the domain of f ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

= ((– ∞, – 1] ∪ [1, ∞)) ∩ [– 2, 2] (A) (– ∞, – 3) ∪ (3, ∞)

(B) [– 3, 3]

= [– 2, – 1] ∪ [1, 2].

(C) (– ∞, – 3] ∪ [3, ∞)

4. The domain of the function (D) f

1

f (x) = is Solution: (B)

x − x + x4 − x + 1

12 9

⎛ 1 − | x |⎞ 1 −| x |

cos–1 ⎜ is defined if – 1 ≤ ≤1

(A) (– ∞, – 1) (B) (1, ∞) ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2

(C) (– 1, 1) (D) (– ∞, ∞)

⇒ – 2 ≤ 1 – | x | ≤ 2 ⇒ – 3 ≤ – | x | ≤ 1

Solution: (D)

⇒ – 1 ≤ | x | ≤ 3

f (x) is defined for

x12 – x9 + x4 – x + 1 > 0 |x| ≥ – 1 is true for all real values of x.

⇒ x4 (x8 + 1) – x (x8 + 1) + 1 > 0 |x| ≤ 3 ⇒ – 3 ≤ x ≤ 3

⇒ (x8 + 1) x (x3 – 1) + 1 > 0 ⎛ 1 − | x |⎞ ⎛ 1 − | x |⎞

Also cos −1 ⎜ is defined if cos–1 ⎜ ≥0

If x ≥ 1 or x ≤ – 1, then the above expression is positive. ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

If – 1 < x ≤ 0, the above inequality still holds. 1− | x |

If 0 < x < 1, then x12 – x (x8 + 1) + (x4 + 1) > 0 ⇒ ≥ cos 0 = 1

2

[Q x4 + 1 > x8 + 1 and so x4 + 1 > x (x8 + 1)]

The domain of f = (– ∞, ∞). ⇒ 1 – |x| ≥ 2

(x) = 24 – xC3x – 1 + 40 – 6xC8x – 10 is,

f \ Domain ( f ) = [– 3, 3]

(A) {2, 3} (B) {1, 2, 3} 7. The domain of the function

(C) {1, 2, 3, 4} (D) None of these

⎛ 1⎞

f (x) = log1/ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ + log 2 4 x 2 − 4 x + 5 is

Solution: (A) ⎝ 2⎠

C3x–1 is defined if,

24–x

⎡1 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞

(A) ⎢ , ∞⎟ (B) ⎜⎝ , ∞⎟⎠

24 – x > 0, 3x – 1 ≥ 0 and 24 – x ≥ 3x – 1 ⎣2 ⎠ 2

1 25 (C) (– ∞, ∞) (D) None of these

⇒ x < 24, x ≥ and x ≤

3 4

Functions 2.5

Solution: (B) 1

is defined if log (3 – x) ≠ 0 and 3 – x > 0

⎛ 1⎞ 1 log (3 − x )

log1/ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ is defined if x – > 0

⎝ 2⎠ 2 ⇒ 3 – x ≠ e0 = 1 and x < 3 ⇒ x ≠ 2 and x < 3 (2)

1 From Eq. (1) and (2), we get domain of f

i.e., x >

2

= [– 6, 6] ∩ ((– ∞, 3) \ {2}) = [– 6, 3)\{2}.

log 2 4 x 2 − 4 x + 5 is defined if 4x2 – 4x + 5 > 0

11. The domain of the function

⎡⎛ 1⎞

2

⎤

⇒ 4 ⎢⎜ x − ⎟ + 1⎥ > 0 which is true for all real x. ⎛ 3 ⎞

f (x) = cos–1 ⎜ is

⎢⎣⎝ 2⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎝ 4 + 2 sin x ⎟⎠

⎛1 ⎞ ⎡ p p ⎤

\ Domain of f = ⎜ , ∞⎟ . (A) ⎢ − + 2np , + 2np ⎥

⎝2 ⎠

⎣ 6 6 ⎦

8. The domain of the function ⎛ p p ⎞

(B) ⎜ − + 2np , + 2np ⎟

⎡ ⎛ 16 − x 2 ⎞ ⎤ ⎝ 6 6 ⎠

(x) = cos ⎢log ⎜

f ⎟ ⎥ is

⎢⎣ ⎝ 3 − x ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎛ p p ⎞

(C) ⎜ − + 2np , + 2np ⎟

⎝ 6 6 ⎠

(A) (– 4, 4) (B) (– 4, 3)

(C) (– ∞, – 4) ∪ (3, ∞) (D) None of these ⎡ p p ⎞

(D) ⎢ − + 2np , + 2np ⎟

Solution: (B) ⎣ 6 6 ⎠

16 − x 2 Solution: (A)

f (x) is defined if >0

3− x 3

f (x) is defined if – 1 ≤ ≤1

⇒ 16 – x2 > 0 and 3 – x > 0 4 + 2 sin x

⇒ (x – 4) (x + 4) < 0 and x < 3 Since, 4 + 2 sin x > 0 for all real x, therefore

3 1

⇒ – 4 < x < 4 and x < 3 or – 4 < x < 3 ≤ 1 ⇒ 3 ≤ 4 + 2 sin x ⇒ sin x ≥ –

4 + 2 sin x 2

\ Domain of f = (– 4, 3).

p p

9. The domain of the function f (x) = log2 log3 log4 x is ⇒ – + 2np ≤ x ≤ + 2np, n ∈ Z

6 6

(A) [4, ∞) (B) (4, ∞) ⎡ p p ⎤

(C) (– ∞, 4) (D) None of these Domain of f = ⎢ − + 2np , + 2np ⎥ .

⎣ 6 6 ⎦

Solution: (B)

f (x) is defined if log3 log4 x > 0, log4 x > 0 and x > 0 1−| x|

12. The domain of definition of f (x) = is

⇒ log4 x > 3° = 1, x > 4° and x > 0 2 −| x|

(A) (–∞, ∞)\[–1, 1]

⇒ x > 41, x > 1 and x > 0 ⇒ x > 4 (B) (–∞, ∞)\[–2, 2]

Domain of f = (4, ∞). (C) [–1, 1] ∪ (–∞, –2) ∪ (2, ∞)

(D) None of these

10. The domain of the function

Solution: (C)

⎛ 2 − | x |⎞

−1

1−| x|

f (x) = cos ⎜ + [log (3 − x )]−1 is

⎝ 4 ⎟⎠ f (x) is defined if ≥ 0 and 2 – |x| ≠ 0

2 −| x|

(A) [– 6, 3)\{2} (B) [– 6, 2) ∪ (2, 3]

(1 − | x |) ( 2 − | x |)

(C) [– 6, 3] (D) [– 6, 3) ⇒ ≥ 0 and x ≠ –2, 2

( 2 − | x |) 2

Solution: (A)

⇒ (|x| – 1) (|x| – 2) ≥ 0 and x ≠ –2, 2

⎛ 2 − | x |⎞ 2 −| x |

cos ⎟⎠ is defined for – 1 ≤ ≤1 ⇒ |x| ≤ 1 or |x| > 2

–1

⎜⎝

4 4

⇒ –1 ≤ x ≤ 1 or (x < –2 or x > 2)

⇒ – 4 ≤ 2 – | x | ≤ 4 ⇒ – 6 ≤ – | x | ≤ 2

Domain of f = [– 1, 1] ∪ (– ∞, – 2) ∪ (2, ∞)

⇒ – 2 ≤ | x | ≤ 6 ⇒ | x | ≤ 6 ⇒ – 6 ≤ x ≤ 6 (1)

2.6 Chapter 2

Solution: (A)

13. The domain of the function f (x) = 1 − 1 − 1 − x 2 is

f (x) is defined if

(A) (– ∞, 1) (B) (–1, ∞)

⎡ 1⎤ ⎡ 1⎤

(C) [0, 1] (D) [–1, 1] x2 – 5x + 6 ≠ 0, ⎢ x + ⎥ > 0, ⎢ x + ⎥ ≠ 1

⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ 2⎦

Solution: (D)

x – 5x + 6 ≠ 0 ⇒ (x – 2) (x – 3) ≠ 0 ⇒ x ≠ 2, 3

2

(1)

f (x) is defined if

⎡ 1⎤ 1

⎢ x + 2 ⎥ > 0 ⇒ x ≥ 2 (2)

1 – 1 − 1 − x 2 ≥ 0, 1 – 1 − x 2 ≥ 0 and 1 – x2 ≥ 0 ⎣ ⎦

1 – x2 ≥ 0 ⇒ (x + 1) (x – 1) ≤ 0 ⇒ – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1

Clearly for these values, the other two inequalities ⎡ 1⎤ ⎡ 1 3⎞

⎢ x + 2 ⎥ ≠ 1 ⇒ x ∉ ⎢ 2 , 2 ⎟⎠ (3)

hold. ⎣ ⎦ ⎣

Thus domain of f = [– 1, 1]. From Eq. (1), (2) and (3), we get domain of f

14. The domain of the function ⎡3 ⎞

=⎢ , 2⎟ ∪ (2, 3) ∪ (3, ∞).

(x) = log10 [1 – log10 (x2 – 5x + 16)] is

f ⎣2 ⎠

(A) (2, 3) (B) [2, 3] −1

(log16 x 2 )

(C) (2, 3] (D) [2, 3) 17. The domain of the function f (x) = e sin is

⎡1 ⎤ ⎡ 1⎤ ⎡1 ⎤

Solution: (A) (A) ⎢ , 4 ⎥ (B) ⎢ −4, − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ , 4⎥

f (x) is defined if ⎣4 ⎦ ⎣ 4⎦ ⎣4 ⎦

1 – log10 (x2 – 5x + 16) > 0 and x2 – 5x + 16 > 0 ⎡ 1⎤

(C) ⎢ −4, − ⎥ (D) None of these

⎛ 5⎞ 39

2

⎣ 4⎦

⇒ log10 (x2 – 5x + 16) < 1 and ⎜ x − ⎟ + >0

⎝ 2⎠ 4 Solution: (B)

⇒ x – 5x + 16 < 10 = 10

2 1

f (x) is defined if

⎡ ⎛ 5⎞

2

39 ⎤ – 1 ≤ log16 x2 ≤ 1 ⇒ 16–1 ≤ x2 ≤ 161

Q

⎢ ⎜ x − ⎟ + > 0 for all real x ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎥⎦ ⇒

1

≤ x2 ≤ 16

⇒ x – 5x + 6 < 0

2 16

1 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

⇒ (x – 3) (x – 2) < 0 ⇒ 2 < x < 3 x2 ≥ ⇒ ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ≥ 0

16 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4⎠

\ Domain of f = (2, 3)

1 1

1 ⇒ x≤– or x ≥ (1)

15. The domain of the function f (x) = is 4 4

| sin x | + sin x x2 ≤ 16 ⇒ (x – 4) (x + 4) ≤ 0 ⇒ – 4 ≤ x ≤ 4 (2)

(A) (– 2np, 2np) (B) (2np, (2n + 1) p) From Eq. (1) and (2), we get domain of f

⎛ p p⎞

(C) ⎜ ( 4 n − 1) , ( 4 n + 1) ⎟ (D) None of these ⎡ 1⎤ ⎡1 ⎤

⎝ 2 2⎠ = ⎢ − 4, − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ , 4 ⎥ .

⎣ 4⎦ ⎣4 ⎦

Solution: (B) 18. The domain of the function

f (x) is defined if | sin x | + sin x > 0 (x) = log 2 log 2 log 2 ...log 2 x is

f

⇒ sin x > 0 ⇒ 2np < x < 2np + p n times

(C) (2n – 2, ∞) (D) None of these

16. The domain of the function

Solution: (D)

(x) = log ⎡

f 1⎤

x 2 − 5 x + 6 is

⎢x + 2⎥

⎣ ⎦

f (x) is defined if

(1) x > 0

⎡3 ⎞ ⎡3 ⎞ (2) log2 x > 0 ⇒ x > 20 = 1

(A) ⎢ , 2⎟ ∪ (2, 3) ∪ (3, ∞) (B)

⎢ , ∞⎟

⎣2 ⎠ ⎣2 ⎠ (3) log2 log2 x > 0 ⇒ log2 x > 20 = 1 ⇒ x > 21 = 2

⎡1 ⎞ (4) log2 log2 log2 x > 0 ⇒ log2 log2 x > 20 = 1

(C) ⎢ , ∞⎟ (D) None of these

⎣2 ⎠ ⇒ log2 x > 21 = 2

⇒ x > 22

Functions 2.7

(5) log2 log2 log2 log2 x > 0 ⇒ log2 log2 log2 x > 20 = 1 Solution: (C)

⇒ log2 log2 x > 21 f (x) is defined if

–(log3 x)2 + 5 log3 x – 6 > 0 and x > 0

2

⇒ log2 x > 22 ⇒ x > 22

M M M ⇒ (log3 x – 3) (2 – log3 x) > 0 and x > 0

Continuing like this, we get x > 22

2...( n−1) times

⇒ (log3 x – 2) (log3 x – 3) < 0 and x > 0

2...( n−1) times ⇒ 2 < log3 x < 3 and x > 0

\ Domain of f = ( 22 , ∞).

⇒ 32 < x < 33 ⇒ 9 < x < 27

1

19. The domain of the function f (x) = is \ Domain of f = (9, 27).

[ x] − [ x] − 6

2

(A) (– ∞, – 2) ∪ [4, ∞) (B) (– ∞, – 2] ∪ [4, ∞)

the equation 2x + 2y = 2 is

(C) (– ∞, – 2) ∪ (4, ∞) (D) None of these

(A) 0 < x ≤ 1 (B) 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

Solution: (A) (C) – ∞ < x ≤ 0 (D) – ∞ < x < 1

f (x) is defined for

Solution: (D)

[x]2 – [x] – 6 > 0 ⇒ ([x] – 3) ([x] + 2) > 0 We have, 2x + 2y = 2 ⇒ 2y = 2 – 2x

⇒ [x] < –2 or [x] > 3 log ( 2 − 2 x )

⇒ y=

But [x] < – 2 ⇒ [x] = –3, –4, –5, ... log 2

\ x < –2 For y to be defined, 2 – 2x > 0 ⇒ 2x < 2

Since, 2x is an increasing function, therefore we get x < 1.

Also, [x] > 3 ⇒ [x] = 4, 5, 6, ...

\ x ≥ 4 23. The domain of the function

\ Domain of f = (–∞, –2) ∪ [4, ∞). ⎛ x ⎞

(x) = cot–1 ⎜ 2

f ⎟ , x ∈ R is

20. The domain of the function ⎝ x − [x2 ] ⎠

f (x) = log3 ⎡ − log ⎛1 + 1 ⎞ − 1⎤ is (A) R – {± n , n ∈ N} (B) R – { n, n ≥ 0, n ∈ I}

⎢ 1 ⎜ ⎟

⎣ 2 ⎝ x1 5 ⎠ ⎥⎦ (C) R (D) R – {0}

(A) (– ∞, 1) (B) (0, 1) Solution: (B)

(C) (1, ∞) (D) None of these x

Domain of cot–1x is R and is defined if

Solution: (B) x2 ≠ [x2] x − [x2 ]

2

(∵ x2 ≥ [x2])

f (x) is defined if

⇒ x2 ≠ 0 or +ve integer.

⎛ 1 ⎞ 1

– log 1 ⎜1 + 1 5 ⎟ – 1 > 0, 1 + 1 5 > 0, x ≠ 0 Hence, domain = R – { n : n ≥ 0, n ∈ Z}.

2 ⎝ x ⎠ x

⎛ 1 ⎞

⇒ log 1 ⎜1 + 1 5 ⎟ < –1, x1/5 + 1 > 0, x ≠ 0 Method to Find the Range of

2 ⎝ x ⎠

−1 a Function

1 ⎛ 1⎞

⇒ 1 + > ⎜ ⎟ , x > (–1)5, x ≠ 0

x15

⎝ 2⎠ 1. Find the domain of the function y = f (x).

1 2. If the domain is an infinite interval, solve the equation

⇒ > 1, x > –1 and x ≠ 0 y = f (x) and find x in terms of y to get x = g (y). Find the

x1 5

real values of y for which x is real. The set of values of y

⇒ 0 < x < 1 and x > –1 ⇒ 0 < x < 1.

so obtained constitutes the range of f. Note that if finite

\ Domain ( f ) = (0, 1). number of values of x are excluded from the domain,

21. The domain of the function find the values of y for these values of x and exclude

(x) = log3 [–(log3 x)2 + 5 log3 x – 6] is

f these values of y from the range of f found earlier.

3. If the domain is a finite interval, find the least and

(A) (0, 9) ∪ (27, ∞) greatest value of y for values of x in the domain. If a is

(B) [9, 27] the least value and b the greatest value of y, then range

(C) (9, 27) ( f ) = [a, b].

(D) None of these

2.8 Chapter 2

Solved Examples ⎧1 ⎫

(A) (–∞, ∞)\ ⎨ , 1⎬ (B) (–∞, ∞)

⎩5 ⎭

24. The range of the function f (x) = 3 x 2 − 4 x + 5 is (C) (–∞, ∞)\{1} (D) None of these

⎡ 11 ⎤ ⎛ 11 ⎞ Solution: (B)

(A) ⎢ −∞, ⎥ ⎜ −∞, 3 ⎟

(B)

⎣ 3⎦ ⎝ ⎠ f (x) is defined if x2 + x – 6 ≠ 0

i.e., (x + 3) (x – 2) ≠ 0 i.e. x ≠ – 3, 2

⎡ 11 ⎞ ⎛ 11 ⎞

(C) ⎢ , ∞⎟ (D)

⎜ 3 , ∞⎟ \ Domain ( f ) = (– ∞, ∞)\{– 3, 2}

⎢⎣ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

x 2 − 3x + 2

Let y= 2

Solution: (C) x + x −6

f (x) is defined if 3x2 – 4x + 5 ≥ 0 ⇒ x y + xy – 6y = x2 – 3x + 2

2

⎡ 4 5⎤ ⎡⎛ 2 ⎞ 11⎤

2 ⇒ x2 (y – 1) + x (y + 3) – (6y + 2) = 0

⇒ 3 ⎢ x2 − x + ⎥ ≥ 0 ⇒ 3 ⎢⎜ x − ⎟ + ⎥ ≥ 0 For x to be real, (y + 3)2 + 4 (y – 1) (6y + 2) ≥ 0

⎣ 3 3⎦ ⎢⎣⎝ 3⎠ 9 ⎥⎦

which is true for all real x ⇒ 25y2 – 10y + 1 ≥ 0 i.e. (5y – 1)2 ≥ 0

\ Domain ( f ) = (– ∞, ∞) which is true for all real y.

\ Range of f = (–∞, ∞).

Let y = 3x 2 − 4 x + 5 ⎛ x2 ⎞

27. The range of the function y = sin–1 ⎜ is

⇒ y2 = 3x2 – 4x + 5 i.e. 3x2 – 4x + (5 – y2) = 0 ⎝ 1+ x 2 ⎟⎠

11 ⎛ p⎞ ⎡ p⎞

For x to be real, 16 – 12 (5 – y2) ≥ 0 ⇒ y ≥ (A) ⎜ 0, ⎟ (B)

3 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎢0, 2 ⎟⎠

⎡ 11 ⎞ ⎣

\ Range of y = ⎢ , ∞⎟ . ⎡ p⎤

⎢⎣ 3 ⎠ (C) ⎢0, ⎥ (D) None of these

⎣ 2⎦

25. The range of the function f (x) = loge (3x2 – 4x + 5) is

Solution: (B)

⎛ 11⎤ ⎡ 11 ⎞ x2

(A) ⎜ −∞, log e ⎥ (B) ⎢log e , ∞⎟ Clearly, for y to be defined, ≤ 1 which is true

⎝ 3⎦ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 1+ x 2

for all x ∈ R. So, the domain = (– ∞, ∞).

⎡ 11 11⎤

(C) ⎢ − log e , log e ⎥ (D) None of these ⎛ x2 ⎞

⎣ 3 3⎦ x2

Now, y = sin–1 ⎜ 2⎟

⇒ = sin y

⎝ 1+ x ⎠ 1+ x 2

Solution: (B)

x2

f (x) is defined if 3x2 – 4x + 5 > 0 ⇒ x=

1+ x 2

⎡ 4 5⎤ ⎡⎛ 2 ⎞ 11⎤

2

⎣ 3 3⎦ ⎢⎣⎝ 3⎠ 9 ⎥⎦

⎡ p⎞

which is true for all real x. ⇒ 0 ≤ sin y < 1 ⇒ y ∈ ⎢0, ⎟

\ Domain ( f ) = (– ∞, ∞) ⎣ 2⎠

⎡ p⎞

Let y = loge (3x2 – 4x + 5) ⇒ ey = 3x2 – 4x + 5. \ Range = ⎢0, ⎟

⎣ 2⎠

⇒ 3x2 – 4x + (5 – ey ) = 0

For x to be real, p2

28. The range of the function y = 3 sin − x 2 is

11 16

16 – 12 (5 – ey) ≥ 0 ⇒ 12 ey ≥ 44 ⇒ ey ≥

3 ⎡ 3 ⎤ ⎡ 3 3 ⎤

11

⇒ y ≥ loge (A) ⎢0, ⎢−

⎥ (B) , ⎥

3 ⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ 2 2⎦

⎡ 11 ⎞ ⎡ 3 ⎤

\ Range of f = ⎢log e , ∞⎟ . (C) ⎢ − , 0 ⎥ (D) None of these

⎣ 3 ⎠ ⎣ 2 ⎦

x 2 − 3x + 2 Solution: (A)

26. The value of the function f (x) = 2 lies in the

x + x −6 p2

interval For y to be defined, – x2 ≥ 0

16

Functions 2.9

⎛p ⎞ ⎛p ⎞ ⎛ p⎞ ⎛ p⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

⇒ ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎜ + x ⎟ ≥ 0 ⇒ ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ≤ 0

(A) ⎜⎝ − 1, − ⎟⎠

[–2, –1] (b)

⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ 2

p p (C) (–2, –1) (D) None of these

⇒ – ≤ x ≤

4 4

Solution: (C)

⎡ p p⎤

\ Domain of y = ⎢ − , ⎥ We have, [2 sin x] + [cos x] = –3

⎣ 4 4⎦

only if [2 sin x] = –2 and [cos x] = –1

⎡ p p⎤ p2 ⎡ p⎤ ⇒ –2 ≤ 2 sin x < –1 and –1 ≤ cos x < 0

Clearly, for x ∈ ⎢ − , ⎥ , − x 2 ∈ ⎢0, ⎥ . 1

⎣ 4 4⎦ 16 ⎣ 4⎦ ⇒ –1 ≤ sin x < − and –1 ≤ cos x < 0

2

⎡ p⎤ 7p 11p p 3p

Since sin x is an increasing function on ⎢0, ⎥ . ⇒ <x< and <x<

⎣ 4⎦ 6 6 2 2

p2 p 7p 3p

Therefore, sin 0 ≤ sin − x 2 ≤ sin ⇒ <x<

16 4 6 2

p2 3 3 For the above values of x, sin x + 3cos x = 2 sin

⇒ 0 ≤ 3 sin − x2 ≤ ⇒0≤y≤ ⎛p ⎞

16 2 2 ⎜⎝ + x ⎟⎠ lies between –2 and –1.

3

⎡ 3 ⎤

\ Range of y = ⎢0, ⎥ \ Rage of f (x) is (–2, –1).

⎣ 2⎦

e− x

29. The range of the function 31. The range of the function y = is

1 + [ x]

⎡ ⎛ 4 − x2 ⎞ ⎤ (A) (–∞, ∞) (B) R – {0}

f (x) = sin ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ is

⎢⎣ ⎝ 1 − x ⎠ ⎥⎦ (C) R (D) None of these

(C) [–1, 1] (D) (–1, 1) We have,

e− x

Solution: (C) y=

1 + [ x]

For f (x) to be defined,

⇒ (1 + [x])y = e–x > 0

4 − x2

> 0, 4 – x2 > 0 and 1 – x ≠ 0 ⇒ (1 + [x])y > 0

1− x

⇒ y > 0 if 1 + [x] > 0 and y < 0 if 1 + [x] < 0

Since 4 − x 2 </ 0,

\ y ∈ R – {0}

\ We have 1 – x > 0 and 4 – x2 > 0

⇒ x < 1 and (x – 2) (x + 2) < 0

⇒ x < 1 and – 2 < x < 2 Types of Functions

⇒ –2 < x < 1

\ Domain of f = (– 2, 1).

One–One or Injective Function

A function f : X → Y is said to be one-one or injective if

⎛ 4 − x2 ⎞

Since –∞ < log ⎜ ⎟ <∞ distinct elements of X have distinct images in Y, as shown

⎝ 1− x ⎠ in Fig. 2.4.

⎡ ⎛ 4 − x2 ⎞ ⎤ f

⇒ –1 ≤ sin ⎢log ⎜ ⎟⎥ ≤ 1

⎢⎣ ⎝ 1 − x ⎠ ⎥⎦

\ Range of f = [–1, 1].

30. If [2 sin x] + [cos x] = –3, then the range of the function

f (x) = sin x + 3 cos x in [0, 2p] (where [⋅] denotes the X Y

greatest integer function) is Fig. 2.4

2.10 Chapter 2

Many–one Function

notE

A function f : X → Y is said to be many-one if there exists

atleast two distinct elements in X whose images are same, Any continuous function f(x) which has atleast one local

as shown in the Fig. 2.5 maxima or local minima is many-one.

f All even functions are many-one.

All polynomials of even degree deﬁned on R have atleast

one local maxima or minima and hence are many one on

the domain R. Polynomials of odd degree can be one-one

or many-one.

. X Y

Fig. 2.5 tRick(S) FoR pRobleM Solving

Function f : X → Y iS one–one oR If X and Y are any two ﬁnite sets having m and n elements

respectively, then the number of one-one functions from X to

Many-one Y would be

⎧nP , if n ≥ m ⎫

1. Consider any two points x, y ∈ X. =⎨ m ⎬

⎩ 0, if n < m⎭

2. Put f (x) = f (y) and solve the equation.

3. If we get x = y only, then f is one-one, otherwise it is

many-one.

onto oR SuRJective Function

tRick(S) FoR pRobleM Solving

A function f : X → Y is said to be onto or surjective if every

Derivative Test to Check the Injectivity element of Y is the image of atleast one clement in X under

If a function is either strictly increasing or strictly decreasing

the map f , as shown in the Fig. 2.6

X Y

in the whole domain (or equivalently, f ′(x) > 0 or f ′(x) < 0, ONTO

∀ x ∈ X), then it is one-one, otherwise it is many-one.

Graphical Test

If any straight line parallel to x-axis intersects the graph of

the function atmost at one point, then the function is one-one,

otherwise it is many-one (i.e., it intersects the graph of the

function in atleast two points).

Fig. 2.6

Y Y

function, as shown in the Fig. 2.7

(0, 1)

X Y

X′ X X′ X INTO

O O

f (x) = ax + b f (x) = ax (0 < a < 1)

Y′ Y′

(i) One–One Function (ii) One–One Function

Y Y

Fig. 2.7

X′ X X′ X′ atleast one element in Y which is not image of any element

O f (x) = O

x2 f (x) = x

in X, then we say that f is a function of A into B, i.e., f is

Y′ Y′ called into function if, for some y ∈ Y, there does not exist

(i) Many–One Function (ii) Many–One Function any x ∈ X such that y = f (x).

Functions 2.11

Method to check whetheR the (A) one-one and into (B) many-one and into

Function f : X → Y iS onto oR into (C) one-one and onto (D) many-one and onto

Solution: (A)

1. Find the range of the function f.

2. If range of f = Y (the co-domain), then f is onto, other- Since, for different x, 4x and 4| x | are different positive

wise it is into. numbers,

\ f is one–one. Also, f is not onto as its range (0, ∞)

is a proper subset of its co-domain R.

notE

33. Let f : R → R be a function defined by,

For an ‘onto’ function, the range overlaps or equals

co-domain, whereas for an into function, the range does not f (x) = x + x 2 , then f is

overlap but ﬁts inside the co-domain. (A) injective (B) surjective

(C) bijective (D) None of these

Solution: (D)

tRick(S) FoR pRobleM Solving

We have,

Number of Onto Functions (Surjections) f (x) = x + x 2 = x + | x |

If X and Y are any two ﬁnite sets having m and n elements Clearly, f is not one-one as f (– 1) = f (– 2) = 0 but – 1

respectively, where 1 ≤ n ≤ m, then the number of onto ≠ –2.

functions from X to Y is given by Also, f is not onto as f (x) ≥ 0 ∀ x ∈ R,

n

∑ ( −1) n−r n

Cr r m \ range of f = (0, ∞) ⊂ R.

r −1

degree of f is even. SoMe iMpoRtant FunctionS

constant Function

biJective Function A function f : R → R defined as f (x) = c, ∀ x ∈ R, where c

A function f : X → Y is said to be bijective, if f is both one- is a constant, is called a constant function. Its domain is R

one and onto, as shown in the Fig. 2.8 and range is singleton set {c}.

The graph of a constant function is a straight line par-

X Y allel to x-axis as shown in the Fig. 2.9. It is above or below

f the x-axis according as c is positive or negative. If c = 0,

then the straight line coincides with x-axis.

Y

O

Number of One–One Onto Functions (Dijections)

If X and Y are any two ﬁnite sets having the same number of Fig. 2.9

elements, say n, then the number of bijective functions from

X to Y is n!.

identity Function

The function f : R → R defined as f (x) = x, ∀ x ∈ R, is called

Solved exaMpleS the identity function. Its do-main is R and range is also R.

The graph of the identity function is a straight line

32. The function f : R → R defined by, passing through origin and inclined at an angle of 45º with

x-axis, as shown in the Fig. 2.10.

f (x) = 4x + 4|x| is

2.12 Chapter 2

greater than x or greatest integer less than or equal to x.

(x) = n,

i.e. f

f (x) = x

X′ X where n ≤ x < n + 1, n ∈ Z (the set of integers).

O Its domain is R and range is Z. The graph of the

greatest integer function is as shown in Fig. 2.12:

Y′ Y

Fig. 2.10

3

2

Modulus function or absolute

1

value function

X

The function f : R → R, defined as –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3

–1

⎧ x, if x > 0 ⎫

⎪ ⎪ –2

f (x) = | x | = ⎨0, if x = 0 ⎬

⎪ − x, if x < 0⎪ –3

⎩ ⎭

is called the absolute value function or modulus function. Fig. 2.12

Its domain is R and its range is [0, ∞). The graph of the

modulus function is as shown in the Fig. 2.11.

Trick(s) for Problem Solving

Y

[x] ≤ x < [x] + 1

⎪⎧[ x ] + [ y ] if { x} + { y } < 1⎪⎫

[x + y] = ⎨

f(

⎬

⎩⎪[ x ] + [ y ] + 1, if { x} + { y } ≥ 1⎭⎪

=

x)

x)

=

f(

–x

O

n ≤ x < n + 1 ⇔ [x] = n

n ≤ [x] ≤ n ⇒ n ≤ x < n + 1

1 2 1 2

Fig. 2.11

x – 1 < [x] ≤ x

[[x]] = [x]

⎧0 if x ∈ Z

For every x ∈ R, |x| = max {x, –x} [x] + [– x] = ⎨

⎩ −1 if x ∉ Z

For every x ∈ R, |x| = x 2

If [f(x)] ≥ n, then f(x) ≥ n

|x + y| ≤ |x| + |y|

If [f(x)] ≤ n, then f(x) < n + 1

|x + y| = |x| + |y| if x, y have the same sign and

|x – y| ≥ ||x| + |y|| ⎡ x + ⎡ y + ⎡⎣ z + ⎡⎣w + [u ]⎤⎦ ⎤⎦ ⎤ ⎤ = [ x ] + [ y ] + [ z ] + [w ] + [u ]

⎣ ⎣ ⎦⎦

|x – y| = ||x| – |y|| if x, y have same sign and |x| ≥ |y|

Least integer function/ceiling

function

Greatest integer function/Step The function f : R → R defined as f (x) = (x) is called least

function/Floor Function integer function,

where (x) = least integer greater than or equal to x.

The function f : R → R defined as f (x) = [x] is called the i.e., f (x) = n,

greatest integer function,

where n – 1 < x ≤ n, n ∈ Z (the set of integers)

Functions 2.13

(A) (B)

integer function is as shown in Fig. 2.13: log [1 − | x |] {x}

Y log ( x − 1)

(C) x! {x} (D)

1 − x2

Solution: (C)

Since only x! {x} is defined so x! {x} represents a

function.

–3 –2 –1 O

X ⎡ 1 ⎤

1 2 3 35. Range of the function f defined by f (x) = ⎢ ⎥

⎣ sin{x} ⎦

(where [.] and {.} respectively denote the greatest inte-

ger and the fractional part functions) is

(A) Z, the set of integers

(B) N, the set of natural numbers

Fig. 2.13

(C) W, the set of whole numbers

(D) {2, 3, 4, ...}

Fractional-part function Solution: (B)

The function f : R → R defined as f (x) = x – [x] or f (x) = Q {x} ∈ [0, 1)

{x}, where {x} denotes the fractional part of x, is called \ sin {x} ∈ [0, sin 1) but f (x) is defined if sin {x} ≠ 0

the fractional-part function. Its domain is R and range is ⎛ 1 ⎞

1

[0, 1). The graph of the fractional part function is as shown \ ∈ ,∞ .

in Fig. 2.14: sin{x} ⎜⎝ sin 1 ⎟⎠

Y ⎡ 1 ⎤

\ ⎢ ⎥ ∈{1, 2, 3.....} .

⎣ sin{x} ⎦

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3

X Signum function

The function f : R → R defined as

⎧x ⎫

Fig. 2.14 ⎪ for x ≠ 0 ⎪

(x) = ⎨ x

f ⎬

⎪⎩0 for x = 0⎪⎭

Trick(s) for Problem Solving

is called the signum function.

If 0 ≤ x < 1, then {x} = x Its domain is R and range is the set {– 1, 0, 1}. The

If x is an integer, then x = [x] ⇒ {x} = 0 graph of the signum function is as shown in Fig. 2.15:

⇒ {[x]} = 0 Y

[{x}] = 0

(0, 1)

0 ≤ {x} < 1

⎧0 if x ∈ integer X

{x} + {– x} = ⎨ 0

⎩ −1, if x ∉ integer (0, –1)

If x ∉ Z and x > 0, then {–x} = 1 – {x}

Fig. 2.15

1

34. Which of the following is a function ([.] denotes the The function f : R\{0} → R defined by f (x) = , is called

x

greatest integer function, {.} denotes the fractional

the reciprocal function. Its domain as well as range is R\{0}.

part function)?

The graph of the reciprocal function is as shown in Fig. 2.16:

2.14 Chapter 2

Y Y Y

f(x) = loga x

a>1

(1, 0)

X X

X 0 (1, 0) 0

O

f (x) = loga x

a<1

Fig. 2.18(a) Fig. 2.18(b)

loga a = 1, loga 1 = 0, provided a > 0, a ≠ 1

exponential Function

⎧ −∞, if a >1

loga 0 = ⎨

Let a (≠ 1) be a positive real number. Then the function ⎩+ ∞, if 0 < a <1

f : R → R, defined by f (x) = ax, is called the exponential loge x is also denoted as: ln x.

function. Its domain is R and range is (0, ∞). The graph of If loga x1 > loga x2 then x1 > x2 if a > 1 and x1 < x2 if

the exponential function is as shown in Fig. 2.17(a) and (b). 0 < a < 1.

Y Y

f (x) = a x f (x) = a x

a>1 a<1 polynoMial Function

(0, 1) (0, 1) A function f : R → R, defined by f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 +

... + anxn, where n ∈ N and a0, a1, a2, ..., an ∈ R, is called a

X X polynomial function.

0 0

If an ≠ 0, then n is called the degree of the polynomial.

The domain of a polynomial function is R.

Fig. 2.17(a) Fig. 2.17(b)

Rational Function

p (x)

notE A function of the form f (x) = , where p (x) and q (x)

q (x)

are polynomials over the set of real numbers and q (x) ≠ 0,

ax = e x loge a, (a > 0).

is called a rational function. Its domain is R\{x | q (x) = 0}.

aloga x = x, (a > 0, a ≠ 1).

logc b

log ab = , a, b, c > 0 and a, c ≠ 1 tRigonoMetRic FunctionS

logc a

1 table 2.1

log ba = , provided a ≠ 1, b ≠ 1 and a, b > 0

loga b Function Domain Range

If a x1 > a x2 then x1 > x2 if a > 1 and x1 < x2 if 0 < a < 1

y = sin x R [– 1, 1]

y = cos x R [– 1, 1]

π

logaRithMic Function y = tan x R \ (2n + 1) n ∈ Z

2

R

Let a (≠ 1) be a positive real number. Then the function y = cot x R \ {np | n ∈ Z} R

f : (0, ∞) → R, defined by f (x) = loga x, is called the π

logarithmic function. Its domain is (0, ∞) and range is y = sec x R \ (2n + 1) n ∈ Z (– ∞, – 1] ∪ [1, ∞)

2

R. The graph of the logarithmic function is as shown in

y = cosec x R \ {np | n ∈ Z} (– ∞, – 1] ∪ [1, ∞)

Fig. 2.18(a) and (b):

Functions 2.15

1. y = sin2x, x ∈ R.

Table 2.2

2. y = log x + x – 2ex, x > 0.

Function Domain Range

π π

Implicit Function

y = sin–1x –1≤x≤1 − 2 , 2 When the variables x and y occur together in an equation

y = cos x–1

–1≤x≤1 [0, p] f (x, y) = 0, in which y cannot be expressed explicitly in

terms of x, then y is said to be an implicit function of x.

π π

y = tan–1x –∞<x<∞ − ,

2 2 Illustration

y = cot–1x –∞<x<∞ (0, p)

1. xy = tan(x + y)

π π 2. exy + xy – 2 = 0.

y = cosec–1x (–∞, – 1] ∪ [1, ∞) − 2 , 0 ∪ 0, 2

π π Operations on Functions

y = sec–1x (– ∞, – 1] ∪ [1, ∞) 0, 2 ∪ 2 , π

Let f and g be two real functions with domain D1 and D2

respectively. Then,

Two Ways of Defining a Function

1. The sum function ( f + g) is defined by,

1. Uniform Definition: If a function is defined as y =

( f + g) (x) = f (x) + g (x), ∀ x ∈ D1 ∩ D2

f (x), x ∈ [a, b], we say that it is uniformly defined.

Illustration The domain of f + g is D1 ∩ D2

(i) y = f (x) = sin x, x ∈ R, 2. The difference function ( f – g) is defined by,

(ii) y = f (x) = x2 + 1, x ∈ [–1, 1]. ( f – g) (x) = f (x) – g (x), ∀ x ∈ D1 ∩ D2

2. Piecewise Definition: If a function y = f (x), x ∈ The domain of f – g is D1 ∩ D2

[a, b] assumes different forms in different subsets of 3. The product function fg is defined by,

[a, b], we say that it is piecewise defined, as shown in

the Fig. 2.19 ( fg) (x) = f (x) ⋅ g (x), ∀ x ∈ D1 ∩ D2

The domain of fg is D1 ∩ D2

Y

⎛ f⎞

4. The quotient function ⎜ ⎟ is defined by,

⎝ g⎠

y=1 ⎛ f⎞ f ( x)

1 ⎜⎝ g ⎟⎠ (x) = g ( x ) , ∀ x ∈ D1 ∩ D2\[x : g (x) = 0]

y

(0, 1) –

=

x

1

=

y

–

f

x

X g

–1 0 (1, 0)

5. The scalar multiple function cf is defined by,

Fig. 2.19 (cf ) (x) = c ⋅ f (x), ∀ x ∈ D1

Illustration

The domain of cf is D1

⎧ 1, −1 ≤ x < 0

⎪

y = f (x) = ⎨1 − x, 0 ≤ x < 1 Trick(s) for Problem Solving

⎪ x − 1, x ≥ 1

⎩

In a function f(x) is such that

f(xy) = f(x) ⋅ f(y) ⇒ f(x) = x , n ∈ R

n

kx

Explicit Function

f(x + y) = f(x) = f(y) ⇒ f(x) = k, where k is constant

A function y is said to be an explicit function of x, if the ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

f(x) × f ⎜ ⎟ = f(x) + f ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ f(x) = ± x + 1

n

dependent variable y can be expressed totally in terms of ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ x⎠

the independent variable x.

2.16 Chapter 2

Composition of Functions ⎧ x, x ∈ Q, x ∈Q

⎪ 1 − x, x ∉ Q, x ∈Q

Let f and g be two real functions with domain D1 and D2 ⎪

= ⎨

respectively. ⎪1 − x, 1 − x ∈ Q, x ∉Q

If range of f ⊆ domain of g, then composite function ⎪⎩1 − (1 − x ), 1 − x ∉ Q, x ∉Q

(gof ) is defined by,

⎧ x, x ∈ Q

(gof ) (x) = g [ f (x)], ∀ x ∈ D1 = ⎨

⎩ x, x ∉ Q

Also, if range of g ⊆ domain of f, then composite function \ fof (x) = x, x ∈ [0, 1].

( fog) is defined by,

37. If g [ f (x)] = | sin x | and f [g (x)] = (sin x )2, then

( fog) (x) = f [g (x)], ∀ x ∈ D2

(A) f (x) = sin2x, g (x) = x

(B) f (x) = sin x, g (x) = |x|

caution (C) f (x) = x2, g (x) = sin x

(D) f and g cannot be determined.

gof exists only if range f ⊆ domain and fog exists only if

range g ⊆ domain if Solution: (A)

Properties of Composite Functions ( fog) (x) = f [g (x)] = f ( x ) = (sin x )2

Let f : X → Y and g : Y → Z be two functions. and (gof ) (x) = g [ f (x)] = g (sin2x) = |sin x|

1. If both f and g are one-one, then so is gof. When f (x) = sin x and g (x) = |x|

2. If both f and g are onto, then so is gof. ( fog) (x) = f (g (x)) = f (|x|) = sin |x| ≠ (sin x )2

3. If gof is one-one, then f is one-one but g may not be

one-one. When f (x) = x2 and g (x) = sin x

4. If gof is onto, then g is onto but f may not be onto. ( fog) (x) = f [g (x)] = f (sin x ) = (sin x )2

5. If f and g are bijective, then so is gof.

6. It may happen that gof may exist and fog may not exist. and (gof ) (x) = g [ f (x)] = g (x2) = sin x 2

Moreover, even if both gof and fog exist, they may not = sin | x | ≠ | sin x |

be equal.

38. Let f be a function with domain [–3, 5] and let

Solved Examples g (x) = |3x + 4|. Then the domain of ( fog) (x) is

⎛ 1⎞ ⎡ 1⎤

(A) ⎜ −3, ⎟ (B)

⎢⎣ −3, 3 ⎥⎦

36. Let f be a function defined on [0, 1] such that ⎝ 3⎠

⎧x x ∈Q ⎡ 1⎞

f (x) = ⎨ (C) ⎢ −3, ⎟ (D) None of these

⎩1 − x, x ∉Q ⎣ 3⎠

Then for all x ∈ [0, 1], fof (x) is Solution: (B)

(A) a constant (B) 1 + x

( fog) (x) = f [g (x)] = f (|3x + 4|)

(C) x (D) None of these

Since the domain of f is [–3, 5],

Solution: (C)

We have, \ –3 ≤ |3x + 4| ≤ 5 ⇒ |3x + 4|≤ 5

⎧x x ∈Q ⇒ –5 ≤ 3x + 4 ≤ 5

f (x) = ⎨ ⇒ –9 ≤ 3x ≤ 1

⎩1 − x, x ∉Q

1

⎧ f ( x ), f ( x) ∈ Q ⇒ –3 ≤ x ≤

\ fof (x) = ⎨ 3

⎩1 − f ( x ), f ( x) ∉ Q

⎡ 1⎤

\ Domain of fog is ⎢ −3,

⎣ 3 ⎥⎦

Functions 2.17

If f : X → Y be a one-one onto (bijection) function, then the

mapping f –1 : Y → X which associates each element y ∈ Y 39. Let f : (4, 6) → (6, 8) be a function defined by f (x)

with element x ∈ X such that f (x) = y, is called the inverse ⎡x⎤

fucntion of the function f : X → Y. = x + ⎢ ⎥ (where [ ⋅ ] denotes the greatest integer

⎣2⎦

We define inverse function f –1 : Y → X by the rule

function), then f – 1 (x) is equal to

y = f (x) ⇔ f –1 (y) = x, ∀ x ∈ X, ∀ y ∈ Y

⎡x⎤

(A) x − ⎢ ⎥ (B) – x – 2

as shown in the Fig. 2.20: ⎣2⎦

1

X Y (C) x – 2 (D)

⎡x⎤

x+⎢ ⎥

f ⎣2⎦

f –1(y) = x y = f (x)

Solution: (C)

Since f : (4, 6) → (6, 8),

f –1

\ f (x) = x + 2

\ f (x) = x – 2

–1

Fig. 2.20

40. Let f : [4, ∞) → [4, ∞) be a function defined by,

f (x) = 5x (x – 4), then f –1 (x) is

notE

(A) 2 – 4 + log5 x (B) 2 + 4 + log5 x

For the existence of inverse function, it should be one-one x ( x − 4)

and onto. ⎛ 1⎞

(C) ⎜ ⎟ (D) None of these

⎝ 5⎠

Solution: (B)

Method to Find the inveRSe oF a Let y = 5x (x–4) ⇒ x (x – 4) = log5 y

Function ⇒ x2 – 4x – log5 y = 0

Let f : X → Y be a bijective function. 4 ± 16 + 4 log5 y

⇒ x=

1. Put f (x) = y. 2

2. Solve the equation y = f (x) to obtain x in terms of y. = (2 ± 4 + log5 y )

Interchange x and y to obtain the inverse of f.

But x ≥ 4, so x = (2 + 4 + log5 y )

Aliter: let g be the inverse of f. Simplify the equation

f (g(x)) = x to find g(x). \ f –1 (y) = 2 + 4 + log5 y

a x − a− x

i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S 41. The inverse of the function f (x) = is

a x + a− x

If (x, y) is a point on the graph of an invertible function f, 1 ⎛1− x⎞ 1 ⎛1+ x ⎞

(A) log a ⎜ (B) log a ⎜

then the corresponding point on the graph of f –1 is (y, x). 2 ⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠ 2 ⎝ 1 − x ⎟⎠

Thus, the graphs of f and f –1 are mirror image of each other

in the line y = x. ⎛1+ x⎞

(C) log a ⎜ (D) None of these

⎝ 1 − x ⎟⎠

Solution: (B)

pRopeRtieS oF inveRSe FunctionS a x − a− x a2 x − 1

Let y= =

1. Inverse of a bijection is also a bijection function. a x + a− x a2 x + 1

2. Inverse of a bijection is unique. y −1 ( a 2 x − 1) − ( a 2 x + 1)

3. ( f – 1)– 1 = f ⇒ = 2x

y +1 ( a − 1) + ( a 2 x + 1)

4. If f and g are two bijections such that (gof ) exists then

(gof )– 1 = f – 1og– 1. (Using componendo and dividendo)

2.18 Chapter 2

⇒ = ⇒ a2x =

y +1 2a 2 x 1− y FunctionS

⎛1+ y⎞ 1. The graph of even function is always symmetric with

⇒ 2x loga a = loga ⎜

⎝ 1 − y ⎟⎠ respect to y-axis. The graph of odd function is always

symmetric with respect to origin.

1 ⎛1+ y ⎞ 2. The product of two even functions is an even function.

⇒ x= log a ⎜

2 ⎝ 1 − y ⎟⎠ 3. The sum and difference of two even functions is an

even function.

odd and even FunctionS 4. The sum and difference of two odd functions is an odd

function.

odd Function 5. The product of two odd functions is an even function.

6. The product of an even and an odd function is an odd

A function f (x) is said to be odd if f (–x) = –f (x) for every

function.

real number x in the domain of f.

7. It is not essential that every function is even or odd. It

Illustration is possible to have some functions which are neither

even nor odd, e.g. f (x) = x2 + x3, f (x) = loge x, f (x) = ex.

y = f (x) = sin x is odd.

8. The sum of even and odd function is neither even nor

odd function.

even Function 9. Zero function f (x) = 0 is the only function which is

A function f (x) is said to be even if f (– x) = f (x) for every even and odd both.

real number x in the domain of f.

tRick(S) FoR pRobleM Solving

Illustration

The graph of an odd function is symmetric about origin

y = f (x) = x2 is even.

the second and fourth quadrant.

The graph of an even function is symmetric about the

notE y-axis.

To express a given function f (x) as the sum of an even and

(x, y) is a point on the graph of an even function if an

odd function, we write

only if (–x, y) is a point on the graph.

1 1

f(x) = [f(x) + f(–x)] + [f(x) – f(–x)]

Y 2 2

1 1

where [f(x) + f(–x)] is an even function and [f(x) –

2 2

(–x, y) (x, y) f(–x)] is an odd function.

f(x) = 0 is the only function which is both even and odd.

X′ X

O If f(x) is an odd function, then f ′(x) is an even function

Y′ provided f(x) is diﬀerentiable on R.

If f(x) is an even function, then f ′(x) is an odd function

(x, y) is a point on the graph of an odd function if and provided f(x) is diﬀerentiable on R.

only if (–x, –y) is a point on the graph. If f and g are even functions, then fog is also an even

Y function, provided fog is deﬁned.

(x, y) If f and g are odd functions, then fog is also an odd function,

provided fog is deﬁned.

If f is an even function and g is an odd function, then fog is

X′ X an even function.

O

If f is an odd function and g is an even function, then fog is

an even function.

(–x, –y) For a real domain, even functions are not one-one.

Y′

Even functions are many-one functions, because they are

symmetric about y-axis.

Functions 2.19

Solved Examples origin is given by

(A) f (x) = (3x + 3– x)

42. Let f (x) = (–1)[x] (where [ . ] denotes the greatest integer

function), then (B) f (x) = cos [log (x + 1 + x 2 )]

(A) Range of f is {–1, 1} (C) f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) ∀ x, y ∈ R

(B) f is an even function (D) None of these

(C) f is an odd function Solution: (C)

(D) lim f (x) exists, for every integer n A function whose graph is symmetrical about the ori-

x→n

gin must be odd.

Solution: (A)

f (x) = (–1)[x] = {–1, 1}, since [x] ∈ Z. (3x + 3–x) is an even function.

43. If f is an even function defined on the interval [– 5, 5], Since cos x is an even function and log (x + 1+ x2 )

then the real values of x satisfying the equation is an odd function,

⎛ x +1⎞ \ cos (log (x + 1 + x 2 )) is an even function.

(x) = f ⎜

f are

⎝ x + 2 ⎟⎠

If f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) ∀ x, y ∈ R, then f (x) must be

−1 ± 5 −3 ± 5 odd.

(A) (B)

2 2 46. Let the function f (x) = 3 sin x – 4 cos x + log (|x| +

−2 ± 5

(C) (D) None of these 1 + x 2 ) be defined on the interval [0, 1]. The odd

2 extension of f (x) to the interval [– 1, 1] is

Solution: (A, B)

(A) 3 sin x – 4 cos x + log (|x|+ 1+ x2 )

⎛ x +1⎞ x +1

Since f (x) = f ⎜ ⎟ ⇒x=

⎝ x + 2⎠ x+2 (B) 3 sin x + 4 cos x – log (|x|+ 1+ x2 )

⇒ x2 + x – 1 = 0 (C) 3 sin x + 4 cos x + log (|x|+ 1+ x2 )

−1 ± 5 (D) None of these

⇒ x= (1)

2

Solution: (B)

Since f (x) is an even function defined on [–5, 5],

To make f (x) an odd function in the interval [–1, 1], we

\ f (– x) = f (x), ∀ x ∈ [– 5, 5] re-define f (x) as follows :

⎛ x +1⎞ ⎧ f ( x ), 0 ≤ x ≤ 1⎫

⇒ x = –⎜ ⇒ x2 + 3x + 1 = 0 (x) = ⎨

f ⎬

⎝ x + 2 ⎟⎠ ⎩ − f ( − x ), − 1 ≤ x < 0⎭

−3 ± 5 ⎧⎪3 sin x − 4 cos x + log (| x | + 1 + x 2 ), 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 ⎫⎪

⇒ x= (2) =⎨

2 ⎬

⎪⎩ −[ −3 sin x − 4 cos x + log (| x | + 1 + x 2 )], − 1 ≤ x < 0⎪⎭

From Eq. (1) and (2), the values of x are

−1 ± 5 −3 ± 5 ⎧⎪3 sin x − 4 cos x + log (| x | + 1 + x 2 ), 0 ≤ x ≤ 1⎫⎪

and =⎨ ⎬

2 2 ⎪⎩3 sin x + 4 cos x − log (| x | + 1 + x 2 ), − 1 ≤ x < 0⎪⎭

44. The function f (x) = sec [log (x + 1 + x 2 )] is Thus, the odd extension of f (x) to the interval [–1, 1] is

(A) even (B) odd

3 sin x + 4 cos x – log (|x| + 1+ x2 )

(C) constant (D) None of these

Solution: (A)

Periodic Function

Since the function sec x is an even function and log (x +

1 + x 2 ) is an odd function, therefore the function sec A function f (x) is said to be a periodic function of x,

p rovided there exists a real number T > 0 such that

[log (x + 1 + x 2 )] is an even function.

(x + T) = f (x), ∨ x ∈ R.

f

2.20 Chapter 2

where cos q =

condition is known as the period or the fundamental period a + b2

2

of f (x).

= a 2 + b 2 sin (kx + q ),

Solved Examples 2p

which is a periodic function of period .

| k|

2 4

47. The period of the function 3(sin p x + x −[ x ]+ sin p x ) , where [⋅] 49. Let f be a real valued function with domain R satisfying

denotes the greatest integer function, is

f (x + k) = 1 + [2 – 5 f (x) + 10 { f (x)}2 – 10 { f (x)}3 + 5

1

(A) (B) 1 { f (x)}4 – { f (x)}5]1/5

2

for all real x and some positive constant k, then the

(C) 2 (D) None periodic

period of the function f (x) is

Solution: (B) (A) k (B) 2k

1 − cos 2p x (C) Non periodic (D) None of these

sin2 p x = .

2

2p Solution: (B)

Since cos 2p x is a periodic function with period = 1, We have,

2p

therefore sin2 p x is periodic with period 1. (1) f (x + k) = 1 + [1 + {1 – f (x)}5]1/5

x – [x] is a periodic function with period 1. (2)

1 ⇒ f (x + k) – 1 = [1 – ( f (x) – 1)5]1/5

sin4 p x = (sin2p x)2 = (1 – cos 2p x)2

4 ⇒ f (x + k) = [1 – {f (x)}5]1/5,

1

= (1 + cos2 2p x – 2 cos 2p x) where f (x) = f (x) – 1

4

1 ⇒ f (x + 2k) = [1 – {f (x + k)}5]1/5

= (3 + cos 4p x – 4 cos 2p x)

8 ⇒ f (x + 2k) = [1 – {1 – (f (x))5}]1/5 = f (x), ∀ x ∈ R

2p

Since, cos 4p x is a periodic function with period

4p ⇒ f

(x + 2k) – 1 = f (x) – 1

1

= and cos 2p x is a periodic function with period ⇒ f (x + 2k) = f (x), ∀ x ∈ R

2

2p \ f

(x) is periodic with period 2k.

= 1, therefore, period of sin4 p x is equal to

2p

⎛ 1⎞ L.C.M. (1, 1) 1 50. The period of the function f (x) = sin x is

L.C.M. ⎜1, ⎟ = = = 1 (3)

⎝ 2⎠ H.C.F. (1, 2) 1 (A) p (B) 2p

p

From Eq. (1), (2) and (3), we get (C) (D) None of these

2

p x + x − [ x ] + sin 4 p x )

2

Period of 3(sin =1

Solution: (D)

48. The period of the function f (x) = a sin kx + b cos kx is

Let f (T + x) = f (x) ⇒ sin T + x = sin x

2p 2p

(A) (B)

k | k| ⇒ T + x = np + (–1)n x

(C) (D) None of these

| k| of x is possible because x on RHS can be cancelled

Solution: (B) only when T = 0.

\ f (x) is a non-periodic function.

We have,

f (x) = a sin kx + b cos kx 51. The period of the function f (x) = tan x is

(A) p (B) 2p

⎛ a b ⎞

= a2 + b2 ⎜ sin kx + cos kx ⎟ p

⎝ a +b

2 2

a +b

2 2

⎠ (C) (D) None of these

2

= a 2 + b 2 (cos q sin kx + sin q cos kx),

Functions 2.21

p

Let f (T + x) = f (x) period if k is equal to

2

⇒ tan (T + x ) = tan x ⇒ tan (T + x) = tan x (A) 1 (B) 2

(C) 3 (D) None of these

⇒ T + x = np + x, n ∈ Z

Solution: (A)

Clearly, from here, the least positive value of T inde-

pendent of x is p. Therefore, f (x) is a periodic function Since |sin x| + |cos x| is a periodic function with period

p p

of period p. , therefore period of f (x) will be when k = 1.

2 2

52. The period of the function f (x) = cos x2 is

|sin x | − |cos x |

(A) 2p (B) p 56. The period of the function f (x) = is

|sin x + cos x |

p p

(C) (D) None of these (A) (B) 2p

2 2

Solution: (D) (C) p (D) None of these

Let f (T + x) = f (x) ⇒ cos (T + x)2 = cos x2 Solution: (C)

⇒ (T + x)2 = 2np ± x2 We have,

Clearly, from here, no positive value of T independent |sin(p + x )| − |cos (p + x )|

(p + x) =

f

of x is possible because x2 on R.H.S. can be cancelled |sin(p + x ) + cos(p + x )|

only when T = 0. |sin x | − |cos x |

\ f (x) is a non periodic function. = = f (x) for all x

|sin x + cos x |

53. The period of the function \ f (x) is periodic with period p.

⎛ p x⎞ ⎛ px ⎞

(x) = cos ⎜

f − sin ⎜ is

⎝ n ! ⎟⎠

57. The period of the function

⎝ ( n + 1)!⎟⎠

⎧1, when x is a rational⎫

(A) 2 (n + 1)! (B) 2 (n!) f (x) = ⎨ ⎬ is

(C) (n + 1) (D) Not periodic ⎩0, when x is irrational ⎭

Solution: (A) (A) 1 (B) 2

(C) non-periodic (D) None of these

Since sin x and cos x are periodic functions with period

2p. Solution: (D)

⎛ p x⎞ 2p

\ Period of cos ⎜ = = 2 (n!)

⎝ n! ⎟⎠ p / n !

For every rational number T, we have

and period of sin ⎜ = = 2 (n + 1)! f (T + x) = ⎨ ⎬ = f (x),

⎝ ( n + 1)!⎟⎠ p / ( n + 1)! ⎩0, when x is irrational ⎭

\ Period of f (x) = L.C.M. of {2 (n!), 2 (n + 1)!} = 2 but there is no least positive value of T for which

(n + 1)! f (T + x) = f (x) because there are infinite number of

rational numbers between any two rational numbers.

54. If the period of the function f (x) = sin ( [n] x), where Therefore, f (x) is a periodic function having no funda-

[n] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to n, mental period.

is 2p, then

(A) 1 ≤ n < 2 (B) 1 < n < 2 58. Which of the following functions has period p ?

(C) 1 ≤ n ≤ 2 (D) None of these ⎛ 2p x ⎞ ⎛ p x⎞

(A) 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ + 3 sin ⎜

Solution: (A) ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎟⎠

Sin x is a periodic function with period 2p, therefore (B) |tan x| + cos 2x

2p p⎞ p⎞

sin ( [n] x) is a periodic function with period . ⎛ ⎛

[n] (C) 4 cos ⎜ 2p x + ⎟ + 2 sin ⎜ p x + ⎟

But the period of f (x) is 2p (given). ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 4⎠

2p (D) None of these

\ = 2p ⇒ [n] = 1 ⇒ [n] = 1 ⇒ 1 ≤ n < 2.

[n]

2.22 Chapter 2

Solution: (B) x 2p

The period of cos x is 2p and that of cos is

⎛ 2p x ⎞ ⎛ p x⎞ = 4p. 2 1 /2

Period of 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ + 3 sin ⎜

⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ Hence, the period of f (x) is 4p.

⎛ 2p 2p ⎞

= L.C.M. ⎜ , = 6. 62. p is the period of the function

⎝ 2p / 3 p / 3 ⎟⎠ (A) |sin x| + |cos x|

⎛ p⎞ ⎛ p⎞ (B) sin4x + cos4x

Period of 4 cos ⎜ 2p x + ⎟ + 2 sin ⎜⎝ p x + ⎟⎠

⎝ 2⎠ 4 (C) sin (sin x) + sin (cos x)

⎛ 2p 2p ⎞ 1 + 2 cos x

= L.C.M. ⎜ , = 2

⎝ 2p p ⎟⎠

(D)

sin x ( 2 + sec x )

⎛ 2p ⎞

Period of |tan x| + cos 2x = L.C.M. ⎜ p ,

⎝ ⎟ = p. Solution: (D)

p

2⎠ The period of |sin x| + |cos x| and sin4x + cos4x is ⋅

2

59. The period of the function f (x) = x [x] is sin (sin x) + sin (cos x) has period 2p. The function

(A) 1 (B) 2 1 + 2 cos x

(C) non periodic (D) None of these can be written in a simplified form as

sin x ( 2 + sec x )

Solution: (C) cos x

= cot x, so it has period p.

Let n ≤ x < n + 1 sin x

Then, f (x) = x ⋅ n, where n changes with x. x2 + 1

63. If f (x) = , ([⋅] denotes the greatest integer

[ x]

Clearly no constant k > 0 is possible for which f (x) =

f (x + k) corresponding to all x. function), 1 ≤ x < 4, then

\ f (x) is a non periodic function. ⎡ 17 ⎞

(A) range of f is ⎢ 2, ⎟

60. The period of the function ⎣ 3⎠

px (B) f is monotonically increasing in [1, 4]

(x) = 3x + 3 – [3x + 3] + sin

f ,

2

where [x] denotes the greatest integer ≤ x, is 17

(C) the maximum value of f (x) is

(A) 4 (B) 1 3

(C) 2 (D) Non-periodic 17

(D) the maximum value of f (x) is

Solution: (A) 4

px Solution: (A)

3x + 3 – [3x + 3] has the period 1 and sin has x2 + 1

2 We have, f (x) = .

2p [ x]

the period i.e., 4. Therefore, the period of f (x) is

p /2

When x ∈ [1, 2) then f (x) = x2 + 1 ⇒ Rf = [2, 5).

L.C.M. (1, 4) = 4.

x2 + 1 ⎡5 ⎞

61. The value of n ∈ I for which the function When x ∈ [2, 3) then f (x) = ⇒ Rf = ⎢ , 5⎟ .

sin nx

2 ⎣2 ⎠

(x) =

f has 4p as its period is

⎛ x⎞ x2 + 1 ⎡10 17 ⎞

sin ⎜ ⎟ When x ∈ [3, 4) then f (x) = ⇒ Rf = ⎢ , ⎟ .

⎝ n⎠ 3 ⎣3 3⎠

\ Rf = [2, 17/3).

(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5

64. The number of solutions of the equation a f (x) + g (x) = 0,

Solution: (A)

1

For n = 2, we have a > 0, g (x) ≠ 0 and has minimum value is

2

sin 2 x 2 sin x cos x (A) One (B) Two

(x) =

f =

⎛ x⎞ ⎛ x⎞ (C) Zero (D) Infinitely many

sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

Solution: (C)

4 sin x / 2 cos x / 2 cos x x We have

= = 4 cos cos x.

⎛ ⎞

x 2 a f (x) + g (x) = 0, a > 0

sin ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 2⎠

Functions 2.23

Since minimum value of g (x) is 1/2 68. If f (x + y, x – y) = xy, then the arithmetic mean of

\ g (x) > 0 and a f (x) > 0 f (x, y) and f ( y, x) is

\ a f (x) + g (x) > 0, ∀ x (A) y (B) x

(C) 0 (D) None of these

Hence number of solutions is zero.

Solution: (C)

65. If f : R → R, g : R → R be two given functions then

f (x) = 2 min { f (x) – g (x), 0} equals Let x + y = a and x – y = b

(A) f (x) + g (x) – |g (x) – f (x)| a+b a−b

⇒ x= and y =

(B) f (x) + g (x) + |g (x) – f (x)| 2 2

(C) f (x) – g (x) + |g (x) – f (x)| \ f (x + y, x – y) = xy

(D) f (x) – g (x) – |g (x) – f (x)| a+b a−b a2 − b2

⇒ f (a, b) = ⋅ =

Solution: (D) 2 2 4

We have, x −y

2 2

y2 − x2

\ f (x, y) = and f (y, x) =

f (x) = 2 min { f (x) – g (x), 0} 4 4

⎧0 f ( x) > g( x) \ Arithmetic mean of f (x, y) and f (y, x) is zero.

=⎨

⎩2[ f ( x ) − g ( x )], f ( x ) ≤ g ( x ) ⎛ 1⎞ 1

69. If 3 f (x) + 5 f ⎜ ⎟ = – 3, ∀ x (≠ 0) ∈ R, then f (x) =

⎝ x⎠ x

⎧ f ( x ) − g ( x ) − | f ( x ) − g ( x ) |, f ( x) > g( x)

= ⎨ 1 ⎛3

⎩ f ( x ) − g ( x ) − | f ( x ) − g ( x ) |, f ( x) ≤ g( x) ⎞ 1 ⎛ 3 ⎞

(A) ⎜⎝ + 5 x − 6⎟⎠ (B) ⎜⎝ − + 5 x − 6⎟⎠

14 x 14 x

\ f (x) = f (x) – g (x) –|g (x) – f (x)|

1 ⎛ 3 ⎞

66. If f : R → R is a function satisfying the property

(C) ⎜ − + 5 x − 6⎟⎠ (D) None of these

14 ⎝ x

f (2x + 3) + f (2x + 7) = 2, ∀ x ∈ R, then the period of

f (x) is Solution: (B)

(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 8 (D) 12 We have,

⎛ 1⎞ 1

3 f (x) + 5 f ⎜ ⎟ = – 3, ∀ x (≠ 0) ∈ R(1)

Solution: (B) ⎝ x⎠ x

We have, ⎛ 1⎞

⇒ 3 f ⎜ ⎟ + 5 f (x) = x – 3 (2)

f (2x + 3) + f (2x + 7) = 2 (1) ⎝ x⎠

Replace x by x + 1, ⎡ 1⎤

⎢ Replacing x by x ⎥

f (2x + 5) + f (2x + 9) = 2 (2) ⎣ ⎦

Now replace x by, Multiplying Eq. (1) by 3 and (2) by 5 and subtracting,

we get

x + 2, f (2x + 7) + f (2x + 11) = 2 (3)

⎛3 ⎞

From (1) – (3), we get 9 f (x) – 25 f (x) = ⎜ − 9⎟ – (5x – 15)

⎝x ⎠

f (2x + 3) – f (2x + 11) = 0 3

⇒ – 14 f (x) = – 5x + 6

(2x + 3) = f (2x + 11) ⇒ T = 4

i.e., f x

67. If T1 is the period of the function y = e3(x–[x]) and T2 is 1 ⎛ 3 ⎞

⇒ f (x) = ⎜ − + 5 x − 6⎟⎠ , ∀ x (≠ 0) ∈ R

the period of the function y = e3x–[3x] ([⋅] denotes the 14 ⎝ x

greatest integer function), then

T

(A) T1 = T2 (B) T1 = 2 caution

3

(C) T1 = 3T2 (D) None of these There are certain function which are periodic but don’t have

a fundamental period. For example the constant function

Solution: (C)

f(x) = c is periodic as

(x) = e3{x} ⇒ T1 = 1

Let g f(x + T) = f(x)

and f (x) = e{3x} ⇒ T2 = 1/3 is true for every real number T, but it does not have a fun-

damental period since the least positive value of T cannot

\ T1 = 3T2. be obtained.

2.24 Chapter 2

Periodicity of a Function ⎧L.C.M. of {T1, T2 , T3 } if h( x ) is an odd function

⎪

= ⎨1

1. Put f (T + x) = f (x) and solve this equation to find the ⎪⎩ 2 L.C.M. of {T1, T2 , T3 } if h( x ) is an even function

positive values of T independent of x.

If f(x) is periodic with period T, then kf (ax + b) is also

2. If no positive value of T independent of x is obtained, T

then f (x) is a non-periodic function. periodic with period , where a, b, k ∈ R and a, k ≠ 0.

| a|

3. If positive values of T independent of x are obtained,

sin x, cos x, sec x and cosec x are periodic functions with

then f (x) is a periodic function and the least positive period 2p.

value of T is the period of the function f (x).

tan x and cot x are periodic functions with period p.

|sin x|, |cos x|, |tan x|, |cot x|, |sec x| and |cosec x|

Trick(s) for Problem Solving are periodic functions with period p.

sin x, cos x, sec x and cosec x are periodic functions

n n n n

Constant function is periodic with no fundamental period. with period 2p when n is odd or p when n is even.

1

If f(x) is periodic with period T, then and f( x ) are tan x and cot x are periodic functions with period p.

n n

If f(x) is a periodic function with period T and g(x) is any

If f1(x), f2(x) and f3(x) are periodic functions with periods function such that range of f ⊂ domain of g, then gof is

T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Also, if h(x) = af1(x) ± bf2(x) ± also periodic with period T.

cf3(x), then, period of [h(x)]

EXERCISES

1. Let f (x) = x3 + x2 + 100 x + 7sin x, then the equation 5. The graph of the function cos x cos (x + 2) –cos2 (x + 1)

1 2 3 is

+ + = 0 has

y − f (1) y − f ( 2) y − f (3) (A) a straight line passing through (0, –sin2 1) with

(A) one real root (B) two real roots slope 2

(C) more than two real roots (D) no real root (B) a straight line passing through (0, 0)

(C) a parabola with vertex (1, –sin2 1)

2. If b2 – 4ac = 0 and a > 0, then the domain of the func-

(D) a straight line parallel to x-axis passing through

tion f (x) = log (ax3 + (2a + b) x2 + (2b + c) x + 2c) is

⎛p ⎞

⎧ b⎫ ⎧ b⎫ the point ⎜ , − sin 2 1⎟

(A) (– 2, ∞)\ ⎨ − ⎬ (B) [– 2, ∞)\ ⎨ − ⎬ ⎝2 ⎠

⎩ 2a ⎭ ⎩ 2a ⎭ x2 − 8

6. Let f : R → R be a function defined by, f (x) = 2 ,

⎧ b⎫ then f is x +2

(C) (– ∞, – 2)\ ⎨ − ⎬ (D) None of these

⎩ 2a ⎭ (A) one-one but not onto

3. If ex + ef (x) = e, then range of the function f is (B) one-one and onto

(A) (–∞, 1] (B) (–∞, 1) (C) onto but not one-one

(C) (1, ∞) (D) [1, ∞) (D) neither one-one nor onto

1 1

4. Which of the following functions is are injective 7. If f (x) = 64x3 + 3 and a, b are the roots of 4x + = 3,

map(s)? then x x

(A) f (x) = x2 + 2, x ∈ (– ∞, ∞) (A) f (a) = 12 (B) f (b) = 11

(B) f (x) = |x + 2|, x ∈ [– 2, ∞) (C) f (a) = f (b) (D) None of these

(C) f (x) = (x – 4) (x – 5), x ∈ (– ∞, ∞)

8. If the functions f, g, h are defined from the set of real

4 x 2 + 3x − 5 numbers R to R such that

(D) f (x) = , x ∈ (– ∞, ∞)

4 + 3x − 5 x 2

Functions 2.25

⎧0, if x ≤ 0 14. The image of the interval [1, 3] under the mapping

f (x) = x2 – 1, g (x) =x 2 + 1 , h (x) = ⎨ f : R → R, given by f (x) = 2x3 – 24x + 107 is

⎩ x, if x ≥ 0

(A) [0, 89] (B) [75, 89]

then the composite function (hofog) (x) =

(C) [0, 75] (D) None of these

⎧0, x=0

⎪ 2 ⎧0, x = 0 ⎛ 1⎞

(A) ⎨ x , x > 0 (B) 15. If 2 f (x) – 3 f ⎜ ⎟ = x2, x is not equal to zero, then f (2)

⎨ 2 ⎝ x⎠

⎪− x 2 , x < 0 ⎩x , x ≠ 0 is equal to

⎩

7 5

(A) – (B)

⎧0, x ≤ 0 4 2

(C) ⎨ 2 (D) None of these

⎩x , x > 0 (C) – 1 (D) None of these

2x − 1

9. If S is the set of all real x and such that 16. Let f (x) = (1 + b2) x2 + 2bx + 1 and m(b) the minimum

is positive, then S contains 2 x + 3x 2 + x

3

value of f (x) for a given b. As b varies, the range of

⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3 1⎞ m(b) is

(A) ⎜ −∞, − ⎟ (B) ⎜ − ,− ⎟ ⎛ 1⎤

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 4⎠ (A) [0, 1] (B) ⎜⎝ 0, ⎥

2⎦

⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎡1 ⎤

(C) ⎜ − , ⎟ (D)

⎜⎝ , 3⎟⎠ (C) ⎢ , 1⎥ (D) (0, 1]

⎝ 4 2⎠ 2 ⎣2 ⎦

10. The number of values of x, where the function f (x) = 17. Let f : R → R, g : R → R be two functions given by

cos x + cos ( 2 x) attains its maximum, is f (x) = 2x – 3, g (x) = x3 + 5. Then ( fog)–1 (x) is equal to

(A) 0 (B) 1 ⎛ x − 7⎞

1/ 3

⎛ x + 7⎞

1/ 3

(A) ⎜ (B)

(C) 2 (D) infinite ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝

2 ⎠

⎟

11. The distinct linear function (s) which map (s) [–1, 1] ⎛ 7⎞

1/ 3

⎛ x − 2⎞

1/ 3

⎜⎝ ⎟

⎝ 2⎠ 7 ⎠

(A) x + 1, – x + 1 (B) x – 1, x + 1

(C) – x + 1 (D) None of these 18. The functions f (x) = log (x – 1) – log (x – 2) and g (x) =

⎛ x − 1⎞

12. Let f (x) = max. {(1 – x), (1 + x), 2}, ∀ x ∈ R. Then log ⎜ are identical when x lies in the interval

⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠

⎧1 + x, x ≤ −1 (A) [1, 2] (B) [2, ∞]

⎪

(A) f (x) = ⎨2, − 1 < x < 1 (C) (2, ∞) (D) (– ∞, ∞)

⎪1 − x, x ≥ 1

⎩ ⎧ − 1, x<0

⎪

⎧1 − x, x ≤ −1 19. Let g (x) = 1 + x – [x] and f (x) = ⎨ 0, x = 0 . Then,

⎪ ⎪ 1,

(B) f (x) = ⎨1, −1 < x < 1 ⎩ x>0

⎪1 + x, x ≥ 1 for all x, f [g (x)] is equal to

⎩ (A) x (B) 1 (C) f (x) (D)

g (x)

⎧1 − x, x ≤ −1

⎪ 1

(C) f (x) = ⎨2, − 1 < x < 1 20. The domain of the function y = log is

⎪1 + x, x ≥ 1 | sin x |

⎩

(A) R\{np : n ∈ Z} (B) R\(– p, p)

(D) None of these (C) R\{2np : n ∈ Z} (D) (– ∞, ∞)

13. If f (x) = sin [p 2] x + sin [–p 2] x, where [⋅] denotes the x 2 + 34 x − 71

greatest integer function, then 21. If x is real, then the expression

x2 + 2x − 7

⎛p⎞ (A) cannot lie between 5 and 9

(A) f ⎜ ⎟ = 1 (B) f (p) = 2 (B) always lies between 5 and 9

⎝ 2⎠

(C) is not real

⎛p⎞ (D) None of these

(C) f ⎜ ⎟ = –1 (D) None of these

⎝ 4⎠

2.26 Chapter 2

22. If f (x) is an odd periodic function with period 2, then 31. The range of the function

f (4) equals sin (p [ x 2 + 1])

f (x) = where, [ ] is greatest integer

(A) – 4 (B) 4 (C) 2 (D) 0 x4+ 1

function, is

23. The function (A) [0, 1] (B) [– 1, 1]

f (x) = cot–1 [ ( x + 3) x ] + cos–1 ( x 2 + 3 x + 1 ) is (C) {0} (D) None of these

defined on the set S, where S is equal to

⎛ 1⎞ 5

(A) {– 3, 0} (B) [– 3, 0] 32. If a f (x) + bf ⎜ ⎟ = x + , (a ≠ b), then f (x) is equal to

(C) [0, 3] (D) (– 3, 0) ⎝ x⎠ x

1 ⎛ 1⎞

(A) ⎜⎝ x + ⎟

a − b2

2

x⎠

(A) f (x) > g (x), ∀ x

(B) f (x) < g (x), ∀ x 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤

(C) f (x) = g (x), for infinitely many values of x (B)

a − b2

2 ⎢ x(5a − b) + x (5b − a) ⎥

⎣ ⎦

(D) f (x) ≠ g (x), for any x

1 ⎡ 1 ⎤

25. Let f be a function satisfying f (x + y) = f (x) f (y) for all (C) ⎢ x( a − 5b) + x (5a − b) ⎥

a − b2

2

n ⎣ ⎦

x, y ∈ . If f (1) = 3, then ∑ f ( r ) is equal to (D) None of the above

r =1

3 3

(A) (3n − 1) (B) n ( n + 1) 33. Let f : R → R defined by,

2 2

(x) = x3 + x2 + 100x + 5 sin x, then f is

f

(C) 3n + 1 – 3 (D) None of these

(A) many–one onto (B) many–one into

26. Let f (x) be defined for all x > 0 and be continuous. Let (C) one–one onto (D) one–one into

⎛ x⎞

f (x) satisfy f ⎜ ⎟ = f (x) – f ( y) for all x, y and f (e) = 1. 34. Let f be a real valued function with domain R satisfying

⎝ y⎠ 1

Then 0 ≤ f (x) ≤ and for some fixed a > 0

⎛ 1⎞ 2

(A) f (x) is bounded (B) f ⎜ ⎟ → 0 as x → 0

⎝ x⎠ 1

(x + a) = − f ( x ) − ( f ( x )) 2 ∀ x ∈ R,

f

(C) x f (x) → 1 as x → 0 (D) f (x) = log x 2

then the period of the function f(x) is

27. If g (x) = 1 + x and f [g (x)] = 3 + 2 x + x, then f (x) = (A) a (B) 2a

(A) 1 + 2x2 (B) 2 + x2 (C) non-periodic (D) None of these

(C) 1 + x (D) 2+x

35. Let f (x) = sin x + cos x, g(x) = x2 – 1. Then g( f (x)) is

28. Range of values of f (x) = 1 + sin x + sin3x + sin5x …, invertible for x ∈

⎛ −p p⎞ ⎡ p ⎤ ⎡ p ⎤

x∈ ⎜ , is

⎝ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎢− 2 , p ⎥

(A) ⎢ − , 0 ⎥ (B)

⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(A) (0, 1) (B) (– ∞, ∞)

(C) (– 2, 2) (D) None of these ⎡ p p⎤ ⎡ p⎤

(C) ⎢ − , ⎥ (D)

⎢0, 2 ⎥

⎣ 4 4⎦ ⎣ ⎦

29. The function f : (– ∞, – 1] → (0, e5] defined by,

⎛ y y⎞

36. If f ⎜ 2 x + , 2 x − ⎟ = xy, then f (m, n) + f (n, m) = 0

3

−3x + 2

f (x) = e x is ⎝ 8 8⎠

(A) Many one and onto

(A) only when m = n

(B) Many one and into

(B) only when m ≠ n

(C) One-one and onto

(C) only when m = – n

(D) One-one and into

(D) for all m and n.

30. The domain of the function

37. If f (x) is defined on (0, 1), then the domain of d efinition

⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎞ of f (ex) + f (ln|x|) is

(x) = log 2 ⎜ − log1/ 2 ⎜1 + 4 ⎟ − 1⎟ is

f

⎝ ⎝ x⎠ ⎠ (A) (– e, – 1)

(A) 0 < x < 1 (B) 0 < x ≤ 1 (B) (– e, – 1) ∪ (1, e)

(C) x ≥ 1 (D) x>1 (C) (– ∞, – 1) ∪ (1, ∞)

(D) (– e, e)

Functions 2.27

38. The value of ⎢ 2 ⎥ + ⎢ 2 + 100 ⎥ + ⎢ 2 + 100 ⎥ + + about the line x = k, then the value of a + k is

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

⎡ 1 99 ⎤ c

⎢ 2 + 100 ⎥ is (A) −

2b

(B) c

⎣ ⎦

(A) 49 (B) 50 (C) 51 (D) 98 (C) c – bd (D) None of these

1 ⎛ p x⎞

39. The domain of definition of 45. If function f (x) = − tan ⎜ ⎟ ; (–1 < x < 1) and

2 ⎝ 2⎠

log 0.3 | x − 2 |

(x) =

f is g(x) = 3 + 4 x − 4 x 2 , then the domain of gof is

|x|

(A) [1, 2) ∪ (2, 3] ⎡ 1 1⎤

(B) [1, 3] (A) (– 1, 1) (B) ⎢ − ,

(C) – (1, 3] (D) None of these ⎣ 2 2 ⎥⎦

(C) ⎢ − 1, ⎥ (d)

⎢ − , − 1⎥

| x |3 + | x | ⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦

− , then the graph of f (x) lies in which

1 + x2 46. If f : R → R is a function such that f (x) = x3 + x2f ′(1) +

quadrant(s)? xf ″(2) + f ″′(3) for all x ∈ , then f (2) – f (1) =

(A) I and II (B) I and III (A) f (0) (B) –f (0) (C) f ′(0) (D) –f ′(0)

(C) II and III (D) III and IV

⎧ p⎫

41. The domain of definition of the function 47. Let f : → A = ⎨ y : 0 ≤ y < ⎬ be a function such

⎩ 2⎭

sin − 1 x + x2 + 1 + x − [ x ] + log x that f (x) = tan (x + x + k), where k is a constant. The

–1 2

(x) =

f is minimum value of k for which f is an onto function, is

⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎞

sin x + cos x

e + log ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ (A) 1 (B) 0

⎜⎝ ⎝ − x 2 ⎠ ⎟⎠ 1

(C) (D) None of these

(A) (– 1, 1) (B) (0, 1) 4

(C) (1, 0) (D) None of these 48. Suppose f : [2, 2] → R is defined by,

42. If f : R → R and g : R → R are given by f (x) = |x| and ⎧ −1 for − 2 ≤ x ≤ 0

(x) = ⎨

f ,

g(x) = [x] for each x ∈ R, then {x ∈ R : g[ f (x)] ≤ f ⎩ x − 1 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2

[g(x)]} = then {x ∈ (–2, 2) : x ≤ 0 and f (|x|) = x} =

(A) Z ∪ (– ∞, 0) (B) (– ∞, 0) (A) {– 1} (B) {0}

(C) Z (D) R (C) {– 1/2} (D) f

43. The function 49. Let f (x) = [x]2 + [x + 1] – 3, where [x] is greatest i nteger

1 1 less than or equal to x, then

(x) = sin −1 ( x − x 2 ) + 1 −

f + 2

| x | [ x − 1] (A) f (x) is a many one and into function

is defined in the interval (where [⋅] is the greatest (B) f (x) = 0 for infinite number of values of x

integer) (C) f (x) = 0 for only two real values

⎛ (D) None of these

1+ 5⎞

(A) x ∈ ⎜ 2 ,

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 50. If q2 – 4pr = 0, p > 0, then the domain of the function

f (x) = log [ px3 + (p + q)x2 + (q + r)x + r] is

⎛ 1+ 5⎞

(B) x ∈ ⎜1, ⎧ q ⎫

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ (A) R – ⎨ − ⎬

⎩ 2 p⎭

⎡1 − 5 1 + 5 ⎤

(C) x ∈ ⎢ , ⎥ ⎡ ⎧ q ⎫⎤

(B) R – ⎢( − ∞, − 1] ∪ ⎨ − ⎬ ⎥

⎣ 2 2 ⎦

⎣ ⎩ 2 p ⎭⎦

⎛ 1+ 5⎞

(D) x ∈ ⎜ − 2 , ⎡ ⎧ q ⎫⎤

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ (C) R – ⎢( − ∞, − 1) ∩ ⎨ − ⎬ ⎥

⎣ ⎩ 2 p ⎭⎦

(D) None of these

2.28 Chapter 2

59. If f : R → S, defined by f (x) = sin x − 3 cos x + 1 , is

⎡x⎤ onto then the interval of S is

x − ⎢ ⎥ (where [ ] dentoes the greatest integer func-

⎣3⎦ (A) [– 1, 3] (B) [– 1, 1]

tion), then f –1(x) = (C) [0, 1] (D) [0, 3]

(A) x – 1 (B) x + 1 60. If a and b are natural numbers and

(C) x (D) None of these

(x) = sin ( a 2 − 3 ) x + cos ( b 2 + 7 ) x

f

52. If [x] denotes the integral part of x, then the domain of the

function f (x) = sin– 1 [2x2 – 3] + log2 [log1/2(x2 – 5x + 5)] is is periodic with finite fundamental period, then period

of f (x) is

⎛ 5 ⎤ ⎡ 5⎞ (A) p (B) 2p

(a) ⎜ − , − 1⎥ (B) ⎢1,

⎝ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎟⎠

(C) 2p ( a 2 − 3 + b 2 + 7 )

⎛ 5 ⎤ ⎡ 5⎞

(C) ⎜ − , − 1⎥ ∪ ⎢1, (D) None of these (D) p ( a 2 − 3 + b 2 + 7 )

⎝ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎟⎠

⎛ 1⎞

61. If 2f (x) + 3 f ⎜ ⎟ = x2 – 1, then f (x) is

2 f ( n) + 1 ⎝ x⎠

53. If f (n + 1) = , n = 1, 2, … and f (1) = 2, then

f (101) equals 2 (A) a periodic function (B) an even function

(C) an odd function (D) None of these

(A) 52 (B) 49 (C) 48 (D) 51

⎛ x1 − x2 ⎞

62. If f (x1) – f (x2) = f ⎜ for x1, x2 ∈ [– 1, 1] then

54. If f (x) =

cos 2 x + sin 4 x

for x ∈ R, then f (2002) = f (x) is ⎝ 1 − x1 x2 ⎟⎠

sin 2 x + cos 4 x ⎛1 − x⎞ ⎛1 − x⎞

(A) log ⎜ tan −1 ⎜

(B)

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 ⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠

55. Let f (x) = x + 1 and f (x) = x – 2, then the values of x ⎛1 + x⎞ ⎛1 + x⎞

satisfying| f (x) + f (x)| = |f (x)| + |f (x)| are (C) log ⎜ tan −1 ⎜

(D)

⎝ 1 − x ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1 − x ⎟⎠

(A) (–∞, 1) (B) (2, ∞)

(C) (–∞, –2) (D) (1, ∞) 63. Let f : R → R be a periodic function such that

(T + x) = 1 + {1 – 3f (x) + 3[ f (x)]2 – [ f (x)]3}1/3,

f

56. A function f from the set of natural numbers to integers

defined by, where T is a fixed positive number, then period of f (x) is

⎧n − 1 (A) T (B) 2T

⎪⎪ 2 , when n is odd (C) 3T (D) None of these

(n) = ⎨

f is

⎪− n , when n is even 64. The domain of the function

⎪⎩ 2

(A) neighter one–one nor onto − log 0.3 ( x − 1)

(x) =

f is

(B) one–one but not onto − x 2 + 3 x + 18

(C) onto but not one–one (A) [2, 6] (B) (2, 6)

(D) one–one and onto both (C) [2, 6) (D) None of these

⎛ p⎞ tan 2 a 65. Suppose f (x) = (x + 1)2 for x ≥ – 1. If g(x) is the func-

57. If a ∈ ⎜ 0, ⎟ then x 2 + x + is always

⎝ 2⎠ x2 + x tion whose graph is the reflection of the graph of f (x)

greater than or equal to with respect to the line y = x, then g(x) equals

(A) 2 tan a (B) 1 1

(C) 2 (D) sec2 a (A) − x − 1 , x ≥ 0 (B) ,x>–1

( x + 1) 2

58. The function f (x) is defined in [0, 1], then the domain

of definition of the function f [log (1 – x2)], is (C) x + 1 , x ≥ – 1 (D) x −1, x ≥ 0

(A) x ∈ {0}

sin101 x

(B) x ∈ [ − 1 + e , − 1] ∪ [1, + 1 + e ] 66. The function f (x) = , where [x] denotes the

⎡x⎤ 1

(C) x ∈ (– ∞, ∞) ⎢⎣ p ⎥⎦ + 2

(D) None of these integral part of x is

Functions 2.29

(B) an even function 74. Range of the function f defined by f (x) = ⎢ ⎥

(C) neither odd nor even function ⎣ sin{x} ⎦

(D) both odd and even function (where [ ⋅ ] and { ⋅ } respectively denote the greatest

integer and the fractional part functions is:)

1

67. The domain of the function f (x) = is (A) Z, the set of integers

|x|− x (B) N, the set of natural numbers

(A) (–∞, ∞) – {0} (B) (–∞, ∞) (C) W, the set of whole numbers

(C) (0, ∞) (D) (–∞, 0) (D) {2, 3, 4, …}

68. The total number of injective mappings from a set with 75. If f : R → R, g : R → R be two given functions then

n element to a set with n elements, for m > n, is f (x) = 2 min {|f (x) – g(x)|, 0} equals

m! m! (A) f (x) + g(x) – |g(x) – f (x)|

(A) (B) (B) f (x) + g(x) + |g(x) – f (x)|

n !( m − n)! ( m − n)!

(C) f (x) – g(x) + |g(x) – f (x)|

(C) nm (D) zero

(D) f (x) – g(x) – |g(x) – f (x)|

69. Let f : N → Y be a function defined as f (x) = 4x + 3,

76. Let f (x) be a function defined on [0, 1] such that

where Y = {y ∈ N : y = 4x + 3 for some x ∈ N}. Show

that f is invertible and its inverse is ⎧x x ∈Q

f (x) = ⎨

3y + 4 y+3 ⎩1 − x x ∉ Q

(A) g(y) = g(y) = 4 +

(B) Then, for all x ∈ [0, 1], fof (x) is

3 4

(A) a constant (B) 1 + x

y+3 y−3 (C) x (D) None of these

(C) g(y) = g(y) =

(D)

4 4

77. If a function f : R → R be such that f (x – f (y)) = f ( f (y))

70. For real x, let f (x) = x3 + 5x + 1, then + xf (y) + f (x) – 1, ∀ x, y ∈ R, then f (x) =

(A) f is one–one but not onto R x2 x2

(B) f is onto R but not one–one (A) − 1 (B) +1

2 2

(C) f is one–one and onto R x 2

(D) f is neither one–one nor onto R (C) 1 − (D) None of these

2

71. Let f (x) = (x + 1)2 – 1, x ≥ –1 78. A function whose graph is symmetrical about the

Statement 1: The set {x : f (x) = f –1 (x)} = {0, –1} origin is given by

Statement 2: f is a bijection. (A) f (x) = (3x + 3–x)

(A) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true; Statement 2 (B) f (x) = cos [log( x + 1 + x 2 )]

is a correct explanation for Statement 1 (C) f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) ∀ x, y ∈ R

(B) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true; Statement 2 (D) None of these

is not a correct explanation for Statement 1 79. Which of the following functions is (are) injective

(C) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is false map(s)?

(D) Statement 1 is false, Statement 2 is true

(A) f (x) = x2 + 2, x ∈ (– ∞, ∞)

72. The period of the function (B) f (x) =|x + 2|, x ∈ [ − 2, ∞ )

⎧1, when x is a rational (C) f (x) = (x – 4) (x – 5), x ∈(– ∞, ∞)

(x) = ⎨

f is

⎩0, when x is irrational 4 x 2 + 3x − 5

(D) f (x) = , x ∈ (– ∞, ∞)

(A) 1 (B) 2 4 + 3x − 5 x 2

(C) non-periodic (D) None of these 80. Let f be a function with domain [–3, 5] and let g(x) =

1 1 1 |3x + 4|. Then, the domain of (fog)(x) is

73. Let f1(n) =1 +

+ + ... + , then f1(1) + f1(2) + f1(3) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎡ 1⎤

2 3 n (A) ⎜ − 3, ⎟ (B) − 3, ⎥

+ … + f1(n) is equal to ⎝ 3⎠ ⎢

⎣ 3⎦

(A) nf1(n) – 1 (B) (n + 1)f1(n) + n ⎡ 1⎞

(C) (n + 1)f1(n) – n (D) nf1(n) + n (C) ⎢ − 3, ⎟ (D) None of these

⎣ 3⎠

2.30 Chapter 2

81. If for a real number x, [x] denotes the greatest integer 88. If f : R → R is a function such that f (x) = x3 + x2 f ′(1)

less than or equal to x, then for any n ∈ N + x f ′′(2) + f ′′′(3) for all x ∈ R, then f (2) – f (1) =

⎡ n + 1⎤ ⎡ n + 2 ⎤ ⎡ n + 4 ⎤ ⎡ n + 8 ⎤ (A) f (0) (B) – f (0)

⎢ 2 ⎥ + ⎢ 4 ⎥ + ⎢ 8 ⎥ + ⎢ 16 ⎥ + ... = (C) f ′(0) (D) – f ′(0)

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(A) n (B) n–1 89. If q2 – 4pr = 0, p > 0, then the domain of the function

(C) n + 1 (D) n+2 f (x) = log {px3 + (p + q)x2 + (q + r)x + r} is

⎧ − 1, x < 0 ⎧ q ⎫

⎪ (A) R − ⎨ − ⎬

82. Let g(x) = 1 + x – [x] and f (x) = ⎨0, x = 0 . Then, for ⎩ 2 p⎭

⎪1, x > 0

all x, f [g(x)] is equal to ⎩ ⎡ ⎧ q ⎫⎤

(B) R − ⎢( − ∞, − 1] ∪ ⎨ − ⎬⎥

(A) x (B) 1 (C) f (x) (D) g(x). ⎣ ⎩ 2 p ⎭⎦

83. If g(x) = 1 + x and f [g(x)] = 3 + 2 x + x , then f (x) = ⎡ ⎧ q ⎫⎤

(A) 1 + 2x2 (B) 2 + x2 (C) 1 + x (D) 2 + x (C) R − ⎢( − ∞, − 1) ∩ ⎨ − ⎬⎥

⎣ ⎩ 2 p ⎭⎦

84. The domain of the function f (x) =

(D) None of these

⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎞

log2 ⎜ − log1/ 2 ⎜1 + 4 ⎟ − 1⎟ is 90. If a and b are natural numbers and

⎝ ⎝ x⎠ ⎠

(A) 0 < x < 1 (B) 0 < x ≤ 1

f (x) = sin ( )

a 2 − 3 x + cos ( )

b2 + 7 x

(C) x ≥ 1 (D) x>1 is periodic with finite fundamental period, then period

85. Let f be a real valued function with domain R satisfy- of f (x) is:

1 (A) p (B) 2p

ing 0 ≤ f (x) ≤ and for some fixed a > 0

2

1

(C) 2p ( a2 − 3 + b2 + 7 )

(x + a) = − f ( x ) − ( f ( x )) 2 ∀ x ∈ R,

( )

f

2 (D) p a2 − 3 + b2 + 7

then the period of the function f (x) is

(A) a (B) 2a sin101 x

(C) non-periodic (D) None of these 91. The function f (x) = , where [x] denotes the

⎡x⎤ 1

+

⎢⎣ p ⎥⎦ 2

86. If f (x) is defined on (0, 1), then the domain of defini-

tion of f (ex) + f (log |x|) is integral part of x, is

(A) (– e, – 1) (B) (– e, – 1) ∪ (1, e) (A) an odd function

(C) (– ∞, – 1) (D) (– e, e) (B) an even function

(C) neither odd nor even

1 1 (D) both odd and even functon

87. The function f (x) = sin–1(x – x2) + 1 − + 2

| x | [ x − 1]

92. If the graph of y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d is symmetric

is defined in the interval (where [ ⋅ ] is the greatest

about the line x = k, then the value of a + k is

integer):

⎛ c

1+ 5⎞ (A) − (B) c

(A) x ∈ ⎜ 2 , 2b

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

(C) c – bd (D) None of these

⎛ 1+ 5⎞

(B) x ∈ ⎜1, 93. The domain of definition of the function f (x) =

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

ln {x} + x − 2{x} , where { } denotes the fractional

⎡1 − 5 1 + 5 ⎤ part, is

(C) x ∈ ⎢ , ⎥ (A) {0} ∪ [1, ∞) (B) (1, ∞)

⎣ 2 2 ⎦

(C) (1, ∞) – I+ (D) None of these

⎛ 1+ 5⎞

(D) x ∈ ⎜ − 2 , 94. The domain of the function f (x) = ln (1 – 2 |cos x|)

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ + ecos–1(2x/p ) is

Functions 2.31

⎛ p −p⎞ ⎛p p⎞

(A) ⎜ − , ∪ , (B) [2np, (2n + 1)p], n ∈ I

⎝ 2 3 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 3 2 ⎟⎠

(C) R

⎡ p − p ⎞ ⎡p p ⎤ (D) None of these

(B) ⎢ − , ⎟ ∪⎢ , ⎥

⎣ 2 3 ⎠ ⎣3 2⎦ 103. The domain of the function

⎡ p p⎞ ⎛p p⎤ ⎛ p ⎞

(C) ⎢ − , − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ , ⎥ f (x) = [sin x] cos ⎜ is

⎣ 2 3⎠ ⎝ 3 2⎦ ⎝ [ x − 1] ⎟⎠

(D) None of these (A) (1, 2) (B) R – [1, 2)

(C) R – (1, 2) (D) None of these

95. The domain of the function

x − [ x]

{ }

f (x) = ln sgn(9 − x 2 ) + [ x ]3 − 4[ x ], where [⋅] 104. The range of the function y =

1 − [ x] + x

is

denotes integral part, is

(A) (– 2, 1) ∪ (2, 3) (B) [– 2, 1) ∪ [2, 3) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎡ 1⎤

(A) ⎜ 0, ⎟ (B)

⎢0, 2 ⎥

(C) [– 2, 1] ∪ [2, 3) (D) [– 2, 1) ∪ [2, 3] ⎝ 2⎠ ⎣ ⎦

96. The domain of the function ⎡ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎤

(C) ⎢0, ⎟ (D) ⎜⎝ 0, ⎥

f (x) =

(log0.2 x ) + (log0.2 x 3 ) (log0.2 0.0016 x ) + 36 is

3

⎣ 2 ⎠ 2⎦

105. If the domain for y = f (x) is [–3, 2], then the domain

(A) (0 , 125) (B) [0, 125] of g(x) = f {|[x]|} is

(C) (0, 125] (D) None of these (A) (– 2, 3) (B) [– 2, 3]

97. The range of the function y = [x2] – [x]2, x ∈ [0, 2] (C) [– 2, 3) (D) (– 2, 3]

where [⋅] denotes the integral part, is 106. If {x} and [x] represent fractional and integral part of

(A) {0} (B) {0, 1} 2000

{x + r}

(C) {1, 2} (D) {0, 1, 2} x, then the value of [x] + ∑ is

r = 1 2000

98. The range of the function

(A) x (B) 2000 x

⎡ 1⎤ ⎡ 1⎤

y = sin −1 ⎢ x 2 + ⎥ + cos −1 ⎢ x 2 − ⎥ , where [·] (C) 0 (D) None of these

⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2⎦

n

denotes the integral part, is 107. If f : (0, p) → R be defined by f (x) = ∑ ([1 + sin k x ]),

(A) (0, p) (B) [0, p] k =1

(C) {p} (D) {0, p} where [x] denotes the integral part of x, then the range

ax 2 + 2 x + 1 of f (x) is

99. Let f (x) = . If f : R → [– 1, 2] is onto,

2x2 − 2x + 1 (A) {n – 1, n + 1} (B) {n – 1, n, n + 1}

then the values of a are (C) {n, n + 1} (D) None of these

(A) (– ∞, 2) (B) [2, ∞) 108. Consider a function f (n) defined for all n ∈ N. The

(C) (– ∞, – 7] ∪ [– 2, ∞) (D) None of these function satisfies the following two conditions

100. Let f : N → N, where f (x) = x + (– 1)x – 1. Then, (i) f (1) + f (2) + f (3) + … to ∞ = 1

(A) f –1(x) = x + (– 1)x –1 (B) f –1(x) = x (ii) f (n) = {(1 – p)p–1} { f (n + 1) + f (n + 2) + … to ∞}

(C) f (x) = x – (– 1)

–1 x–1

(D) None of these where 0 < p < 1. Then, f (2) is equal to

(A) p (1 – p) (B) 1 – p

a x2 + 6x − 8

101. Let f : R → R, where f (x) = . The values (C) 1 + p (D) None of these

a + 6 x − 8x 2

of a, for which f to be onto, are ⎛ x x

109. If f (x) = lim ⎜ +

(A) (2, 14) (B) [2, 14) n→∞ ⎝ x + 1 ( x + 1)( 2 x + 1)

(C) (2, 14] (D) [2, 14]

x ⎞

+ + to n terms⎟ then range of f (x) is

102. Domain of definition of the function ( 2 x + 1)(3 x + 1) ⎠

⎛ 2| x| ⎞ (A) {0, 1} (B) {– 1, 0}

f (x) = sin x + sin −1 ⎜ is

⎝ 1 + x 2 ⎟⎠ (C) {– 1, 1} (D) [0, 1]

2.32 Chapter 2

110. If p and q are positive integers, f is a function defined (A) (4n – 1) + 4n x (B) (x + 1)4–n – 1

for positive numbers and attains only positive values (C) (x + 1)4n –1 (D) (4–n – 1)x + 4n

such that f (x f (y)) = xpyq, then

114. Let f (x + p) = 1 + [2 – 3 f (x) + 3( f (x))2 – ( f (x))3]1/3,

(A) p = q (B) p = q2 ∀ x ∈ R, where p > 0. Then, f (x) is periodic with

(C) p = q (D)

2

p| = |q|

| period.

111. If the function f satisfies the relation f (x + y) + (A) p (B) 2p

f (x – y) = 2 f (x) f (y) ∀ x, y ∈ R and f (0) ≠ 0, then f (x) (C) 4p (D) None of these

is

n

(A) an even function

(B) an odd function

115. If ∑ f ( x + ka)

k =0

= 0, where a > 0, then the period of

(D) neither even nor odd

(n + 1)a

(A) a (B)

112. Let f : R – {2} → R be a function satisfying 2f (x) +

a

(C) (D) None of these

⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞ n +1

3f ⎜ = 100x + 80 ∀ x ∈ R – {2}, then f (x) =

⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠

116. If y = log3x and S = (3, 27), the set onto which the set

60( 2 x + 29) S is mapped is

(A) 16 – 40x –

x−2 (A) (0, 3) (B) (1, 4)

3( 2 x + 29) (C) (1, 3) (D) (0, 2)

(B) 100x + 80 –

x−2

117. The values of x for which the functions f (x) = x – 3

30( 2 x + 29)

(C) 40 – 16x + and f (x) = 4 – x satisfy the inequality | f (x) + f (x)| <

x−2 | f (x)| + |f (x)| are

(D) None of these

(A) [3, 4] (B) (– ∞, ∞)

113. Let g: R → R be given by g(x) = 3 + 4x. If gn(x) = gogo (C) (– ∞, ∞) – [3, 4] (D) None of these

… og(x), then g–n(x) (where g–n(x) denotes inverse of

gn(x)) is equal to

118. If f is an even function defined on the interval [– 5, 5], 120. Let f (x) be defined for all x > 0 and be continuous. Let

then the real values of x satisfying the equation

⎛ x⎞

f (x) satisfy f ⎜ ⎟ = f (x) – f (y) for all x, y and f (e) = 1.

⎛ x + 1⎞ ⎝ y⎠

f (x) = f ⎜ are Then

⎝ x + 2 ⎟⎠

(A) f (x) is bounded

−1 ± 5 −3 ± 5

(A) (B) ⎛ 1⎞

2 2 (B) f ⎜ ⎟ → 0 as x → 0

⎝ x⎠

−2 ± 5 (C) x f (x) → 0 as x → 0

(C) (D) None of these

2 (D) f (x) = log x

119. The distinct linear function which maps [– 1, 1] onto | x |3 + | x |

121. Let f : R → R be a function defined by f (x) = – ,

[0, 2] is 1 + x2

(A) x – 1 (B) x + 1 then the graph of f (x) lies in which quadrant

(C) – x + 1 (D) – x – 1 (A) I (B) II

(C) III (D) IV

Functions 2.33

122. If f (x1) – f (x2) = f⎜ 1 for x1, x2 ∈ [–1, 1], then (B) domain of f is [1, 3)

f (x) is ⎝ 1 − x1 x2 ⎟⎠

⎧ p⎫

⎛1 − x⎞ ⎛1 − x⎞

−1

(C) range of f is ⎨log ⎬

(A) log ⎜ (B)

tan ⎜ ⎩ 2⎭

⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠ (D) range of f is {0}

⎛1 + x⎞ ⎛1 + x⎞

(C) log ⎜ tan −1 ⎜

(D) 128. If the function f: [1, ∞) → [1, ∞) is defined by f (x) =

⎝ 1 − x ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1 − x ⎟⎠ 2x(x – 1), then

123. Which of the following functions have period 2? (A) f is one-one (B) f is onto

⎛p ⎞ 1 + 1 + 4 log 2 x

(A) {x} + cos p x (B) tan ⎜ [ x ]⎟ (C) f –1(x) =

⎝2 ⎠ 2

(C) sin x + {x} (D) sin (cos x)

1 − 1 + 4 log 2 x

124. The values of x for which the domain of definition of (D) f –1(x) =

2

1

the function, f (x) = , where [.] 9x

[| x − 1|] + | 7 − x | − 6 129. Let f (x) = x . Then,

9 +3

denotes the greatest integer part, is not defined are

(A) f (x) + f (1 – x) = 1

(A) (0, 1] (B) [7, 8)

(B) f (x) + f (1 – x) = –1

(C) {2, 3, 4, 5, 6} (D) [0, 1] ∪ [7, 8]

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞

x(sin x + tan x ) (C) f ⎜ +f⎜

125. If f (x) = , where [ ] denotes greatest ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠

⎡x + p⎤ 1

⎢⎣ p ⎥⎦ 2 − ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 1995 ⎞

+f ⎜ ⎟ +… + f ⎜ = 998

⎝ 1996 ⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠

integer function, then

(A) f (x) is an odd function if x = np ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞

(D) f ⎜ +f⎜

(B) f (x) is an even function if x ≠ np ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠

(C) f (x) is an odd function if x ≠ np

⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 1995 ⎞ 1

(D) f (x) is an even function if x = np +f ⎜ ⎟ +… + f ⎜ ⎟ = 997

⎝ 1996 ⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎠ 2

ex − e− x

1 26. If f : R → R be defined by f (x) = , then 130. Let n be a positive integer with f (n) = 1! + 2! + 3! +

2

(A) f is one-one … + n! and P(x) and Q(x) be polynomials in x such

(B) f is onto that f (n + 2) = P (n) f (n + 1) + Q(n) f (n) for all n ≥ 1,

(C) f –1(x) = log( x − x 2 + 1) then

(A) P(x) = x + 3

(D) f –1(x) = log( x + x 2 + 1) (B) Q(x) = –x – 2

127. Let f (x) = sin–1(log[x]) + log(sin–1[x]), where [ ] (C) P(x) = –x – 2

denotes the greatest integer function. Then, (D) Q(x) = x + 3

Passage 1 (A) 1 ≤ n < 2 (B) 1 < n < 2

A function f (x) is called periodic if there exists a positive (C) 1 ≤ n ≤ 2 (D) None of these

real number T independent of x such that f (x + T) = f (x) 132. The period of the function f (x) = cos(sin x) + cos

for all x in the domain of x. The smallest such value of T is (cos x) is

called the fundamental period of f. p p

If f (x) is periodic having period T, then k f (ax + b) is (A) (B)

2 4

also periodic having period T/|a|

p

131. If the period of the function f (x) = sin ( )

[n] x , where

(C)

6

(D) None of these

is 2p, then

2.34 Chapter 2

For composite functions, if T1, T2, … be the fundamental the range consists of set of corresponding f (x) values.

periods of the various functions involved, then the period If the domain consists of whole real line or real

of the composite function is the L.C.M. of (T1, T2, …). But line minus some finite points, then express x in terms of

in the case of functions where modulus is involved, the y as x = g(y). The values of y for which g is defined is the

L.C.M. rule gives the period of the function but it may not required range.

be the fundamental period. If the domain is a finite interval, find the intervals in

For example, according to the L.C.M. rule, which f (x) increases/decreases and then find the extreme

Period of |sin x| + |cos x| = L.C.M. of (p, p) = p, but it values of the function in those intervals. The union of those

is not the fundamental period since intervals is the required range.

sin ⎜ x + ⎟ + cos ⎜ x + ⎟ = |cos x| + |sin x| (A) (–∞, 1] (B) (–∞, 1)

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

p (C) (1, ∞) (D) [1, ∞)

which shows that the fundamental period is .

Thus, the period of |sin px| + |cos qx| 2 sin(p [ x 2 + 1])

138. The range of the function f (x) = ,

x4 + 1

⎛p p⎞ where [⋅] denotes the greatest integer function, is

= L.C.M. of ⎜ , ⎟ if p ≠ q

⎝ p q⎠ (A) [0, 1] (B) [–1, 1]

1 ⎛p p⎞ (C) {0} (D) None of these

= L.C.M. of ⎜ , ⎟ if p = q

2 ⎝ p q⎠ 139. Range of values of f (x) = 1 + sinx + sin3x + sin5x, x ∈

⎛ p p⎞

133. The function f (x) = k |cos x| + k2 |sin x| + f (k) has ⎜⎝ − , ⎟⎠ is

p 2 2

period if k is equal to

2 (A) (0, 1)

(A) 1 (B) 2 (B) (– ∞, ∞)

(C) 3 (D) None of these (C) (– 2, 2)

(D) None of these

134. The period of the function f (x) = 3x + 3 – [3x + 3] +

px Passage 4

sin ,

2 The domain of a function y = f (x) is the set of input values

where [x] denotes the greatest integer ≤ x, is x for which the operation f is being defined (real).

(A) 4 (B) 1 For finding the domain of a function, the denomina-

(C) 2 (D) None of these tor should not be equal to 0. Also, expression under the

p is the period of the function

135. even root should be greater than or equal to 0.

(A) |sin x| + |cos x|

If domain of the functions, y = f (x) and y = g(x) are

(B) sin4x + cos4x

D1 and D2, respectively, then the domain of f (x) ± g(x) or

(C) sin (sin x) + sin (cos x) f ( x)

f (x) ⋅ g(x) is D1 ∩ D2, whereas the domain of is D ∩

1 + 2 cos x g( x) 1

(D) D2 – {g(x) = 0}.

sin x( 2 + sec x ) loga x is defined if x, a > 0 and a ≠ 1.

Sin–1x and cos–1x are defined for – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1

136. The period of the function f (x) = sin 5x + cos 3 x is

(A) 3 p (B) p 140. If [x] denotes the integral part of x, then the domain of

(C) non-periodic (D) None of these the function f (x) = sin–1[2x2 – 3] + log2[log1/2(x2 – 5x

+ 5)] is

Passage 3

⎛ 5 ⎤ ⎡ 5⎞

The range of a function y = f (x) is the set of all possible (A) ⎜ − , − 1⎥ (B)

⎢1,

output values f (x) corresponding to every input x in the ⎝ 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎟⎠

domain of f and is denoted as f (A) if A is the domain. For

⎛ 5 ⎤ ⎡ 5⎞

finding the range of a function y = f (x), first of all, find the (C) ⎜ − , − 1⎥ ∪ ⎢1, (D) None of these

domain of f. ⎝ 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎟⎠

Functions 2.35

Consider a one-one onto function y = f (x) having domain A (A) 3x + | f –1(x)| = 2f –1(x)

and range B, i.e. f : A → B. Then, there exists a function g (B) x + f –1(x) = 2f –1(x)

such that x = g(y) which therefore has domain B and range (C) f –1(x) – |x| = 2x

A. i.e. g : B → A such that f (x) = y ⇔ g(y) = x, ∀ x ∈ A and

(D) 3x – | f –1(x)| = 2f –1(x)

y ∈ B. g is said to be the inverse of f.

f (x) = loge (3x2 – 4x + 5)

Column-I Column-II

⎡ 11 ⎞

I. Domain of the function R–{ n,

(A) III. The value of the function (C) ⎢ , ∞⎟

f (x) =

1 n ≥ 0, n ∈ I} x 2 − 3x + 2 ⎣ 3 ⎠

f (x) = 2 lies in

|sin x | + sin x x + x−6

the interval

II. Domain of the function (B) (2np,

IV. The range of the (D) [–1, 1]

f (x) = (2n + 1)p)

function f (x) =

⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 4 − x2 ⎞ ⎤

log3 ⎢ − log1/ 2 ⎜1 + 1/ 5 ⎟ − 1⎥

⎣ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎦ sin ⎢log ⎜ ⎟⎥

⎢ ⎝ 1− x ⎠⎥

⎣ ⎦

III. Domain of the function (C) (0, 1)

f (x) = log3 ⎡⎣ − (log3 x ) 2

144. The range of the function

+ 5 log3 x − 6 ]

Column-I Column-II

IV. Domain of the function (D) (9, 27)

⎛ ⎞ I. y = log (A) [0, 1)

x 5

f (x) = cot −1 ⎜ ⎟, { 2 (sin x – cos x) + 3}

⎝ x − [x ] ⎠

2 2

(B) (–∞, 1]

(16 sin2x + 1)}

143. e x − e −| x |

III. y = (C) [0, 2]

Column-I Column-II e x + e| x |

⎡ 11 ⎞ ex − e− x ⎡ 1⎞

I. Range of the function (A) ⎢log e , ∞⎟ IV. y = x ,x≥0 (D) ⎢0, ⎟

⎣ 3 ⎠ e + e− x ⎣ 2⎠

f (x) = 3 x 2 − 4 x + 5

Assertion-Reason Type

Instructions: In the following questions an Assertion (A) 145. Assertion: If 3 f (x) – f (1/x) = ln x4, x > 0, then the

is given followed by a Reason (R). Mark your responses area of the region bounded by f (ex), x-axis, the lines

from the following options. x = 1 and x = 1 is 0.

(A) Assertion(A) is True and Reason(R) is Reason: f (x) = ln x, x > 0.

True; Reason(R) is a correct explanation for ax

Assertion(A) 146. Assertion: If f (x) = x ( a > 0) , then

(B) Assertion(A) is True, Reason(R) is True; 2 n −1

a + a

⎛ r ⎞

Reason(R) is not a correct explanation for ∑ 2 f ⎜ ⎟ = 2n – 1

r =1 ⎝ 2n ⎠

Assertion(A)

(C) Assertion(A) is True, Reason(R) is False Reason: f (x) + f (1 – x) = 1 ∀ x

(D) Assertion(A) is False, Reason(R) is True

2.36 Chapter 2

where g(x) = and h(x) =

h(x) where g(x) = − x + 4 x − 3 and h(x) =

2

( x − 1) ( x − 2) ( x − 3)

⎡ 3x − 2 ⎤

⎛p ⎛ p ⎞⎞ sin −1 ⎢ ⎥ is [0, 2) – {1}

sin ⎜ ⎜ sin ( x − 1)⎟ ⎟ is [0, 2] ⎣ 2 ⎦

⎝2 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎠

Reason: Domain of h(x) is [0, 2)

Reason: Maximum and minimum values of both g

149. Assertion: Suppose, f (x) = (x + 1)2 for x ≥ –1. If g(x)

and h are attained at 2 and 1, respectively.

is the function whose graph is the reflection of the

148. Assertion: If [x] denotes the integral part of x, then graph of f (x) with respect to the line y = x, then g(x) =

domain of the function f (x) = g(x) + h(x), x – 1, x ≥ 0.

Reason: g(x) is the inverse of f (x)

1 55. The range of the function f ( x ) = 7 − x Px − 3 is [2004]

(A) p 2 (B) p

(A) {1, 2, 3} (B) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

(C) 2p (D) p/2

(C) {1, 2, 3, 4} (D) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

151. The domain of sin−1 [log3 (x/3)] is : [2002]

156. If f: R → S, defined by f (x) = sinx − 3 cosx + 1, is

(A) [1, 9] (B) [−1, 9] onto, then the interval of S is [2004]

(C) [−9, 1] (D) [− 9, −1]

(A) [0, 3] (B) [−1, 1]

152. The period of the function f (x) = sin4 x + cos4 x is : (C) [0, 1] (D) [−1, 3]

[2002]

p 157. The graph of the function y = f (x) is symmetrical

(A) p (B) about the line x = 2, then [2004]

2

(C) 2p (D) None of these (A) f (x + 2) = f (x − 2)

(B) f (2 + x) = f (2 − x)

153. A function f from the set of natural numbers to inte- (C) f (x) = f (−x)

gers defined by (D) f (x) = − f (−x)

⎧n −1 sin −1 ( x − 3)

158. The domain of the function f ( x ) = is

⎪ 2 , when is odd 9 − x2

⎪

f ( n) = ⎨ is [2003] [2004]

⎪ n (A) [2, 3] (B) [2, 3)

⎪ − , when n is even (C) [1, 2] (D) [1, 2)

⎩ 2

159. Let f : (−1, 1) → B, be a function defined by

(A) one-one but not onto

2x

(B) onto but not one-one f ( x ) = tan −1 , then f is both one-one and onto

(C) one-one and onto both 1 − x2

(D) neither one-one nor onto when B is the interval [2005]

(A) ⎜ 0, ⎟ ⎢0, 2 ⎟⎠

(B)

⎝ 2⎠ ⎣

3

f ( x) = + log10 ( x 3 − x ) , is [2003]

4−x 2 ⎡ p p⎤ ⎛ p p⎞

(C) ⎢ − , ⎥ (D) ⎜ − , ⎟

(A) (1, 2) ⎣ 2 2 ⎦ ⎝ 2 2⎠

(B) (−1, 0) ∪ (1, 2) 160. A real valued function f (x) satisfies the functional

(C) (1, 2) ∪ (2, ∞) equation f (x−y) = f (x) f (y) −f (a − x) f (a + y) where

(D) (−1, 0) ∪ (1, 2) ∪ (2, ∞) a is a given constant and f (0) = 1, f (2a−x) is equal to

[2005]

Functions 2.37

(A) −f (x) (B) f (x) 163. For real x, let f (x) = x3 + 5x + 1, then [2009]

(C) f (A) + f (a−x) (D)

f (x) (A) f is one-one but not onto R

(B) f is onto R but not one-one

⎛ p p⎞ (C) f is one-one and onto R

161. The largest interval lying in ⎜ − , ⎟ for which the

⎝ 2 2⎠ (D) f is neither one-one nor onto R

⎛x ⎞ 1

function f ( x ) = 4 − x + cos −1 ⎜ − 1⎟ + log(cos x ) is

2

| x | −x

defined, is [2007] [2011]

⎛ p p⎞ (A) (0, ∞) (B) (− ∞, 0)

(A) [0, π] (B)

⎜⎝ − , ⎟⎠

2 2 (C) (− ∞,∞) − {0} (D) (− ∞, ∞)

⎡ p p⎞ ⎡ p⎞

(C) ⎢ − , ⎟ (D) ⎢0, ⎟ ⎛ 1⎞

⎣ 4 2 ⎠ ⎣ 2⎠ 165. If f ( x ) + 2 f ⎜ ⎟ = 3 x, x ≠ 0, and

⎝ x⎠

S = {x ∈ R : f ( x ) = f ( − x )}; then S:

162. Let f : N → Y be a function defined as f (x) = 4x + 3,

where Y = {y ∈ N: y = 4x + 3 for some x ∈ N}. Show [2016]

that f is invertible and its inverse is [2008]

(A) contains more than two elements.

3y + 4 y+3 (B) is an empty set.

(A) g(y) = (B) g (y) = 4+ (C) contains exactly one element

3 4

y+3 y −3 (D) contains exactly two elements

(C) g (y) = (D) g (y) =

4 4

Answer keys

1. (B) 2. (A) 3. (B) 4. (B) 5. (B) 6. (D) 7. (C) 8. (B) 9. (A, D) 10. (B)

11. (A) 12. (C) 13. (A) 14. (B) 15. (A) 16. (D) 17. (A) 18. (C) 19. (B) 20. (A)

21. (A) 22. (D) 23. (A) 24. (C) 25. (A) 26. (D) 27. (B) 28. (B) 29. (D) 30. (A)

31. (C) 32. (C) 33. (C) 34. (B) 35. (C) 36. (D) 37. (A) 38. (B) 39. (A) 40. (D)

41. (D) 42. (D) 43. (A) 44. (A) 45. (A) 46. (B) 47. (C) 48. (C) 49. (A, B) 50. (B)

51. (B) 52. (D) 53. (A) 54. (A) 55. (B) 56. (D) 57. (A) 58. (A) 59. (A) 60. (B)

61. (B) 62. (A, B, C) 63. (B) 64. (C) 65. (D) 66. (B) 67. (D) 68. (D) 69. (D)

70. (C) 71. (C) 72. (D) 73. (C) 74. (B) 75. (D) 76. (C) 77. (C) 78. (C) 79. (B)

80. (B) 81. (A) 82. (B) 83. (B) 84. (A) 85. (B) 86. (A) 87. (A) 88. (B) 89. (B)

90. (B) 91. (B) 92. (A) 93. (C) 94. (C) 95. (B) 96. (C) 97. (D) 98. (C) 99. (C)

100. (A) 101. (D) 102. (B) 103. (B) 104. (C) 105. (C) 106. (A) 107. (C) 108. (A) 109. (A)

110. (C) 111. (A) 112. (A) 113. (B) 114. (B) 115. (B) 116. (C) 117. (C)

1 18. (A) and (B) 119. (B) and (C) 120. (C) and (D) 121. (C) and (D) 122. (A), (B) and (C)

123. (A) and (B) 124. (A), (B) and (C) 125. (C) and (D) 126. (A), (B) and (D) 127. (A) and (C)

128. (A), (B) and (C) 129. (A) and (D) 130. (A) and (B)

131. (A) 132. (A) 133. (A) 134. (A) 135. (D) 136. (C) 137. (B) 138. (C) 139. (B) 140. (D)

141. (D)

2.38 Chapter 2

142. I. → (B); II. → (C); III. → (D); IV. → (A)

143. I. → (C); II. → (A); III. → (B); IV. → (D)

144. I. → (C); II. → (B); III. → (D); IV. → (A)

Assertion-Reason Type

145. (A) 146. (A) 147. (A) 148. (A) 149. (A)

150. (B) 151. (A) 152. (B) 153. (C) 154. (D) 155. (A) 156. (D) 157. (B) 158. (B) 159. (D)

160. (A) 161. (D) 162. (D) 163. (C) 164. (B) 165. (D)

2

1. We have, f (x) = x3 + x2 + 100x + 7 sin x ⎛ b⎞

⇒ a ⎜ x + ⎟ ≠ 0 [Q b2 – 4ac = 0]

⇒ f ′(x) = 3x2 + 2x + 100 + 7 cos x > 0, ∀ x ∈ R ⎝ 2a ⎠

\ f (x) is an increasing function b

⇒ x ≠ –

⇒ f (1) < f (2) < f (3) 2a

b

Let a = f (1), b = f (2) and c = f (3), then a < b < c(1) \ f (x) is defined for x ≠ – and x + 2 > 0

2a

Then given equation is

⎧ b⎫

1 2 3 \ Domain of f = (– 2, ∞)\ ⎨ − ⎬ .

+ + =0 ⎩ 2a ⎭

y−a y−b y−c The correct option is (A)

⇒ (y – b)(y – c) + 2(y – a)( y – c) + 3( y – a)( y – b) = 0 (2) 3. We have,

Let f(y) = ( y – b)( y – c) + 2( y – a)( y – c) + 3( y – a)( y – b), ex + ef (x) = e ⇒ ef (x) = e – ex ⇒ f (x) = log (e – ex).

Then, f (a) = (a – b)(a – c) > 0 For f (x) to be defined, e – ex > 0 ⇒ e1 > ex ⇒ x < 1

and f (b) = 2(b) = 2(b – a)(b – c) < 0 \ Domain of f = (–∞, 1)

and f (c) = 3(c – a)(c – b) > 0 Let y = log (e – ex) ⇒ ey = e – ex

So the equation (2), i.e. f ( y) = 0 has one real root between a ⇒ ex = e – ey

and b and other between b and c.

⇒ x = log (e – ey)

The correct option is (B)

For x to be real, e – e > 0 ⇒ e1 > ey ⇒ y < 1

y

\ Range of f = (–∞, 1).

= log ((ax2 + bx + c) (x + 2))

The correct option is (B)

= log (ax2 + bx + c) + log (x + 2)

4. The function f (x) = x2 + 2, x ∈ (– ∞, ∞) is not injective as

Since a > 0 and D = 0, f (1) = f (–1) but 1 ≠ –1.

\ ax2 + bx + c ≥ 0 ∀ x ∈ R The function f (x) = (x – 4) (x – 5), x ∈ (–∞, ∞) is not one-one

\ log (ax2 + bx + c) is defined if ax2 + bx + c ≠ 0 as f (4) = f (5) but 4 ≠ 5.

⎛ b c⎞ 4 x 2 + 3x − 5

⇒ a ⎜ x 2 + x + ⎟ ≠ 0

The function, f (x) = , x ∈ (–∞, ∞) is also not

⎝ a a⎠ 4 + 3x − 5 x 2

injective as f (1) = f (–1) but 1 ≠ –1.

⎡⎛ b⎞

2

⎛ b 2 − 4 ac ⎞ ⎤

⇒ a ⎢⎜ x + ⎟ − ⎜

⎥ ≠0 For the function, f (x) = |x + 2|, x ∈ [– 2, ∞).

⎢⎣⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝ 4 a 2 ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦

Let f (x) = f (y), x, y ∈ [– 2, ∞) ⇒ |x + 2| = |y + 2|

Functions 2.39

⇒ x + 2 = y + 2

For y to be positive,

⇒ x = y. (x + 1) (2x + 1) x (2x – 1) > 0

So, f is an injection. ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞

⇒ x ∈ (– ∞, – 1) ∪ ⎜ − , 0⎟ ∪ ⎜ , ∞⎟ .

The correct option is (B) ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠

1 Thus, (a) and (d) are the correct answers.

5. y = {cos( 2 x + 2) + cos 2 −[1 + cos( 2 x + 2)]}

2 The correct option is (A) and (D)

1 10. The maximum value of f (x) = cos x + cos ( 2 x) is 2 which

or y = − (1 − cos 2) = –sin2 1 i.e., constant

2 occurs at x = 0. Also, there is no value of x for which this

p

\ graph is a line parallel to x-axis. Also, when x = , value will be attained again.

2

2⎛p ⎞ The correct option is (B)

y = − cos ⎜ + 1⎟ = – sin 1 and hence it passes through the

2

⎝2 ⎠ 11. Let the required function be f (x) = ax + b.

⎛p ⎞ If a > 0, then f (–1) = 0 and f (1) = 2.

point ⎜ , − sin 2 1⎟ .

⎝2 ⎠ ⇒ –a + b = 0 and a + b = 2

The correct option is (B) ⇒ a = 1 and b = 1.

6. Since f (x) = f (–x) If a < 0, then f (–1) = 2 and f (1) = 0

\ f is not one–one. ⇒ – a + b = 2 and a + b = 0

x2 − 8

Let y ∈ R. Then f (x) = y ⇒ y = 2 ⇒ a = –1 and b = 1.

x +2

8 + 2y Hence, f (x) = x + 1 or f (x) = –x + 1.

⇒ x2 =

1− y The correct option is (A)

For x to be real, (8 + 2y) (1 – y) ≥ 0 12. For x ≤ – 1, 1 – x ≥ 2 and 1 – x ≥ 1 + x

and 1 – y ≠ 0 ⇒ (y + 4) (y – 1) ≤ 0 and y ≠ 1 \ max [(1 – x), 2, (1 + x)] = 1 – x

⇒ – 4 ≤ y < 1 For –1 < x < 1, 0 < 1 – x < 2 and 0 < 1 + x < 2.

\ Range of f = [– 4, 1) ⊂ R \ max [(1 – x), 2, (1 + x)] = 2.

\ f is not onto. For x ≥ 1, 1 + x ≥ 2, 1 + x > 1 – x

The correct option is (D) \ max [(1 – x), 2, (1 + x)] = 1 + x

7. We have, ⎧1 − x, x ≤ −1

1 1 ⎪

f (a) = 64 a3 + 3 = (4a)3 + 3 Hence, f (x) = ⎨2,

−1 < x < 1.

a a

⎪1 + x, x ≥ 1

⎛ 1⎞

3

1⎛ 1⎞ ⎩

= ⎜ 4a + ⎟ − 3 ⋅ 4a ⋅ ⎜ 4a + ⎟ The correct option is (C)

⎝ a⎠ a⎝ a⎠

13. We have,

= (3) – 12 ⋅ 3 = 27 – 36 = – 9.

3

⎡ 1 ⎤

⎢Since a, b are roots of 4 x + x = 3⎥ = sin 9x + sin (– 10) x

⎢ ⎥ = sin 9x – sin 10x

⎢\ 4 a + 1 = 3 ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎛p⎞ 9p

a \ f ⎜ ⎟ = sin – sin 5p = 1 – 0 = 1

⎝ 2⎠ 2

Similarly, f (b) = – 9 f (p) = sin 9p – sin 10p = 0

\ f (a) = f (b) = –9

⎛p⎞ 9p 10p 1

The correct option is (C) f ⎜ ⎟ = sin – sin = – 1.

⎝ 4⎠ 4 4 2

8. We have,

( )

The correct option is (A)

( fog) (x) = f [g (x)] = f x2 + 1 14. Since the given function has minimum value 75 which is

2

= x +1

2

– 1 = x2 x = 3. Hence, the range of f is [75, 89].

⎧0 if x = 0⎫ The correct option is (B)

\ (hofog) (x) = h [( fog) (x)] = h (x2) = ⎨ 2

⎬.

⎩ x if x ≠ 0 ⎭

The correct option is (B) ⎛ 1⎞

15. We have, 2 f (x) – 3 f ⎜ ⎟ = x2, x ≠ 0.

⎝ x⎠

2x − 1 2x − 1

9. Let y = = Putting x = 2, we get

2 x 3 + 3x 2 + x x ( 2 x + 1)( x + 1)

⎛ 1⎞

( 2 x − 1) 2 2 f (2) – 3 f ⎜ ⎟ = 4 (1)

= ⎝ 2⎠

( 2 x + 1)( x + 1) x ( 2 x − 1)

2.40 Chapter 2

1 x 2 + 34 x − 71

Now, putting x = , we get

21. Let y =

2 x2 + 2x − 7

⎛ 1⎞ 1 ⇒ (y – 1) x2 + (2y – 34) x – 7y + 71 = 0

2 f ⎜ ⎟ – 3 f (2) = (2)

⎝ 2⎠ 4 For x to be real,

7 (2y – 34)2 ≥ 4 (y – 1) (71 – 7y) (QDiscriminent ≥ 0)

Solving (1) and (2), we get f (2) = –

.

4 ⇒ y2 + 289 – 34y ≥ – 7y2 – 71 + 78y

The correct option is (A)

⇒ 8y2 – 112y + 360 ≥ 0

16. f (x) = (1 + b2)

⇒ y2 – 14y + 45 ≥ 0

⎧ 2 2b b2 ⎫ b2 ⇒ (y – 9) (y – 5) ≥ 0

⎨ +

x x+ 2 2⎬

− +1

⎩ 1+ b 2

(1 + b ) ⎭ 1 + b 2 ⇒ y ≤ 5 or y ≥ 9

2 \ y cannot lie between 5 and 9.

⎛ b ⎞ 1 1

= (1 + b ) ⎜ x +

2

+ ≥

1 + b 2 ⎟⎠

The correct option is (A)

⎝ 1 + b2 1 + b2

22. Since f (x) is an odd periodic function with period 2

1

\ m (b) =

. So, range of m (b) = (0, 1]. \ f (– x) = – f (x) and f (x + 2) = f (x)

1 + b2

\ f (2) = f (0 + 2) = f (0)

The correct option is (D)

and f (– 2) = f (– 2 + 2) = f (0)

17. Let y = ( fog) (x) = f [g (x)] = f (x3 + 5)

Now, f (0) = f (– 2) = – f (2) = – f (0)

= 2 (x3 + 5) – 3 = 2x3 + 7.

1/ 3

⇒ 2 f (0) = 0 i.e. f (0) = 0

y−7 ⎛ y − 7⎞

\ x3 =

⇒x= ⎜ \ f (4) = f (2 + 2) = f (2) = f (0) = 0

2 ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

Thus, f (4) = 0

1/ 3

⎛ y − 7⎞ The correct option is (D)

⇒ ( fog) (y) = ⎜

–1

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 23. For the two components to be meaningful, we must have

1/ 3 x (x + 3) ≥ 0 and 0 ≤ x2 + 3x + 1 ≤ 1.

⎛ x − 7⎞

⇒ ( fog)–1 (x) = ⎜

Hence, (x + 3) x = 0 i.e., x = 0, – 3.

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

\ S = {– 3, 0}

The correct option is (A)

The correct option is (A)

18. Since f (x) = log (x – 1) – log (x – 2). p

Domain of f (x) is x > 2 or x ∈ (2, ∞)(1) 24. Since f (x) = g (x), ∀ x ∈ (4n + 1) , n ∈ Z

2

⎛ x − 1⎞ x −1 \ f (x) = g (x) for infinitely many values of x.

g (x) = log ⎜

⎟ is defined if >0

⎝ x − 2⎠ x−2 The correct option is (C)

⇒ x ∈ (– ∞, 1) ∪ (2, ∞)(2) 25. Since, f (x + y) = f (x) f (y)

From Eq. (1) and (2), x ∈ (2, ∞). ⇒ f (x) = ax

The correct option is (C) Also, given that f (1) = 3

19. We have, ⇒ a1 = 3,

⎧1 + n − n = 1, x = n ∈ Z \ a = 3

g (x) = ⎨

⎩1 + n + k − n = 1 + k , x = n + k Hence, f (x) = 3x

n

where n ∈ Z, 0 < k < 1.

Now, S = ∑ f ( r ) ⇒ S = 31 + 32 + … + 3n

⎧ − 1, g ( x) < 0 r =1

⎪ ⎛ 1 − 3n ⎞

Now, f [g (x)] = ⎨

0, g ( x) = 0

= 3⎜

⎪

⎩ 1, g ( x) > 0 ⎝ 1 − 3 ⎟⎠

3 n

Clearly, g (x) > 0 for all x. So, f [g (x)] = 1, for all x. \ S =

(3 − 1) .

2

The correct option is (B)

The correct option is (A)

20. Clearly, y is defined for all x ∈ R except

26. Taking f (x) = log x, we see that

when sin x = 0 i.e., x = np : n ∈ Z

⎛ x⎞

\ Domain of f = R \ {np : n ∈ Z} f ⎜ ⎟ = f (x) – f ( y)

⎝ y⎠

The correct option is (A)

Functions 2.41

Clearly f (x) is not bounded sin (p [ x 2 + 1])

⇒ f (x) =

=0

⎛ 1⎞ x4 + 1

and f ⎜ ⎟ = – log x → ∞ as x → 0.

⎝ x⎠ Hence, Range of f = Rf = {0}

Also, x f (x) = x log x → 0 as x → 0.

The correct option is (C)

The correct option is (D)

⎛ 1⎞ 5

27. We have, g (x) = 1 + x 32. af ( x ) + bf ⎜ ⎟ = x + (1)

⎝ x⎠ x

and f [g (x)] = 3 + 2 x + x(1)

⎛ 1⎞ 1

af ⎜ ⎟ + bf ( x ) = + 5 x (2)

Also, f [g (x)] = f (1 + x )(2)

⎝ x⎠ x

From Eq. (1) and (2), we get

Multiply Eq. (1) by a and equation (2) by b, then subtract

f (1 +

x )=3+2 x + x. 5a b

(a2 – b2) f (x) = ax +

− – 5bx

Let 1 + x = y or x = ( y – 1)2.

x x

\ f ( y) = 3 + 2 ( y – 1) + ( y – 1)2

1 ⎛ 1 ⎞

\ f (x) = 2

⎜ x( a − 5b) + (5a − b)⎟⎠

= 3 + 2y – 2 + y2 – 2y + 1 = 2 + y 2 (a − b2 ) ⎝ x

\ f (x) = 2 + x2

The correct option is (C)

The correct option is (B) 33. f (x) = x3 + x2 + 100x + 5 sin x

sin x \ f ′(x) = 3x2 + 2x + 100 + 5 cos x = 3x2 + 2x + 94 + (6 +

28. We have, f (x) = 1 + 5 cos x) > 0

cos 2 x

\ f is an increasig function and consequently a one-one

cos 2 x (cos x ) + sin x ( 2 cos x sin x )

⇒ f ′ (x) = function.

cos 4 x

Clearly, f (–∞) = –∞, f (∞) = ∞ and f (x) is continuous,

cos x (cos x + 2 sin 2 x )

2

1 + sin 2 x therefore range f = R = codomain f. Hence, f is onto.

= 4

=

cos x cos3 x

⇒ f ′ (x) > 0 The correct option is (C)

\ f (x) is increasing function. 34. We have, f (x + 2a) = f ((x + a) + a)

1

⎛ sin x ⎞ = − f ( x + a) − ( f ( x + a)) 2

lim ⎜1 + 2 ⎟

= –∞ 2

−p ⎝ cos x⎠

x→ 2

2

1 1 ⎛1 ⎞

⎛ sin x ⎞ = −

− f ( x ) − ( f ( x )) 2 − ⎜ − f ( x ) − ( f ( x )) 2 ⎟

and lim ⎜1 +

⎟ =∞ 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠

x→ ⎝ cos 2 x ⎠

p

2

1 1

\ Range = (–∞, ∞)

= −

− f ( x ) + ( f ( x )) 2

2 4

The correct option is (B)

1 ⎛1 ⎞

3

29. We have, f (x) = e x − 3 x + 2 = − ⎜ − f ( x )⎟ = f (x)

2 ⎝2 ⎠

Let g (x) = x3 – 3x + 2

Hence, f (x) is periodic with period 2a.

⇒ g′ (x) = 3x2 – 3 = 3 (x2 – 1)

The correct option is (B)

⇒ g′ (x) ≥ 0, for x ∈ (–∞, –1]

35. g[ f (x)] = (sin x + cos x)2 – 1

\ g (x) is increasing function

⇒ g[ f (x)] = sin 2x

\ f (x) is one-one. ⎡ p p⎤

We know that sin x is bijective only when x ∈ ⎢ − , ⎥ .

Now, Range of f (x) is (0, e4], but co-domain is (0, e5]. p p ⎣ 2 2⎦

Thus, f (x) is bijective if − ≤ 2x ≤

\ f (x) is into function. 2 2

p p

The correct option is (D) ⇒ − ≤ x ≤ .

4 4

30. For f to be defined, we must have The correct option is (C)

⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 y y

log1/ 2 ⎜1 + 4 ⎟ < – 1 ⇒ 1 + 4 > (2– 1)– 1 = 2 which is 36. Let 2 x + = a and 2 x − = b,

⎝ x ⎠ x 8 8

1 a+b

possible only if 4 > 1 i.e. 0 < x < 1. then x = and y = 4(a – b)

x 4

Hence, the domain of the given function is {x : 0 < x < 1}. ⎛ y y⎞

Given, f ⎜ 2 x + , 2 x − ⎟ = xy

The correct option is (A) ⎝ 8 8⎠

31. Since [x2 + 1] is an integer ⇒ f (a, b ) = a2 – b 2

\ sin (p[x2 + 1]) = 0 ⇒ f (m, n) + f (n, m) = m2 – n2 + n2 – m2 = 0 for all m, n.

The correct option is (D)

2.42 Chapter 2

\ 0 < ex < 1 and 0 < ln |x| < 1 1 − is defined when 1 − ≥0

|x| |x|

⇒ log 0 < x < log 1 and e0 < |x| < e1 ⇒ x ≤ – 1, x ≥ 1

(2)

⇒ – ∞ < x < 0 and 1 < |x| < e 1

and 2 is defined when x2 – 1 < 0, x2 – 1 ≥ 1

⇒ x ∈ (– ∞, 0) and x ∈ ((– ∞, – 1) ∪ (1, ∞)) ∩ (– e, e) [ x − 1]

⇒ x ∈ (– ∞, 0) and x ∈ (– e, – 1) ∪ (1, e) ⇒ x ∈ (– e, – 1) i.e., x ∈ (–∞, − 2 ) ∪ (– 1, 1) ∪ ( − 2 , ∞)(3)

The correct option is (A)

From Eq. (1), (2) and (3), we get

1 n ⎛

38. We have + < 1 if n ≤ 49 1+ 5⎞

2 100 x ∈ ⎜ 2,

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

⎡1 n ⎤

\ ⎢ + ⎥ = 0 if n ≤ 49 The correct option is (A)

⎣ 2 100 ⎦

44. Graph is symmetric about x = k

1 n

Again + ≥ 1 if n ≥ 50 if f(k – x) = f (k + x)

2 100

⇒ a(k – x)3 + b(k – x)2 + c(k – x) + d

⎡1 n ⎤

\ ⎢ + ⎥ = 1 if 50 ≤ n ≤ 99 = a(k + x)3 + b(k + x) + c(k + x) + d

⎣ 2 100 ⎦

⇒ 2ax3 – (6ak2 + 4bk + 2c)x = 0

\ The desired sum = 50.

It is true for all x if a = 0 and 6ak2 + 4bk + 2c = 0

The correct option is (D) c c

i.e. a = 0 and k = – ⇒a+k=− .

log 0.3 | x − x | 2b 2b

39. We have, f (x) = The correct option is (A)

|x|

45. Domain of f and domain of composite function gof are same.

Now, by definition, the domain of f is defined as

The correct option is (A)

log | x − 2 |

0.3 ≥ 0, |x| ≠ 0 46. Since,

|x|

f (x) = x3 + x2f ′(1) + xf ′′(2) + f ′(3)(1)

Since denominator i.e. |x| is always positive

⇒ f ′(x) = 3x2 + 2xf ′(1) + f ′′(2)(2)

\ log0.3 |x – 2| ≥ 0 ⇒ log0.3 |x – 2| ≥ log0.3(1)

⇒ f ′′(x) = 6x + 2f ′(1)(3)

⇒ |x – 2| ≤ 1

⇒ f ′′′(x) = 6 i.e., a constant function

⇒ –1 ≤ x – 2 ≤ 1

Hence, f ′(3) = 6

\ 1 ≤ x ≤ 3 (1)

Using Eq. (3), we have

and |x – 2| > 0, which is always true, but x ≠ 2 (2)

f ′′(2) = 12 + 2f ′(1)(5)

Hence, domain of f = Df = [1, 2) ∪ (2, 3]

Substituting x = 1, in equation (2), we have

The correct option is (A)

f ′(1) = 3 + 2f ′(1) + f ′′(2)

40. Since, f (– x) = f (x)

⇒ f ′(1) = 3 + 2f ′(1) + 12 + 2f ′(1) [using (5)]

⇒ f(x) is an even function, its graph will be symmetrical

⇒ 3f ′(1) = – 15

about y-axis.

⎛ | x |3 + | x | ⎞ \ f ′(1) = – 5 (6)

Also, f (x) = − ⎜ ⇒ f (x) = – (+ ive) = – ive

⎝ 1 + x 2 ⎟⎠ Substituting respective value in Eq. (5), we have

i.e., the graph of f (x) completely lies below the x-axis, and is

f ′′(2) = 2

also symmetric about y-axis (as discussed above). Hence, the polynomial f(x) can be written as

\ The graph of f (x) lies in III and IV quadrants.

f (x) = x3 – 5x2 + 2x + 6

The correct option is (D) Therefore, f (2) – f (1)

= (8 – 20 + 4 + 6) – (1 – 5 + 2 + 6)

41. Since, − x 2 is not defined for any real x,

= –2 – 4 = –6

\ domain of the given real fucntion is null set.

\ f (2) – f (1) = – 6 = – f (0).

The correct option is (D)

The correct option is (B)

42. g[ f (x)] ≤ f [g(x)] ⇒ g(|x|) ≤ f ([x]) ⇒ [|x|] ≤ |[x]|

This is true for each x ∈ R. ⎧ p⎫

47. f : → A, where A = ⎨ y : 0 ≤ y < ⎬

The correct option is (D) ⎩ 2⎭

43. sin– 1 (x – x2) is defined when – 1 ≤ x – x2 ≤ 1 Also, the function f is defined as

f (x) = tan–1(x2 + x + k)

1− 5 1+ 5

⇒

≤x≤ (1)

2 2

Functions 2.43

Now, inside the given domain, we will always have

completely on the codomain or range must be equal to

⎡x⎤

codomain such that ⎢3⎥ = 1

⎣ ⎦

Rf = A

\ f (x) = x – 1 throughout its domain

⎡ p⎞

⇒ Rf = ⎢0, ⎟ i.e. 1st Quadrant which is possible if and ⇒ y = x – 1

⎣ 2⎠

only if ⇒ x = y + 1 = f–1 (y)

x2 + x + k ≥ 0 ⇒ D ≤ 0 \ f –1 (x) = x + 1

⇒ 12 – 4 ⋅ 1 ⋅ (k) ≤ 0 The correct option is (B)

1 52. For f (x) to be defined,

\ k ≥

4 (i) [2x2 – 3] = –1, 0, 1

The correct option is (C)

⇒ – 1 ≤ 2x2 – 3 < 2 ⇒ 2 ≤ 2x2 < 5

⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ 1 1 5

48. By verification, f ⎜ − ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = –1=− ⇒ 1 ≤ x2 <

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 2

Hence, f (|x|) = x ⎧ 1 ≤ x 2 ⇒ x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 1

⎪

The correct option is (C)

⇒ ⎨ 2 5 5 5

49. Given that ⎪x < ⇒ − <x<

⎩ 2 2 2

f (x) = [x]2 + [x + 1] – 3

5 5

⇒ f (x) = [x]2 + [x] + 1 – 3

⇒ − < x ≤ −1 or 1 ≤ x < (1)

2 2

⇒ f (x) = [x]2 + [x] – 2

(ii) x2 – 5x + 5 > 0

⇒ f (x) = ([x] + 2)([x] – 1)

5− 5 5+ 5

Now, f (x) = 0

⇒ x < or x > (2)

2 2

⇒ ([x] + 2)([x] – 1) = 0

(iii) log1/2 (x – 5x + 5) > 0

2

⎛ 1⎞

⇒ either [x] = – 2 or [x] = 1 ⇒ x2 – 5x + 5 < ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 2⎠

⇒ either – 2 ≤ x < – 1 or 1 ≤ x < 2 ⇒ x2 – 5x + 5 < 1

i.e., f (x) = 0 for infinite number of values of x. ⇒ x2 – 5x + 4 < 0

Also, f (x) will not be one-to-one ⇒ 1 < x < 4 (3)

5− 5

Since, f (x) = (| x | + 2)(| x | − 1)

From Eq. (1), (2) and (3), 1 ≤ x <

2

Integer

Integer

The correct option is (D)

Integer

53. We have, f (n + 1) = and f (1) = 2

co-domain. 2

The correct option is (A) and (B) \ f (101) = f (1) + 100 × 1/2 = 2 + 50

50. Given, q2 – 4pr = 0 and p > 0 \ f (101) = 52.

For f (x) to be defined,

The correct option is (A)

px3 + (p + q)x2 + (q + r)x + r > 0 cos 2 x + sin 4 x

54. f (x) =

⇒ px2(x + 1) + qx(x + 1) + r(x + 1) > 0 sin 2 x + cos 4 x

⇒ (x + 1)(px2 + qx + r) > 0 cos 2 x + sin 2 x(1 − cos 2 x )

⇒ f (x) =

q sin 2 x + cos 2 x (1 − sin 2 x )

⇒ x > – 1 and x ≠ −

2p sin 2 x + cos 2 x − sin 2 x cos 2 x

[Since q2 – 4pr = 0 ⇒ f (x) =

q q sin 2 x + cos 2 x − sin 2 x cos 2 x

\ at x = − , px2 + qx + r = 0 and at x ≠ − , px2 + qx

2p 2p ⇒ f (x) = 1 ⇒ f(2002) = 1

+ r > 0]

The correct option is (A)

⎡ ⎧ q ⎫⎤

\ Domain = R − ⎢( − ∞, −1] ∪ ⎨ − ⎬ ⎥ 55. We know that

⎣ ⎩ 2 p ⎭⎦

|x + y| = |x| + |y|

The correct option is (B) if x and y are of same sign i.e.,

⎡x⎤ either x and y are > 0 or x and y are < 0

51. Given that f (x) = x − ⎢ ⎥

⎣3⎦ Since, | f (x) + f (x)| = | f (x)| + |f (x)|

where f : (3, 6) → (1, 3)

2.44 Chapter 2

i.e., |x + 1 + x – 2| = |x + 1| + |x – 2|

⎛ 1⎞

therefore, either x + 1 > 0 and x – 2 > 0 61. We have, 2f (x) + 3 f ⎜ ⎟ = x2 – 1 (1)

⎝ x⎠

⇒ x > – 1 and x > 2 1

Putting in place of x, we get

\ x > 2 x

or x + 1 < 0 and x – 2 < 0 ⎛ 1⎞ 1

3 f ( x ) + 2 f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 − 1 (2)

⇒ x < – 1 and x < 2 ⎝ x⎠ x

\ x < – 1 ( 2 x 2 + 3)(1 − x 2 )

Solving Eq. (1) and (2), we get f (x) = ,

Hence, for the given equality to be valid, we have 5x 2

which is a non-periodic even function.

x ∈ (– ∞, – 1) ∪ (2, ∞) The correct option is (B)

Since, option (B) is the subset of the solution set, Hence, 62. When x1 = –1 and x2 = 1,

option (B) is true. ⎛ −1 − 1 ⎞

then f (– 1) – f (1) = f ⎜

= f (–1)

⎝ 1 + 1(1) ⎟⎠

The correct option is (B)

56. f : N → Z ⇒ f (1) = 0,

f (1) = 0, f (2) = –1, f (3) = 1, f (4) = –2, ⎛1 − x⎞

which is satisfied when f (x) = tan − 1 ⎜

f (5) = 2, and f (6) = –3 so on. ⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠

When x1 = x2 = 0, then

⎛ 0 − 0⎞

f (0) – f (0) = f ⎜

= f (0) ⇒ f (0) = 0

1 0 ⎝ 1 − 0 ⎟⎠

2 –1

3 1

When x1 = –1 and x2 = 0, then

4 –2 ⎛ −1 − 0 ⎞

f (–1) – f (0) = f ⎜

= f (–1) ⇒ f (0) = 0,

5 2 ⎝ 1 − 0 ⎟⎠

6 3 ⎛1 − x⎞

which is satisfied when f (x) = log ⎜

⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠

In this type of function every element of set A has unique ⎛1 + x⎞

and f (x) = log ⎜

.

image in set B and there is no element left in set B. ⎝ 1 − x ⎟⎠

Hence, f is one-one and onto function. The correct option is (A), (B) and (C)

The correct option is (D) 63. Given: f (T + x) = 1 + [(1 – f (x))3]1/3

57. Since A.M. ≥ G.M. = 1 + (1 – f (x))

tan 2 a ⇒ f (T + x) + f (x) = 2 (1)

\

x2 + x + ≥ 2 tan 2 a

x +x

2 ⇒ f (2T + x) + f (T + x) = 2 (2)

(2) – (1) ⇒ f (2T + x) – f (x) = 0

⎛ p⎞

= 2 tan a ⎜ tan a > 0 as 0 < a < ⎟

⇒ f (2T + x) = f (x)

⎝ 2⎠

Also, T is positive and least therefore period of f (x) = 2T.

The correct option is (A)

The correct option is (B)

58. 0 ≤ log (1 – x2) ≤ 1 ⇒ 1 ≤ 1 – x2 ≤ e

Now, 1 – x2 ≤ e ∀ x ∈ R − log 0.3 ( x − 1)

64. Since, f (x) =

But 1 – x2 ≥ 1 is possible only when x = 0. − x 2 +3 x + 18

The correct option is (A) log 0.3 ( x − 1)

⇒ f (x) =

59. f (x) is onto, x 2 − 3 x − 18

\ S = range of f (x)

By definition, f (x) is defined, if

⎛ p⎞

Now f (x) = sin x − 3 cos x + 1 = 2 sin ⎜ x − ⎟ + 1 log ( x − 1)

⎝ 3⎠ 2 0.3 ≥0

x − 3 x − 18

⎛ p⎞ ⎛ p⎞

Q –1 ≤ sin ⎜ x − ⎟ ≤ 1, – 1 ≤ 2 sin ⎜ x − ⎟ + 1 ≤ 3

\ either log0.3 (x – 1) ≥ 0 and x2 – 3x – 18 > 0

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

⇒ 1 < x ≤ 2 and x < –3 or x > 6

\ f (x) ∈ [– 1, 3] = S

No solution

The correct option is (A) or log0.3 (x – 1) ≤ 0 and x2 – 3x – 18 < 0

60. Since the function is periodic, a2 – 3 and b2 + 7 should be ⇒ x ≥ 2 and – 3 < x < 6 ⇒ x ∈ [2, 6)

perfect squares, which is possible only if a = 2, b = 3 in

Hence, domain of f (x) = [2, 6).

which case f (x) = sin x + cos 4x, whose period is 2p.

The correct option is (C)

The correct option is (B)

Functions 2.45

65. Just interchange x and y and in first case y = 0, now x ≥ 0 71. There is no information about co-domain therefore f (x) is

x = (y + 1)2 x ≥ 0, y ≥ – 1 not necessarily onto.

or y = x − 1 x ≥ 0 The correct option is (C)

The correct option is (D) 72. For every rational number T, we have,

⎧1, when x is a rational⎫

sin101 x f (T + x) = ⎨

⎬,

66. We have, f (x) = ⎩0, when x is irrational ⎭

⎡x⎤ 1

⎢p ⎥ + 2 but there is no least positive value of T for which f (T + x) =

⎣ ⎦

f (x) because there are infinite number of rational numbers

sin101 ( − x ) between any two rational numbers. Therefore, f (x) is a peri-

⇒ f (–x) =

⎡ x⎤ 1 odic function having no fundamental period.

⎢− p ⎥ + 2

⎣ ⎦ The correct option is (D)

Case I: when x = np (n ∈ Z) 73. In the sum, f1(1) + f1(2) + f1(3) + … + f1(n), 1 occurs n times,

sin101 ( − np ) 1 1

f (– x) =

=0 occurs (n – 1) times, occurs (n – 2) times and so on.

⎡ − np ⎤ 1 2 3

⎢ p ⎥+ 2 \ f1(1) + f1(2) + f1(3) + ... + f1(n)

⎣ ⎦

1 1 1

Case II: When x ≠ np, n ∈ Z = n ⋅ 1 + (n – 1) ⋅

+ (n – 2) ⋅ + … + 1 ⋅

2 3 n

− sin101 ( x ) ⎛ 1 1 1⎞ ⎛ 1 2 3 n −1⎞

(–x) =

f = n ⎜1 + + + ... + ⎟ − ⎜ + + + ... +

⎟

⎡ x⎤ 1 ⎝ 2 3 n⎠ ⎝ 2 3 4 n ⎠

⎢− p ⎥ + 2

⎣ ⎦ ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎤

− sin101 ( x ) ⎡ ⎡x⎤ ⎡ x⎤ ⎤ = nf1 ( n) − ⎢⎜1 − ⎟ + ⎜1 − ⎟ + ⎜1 −

⎟⎠ + ... + ⎜⎝1 − ⎟⎠ ⎥

⇒ f (–x) =

⎢Q ⎢ p ⎥ + ⎢ − p ⎥ = − 1⎥ ⎣⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 n ⎦

⎡x⎤ 1 ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦

−1 − ⎢ ⎥ + = nf1(n) – [n – f1(n)] = (n + 1) f1(n) – n

⎣p ⎦ 2

The correct option is (C)

sin101 ( x ) 74. Q {x} ∈ [0, 1)

⇒ f (–x) =

= f (x)

⎡x⎤ 1 \ sin {x} ∈ [0, sin 1) but f (x) is defined if sin {x} ≠ 0

⎢p ⎥ 2 +

⎣ ⎦

1 ⎛ 1 ⎞

\ f (x) is an even function. \

∈ ,∞

sin{x} ⎜⎝ sin1 ⎟⎠

The correct option is (B)

67. The given function f is well defined only when | x | – x > 0 ⎡ 1 ⎤

\ ⎢ ⎥ ∈{1, 2, 3.....}

⇒ x < 0 ⎣ sin{x} ⎦

Required domain is (–∞, 0) The correct option is (B)

The correct option is (D) 75. We have,

⎧ n P if n ≥ m f (x) = 2 min {| f (x) – g (x)|, 0}

68. Number of one–one functions = ⎨ m

⎩ 0 if n < m ⎧0 f ( x) > g( x)

The correct option is (D)

= ⎨

⎩2( f ( x ) − g ( x )), f ( x ) ≤ g ( x )

69. Function is increasing

y−3 ⎧ f ( x ) − g ( x ) − | f ( x ) − g ( x ) |, f ( x) > g( x)

x= = g(y)

= ⎨

4 ⎩ f ( x ) − g ( x ) − | f ( x ) − g ( x ) |, f ( x) ≤ g( x)

The correct option is (D) \ f (x) = f (x) – g (x) – |g (x) – f (x)|

70. Given f (x) = x3 + 5x + 1 The correct option is (D)

Now f ′(x) = 3x2 + 5 > 0, ∀ x ∈ R 76. We have,

\ f (x) is strictly increasing function ⎧x x ∈Q

\ It is one–one (x) = ⎨

f

⎩1 − x, x ∉Q

Clearly, f (x) is a continuous function and also increasing

on R, ⎧ f ( x) , f ( x) ∈Q

\ fof (x) = ⎨

Lt f ( x ) = − ∞ and Lt f ( x ) = ∞ ⎩1 − f ( x ) , f ( x) ∉ Q

x → −∞ x→∞

⎧ x, x ∈ Q, x ∈Q

\ f (x) takes every value between –∞ and ∞.

⎪ 1 − x, x ∉ Q, x ∈Q

Thus, f (x) is onto function. ⎪

= ⎨

The correct option is (C) ⎪1 − x, 1 − x ∈ Q, x ∉Q

⎪⎩1 − (1 − x ), 1 − x ∉ Q, x ∉Q

2.46 Chapter 2

⎧ x, x ∈ Q ⎡ n + 1⎤ ⎡ n ⎤

=⎨ ⇒ [n] = ⎢

⎥+⎢ ⎥

⎩ x, x ∉ Q ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣2⎦

\ fof (x) = x, x ∈ [0, 1]. ⎡ n + 1⎤ ⎡ n ⎤

⇒ n = ⎢

⎥+⎢ ⎥

The correct option is (C) ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣2⎦

77. We have, ⎡n ⎤

+ 1⎥

f (x – f (y)) = f (f (y)) + xf (y) + f (x) – 1 (1) ⎡ n + 1⎤ ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ 2

= ⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥ [Using (1)]

Put x = f (y) = 0 ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣4⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦

then f (0) = f (0) + 0 + f (0) – 1

⎡ n + 1⎤ ⎡ n + 2 ⎤ ⎡ n ⎤

\ f (0) = 1 (2)

= ⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥

⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 4 ⎦ ⎣4⎦

Again, put x = f (y) = l in (1) ⎡n ⎤

Then, f (o) = f (l) + l2 + f (l) – 1 + 1⎥

⎡ n + 1⎤ ⎡ n + 2 ⎤ ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ 4

⇒ 1 = 2f (l) + l2 – 1

= ⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥

⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 4 ⎦ ⎣8⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦

2 − l2 l2

[Using (1)]

\ f (l) = =1−

2 2

x2 ⎡ n + 1⎤ ⎡ n + 2 ⎤ ⎡ n + 4 ⎤ ⎡ n ⎤

Hence, f (x) = 1 − = ⎢

⎥+⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥

2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 4 ⎦ ⎣ 8 ⎦ ⎣8⎦

The correct option is (C)

Continuing in this manner, we have,

78. A function whose graph is symmetrical about the origin ⎡ n + 1⎤ ⎡ n + 2 ⎤ ⎡ n + 4 ⎤

must be odd.

⎢ 2 ⎥ + ⎢ 4 ⎥ + ⎢⎣ 8 ⎥⎦ + ... = n

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(3x + 3–x) is an even function. The correct option is (A)

Since cos x is an even function and log (x + 1 + x 2 ) is an 82. We have,

odd function,

⎧1 + n − n = 1, x = n ∈ I

\ cos (log (x + 1 + x 2 )) is an even function.

g (x) = ⎨

If f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) ∀ x, y ∈ R, then f (x) must be odd. ⎩1 + n + k − n = 1 + k , x = n + k ,

The correct option is (C) where n ∈ I, 0 < k < 1

79. The function f (x) = x2 + 2, x ∈ (–∞, ∞) is not injective as ⎧ −1, g ( x ) < 0

⎪

f (1) = f (–1) but 1 ≠ –1 Now, f [g (x)] = ⎨ 0, g ( x ) = 0

The function f (x) = (x – 4) (x – 5), x ∈ (– ∞, ∞) is not one-one ⎪ 1, g ( x) > 0

⎩

as f (4) = f (5) but 4 ≠ 5

Clearly, g (x) > 0 for all x. So, f [g (x)] = 1, for all x.

4 x 2 + 3x − 5

The function, f (x) = , x ∈ (–∞, ∞) is also not

The correct option is (B)

4 + 3x − 5 x 2

injective as f (1) = f (–1) but 1 ≠ –1 83. We have, g (x) = 1 + x

For the function, f (x) = |x + 2|, x ∈ [– 2, ∞) and f [g (x)] = 3 + 2 x + x(1)

Let f (x) = f (y), x, y ∈ [–2, ∞) ⇒ |x + 2| = |y + 2|

Also, f [g (x)] = f (1 + x )(2)

⇒ x + 2 = y + 2

From (1) and (2), we get

⇒ x = y

f (1 + x ) = 3 + 2 x + x.

So, f is an injection.

Let 1 + x = y or x = ( y – 1)2

The correct option is (B)

\ f ( y) = 3 + 2 ( y – 1) + ( y – 1)2

80. ( fog) (x) = f [g (x)] = f (|3x + 4|)

= 3 + 2y – 2 + y2 – 2y + 1 = 2 + y2

Since the domain of f is [–3, 5],

\ f (x) = 2 + x2

\ –3 ≤ |3x + 4| ≤ 5 ⇒ |3x + 4| ≤ 5

The correct option is (B)

⇒ –5 ≤ 3x + 4 ≤ 5

1 84. For f to be defined, we must have

⇒ –9 ≤ 3x ≤ 1 ⇒ –3 ≤ x ≤

3 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1

log1/ 2 ⎜1 + 4 ⎟ < – 1 ⇒ 1 + 4 > (2– 1)– 1 = 2 which is pos-

⎡ 1⎤ ⎝ x ⎠ x

\ Domain of fog is ⎢ −3, ⎥

⎣ 3⎦ 1

sible only if 4 > 1, i.e., 0 < x < 1

The correct option is (B) x

81. For any x ∈ R, we have Hence, the domain of the given function is {x: 0 < x < 1}

⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ x + 1⎤

The correct option is (A)

[x] = ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ (1)

⎣2⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦

Functions 2.47

85. We have, f (x + 2a) = f ((x + a) + a) Substituting respective value in (5), we have

1 f ′′(2) = 2

= −

f ( x + a) − ( f ( x + a)) 2

2 Hence, the polynomial f (x) can be written as

1 1 ⎛1 ⎞

2

f (x) = x3 – 5x2 + 2x + 6

=

− − f ( x ) − ( f ( x )) 2 − ⎜ − f ( x ) − ( f ( x )) 2 ⎟

2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ Therefore, f (2) – f (1)

= (8 – 20 + 4 + 6) – (1 – 5 + 2 + 6)

1 1 = –2 – 4 = – 6

=

− − f ( x ) + ( f ( x )) 2

2 4

\ f (2) – f (1) = –6 = – f (0)

1 ⎛1 ⎞ The correct option is (B)

=

− ⎜ − f ( x )⎟ = f (x)

2 ⎝2 ⎠ 89. Given, q2 – 4pr = 0 and p > 0

Hence, f (x) is periodic with period 2a. For f (x) to be defined

The correct option is (B) px3 + (p + q)x2 + (q + r)x + r > 0

86. Since the domain of f is (0, 1), ⇒ px2(x + 1) + qx(x + 1) + r(x + 1) > 0

\ 0 < ex < 1 and 0 < ln |x| < 1 ⇒ (x + 1)(px2 + qx + r) > 0

⇒ log 0 < x < log 1 and e0 < |x| < e1 q

⇒ x > – 1 and x ≠ − [Since q2 – 4pr = 0

⇒ –∞ < x < 0 and 1 < |x| < e 2p

q q

⇒ x ∈ (–∞, 0) and x ∈ ((–∞, –1) ∪ (1, ∞)) ∩ (–e, e) \ at x = − , px2 + qx + r = 0 and at x ≠ − , px2 + qx +

r > 0] 2 p 2 p

⇒ x ∈ (–∞, 0) and x ∈ (–e, –1) ∪ (1, e)

⎡ ⎧ q ⎫⎤

⇒ x ∈ (–e, –1) \ Domain = R − ⎢( − ∞, −1] ∪ ⎨ − ⎬ ⎥

The correct option is (A) ⎣ ⎩ 2 p ⎭⎦

The correct option is (B)

87. sin– 1 (x – x2) is defined when – 1 ≤ x – x2 ≤ 1

90. Since the function is periodic, a2 – 3 and b2 + 7 should be

1− 5 1+ 5 perfect squares, which is possible only if a = 2, b = 3 in

⇒

≤x≤ (1)

2 2 which case f (x) = sin x + cos 4x, whose period is 2p.

1 1 The correct option is (B)

1− is defined when 1 − ≥0

|x| |x| sin101 x

⇒ x ≤ – 1 or x ≥ 1

(2) 91. We have, f (x) =

⎡x⎤ 1

1 ⎢p ⎥ + 2

and 2 is defined when x – 1 < 0 or x – 1 ≥ 1

2 2 ⎣ ⎦

[ x − 1]

i.e., x ∈ (–∞, − 2 ) ∪ (–1, 1) ∪ ( − 2 , ∞)(3)

sin101 ( − x )

⇒ f (–x) =

⎡ x⎤ 1

From (1), (2) and (3), we get ⎢− p ⎥ + 2

⎣ ⎦

⎛ 1+ 5⎞

x ∈ ⎜ 2,

Case I: when x = np (n ∈ Z )

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

sin101 ( − np )

The correct option is (A) (–x) =

f =0

⎡ − np ⎤ 1

88. Since, ⎢ p ⎥ 2 +

⎣ ⎦

f (x) = x3 + x2f ′(1) + xf ′′(2) + f ′(3)(1) Case II: When x ≠ np, n ∈ Z

⇒ f ′(x) = 3x2 + 2xf ′(1) + f ′′(2)(2)

− sin101 ( x )

⇒ f ′′(x) = 6x + 2f ′(1)(3)

f (–x) =

⎡ x⎤ 1

⇒ f ′′′(x) = 6 i.e., a constant function

⎢− p ⎥ + 2

⎣ ⎦

Hence, f ′(3) = 6

⎡ ⎡x⎤ ⎡ x⎤

− sin101 ( x ) ⎤

Using equation (3), we have ⇒ f (–x) =

⎡x⎤ 1 ⎢Q ⎢ p ⎥ + ⎢ − p ⎥ = − 1⎥

−1 − ⎢ ⎥ + ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦

f ′′(2) = 12 + 2f ′(1)(5) ⎣ p ⎦ 2

Substituting x = 1, in equation (2), we have

sin101 ( x )

f ′(1) = 3 + 2f ′(1) + f ′′(2) ⇒ f (–x) =

= f (x)

⎡x⎤ 1

⇒ f ′(1) = 3 + 2f ′(1) + 12 + 2f ′(1) {using (5)}

⎢p ⎥ 2+

⎣ ⎦

⇒ 3f ′(1) = –15

\ f (x) is an even function.

\ f ′(1) = –5

(6)

The correct option is (B)

2.48 Chapter 2

The domain of definition is the darkened portion on the

⇒ a(k – x)3 + b(k – x)2 + c(k – x) + d X-axis

⎡ p p⎞ ⎛p p⎤

= a(k + x)3 + b(k + x) + c(k + x) + d i.e. x ∈ ⎢ − , − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ , ⎥

⎣ 2 3⎠ ⎝ 3 2⎦

⇒ 2ax3 – (6ak2 + 4bk + 2c)x = 0

It is true for all x if a = 0 and 6ak2 + 4bk + 2c = 0 The correct option is (C)

c c 95. For the sgn operation to be defined, we have

i.e., a = 0 and k = – ⇒a+k= − .

2b 2b 9 – x2 > 0 i.e., –3 < x < 3 (1)

The correct option is (A) For the square root operation to be defined, we have

93. For the ln operation to be defined, we have {x} > 0 [x]3 – 4[x] ≥ 0

Plotting the curves y = {x} and y = 0, we can see that the ⇒ [x] ([x] + 2) ([x] – 2) ≥ 0

values of x satisfying the above inequality, are

⇒ –2 ≤ [x] ≤ 0 or [x] ≥ 2

x ∈ R – I(1)

i.e., –2 ≤ x < 1 or x ≥ 2 (2)

For the square root operation to be defined, we have

The union of the intervals (1) and (2) gives the domain as

{x} ≤ x/2 [–2, 1) ∪ [2, 3)

The correct option is (B)

96. we have

f (x) =

(log0.2 x )3 + (log0.2 x 3 ) (log0.2 0.0016 x ) + 36

= (log0.2 x )3 + (3 log0.2 x ) {log0.2 x + log0.2 (0.2)4 } + 36

= l 3 + 3l ( l + 4) + 36 [putting log0.2 x = l]

= l 3 + 3l 2 + 12l + 36 = ( l + 3) ( l 2 + 12)

Plotting the curves y = {x} and y = x/2 as shown above, we For the square root operation to be defined, we have

can see that the values of x satisfying the above inequality, (l + 3) (l2 + 12) ≥ 0

are

i.e., l + 3 ≥ 0 (Q l2 + 12 is a positive quantity)

x ∈ {0} ∪ [1, ∞)(2)

i.e., log0.2 x ≥ – 3 i.e., x ≤ (0.2)–3 = 53 = 125

The domain of definition is the intersection of (1) and (2)

Also, x > 0 for log to be defined

which gives x ∈ (1, ∞) – I +

Hence, the required domain of definition is (0, 125]

The correct option is (C)

The correct option is (C)

94. For the ln operation to be defined, we have

97. We have,

1 – 2 |cos x| > 0

1 y = [x2] – [x]2, x ∈ [0, 2]

i.e., |cos x| < (1) i.e., y = [x ],

2

0≤x<1

2

For the inverse cos operation to be defined, we have y = [x2] – 1, 1≤x<2

2x = [x2] – 1, x=2

–1≤ ≤1

p = 0, x=2

p p i.e., y = 0, 0≤x<1

i.e., − ≤ x ≤ (2)

2 2 = 1 – 1 = 0, 1≤ x < 2

To find the values of x satisfying both (1) and (2), let us plot

= 2 – 1 = 1, 2≤x< 3

1

the curves y = |cos x| and y = in the interval [–p/2, p/2] as = 3 – 1 = 2, 3≤x<2

shown below 2

= 0, x=2

Hence, the range is {0, 1, 2}

The correct option is (D)

98. For the inverse sin operation to be defined, we have

⎡ 1⎤

−1 ≤ ⎢ x 2 + ⎥ ≤ 1

⎣ 2⎦

1 3 3

i.e., −1 ≤ x 2 + < 2 i.e., − ≤ x 2 < (1)

2 2 2

Functions 2.49

101. Let y =

⎡ 1⎤ a + 6 x − 8x 2

−1 ≤ ⎢ x 2 − ⎥ ≤ 1

⎣ 2⎦ i.e., (a + 8y)x2 + 6(1 – y)x – (ay + 8) = 0

1 According to the given condition, y takes all real values,

i.e., −1 ≤ x 2 − < 2

2 for real x. In other words, the above quadratic equation in x

−1 5 should have real roots for every real y

i.e., ≤ x 2 < (2)

2 2 i.e., D ≥ 0, ∀ y ∈ R

Intersection of inequalities (1) and (2) gives i.e., 36(1 – y)2 + 4(ay + 8) (a + 8y) ≥ 0, ∀ y ∈ R

−1 3 3 i.e., (9 + 8a) y2 + (a2 + 46)y + (9 + 8a) ≥ 0, ∀ y ∈ R

≤ x 2 < i.e., 0 ≤ x 2 < [Q x2 cannot be negative]

2 2 2 i.e., D ≤ 0 and coefficient of y2 > 0

Now, we have i.e., (a2 + 46)2 ≤ 4(9 + 8a)2 and 9 + 8a > 0

1

y = sin–1 (0) + cos–1(– 1) = p, 0 ≤ x2 < i.e., a2 + 46 ≤ 2(9 + 8a) and a > – 9/8

2

i.e., a2 – 16a + 28 ≤ 0 and a > – 9/8

1 3

y = sin–1 (1) + cos–1(0) = p, ≤ x2 < i.e., 2 ≤ a ≤ 14 and a > – 9/8

2 2

Hence, the range is {p} i.e., 2 ≤ a ≤ 14

The correct option is (C) Hence, f : R → R is onto for 2 ≤ a ≤ 14

99. We have, The correct option is (D)

ax 2 + 2 x + 1 ⎛ 2| x|⎞

f (x) = 102. The function f (x) = sin −1 ⎜ is defined for

2x2 − 2x + 1 ⎝ 1 + x 2 ⎟⎠

which is defined ∀ x ∈ R, since 2| x| 2| x|

2 ≤ 1 i.e., ≤1

⎛ 1⎞ 1 1 + x2 1 + x2

2x2 – 2x + 1 = 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎠ + ≠ 0 for any real x. ⎡ 2| x| ⎤

⎝ 2 2 ⎢Q is a positive quantity⎥

Now, if f: R → [–1, 2] is onto, then ⎣ 1 + x 2

⎦

ax 2 + 2 x + 1 i.e., x2 – 2 |x| + 1 ≥ 0

−1 ≤ ≤ 2, ∀ x ∈ R

2x2 − 2x + 1 i.e., (|x| – 1)2 ≥ 0, which is true ∀ x ∈ R(1)

Solving the left-hand inequality, we have The function sin x is defined for, sin x ≥ 0

(a + 2)x2 + 2 ≥ 0 i.e., 2np ≤ x ≤ (2n + 1)p, n ∈ I(2)

which is true ∀ x ∈ R if a ≥ –2 (1) Intersection of inequalities (1) and (2) gives the domain as

Solving the right-hand inequality, we have [2np, (2n + 1)p], n ∈ I

(a – 2)x2 + 6x – 1 ≤ 0 The correct option is (B)

which is true for all x ∈ R if coefficient of x2 < 0 and D ≤ 0 103. [sin x] is always defined.

i.e., a < 2 and 36 + 4 (a – 2) ≤ 0 ⎛ p ⎞

cos ⎜ is also defined everywhere except when

i.e., a < 2 and a ≤ –7 ⎝ [ x − 1] ⎟⎠

i.e., a ≤ – 7 (2) [x – 1] = 0

Hence, from (1) and (2) the permissible values of a are ⇒ 0 ≤ x – 1 < 1

given by

⇒ 1 ≤ x < 2

(–∞, –7] ∪ [–2, ∞)

Hence, domain ∈ R – [1, 2)

The correct option is (C)

The correct option is (B)

100. We have, f (x) = x + (–1)x – 1, x ∈ N

x − [ x] {x}

Thus, we have 104. Here, y = =

1 + x − [ x ] 1 + {x}

f (1) = 1 + 1 = 2, f (2) = 2 – 1 = 1

Thus, domain = (–∞, ∞)

f (3) = 3 + 1 = 4, f (4) = 4 – 1 = 3

{x}

f (5) = 5 + 1 = 6, f (6) = 6 – 1 = 5 and so on. So, from y = we have,

1 + {x}

The graph of f (x) consists of the points (1, 2), (2, 1), (3, 4),

(4, 3), (5, 6), (6, 5)… Thus, if (a, b) is a point on the graph, y + y {x} = {x}

then (b, a) is also a point on the graph. Hence the inverse of y

⇒ {x} =

f is f itself 1− y

y

i.e., f –1(x) = x + (– 1)x – 1, x ∈ N Here, 0 ≤ {x} < 1 so, 0 ≤ <1

1− y

The correct option is (A)

2.50 Chapter 2

⇒ 0 ≤ y <

2 = [(1 – p)p–1] [p – f (2)]

⎡ 1⎞ = (1 – p) – (1 – p)p–1f (2)

Hence, range = ⎢0, ⎟

⎣ 2⎠ ⇒ f (2) {1 + (1 – p)p–1} = 1 – p

The correct option is (C) ⇒ f (2) = p(1 – p)

105. For g(x) = f |[x]| to be defined, we must have The correct option is (A)

–3 ≤ |[x]| ≤ 2 x x x

109. Let Sn = + + +

⇒ 0 ≤ |[x]| ≤ 2 [as |x| ≥ 0 ∀ x] x + 1 ( x + 1) ( 2 x + 1) ( 2 x + 1) (3 x + 1)

⇒ –2 ≤ [x] ≤ 2 [as |x| ≤ a ⇒ –a ≤ x ≤ a] x

... +

⇒ –2 ≤ x < 3 [by definition of greatest integer function] (( n − 1) x + 1) ( nx + 1)

Hence, domain of g(x) is [– 2, 3). ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞

= ⎜1 − + − + −

The correct option is (C) ⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1 + x 1 + 2 x ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1 + 2 x 1 + 3 x ⎟⎠

106. We know that {x + r} ={x} as r ∈ Integer

⎛ 1 1 ⎞

+ ... + ⎜ −

{x + r} ⎝ 1 + ( n − 1) x 1 + nx ⎟⎠

2000 2000

{x}

\ [x] + ∑

r =1 2000

= [x] + ∑

r =1 2000

1

= 1 −

⎡ {x} {x} ⎤ 1 + nx

= [x] + ⎢ + + ... + up to 2000 times ⎥

⎣ 2000 2000 ⎦ ⎧1 when x ≠ 0

\ f (x) = lim Sn = ⎨

2000 {x}

n →∞

⎩0 when x = 0

= [x] + = [x] + {x} = x

2000 \ Range f = {0, 1}

The correct option is (A) The correct option is (A)

n

1

107. f (x) = ∑ (1 + [sin k x])

k =1

110. For x =

f ( y)

, we have

p f ⎜ x ⋅ ⎟ = . y q ⇒ f (1) =

Case I: When kx ≠ for k = 1, 2, 3, …, n ⎝ x⎠ f ( y) p

{ f ( y )} p

2

p yq/ p

Since 0 < kx < p and kx ≠ ⇒ f (y) =

2 { f (1)}1/ p

\ 0 < sin kx < 1, for k = 1, 2, ..., n For y = 1, we have f (1) = 1

\ [sin kx] = 0, for k = 1, 2, 3, ..., n \ f (y) = yq/p or f (x) = xq/p(1)

\ From (1), f (x) = n Hence, f (x . yq/p) = xp . yq

p

Case II: When exactly one of x, 2x, 3x, ..., nx is Let yq/p = z ⇒ y = zp/q

2

p ⇒ f (x ⋅ z) = xp . zp or f (x) = xp(2)

Here, not more than one of x, 2x, 3x, ...nx can be

2 From (1) and (2), we have

In this case, one of sin x, sin 2x, …, sin nx is 1 and others lie xq/p = xp

between 0 and 1 q

⇒ = p or q = p2

\ From (1), f (x) = n + 1 p

Hence, range of f = {n, n + 1} The correct option is (C)

The correct option is (C) 111. Given, f (x + y) + f (x – y) = 2 f (x) f (y)(1)

108. We have, Interchange x and y in (1), we get

f (n) = {(1 – p)p–1} {f (n + 1) + f (n + 2) + … to ∞} f (y + x) + f (y – x) = 2 f (y) f (x)(2)

Put n = 1 From (1) and (2), f (x – y) = f (y – x)

f (1) = {(1 – p)p–1} {f (2) + f (3) + … to ∞} Putting y = 2x, we get f (x) = f (– x)

= {(1 – p)p–1} {1 – f (1)} The correct option is (A)

= (1 – p)p–1 – (1 – p)p–1 f (1) 112. We have,

⇒ f (1) {1 + (1 – p)p–1} = (1 – p)p–1 3 ⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞

f (x) = − f ⎜ + 50x + 40 (1)

⇒ f (1) × p–1 = (1– p)p–1 2 ⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠

⇒ f (1) = 1 – p 2 x + 29

Replacing x by in the given functional equation

Put n = 2, x−2

we get

f (2) = {(1 – p)p–1} {f (3) + f (4) + …}

Functions 2.51

⎢ 2⎜ ⎟ + 29 ⎥ from (1) and (2), we have

⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞ −3 ⎢ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎥ + 50 ⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞ + 40

f⎜ f

⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎢ ⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞ ⎥ ⎜⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠ ⇒ g(x + 2p) = [1 – {1 – {g(x)}3}]1/3

= ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ −2 ⎥ ⇒ g(x + 2p) = [1 – 1 + {g(x)}3]1/3

⎣ ⎝ x−2 ⎠ ⎦

⇒ g(x + 2p) = [{g(x)}3]1/3

⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞

⇒ f⎜ ⎟ = − f ( x ) − 50 ⎜ + 40 (2) ⇒ g(x + 2p) = g(x)

⎝ x−2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠

which shows f (x + 2p) – 1 = f (x) – 1

Using (2) in (1), we get or, f (x + 2p) = f (x)

9 ⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞ Hence, f (x) is periodic with period 2p.

(x) =

f f ( x ) + 75 ⎜ − 60 + 50 x + 40

4 ⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠ The correct option is (B)

9 ⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞

⇒ f ( x ) − f ( x ) = 20 − 50 x − 75 ⎜ 115. Given f (x) + f (x + a) + … + f (x + an) = 0 (1)

4 ⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠

Replace x by x + a, we get

5 ⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞ f (x + a) + f (x + 2a) + ... + f {x + a(n + 1)} = 0 (2)

⇒ f ( x ) = 20 − 50 x − 75 ⎜

4 ⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠ Subtracting (2) from (1), we get

⎛ 2 x + 29 ⎞ f (x) – f {x + a (n + 1)} = 0

⇒ f (x) = 16 − 40 x − 60 ⎜

⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠ ⇒ f (x) is periodic with period a(n + 1)

The correct option is (A) The correct option is (B)

113. Here, 116. Since y = log3 x is an increasing function, so S is mapped

g2(x) = (gog) (x) = g{g (x)} = g(3 + 4x) onto the set (log33, log327) = (1, 3)

⇒ g2(x) = 3 + 4 (3 + 4x) The correct option is (C)

⇒ g2(x) = 15 + 42x 117. We have f (x) + f (x) = x – 3 + 4 – x = 1, so that

⇒ g2(x) = (42 – 1) + (42)x | f (x)| + |f (x)| = 1

On generalizing, we have Furthermore,

gn(x) = (4n – 1) + (4n)x ⎧x − 3 if x ≥ 3

| f (x)| = ⎨ ;

Then, for finding inverse, gn(x) = y ⎩3 − x if x < 3

⇒ y = (4n – 1) + (4n)x ⎧4 − x if x ≤ 4

and |f (x)| = ⎨

⇒ x = (y + 1 – 4n)4–n ⎩x − 4 if x > 4

⇒ g–n(y) = (y + 1 – 4n)4–n

⎧7 − 2 x if x < 3

⇒ g–n(x) = (x + 1 – 4n) 4–n ⎪

⇒ | f (x)| + |f (x)| = ⎨ 1 if 3 ≤ x ≤ 4

The correct option is (B) ⎪2 x − 7 if x > 4

114. We have, ⎩

f (x + p) = 1 + [2 – 3 f (x) + 3 { f (x)}2 – { f (x)}3]1/3 We need those points for which the L.H.S. is greater than 1.

Clearly, we can exclude values of x between 3 and 4. Now,

⇒ f (x + p) = 1 + [1 + {1 – f (x)}3]1/3

for values of x less than 3, 7 – 2x is greater than 1, and for

⇒ f (x + p) – 1 = [1 – { f (x) – 1}3]1/3 values of x greater than 4, 2x – 7 is greater than 1.

⇒ g(x + p) = [1 – {g(x)}3]1/3(1) Therefore, the given inequality is true for values of x given

where g(x) = f (x) – 1 and g(x + p) = f (x + p) – 1 by (–∞, ∞) – [3, 4].

⇒ g(x + 2p) = [1 – {g(x + p)}3]1/3(2) The correct option is (C)

⎛ x + 1⎞ x +1

118. Since f (x) = f ⎜ ⇒x= \ f (– x) = f (x), ∀ x ∈ [–5, 5]

⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎟ x+2

⎛ x + 1⎞

⇒ x2 + x – 1 = 0 ⇒ x = – ⎜ ⇒ x2 + 3x + 1 = 0

⎝ x + 2 ⎟⎠

−1 ± 5

⇒ x = (1) −3 ± 5

2 ⇒ x = (2)

Since f (x) is an even function defined on [– 5, 5], 2

2.52 Chapter 2

123. (A) The period of cos p x is

= 2, and period of {x} is 1

−1 ± 5 −3 ± 5 p

and Hence, period of the given function is L.C.M. of (1, 2) = 2

2 2

⎛p ⎞ ⎛p ⎞

The correct option is (A) and (B) (B) Solving tan ⎜ [ x + T ]⎟ = tan ⎜ [ x ]⎟

⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠

119. Let the required function be f (x) = ax + b

If a > 0, then f (–1) = 0 and f (1) = 2 i.e., [x + T] – [x] = 2n

⇒ –a + b = 0 and a + b = 2 gives a value of T independent of x only if T is an

integer. In that case, the above equation reduces to

⇒ a = 1 and b = 1

[x] + T – [x] = 2n

If a < 0, then f (–1) = 2 and f (1) = 0

i.e., T = 2n

⇒ –a + b = 2 and a + b = 0

Hence, period of f (x), is the smallest positive value of

⇒ a = –1 and b = 1

T, i.e., 2.

Hence, f (x) = x + 1 or f (x) = –x + 1

(C) We have period of sin x = 2p and period of {x} = 1

The correct option is (B) and (C)

Hence, period of the given functions is L.C.M. of (2p, 1)

120. Taking f (x) = log x, we see that

which does not exist since 2p is an irrational number.

⎛ x⎞ Hence, the function is not periodic

f ⎜ ⎟ = f (x) – f ( y)

⎝ y⎠ (D) Let us solve

Clearly, f (x) is not bounded sin{cos (x + T)} = sin{cos x}

⎛ 1⎞ i.e., cos (x + T) = np + (– 1) n cos x, n ∈ I

and f ⎜ ⎟ = – log x → ∞ as x → 0 Putting n = 0, gives cos (x + T) = cos x,

⎝ x⎠

Also, x f (x) = x log x → 0 as x → 0 which gives T = 2p as the smallest positive value. For

The correct option is (C) and (D) no other value of n can a value of T be found indepen-

dent of x.

121. Since, f (– x) = f (x)

Hence, the required fundamental period is 2p.

⇒ f (x) is an even function, its graph will be symmetrical

about y-axis. The correct option is (A) and (B)

⎛ | x |3 + | x | ⎞ 124. The function is defined for all real values of x except those

Also, f (x) = − ⎜

⎝ 1 + x 2 ⎟⎠ which satisfy the equation

⇒ f (x) = –(positive) = negative [|x – 1|] + [|7 – x|] – 6 = 0 (1)

i.e., the graph of f (x) completely lies below the x-axis, and Case I: (1 < x < 7)

is also symmetric about y-axis (as discussed above). Equation (1) reduces to

\ The graph of f (x) lies in III and IV quadrants. [x – 1] + [7 – x] – 6 = 0

The correct option is (C) and (D) i.e., [x] – 1 + [– x] + 7 – 6 = 0 or [x] + [– x] = 0

122. When x1 = –1 and x2 = 1, which is true ∀ x ∈ I

⎛ −1 − 1 ⎞ Thus, every integer in (1, 7) satisfies equation (1).

then f (– 1) – f (1) = f ⎜ = f (– 1) Case II: (x ≤ 1)

⎝ 1 + 1(1) ⎟⎠

⇒ f (1) = 0, Equation (1) reduces to

⎛1 − x⎞ [1 – x] + [7 – x] – 6 = 0

which is satisfied when f (x) = tan − 1 ⎜

⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠ i.e., 1 + [– x] + 7 + [– x] – 6 = 0

When x1 = x2 = 0, then

i.e., [– x] = – 1 i.e., – 1 ≤ – x < 0 or 0 < x ≤ 1

⎛ 0 − 0⎞

f (0) – f (0) = f ⎜ = f (0) ⇒ f (0) = 0 Thus, equation (1) is satisfied ∀ 0 < x ≤ 1

⎝ 1 − 0 ⎟⎠

Case III: (x ≥ 7)

When x1 = –1 and x2 = 0, then Equation (1) reduces to

⎛ −1 − 0 ⎞ [x – 1] + [x – 7] – 6 = 0

f (–1) – f (0) = f ⎜ = f (– 1) ⇒ f (0) = 0,

⎝ 1 − 0 ⎟⎠ i.e., [x] – 1 + [x] – 7 – 6 = 0 or [x] = 7

⎛1 − x⎞ \ 7 ≤ x < 8

which is satisfied when f (x) = log ⎜

⎝ 1 + x ⎟⎠ Thus, equation (1) is satisfied ∀ 7 ≤ x < 8. The union of the

⎛1 + x⎞ intervals obtained in the above three cases gives the domain

and, f (x) = log ⎜

⎝ 1 − x ⎟⎠ of definition as

The correct option is (A), (B) and (C) R – (0, 1] – [7, 8) – {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

The correct option is (A), (B) and (C)

Functions 2.53

125. f (x) = =

⎡x + p⎤ 1 ⎡x⎤ 1 f (x) = sin–1(log [x]) + log(sin–1[x])(1)

⎢ p ⎥−2 ⎢p ⎥ + 1 − 2 Let g(x) = sin–1(log [x])(2)

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

x(sin x + tan x ) and, h(x) = log(sin–1[x])(3)

=

⎡x⎤ Now for g(x);

⎢ p ⎥ + 0.5 – 1 ≤ log [x] ≤ 1 {as sin–1 q exists when – 1 ≤ q ≤ 1}

⎣ ⎦

− x(sin( − x ) + tan( − x )) and, [x] > 0 {as log [x] exists when [x] > 0}

⇒ f (–x) =

⎡− x⎤ 1

⇒ ≤ [x] ≤ e and [x] > 0

⎢ p ⎥ + 0.5 e

⎣ ⎦

⇒ [x] = 1, 2

⎧ x(sin x + tan x )

⎪⎪ , x ≠ np ⇒ x ∈ [1, 3) (4)

⎡x⎤

⇒ f (–x) = ⎨ −1 − ⎢ ⎥ + 0.5 Again, from (3), we have

⎪ ⎣p ⎦

h(x) = log (sin–1[x]) exists when;

⎪⎩ 0 , x = np

sin–1 [x] > 0 and – 1 ≤ [x] ≤ 1

⎛ ⎞ ⇒ [x] > 0 and –1 ≤ [x] ≤ 1

⎜ x(sin x + tan x ) ⎟

⇒ f (–x) = – ⎜ ⎟ , when x ≠ np ⇒ 0 < [x] ≤ 1 ⇒ [x] = 1

⎜ ⎡ x ⎤ + 0.5 ⎟ ⇒ x ∈ [1, 2) (5)

⎜⎝ ⎢ p ⎥ ⎟⎠

⎣ ⎦ ⇒ Domain of f (x) is [1, 2)

and f (–x) = 0, when x = np Now, for range,

Hence, f (x) is an odd function (if x ≠ np) and f (x) is an even we know, f (x) = sin–1(log[x]) + log(sin–1[x])

function (if x = np)

where x ∈ [1, 2) ⇒ [x] = 1

The correct option is (C) and (D)

\ Range of f (x) = sin–1(log 1) + log(sin–1 1)

126. Let us check for invertibility of f (x)

⎛p⎞

e x + e− x = sin–1(0) + log ⎜ ⎟

(A) one-one: we have, f (x) = ⎝ 2⎠

2 = log(p/2)

e2 x + 1

⇒ f ′(x) =

, which is strictly increasing as e2x ⎧ p⎫

2e x ⇒ Range of f (x) = ⎨log ⎬

> 0 for all x. ⎩ 2⎭

Thus, f is one-one The correct option is (A) and (C)

(B) Onto; Let y = f (x) 128. (A) one-one:

2

e x + e− x f (x) = 2 x − x

⇒ y = , where y is strictly monotonic 2

Hence, range of f (x) = ( f (–∞), f (∞)) For f (x) to be one-one, it should be strictly increasing

⇒ range of f (x) = (–∞, ∞) or strictly decreasing.

So, range of f (x) = co-domain So, f ′(x) > 0

2

Hence, f (x) is one-one and onto ⇒ 2 x − x (2x – 1) > 0, where 2x2 – x > 0 for all x

1

e2 x − 1 ⇒ 2x – 1 > 0 or x >

(C) To find f –1 : y = 2

2e x

Thus, for given domain [1, ∞), f (x) is always

⇒ e – 2e y – 1 = 0

2x x

increasing. Hence, f is one-one

2 y ± 4 y2 + 4 (B) onto: As f (x) is strictly increasing

⇒ ex =

2 ⇒ Range f (x) ∈ [ f (1), f (∞))

⇒ x = log(y ± y2 + 1 ) ⇒ Range f (x) ∈ [1, ∞)

⇒ Range of f (x) = Co-domain of f (x), thus, f is onto.

⇒ f –1(y) = log ( y ± y 2 + 1) (C) Inverse:

Since, e f

−1

( x)

is always positive, so, neglecting negative As f is one-one and onto, f –1 can be obtained.

sign. Let y = f (x)

Hence, f –1(x) = log(x + x 2 + 1 ) ⇒ y = 2x2 – x

⇒ x2 – x = log2 y

The correct option is (A), (B) and (D)

⇒ x2 – x – log2 y = 0

2.54 Chapter 2

1 ± 1 + 4 log 2 y ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1994 ⎞

⇒ x = ⇒ f⎜ + f⎜ =1

2 ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠

1 + 1 + 4 log 2 y ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 1993 ⎞

⇒ f –1(y) = [as y > 0, ∀ x ∈ D] ⇒ f⎜ + f⎜ =1

2 ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠

The correct option is (A), (B) and (C) … … …

9x … … …

129. f (x) = x (1) ⎛ 997 ⎞ ⎛ 999 ⎞

9 +3 ⇒ f ⎜ + f⎜ =1

91 − x ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠

and, f (1 – x) = 1 − x

9 +3 ⎛ 998 ⎞ ⎛ 998 ⎞ ⎛ 998 ⎞ 1

⇒ f⎜ + f⎜ = 1 or f ⎜ =

9 ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ 2

9 x 9

⇒ f (1 – x) = = Adding all the above expressions, we get

9 9 + 3.9 x

x

+3 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1995 ⎞

9 f ⎜ + f⎜ + ... + f ⎜

⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠

9

f (1 – x) = (2) 1

3(3 + 9 x ) = (1 + 1 + 1 + ... + 997) +

2

1 1

Adding (1) and (2), we get = 997 + = 997

2 2

9x 9

(x) + f (1 – x) =

f + The correct option is (A) and (D)

9 + 3 3(3 + 9 x )

x

130. We have f (n + 2) – f (n + 1)

3. 9 x + 9 3(9 x + 3) = (n + 2) ! = (n + 2) (n + 1) !

= =

3(9 + 3)

x

3(9 x + 3) = (n + 2) [ f (n + 1) – f (n)]

\ f (x) + f (1 – x) = 1 (3) ⇒ f (n + 2) = (n + 3) f (n + 1) – (n + 2) f (n)

1 2 3 998 \ P (x) = x + 3 and Q(x) = –x – 2

Now, putting x = , , , ... , in (3), we get

1996 1996 1996 1996 The correct option is (A) and (B)

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1995 ⎞

f ⎜ + f⎜ =1

⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1996 ⎟⎠

p

131. sin x is a periodic function with period 2p, therefore 133. Since |sin x| + |cos x| is a periodic function with period ,

2p p 2

sin ( [n] x) is a periodic function with period . therefore period of f (x) will be when k = 1.

[n] 2

But the period of f (x) is 2p (given). The correct option is (A)

px

2p 134. 3x + 3 – [3x + 3] has the period 1 and sin has the

\ = 2p ⇒ [n] = 1 ⇒ [n] = 1 ⇒ 1 ≤ n < 2 2

[n] 2p

period i.e., 4. Therefore, the period of f (x) is L.C.M.

The correct option is (A) p /2

132. f (x + T) = f (x) (1, 4) = 4.

⇒ cos (sin (x + T) + cos (cos (x + T) The correct option is (A)

= cos (sin x) + cos (cos x) p

135. The period of |sin x| + |cos x| and sin4x + cos4x is sin (sin x)

If x = 0, then cos (sin T) + cos (cos T) 2

1 + 2 cos x

⎛ p⎞ ⎛ p⎞ + sin (cos x) has period 2p. The function

= cos(0) + cos (1) = cos ⎜ cos ⎟ + cos ⎜ sin ⎟ sin x ( 2 + sec x )

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ cos x

p can be written in a simplified form as = cot x, so it

On comparing, we get T = . has period p. sin x

2

The correct option is (A) The correct option is (D)

Functions 2.55

2p 2p ⎛ sin x ⎞

136. The period of sin 5x is and that of cos 3x is . and, lim ⎜1 + =∞

p ⎝ 2 ⎟

2p 2p

5 3 x→ cos x⎠

2

As and do not have a common multiple, f (x) is

5 3 \ Range = (–∞, ∞)

non-periodic.

The correct option is (B)

The correct option is (C)

140. For f (x) to be defined,

137. We have,

(1) [2x2 – 3] = –1, 0, 1

ex + ef (x) = e ⇒ ef (x) = e – ex

⇒ –1 ≤ 2x2 – 3 < 2 ⇒ 2 ≤ 2x2 < 5

⇒ f (x) = log (e – ex)

5

For f (x) to be defined, e – ex > 0 ⇒ 1 ≤ x2 <

2

⇒ e1 > ex ⇒ x < 1

⎧ 1 ≤ x 2 ⇒ x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 1

\ Domain of f = (– ∞, 1) ⎪

⇒ ⎨ 2 5 5 5

Let y = log (e – ex) ⇒ ey = e – ex ⎪x < ⇒ − <x<

⇒ e = e – e

x y ⎩ 2 2 2

⇒ x = log (e – ey) 5 5

⇒ − < x ≤ −1 or 1 ≤ x < (1)

For x to be real, e – ey > 0 2 2

⇒ e1 > ey ⇒ y < 1 (2) x2 – 5x + 5 > 0

\ Range of f = (– ∞, 1) 5− 5 5+ 5

⇒ x < or x > (2)

The correct option is (B) 2 2

138. Since [x2 + 1] is an integer, (3) log1/2 (x2 – 5x + 5) > 0

\ sin (p[x2 + 1]) = 0 ⎛ 1⎞

0

⇒ f (x) = =0 ⎝ 2⎠

x4 + 1 ⇒ x2 – 5x + 4 < 0

Hence, Range of f = Rf = {0} ⇒ 1 < x < 4 (3)

The correct option is (C) 5− 5

From Eqs. (1), (2) and (3), 1 ≤ x <

2

sin x The correct option is (D)

139. We have, f (x) = 1 +

cos 2 x

141. If f (x) ≥ 0, then x + f (x) = 2f (x)

cos 2 x (cos x ) + sin x ( 2 cos x sin x )

⇒ f ′(x) = or, f (x) = x

cos 4 x

\ f –1(x) = x, when f–1(x) ≥ 0 (1)

cos x (cos x + 2 sin x )

2 2

1 + sin 2 x

= = Also, when f (x) ≤ 0, x – f (x) = 2f (x)

cos 4 x cos3 x x

⇒ f ′(x) > 0. or, f (x) =

3

\ f (x) is increasing function. \ f –1(x) = 3x, when f –1(x) ≤ 0 (2)

⎛ sin x ⎞ Clearly, option (d) satisfies both (1) and (2)

lim ⎜1 + 2 ⎟

=–∞

−p ⎝ cos x⎠ The correct option is (D)

x→

2

142. I. f (x) is defined if | sin x | + sin x > 0 1 ⎛ 1⎞

−1

⇒ sin x > 0 ⇒ 2np < x < 2np + p ⇒ 1 + > ⎜ ⎟ , x > (– 1)5, x ≠ 0

x1 5 ⎝ 2 ⎠

\ Domain of f = (2np, (2n + 1) p) 1

The correct option is (B) ⇒ > 1, x > – 1 and x ≠ 0

x1 5

II. f (x) is defined if

⇒ 0 < x < 1 and x > – 1 ⇒ 0 < x < 1

⎛ 1 ⎞ 1

– log1/2 ⎜1 + 1 5 ⎟ – 1 > 0, 1 + 1 5 > 0, x ≠ 0 \ Domain ( f ) = (0, 1)

⎝ x ⎠ x

The correct option is (C)

⎛ 1 ⎞

⇒ log1/2 ⎜1 + 1 5 ⎟ < – 1, x1/5 + 1 > 0, x ≠ 0

⎝ x ⎠

2.56 Chapter 2

–(log3 x)2 + 5 log3 x – 6 > 0 and x > 0 ⇒ 25y2 – 10y + 1 ≥ 0 i.e., (5y – 1)2 ≥ 0

⇒ (log3 x – 3) (2 – log3 x) > 0 and x > 0 which is true for all real y.

⇒ (log3 x – 2) (log3 x – 3) < 0 and x > 0 \ Range of f = (– ∞, ∞).

⇒ 2 < log3 x < 3 and x > 0 The correct option is (B)

⇒ 32 < x < 33 ⇒ 9 < x < 27 IV. For f (x) to be defined,

Domain of f = (9, 27).

4 − x2

The correct option is (D) > 0, 4 – x2 > 0 and 1 – x ≠ 0

1− x

x

IV.

Domain of cot–1x is R and is defined if Since 4 − x 2 </ 0,

x − [x2 ]

2

x2 ≠ [x2] (Qx2 ≥ [x2]) \ we have 1 – x > 0 and 4 – x2 > 0

⇒ x2 ≠ 0 or positive integer. ⇒ x < 1 and (x – 2) (x + 2) < 0

Hence, domain = R – { n : n ≥ 0, n ∈ I}. ⇒ x < 1 and – 2 < x < 2

The correct option is (A) ⇒ – 2 < x < 1

143. I. f (x) is defined if 3x2 – 4x + 5 ≥ 0 \ Domain of f = (– 2, 1)

⎡ 4 5⎤ ⎡⎛ 2 ⎞ 11⎤

2

⇒ 3 ⎢ x 2 − x + ⎥ ≥ 0 ⇒ 3 ⎢⎜ x − ⎟ + ⎥ ≥ 0 ⎛ 4 − x2 ⎞

⎣ 3 3⎦ ⎢⎣⎝ 3⎠ 9 ⎥⎦ Since – ∞ < log ⎜ ⎟ <∞

⎝ 1− x ⎠

which is true for all real x

\ Domain ( f ) = (–∞, ∞) ⎡ ⎛ 4 − x2 ⎞ ⎤

⇒ – 1 ≤ sin ⎢log ⎜ ⎟⎥ ≤ 1

Let y = 3x 2 − 4 x + 5 ⎢⎣ ⎝ 1 − x ⎠ ⎥⎦

⇒ y2 = 3x2 – 4x + 5 i.e., 3x2 – 4x + (5 – y2) = 0 \ Range of f = [– 1, 1].

11 The correct option is (D)

For x to be real, 16 – 12 (5 – y2) ≥ 0 ⇒ y ≥

3 144. I. We have,

\ Range of y = ⎢

⎡ 11 ⎞

, ∞⎟

y = log 5 { 2 (sin x − cos x ) + 3}

⎢⎣ 3 ⎠

⎧ ⎛ p⎞ ⎫

The correct option is (C) = log 5 ⎨2 sin ⎜ x − ⎟ + 3⎬

⎩ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎭

II. f (x) is defined if 3x2 – 4x + 5 > 0

which is defined for values of x such that

⎡ 4 5⎤ ⎡⎛ 2 ⎞ 11⎤

2

p⎞

⇒ 3 ⎢ x 2 − x + ⎥ > 0 ⇒ 3 ⎢⎜ x − ⎟ + ⎥ > 0, ⎛

2 sin ⎜ p − ⎟ + 3 > 0

⎣ 3 3⎦ ⎢⎣⎝ 3⎠ 9 ⎥⎦ ⎝ 4⎠

which is true for all real x. which is true " x ∈ R

\ Domain ( f ) = (– ∞, ∞) Now, we have

Let, y = loge (3x2 – 4x + 5) ⇒ ey = 3x2 – 4x + 5 ⎛ p⎞

–2 ≤ 2 sin ⎜ x − ⎟ ≤ 2

⇒ 3x2 – 4x + (5 – ey ) = 0 ⎝ 4⎠

For x to be real, ⎛ p⎞

11 i.e., 1 ≤ 2 sin ⎜ x − ⎟ + 3 ≤ 5

16 – 12 (5 – ey) ≥ 0 ⇒ 12 ey ≥ 44 ⇒ ey ≥ ⎝ 4⎠

3

⇒ y ≥ loge 11 ⎧ ⎛ p⎞ ⎫

3 i.e., 0 ≤ log 5 ⎨2 sin ⎜ x − ⎟ + 3⎬ ≤ log 5 5

⎩ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎭

⎡ 11 ⎞ i.e., 0 ≤ y ≤ 2

Range of f = ⎢log e , ∞⎟

⎣ 3 ⎠ Hence, the range is y ∈ [0, 2]

The correct option is (A) The correct option is (C)

f (x) is defined if x2 + x – 6 ≠ 0

III. II. The function is defined for values of x such that

i.e., (x + 3) (x – 2) ≠ 0 i.e., x ≠ – 3, 2 2 – log (16 sin2x + 1) > 0

5

\ Domain ( f ) = (– ∞, ∞)\{– 3, 2}

Also, we have

x 2 − 3x + 2 2 – log 5 (16 sin2x + 1) ≤ 2

Let y = 2

x + x −6 [Q log (16 sin2x + 1) ≥ 0]

5

⇒ x2y + xy – 6y = x2 – 3x + 2 Together, we have

⇒ x2 (y – 1) + x (y + 3) – (6y + 2) = 0 0 < 2 – log (16 sin2 x + 1) ≤ 2

5

Functions 2.57

i.e., –∞ < log2{2 – log 5 (16 sin2 x + 1)} ≤ log22 IV. We have,

i.e., –∞ < y ≤ 1 e x − e− x e2 x + 1 − 2 2

y= x −x

= = 1−

Hence, the range is y ∈(–∞, 1] e +e e2 x + 1 1 + e2 x

The correct option is (B) Now, we have " x ≥ 0, 2 ≤ 1 + e2x < ∞

III.

We have, 1 1

i.e., ≥ >0

ex − ex 2 1 + e2 x

y = x = 0, x < 0

e + e− x −2

i.e., −1 ≤ <0

e x − e− x 1 − e− 2x 1 + e2 x

= x = ,x≥0 2

e + ex 2 i.e., −1 + 1 ≤ 1 − < 0 +1

Now, we have " x ≥ 0, 0 < e–2x ≤ 1 1 + e2 x

Hence, the range is y ∈ [0, 1)

i.e., – 1 ≤ – e – 2x < 0 i.e., 0 ≤ 1 – e–2x < 1

The correct option is (A)

1 − e− 2x 1 1

i.e., 0 ≤ < i.e., 0 ≤ y <

2 2 2

⎡ 1⎞

Hence, the range is y ∈ ⎢0, ⎟

⎣ 2⎠

The correct option is (D)

Assertion-Reasoning Type

145. We have, 147. We have,

⎛ 1⎞

3 f (x) – f ⎜ ⎟ = 4 ln x g(x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 3 and

⎝ x⎠

Putting 1/x in place of x, we have ⎛p ⎛p ⎞⎞

3 f (1/x) – f (x) = – 4 ln x h(x) = sin ⎜ sin ⎜ ( x −1)⎟ ⎟

⎝2 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎠

Solving the above equations, we have

Since – x2 + 4x – 3 = 1 – (x – 2)2, maximum value of g =

f (x) = ln x ⇒ f (ex) = x

g(2) = 1.

Hence, required area is

Also, g(1) = 0

1

1

⎡ x2 ⎤ Therefore, minimum value of g = g(1) = 0

∫ x dx = ⎢ ⎥ = 0

−1 ⎣ 2 ⎦ −1 Now, h(2) = 1 and h(1) = 0

The correct option is (A) Hence, maximum and minimum values of both g and h are

attained at 2 and 1, respectively. Further, g and h are both

ax

146. Given, f (x) = (1) continous in [1, 2] Hence, Range of f = [ f (1), f (2)] = [0, 2]

ax + a

The correct option is (A)

a1 − x a 148. Domain of g(x): g(x) is defined if

Now, f (1 – x) = 1− x

= (2)

a + a a + ax 3 – x ≥ 0 and (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) ≠ 0

From (1) and (2), we have f (x) + f (1 – x) = 1 (3) ⇒ x ≤ 3 and x ≠ 1, 2, 3

⎛ r ⎞ ⎛ 2n − r ⎞ \ Domain of g (x) = (–∞, 3) – {1, 2, 3}

⇒ f⎜ ⎟+ f⎜ =1

⎝ 2n ⎠ ⎝ 2n ⎠⎟ Domain of h(x):

2n −1

⎛ r ⎞

2n −1

⎛ 2n − r ⎞ ⎡ 3x − 2 ⎤ ⎡ 3x − 2 ⎤

h(x) = sin − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⇒ –1 ≤ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ≤ 1

⇒ ∑ f ⎜⎝ 2n ⎟⎠ + ∑ f ⎜⎝

r =1 r =1 2n ⎠

⎟ = 2n – 1

⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

Case I:

2n −1 2n −1

⎛ r ⎞ ⎛ t ⎞

⇒ ∑ f ⎜⎝ 2n ⎟⎠ + ∑ f ⎜⎝ 2n ⎟⎠ = 2n – 1 ⎡ 3x − 2 ⎤

If ⎢ = – 1 ⇒ –1 ≤

3x − 2

<0

r =1 r =1 ⎥

⎣ 2 ⎦ 2

(Putting 2n – r = t)

⇒ –2 ≤ 3x – 2 < 0

2n −1

⎛ r ⎞ 2

Hence, 2 ∑ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2n – 1 \ 0 ≤ x < (1)

r =1 ⎝ 2n ⎠ 3

The correct option is (A)

2.58 Chapter 2

⎡ 3x − 2 ⎤ The correct option is (A)

If ⎢ ⎥ =0 149. Since, g(x) is a function whose graph is the reflection of the

⎣ 2 ⎦

3x − 2 graph of f (x) in the line y = x

⇒ 0 ≤ < 1 ⇒ 0 ≤ 3x – 2 < 2 ⇒ g(x) is the inverse of f (x) by definition

2

⇒ 2 ≤ 3x < 4 i.e., g(x) = f –1(x)

2 4 Now, let y = f (x) = (x + 1)2, " x ≥ – 1 {given}

\ ≤ x < (2)

3 3 ⇒ (x + 1) = ± y,y≥0

Case III:

⇒ x = –1 ± y

⎡ 3x − 2 ⎤ 3x − 2

⇒ either x = –1 + y or x = –1 –

If ⎢ ⎥=1⇒1≤ < 2 ⇒ 2 ≤ 3x – 2 < 4 y

⎣ 2 ⎦ 2

⇒ f (y) = –1

y – 1 Not possible, Q x ≥ –1 (given)

4

\ ≤ x < 2 (3)

3 \ f –1(x) = x – 1 = g(x), x ≥ 0

Thus, from (1), (2) and (3), we have

The correct option is (A)

Domain of h(x) = [0, 2)

150. Key Idea : Period of the functions sin θ and cos θ is 2π. 153. Clearly the function is both one-to-one and onto

1 − cos 2q 1 1 Because if n is odd, values are set of all non-negative

Since, sin2θ = = − cos 2q

2 2 2 integers and if n is an even, values are set of all negative

2 p integers.

∴ Period of sin2θ = =p

2 The correct option is (C)

The correct option is (B) 154. 4−x2 ≠ 0

151. Key Idea : Domain of inverse function sin−1 x = [−1, l] and ⇒ x ≠ ±2

⎡ p p⎤ And, x3−x > 0

range of sin −1 x = ⎢ − , ⎥ .

⎣ 2 2⎦ ⇒ x( x + 1)( x − 1) > 0 .

Since, domain of sin−1 x = [− l, 1] The correct option is (D)

⎛ x⎞ 7− x

\ −1 ≤ log3 ⎜ ⎟ ≤ 1 155. f (x) = Px − 3

⎝ 3⎠

x Now, 7 − x ≥ 0 ⇒ x ≤ 7

⇒ 3−1 ≤ ≤ 3 And, x − 3 ≥ 0 ⇒ x ≥ 3,

3

Again, 7 − x ≥ x − 3 ⇒ x ≤ 5

⇒ 1 ≤ x ≤ 9

⎡ ⎛ x⎞ ⎤ ⇒ 3 ≤ x ≤ 5 ⇒ x = 3, 4, 5

∴ Domain of sin −1 ⎢log3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ is [l, 9]. ⇒ Range is {1, 2, 3}.

⎣ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎦

The correct option is (A)

The correct option is (A)

= (sin2 x + cos2x)2− 2 sin2 x cos2x ⇒ range of f (x) is [−1, 3].

1 Hence the range set S is [−1, 3].

= 1 − ( 2 sin x cos x ) 2

2 The correct option is (D)

1 3 1 157. If the curve y = f (x) is symmetric about the line x = 2 then

= 1 − (sin 2 x ) 2 = + cos 4 x

2 4 4 f (2 + x) = f (2 − x).

Q cos x is periodic with period 2π. The correct option is (B)

2p p

∴ The period of function f (x) = = . 1 58. Since 9 − x2 > 0 and −1 ≤ x − 3 ≤ 1 ⇒ x ∈[2, 3)

4 2

The correct option is (B)

The correct option is (B)

Functions 2.59

∴ It is one-one

⎛ 2x ⎞

159. Given f ( x ) = tan −1 ⎜ for x ∈ (−1, 1)

⎝ 1 − x 2 ⎟⎠ Clearly, f (x) is a continuous function and also increasing on

R,

⎛ p p⎞

Clearly range of f ( x ) = ⎜ − , ⎟ Lt f (x) = −∞ and Lt f (x) = ∞

⎝ 2 2⎠

x→−∞ x→∞

∴ co-domain of function = B = ⎜ − , ⎟

⎝ 2 2⎠ Thus, f (x) is onto function.

The correct option is (D) The correct option is (C)

160. f (2a – x) = f (a− (x−a)) = f (A) f (x−a) −f (0) f (x) 1

164. ⇒| x | − x > 0 ⇒| x |> x ⇒ x is negative

= −f (x) [∵ x = 0, y = 0 in the given functional equation f (0) | x | −x

= f 2 (0) − f 2(a) x ∈ (− ∞, 0)

⇒ f (A) = 0 ⇒ f (A) = 0]. The correct option is (B)

2

x

161. f (x) is defined if −1 ≤ − 1 ≤ 1 and cos x > 0 1

2 x→ ⇒ f (1 / x ) + 2 f ( x ) = 3 / x (2)

x

p p

i.e. if 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 and − < x < ⎛3 ⎞

2 2 f ( x ) + 2 ⎜ − 2 f ( x )⎟ = 3 x

⎝x ⎠

⎡ p⎞

\ x ∈ ⎢ 0, ⎟ 6

⎣ 2⎠ ⇒ 3 f ( x ) = − 3x

x

The correct option is (D)

2

162. Function is increasing ⇒ f ( x ) = −x

x

y −3 2

So, x = = g( y) For S, f ( x ) = f ( − x ) ⇒ −x=0

4

x

The correct option is (D)

⇒ x = ± 2

1 63. Given f (x) = x3 + 5x + 1. The correct option is (D)

The differential f ′ (x) = 3x2 + 5 > 0, ∀x ∈ R

∴ f (x) is strictly increasing function

Complex Numbers 3.1

CHaPtER

3 Complex Numbers

Chapter Highlights

Imaginary numbers, Integral powers of i, Complex numbers, Conjugate of a complex number, Modulus of a

complex number, Square roots of a complex number, Argand plane and geometrical representation of complex

numbers, Polar form of a complex number, Particular cases of polar form, Eulerian representation of a complex

number, Logarithm of a complex number, Vectorial representation of a complex number, Roots of a complex

number, Geometry of complex numbers.

Square root of a negative number is called an imaginary

For any n ∈ N

number.

⎡ 1, when n is even⎤

1. i2n = (i2)n = (–1)n = ⎢ ⎥

Illustration 1 ⎣ − 1, when n is odd ⎦

−1, −4 , −7 , −18 , and so on are all imaginary ⎡ i, when n is even⎤

2. i2n+1 = (i2n) i = (–1)ni = ⎢ ⎥.

numbers. ⎣ − i, when n is odd ⎦

−1 is denoted by the Greek letter i (pronounced as The sum of four consecutive powers of i is zero. For

example,

iota), where i is a number such that i2 = –1. Thus,

i10 + i11 + i13 + i14 = 0

−2 = 2i , −3 = 3i , −4 = 2i.

Also, for any n ∈ N, the value of i–n is found out by writing

1

this as n and solving i n.

notE i

Thus, any integral power of i can be expressed in terms of

±1 or ± i.

If a < 0, then a = |a| i.

The symbol ‘i’ was first introduced by the famous

mathematician, Leonhard Euler (1707–1783) in 1748, For any two real numbers a and b, a × b = ab is true

possibly because ‘i’ is the first letter of the Latin word only when at least one of a and b is either zero or positive. If

‘imaginarius’. both a and b are positive real numbers, then the calculation

− a × − b = ( − a) ( − b ) = ab is wrong.

The correct calculation is

INTEgRAL POwERS OF I

− a × − b = ( − 1 a )( − 1 b )

We have

i= −1 , i2 = –1. = (i a ) (i b )

Therefore,

= i2( a × b ) = (–1) ( ab )

i3 = i2 × i = (–1) × i = –i,

i4 = i2 × i2 = (–1) × (–1) = 1 = – ab

3.2 Chapter 3

= (1 + i) ⎢ ⎥

= 6 is wrong. ⎣ 1− i ⎦

= (1 + i) i = –1 + i

The correct result is −2 × −3 = (i 2 ) (i 3 )

4. The least positive integer n for which

= i2( 2 × 3) n

⎛1+ i⎞ 2 −1 1 + x 2

=– 6 ⎜⎝ 1 − i ⎟⎠ = sin , where x > 0, is

p 2x

(A) 1 (B) 2

SOLvEd EXAMPLES (C) 4 (D) None of these

⎛1+ i ⎞ ⎛1− i ⎞

8 8 Solution: (C)

1. The value of ⎜ + is equal to

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 1 + x2

–1

For sin 2 x to be defined,

(A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 2

1+ x 2

Solution: (D) –1 ≤ ≤1

2x

8 8

⎛1+ i ⎞ ⎛1− i ⎞ 1 + x2

We have, ⎜ + or ≤1

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2x

p p⎤ ⎡ p

8

p⎤

8 or 1 + x2 ≤ 2x

⎡

= ⎢cos + i sin ⎥ + ⎢cos − i sin ⎥ or (1 – x)2 ≤ 0 or x = 1

⎣ 4 4⎦ ⎣ 4 4⎦

= cos 2p + i sin 2p + cos 2p – i sin 2p Now,

n n

⎛1+ i ⎞ ⎛ (1 + i ) 2 ⎞ n

= 2 cos 2p = 2 (1) = 2 [By De-Moivre’s theorem] ⎜⎝ 1 − i ⎟⎠ = 1 ⇒ ⎜ 2 ⎟ =1⇒i =1

⎝ ⎠

2. i − −i is equal to

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

(A) i 2 (B) (C) 0 (D) – i 2

i 2 An expression of the form x + iy, where x and y are real

Solution: (A, D)

numbers and i = −1 , is called a complex number. It is

1

We have, i=0+i⋅1= (0 + 2i) usually denoted by z, i.e.,

2

1 1 z = x + iy

=(1 + i2 + 2 ⋅ 1 ⋅ i) = (1 + i)2

2 2 x is called the real part and y the imaginary part of z and

1 may be denoted by Re (z) and Im (z) respectively.

\ i =± (1 + i) If y = 0, z is called purely real and if x = 0, z is called

2

purely imaginary.

1

\ −i = ± (1 – i) The set of complex numbers is denoted by C.

2 If x = 0 and y = 0, the complex number reduces to

Hence, 0 + i ⋅ 0 = 0, which is called the zero complex number.

1

i − −i = ± [(1 + i) – (1 – i)] = ± 2i

2 i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S

13

3. The value of the sum ∑ (i n + i n +1 ), where i = −1, We observe that the system of complex numbers includes

equals n =1 the system of real numbers, i.e., R ⊂ C.

(A) i (B) i – 1 (C) –i (D) 0 Every real number is a complex number.

0 is both purely real and purely imaginary number.

Solution: (B) A complex number is an imaginary number if and only if its

13 13

imaginary part is non-zero. Here, real part may or may not be

∑ (i n + i n +1 ) = ∑ i n (1 + i) zero. 4 + 3i is an imaginary number but not purely imaginary.

n =1 n =1 All purely imaginary numbers except zero are imaginary

⎡ i (1 − i13 ) ⎤ numbers but an imaginary number may or may not be

= (1 + i) ⎢ ⎥

⎣ 1− i ⎦ purely imaginary.

Complex Numbers 3.3

=

Two complex numbers are said to be equal if and only if x 22 + y 22

their real parts and imaginary parts are separately equal. x1 x2 + y1 y2 i ( x2 y1 − x1 y2 )

= +

i.e., a + ib = c + id x22 + y22 x22 + y22

⇔ a = c and b = d. Multiplicative Inverse of a Non-zero

i.e., z1 = z2 Complex Number

⇔ Re (z1) = Re (z2) and Im (z1) = Im (z2) Multiplicative inverse of a non-zero complex number z = a

+ ib is defined as

1 1 1 a − ib a − ib

caution z–1 = = = × = 2

z a + ib a + ib a − ib a + b2

Inequality relation does not hold good in case of complex a b

numbers having non-zero imaginary parts. For example, the = 2 2

−i 2

statement 8 + 5i > 4 + 2i makes no sense. a +b a + b2

Re (z ) [ − Im (z )]

i.e., z– 1 = +i

| z |2 | z |2

Algebra of Complex Numbers

Addition Solved Examples

For two complex numbers z1 = a1 + ib1 and z2 = a2 + ib2,

their sum is defined as 5. The number of integral solutions of the equation

z = z1 + z2 = (a1 + a2) + i (b1 + b2) (1 – i)x = 2x are

(A) 1 (B) 2

Subtraction (C) 0 (D) None of these

For two complex numbers z1 = a1 + ib1 and z2 = a2 + ib2, the Solution: (C)

subtraction of z2 from z1 is defined as

Let k be an integral solution of the given equation.

z1 – z2 = z1 + (– z2) = (a1 – a2) + i (b1 – b2)

( 2)

k

Then, (1 – i)k = 2k ⇒ | (1 – i)k | = 2k ⇒ = 2k,

Multiplication which is possible only if k = 0.

Multiplication of two complex numbers z1 = a + ib and

6. Let z1 and z2 be two non real complex cube roots of

z2 = c + id is defined as

unity and |z – z1|2 + |z – z2|2 = l be the equation of a

z1z2 = (ac – bd) + i(ad + bc) circle with z1, z2 as ends of a diameter, then the value

of l is

Trick(s) for Problem Solving (A) 4 (B) 3 (C) 2 (D) 2

Solution: (B)

The product of complex numbers can be easily computed if

we actually carry out the multiplication as given below:

We have,

(a + ib) (c + id) = ac + iad + ibc + i2bd |z – w |2 + |z – w2|2 = l

= ac + i (ad + bc) – bd (∵ i2 = − 1) ⇒ l = |w – w2|2 = |w2 + w4 – 2w3|

= (ac – bd) + i (ad + bc)

= |w2 + w – 2| = |– 1 – 2| = 3

Division

Conjugate of a Complex Number

Division of two complex numbers

z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2, Conjugate of a complex number z = a + ib is defined as

where x2 + iy2 ≠ 0, is defined as z = a – ib.

z1 x + iy 1 ( x + iy1 ) ( x2 − iy2 )

= 1 = 1 For example, 4 + 5i = 4 – 5i and 4 − 5i = 4 + 5i.

z2 x 2 + iy 2 ( x2 + iy2 ) ( x2 − iy2 )

3.4 Chapter 3

where

i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S ac + bd

A=

c2 + d 2

Geometrically, the conjugate of z is the reﬂection or point and

image of z in the real axis.

bc − ad

B= .

Y c2 + d 2

Imaginary axis

P(z)

a + ib

To put the complex number in the form A + iB we

c + id

θ should multiply the numerator and the denominator by the

O X

–θ conjugate of the denominator.

Modulus of a complex number z = a + ib, denoted as mod

(z) or |z|, is defined as

Properties of Conjugate

1. (z ) = z |z| = a2 + b 2 , where a = Re (z), b = Im (z).

2. z = z if and only if z is purely real

Sometimes, |z| is called absolute value of z. Note that |z| ≥ 0.

3. z = – z if and only if z is purely imaginary

4. z + z = 2 Re (z) and z – z = 2i Im (z) For example, if z = 3 + 2i, then |z| = 32 + 2 2 = 13.

5. z1 + z2 = z1 + z2

Properties of Modulus

6. z1 − z2 = z1 − z2

1. |z| ≥ 0 and |z| = 0 if and only if z = 0, i.e., x = 0, y = 0

7. z1 z2 = z1 ⋅ z2

2. |z| = | z | = |– z| = | − z | .

⎛z ⎞ z 3. z z = |z|2

8. ⎜ 1 ⎟ = 1 , z2 ≠ 0

⎝ z2 ⎠ z2 4. –|z| ≤ Re (z) ≤ |z| and – |z| ≤ Im (z) ≤ |z|

9. If z = f (z1), then z = f (z1 ) 5. |zn| = |z|n

( )

10. z n = ( z ) n

6. |z1z2| = |z1| |z2|

7. = 1

z2 | z2 |

a + ib

Method of Writing the Complex Number 8. |z1 ± z2| ≤ |z1| + |z2|

in the form A + iB c + id

9. |z1 – z2| ≥ |z1| – |z2|

We have, 10. |z1 + z2|2 + |z1 – z2|2 = 2 (|z1|2 + |z2|2)

a + ib (a + ib ) ( c − id )

=

c + id (c + id ) (c − id ) 11. |z1 + z2|2 = |z1|2 + |z2|2 + 2 Re (z1 z )

2

2 2 2

[Multiplying the Nu. and the Dn. by 12. |z1 – z2| = |z1| + |z2| – 2 Re (z1 z )

2

the conjugate of the Dn.] 2 2 2

13. |z1 + z2| = |z1| + |z2|

( ac + bd ) + i (bc − ad )

= z1 ⎛z ⎞

c2 + d 2 ⇒ is purely imaginary or Re ⎜ 1 ⎟ = 0

ac + bd bc − ad z2 ⎝ z2 ⎠

= 2 +i 2

c + d2 c + d2

= A + iB,

Complex Numbers 3.5

z +1 1

i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S ⇒ =

z −1 iy

Geometrically |z| represents the distance of point P from 2 z 1 + iy

the origin. i.e., |z| = OP

⇒ = (by componendo and dividendo)

2 1 − iy

Y

1 + iy 1 + y2

⇒ z= ⇒ |z| = =1

P(z) 1 − iy 1 + y2

(A) <14 (B) <16

(C) >14 (D) =14

X Solution: (A)

O M

Given, |z – i| < 1

Now, |z + 12 – 6i| = | (z – i) + (12 – 5i)|

TRICk(S) FOR PROBLEM SOLvINg ≤ |z – i| + |12 – 5i|

Most of the complex equations are solved using the property

zz = |z|2. (∵ |z1 + z2| ≤ |z1| + |z2|)

< 1 + 13 = 14

Hence |z + 12 – 6i| < 14.

SOLvEd EXAMPLES

10. The maximum value of |z| when z satisfies the condi-

7. The solution of the equation |z| – z = 1 + 2i is 2

tion z + = 2 is

3 3 z

(A) – 2i (B) + 2i

2 2 (A) 3–1 (B) 3 +1

3

(C) 2 – i (D) None of these (C) 3 (D) 2+ 3

2

Solution: (A) Solution: (B)

We have, |z| – z = 1 + 2i 2 2 2 2

We have, |z| = z + − ≤ z+ + .

z z z | z|

⇒ x 2 + y 2 – (x + iy) = 1 + 2i, 2

⇒ |z| ≤ 2 + ⇒ |z|2 ≤ 2|z| + 2

where z = x + iy |z |

⇒ |z|2 – 2|z| + 1 ≤ 1 + 2 ⇒ (|z| – 1)2 ≤ 3

⇒ x 2 + y 2 – x = 1 and y = – 2

⇒ – 3 ≤ |z| – 1 ≤

3 ⇒ 1 – 3 ≤ |z| ≤ 1 + 3

[Comparing real and imaginary parts]

That is, the maximum value of |z| is 1 + 3.

3

⇒ x= and y = – 2.

2 11. If |z| = Max. {|z – 1|, |z + 1|}, then

3 1

\ The solution of the given equation is – 2i. (A) |z + z | = (B) z + z = 1

2 2

z −1

8. If is purely imaginary, then (C) |z + z | = 1 (D) None of these

z +1

(A) |z| > 1 (B) |z| < 1 Solution: (C)

(C) |z| = 1 (D) None of these We have, |z| = |z – 1|

Solution: (C) ⇒ |z|2 = |z – 1|2 ⇒ z z = (z – 1) ( z – 1)

z −1

Let = iy, where y is real ⇒ zz = zz – z –z + 1 ⇒ z +z = 1

z +1

3.6 Chapter 3

Also, |z| = |z + 1| ⇒ |z|2 = |z + 1|2 From Eq. (2), we can determine the sign of xy. If xy > 0,

then x and y will have same sign. Thus,

⇒ z z = (z + 1) ( z + 1) = z z + z + z + 1

⇒ z + z = –1, ⎡ ⎛ 2

a + b2 + a⎞ ⎛ a2 + b 2 − a ⎞ ⎤

a + ib = ± ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ +i ⎜ ⎟ ⎥⎥

\ |z + z | = 1 ⎢ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎥⎦

z −2 If xy < 0, then

12. If (z ≠ –2) is purely imaginary then |z| is equal to

z +2

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

⎡ ⎛ 2

a + b2 + a ⎞ ⎛ a2 + b2 − a ⎞ ⎤

a + ib = ± ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ −i ⎜ ⎟ ⎥⎥

⎢ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

Solution: (B) ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎥⎦

Let z = x + iy

z−2 x + iy − 2 ( x − 2) + iy Trick(s) for Problem Solving

Then, = =

z+2 x + iy + 2 ( x + 2) + iy Square roots of z = a + ib are:

[( x − 2) + iy ][( x + 2) − iy ] ⎡ |z| + a |z| − a ⎤

= ± ⎢ +i

( x + 2) 2 + y 2 ⎥ for b > 0 and

⎣ 2 2 ⎦

( x 2 + y 2 − 4) + i ( 4 y )

= ⎡ |z| + a |z| − a ⎤

( x + 2) 2 + y 2 ± ⎢ −i ⎥ for b < 0

⎣ 2 2 ⎦

z −2

Since is purely imaginary, ⎧ ⎫

z +2 a + tb + a − tb = ± 2⎨ a2 + b2 + a ⎬

⎩ ⎭

\ x2 + y2 – 4 = 0 where b > 0

⇒ z+ z =± 2 { z +a }

where lm(z) > 0

⎧ ⎫

Also, a + tb − a − tb = ± 2⎨ a2 + b2 − a ⎬ t

Square Roots of a Complex Number ⎩ ⎭

where b > 0

Let z = a + ib and let the square root of z be the complex

number x + iy. Then

⇒ z− z =± 2 { }

z − a t

where b > 0

a + ib = x + iy

or (a + ib) = (x + iy)2 = (x2 – y2) + (2xy) i

Solved examples

Equating real and imaginary part, we get

a = x2 – y2(1) 13. If 3 a − ib = x – iy, then 3 a + ib =

and b = 2xy (2) (A) x + iy (B) x – iy

(C) y + ix (D) y – ix

Now, x2 + y2 = ( x 2 − y 2 )2 + 4 x 2 y 2

Solution: (A)

2 2

= a + b (3) We have, 3

a − ib = x – iy

Solving the equations (1) and (3), we get

⇒ a – ib = (x – iy)3 = x3 – 3x2 ⋅ iy + 3x (iy)2 – (iy)3

⎛ a2 + b 2 + a ⎞ = (x3 – 3xy2) – i (3x2y – y3)

x = ± ⎜ ⎟

⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ \ a + ib = (x3 – 3xy2) + i (3x2y – y3)

= x3 + 3x2 ⋅ (iy) + 3x (iy)2 + (iy)3

⎛ a2 + b2 − a ⎞

and y=± ⎜ ⎟ = (x + iy)3

⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

\ 3 a + ib = x + iy.

Complex Numbers 3.7

or z2 = = – i

|z + 1| = 1 is i

(A) 0 (B) 1 + i Now, z = i ⇒ |z| = |i| = 1

(C) –1 + i (D) 1–i

and z2 = – i ⇒ |z2| = | –i|

Solution: (A, C)

⇒ |z|2 = 1 ⇒ |z| = 1

Let z = x + iy. Then,

Thus, in both cases |z| = 1.

|(x + iy) – i| = |(x + iy) + 1| = 1

17. The greatest value of |z + 1| if |z + 4| ≤ 3 is

or x 2 + ( y − 1)2 = ( x + 1) + y 2 = 1 (A) 4 (B) 5

(C) 6 (D) None of these

\ x2 + y2 – 2y + 1 = x2 + y2 + 2x + 1

i.e., x = – y (1) Solution: (C)

and x2 + y2 – 2y + 1 = 1 (2) We have,

|z + 1| = |z + 4 – 3| = |(z + 4) + (– 3)|

From Eq. (1) and (2), x2 + x2 + 2x = 0; or x (x + 1) = 0

≤ |z + 4| + |– 3| = |z + 4| + 3

\ x = 0, –1;

≤ 3 + 3 = 6 (∵ |z + 4| ≤ 3)

\ y = 0, 1

Hence, the greatest value of |z + 1| is 6.

\ z = x + iy = 0, –1 + i.

15. The complex number z satisfying the equations Argand Plane and Geometrical

|z| – 4 = |z – i| – |z + 5i| = 0, is Representation of Complex Numbers

(A) 3 – i (B) 2 3 – 2i

Let O be the origin and OX and OY be the x-axis and y-axis

(C) – 2 3 – 2i (D) 0 respectively. Then, any complex number z = x + iy = (x, y)

Solution: (B, C) may be represented by a unique point P whose coordinates

We have two equations are (x, y).

The representation of complex numbers as points in a

|z| – 4 = 0 and |z – i| – |z + 5i| = 0 plane forms an Argand diagram.

Putting z = x + iy, these equations become The plane on which complex numbers are repre-

sented is known as the complex plane or Argand’s plane

|x + iy| = 4 i.e., x2 + y2 = 16 (1) or Gaussian plane. The x-axis is called the real axis and

and |x + iy – i| = |x + iy + 5i| y-axis the imaginary axis.

The complex number z = x + iy is known as the affix

or x2 + (y – 1)2 = x2 + (y + 5)2 of the point (x, y) which it represents.

i.e. y = –2 (2)

2

Putting y = –2 in (1), x + 4 = 16 or x = ±2. Polar Form of a Complex Number

Hence, the complex numbers z satisfying the given

Let O be the origin and OX and OY be the x-axis and y-axis

equations are

respectively. Let z = x + iy be a complex number repre-

z1 = 2 – 2i, and z2 = – 2 – 2i. sented by the point P(x, y).

Draw PM ^ OX. Then,

16. If i z3 + z2 – z + i = 0, then

OM = x and PM = y. Join OP

(A) |z| < 1 (B) |z| > 1

(C) |z| = 1 (D) |z| = 0 Let OP = r and ∠XOP = q.

Solution: (C) Then

⇒ (z – i) (i z2 – 1) = 0 ⇒ z = i

3.8 Chapter 3

If x > 0, y < 0 (i.e., z is in fourth quadrant), then

x = r cos q (1) ⎛||

y⎞

arg z = q = – tan–1 ⎜ ⎟ .

and y = r sin q (2) ⎝ x⎠

Squaring Eq. (1) and (2) and adding, we get Argument of the complex number 0 is not defined.

⎧0, if x > 0

r2 = x2 + y2 or r = x 2 + y 2 = |z| arg (x + i0) = ⎨

⎩p , if x < 0

Thus, r is known and is equal to the modulus of the complex ⎧p /2, if y > 0

number z. arg (0 + iy) = ⎨ .

⎩3p /2, if y < 0

Substituting the value of r in Eq. (1) and (2), we get

x y

cos q = and sin q = (3)

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 Properties of Argument

y 1. arg (z1z2) = arg (z1) + arg (z2)

Dividing Eq. (2) by (1), we get tan q = .

x ⎛z ⎞

The form z = r (cos q + i sinq ) = reiq of the complex 2. arg ⎜ 1 ⎟ = arg z1 – arg z2

⎝ z2 ⎠

number z is called exponential form.

Any value of q satisfying (3) is known as amplitude ⎛z⎞

3. arg ⎜ ⎟ = 2 arg z

or argument of z and written as q = arg (z) or q = amp z. ⎝z ⎠

4. arg (zn) = n arg z

i M P o R ta n t P o i n t S ⎛z ⎞ ⎛z ⎞

5. If arg ⎜ 2 ⎟ = q, then arg ⎜ 1 ⎟ = 2kp – q where k ∈ I

⎝ z1 ⎠ ⎝ z2 ⎠

The unique value of q such that – p < q ≤ p for which x =

r cos q and y = r sin q, is known as the principal value of 6. arg z = – arg z

the argument.

The general value of the argument is (2np + q),

7. arg ( z z ) = arg z ( ) = arg (positive real number) = 0

2

While reducing a complex number to polar form, we SOLvEd EXAMPLES

always take the principal value.

The complex number z = r (cos q + i sin q) can also 18. The inequality |z – 4 | < |z – 2| represents the region

be written as rcisq. given by,

(A) Re (z) > 0

r ( c os θ + i s in θ )

(B) Re (z) < 0

(C) Re (z) > 3

(D) None of these

rcis θ

Solution: (C)

TRICk(S) FOR PROBLEM SOLvINg ⇒ |(x – 4) + iy |2 < | (x – 2) + iy |2

⎛ y⎞ ⇒ – 4x < – 12 ⇒ 4x > 12; x > 3

arg z = q = tan– 1 ⎜ ⎟ .

⎝ x⎠

If x < 0, y > 0 (i.e., z is in second quadrant), then ⇒ Re (z) > 3.

⎛ y⎞ ⎛p⎞ ⎛p⎞

arg z = q = p – tan–1 ⎜ ⎟ . 19. If zr = cos ⎜ r ⎟ + i sin

⎝||

x⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎜⎝ r ⎟⎠ , r = 1, 2, 3, …, then

3

If x < 0, y < 0 (i.e., z is in third quadrant), then

z1 z2 z3 … ∞ =

⎛ y⎞

arg z = q = – p + tan–1 ⎜ ⎟ . (A) i (B) –i

⎝ x⎠

(C) 1 (D) –1

Complex Numbers 3.9

⎛p⎞ ⎛p⎞ (Putting z = x + iy)

zr = cos ⎜ r ⎟ + i sin ⎜ r ⎟ ,

Since

⎝3 ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ ⇒ (x – 4)2 + y2 < (x – 2)2 + y2

r = 1, 2, 3, … ⇒ x2 – 8x + 16 + y2 < x2 – 4x + 4 + y2

we have, z1 · z2 · z3 … ∞ ⇒ –4x < – 12 ⇒ x > 3 ⇒ Re (z) > 3

⎛ p p⎞ ⎛ p p⎞

= ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ ⎜ cos 2 + i sin 2 ⎟ 1− i 3

⎝ 3 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 22. The argument of

is

1+ i 3

⎛ p p⎞ p 2p 4p 2p

⎜⎝ cos 3 + i sin 3 ⎟⎠ ...∞ (A) (B) (C) (D) –

3 3 3 3 3 3

⎛p p p ⎞ ⎛p p p ⎞ Solution: (D)

= cos ⎜ + 2 + 3 + ...⎟ + i sin ⎜ + 2 + 3 + ...⎟

⎝3 3 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 3 3 ⎠ 1− i 3 (1 − i 3 )2 −2 − 2 3 i

= =

⎛ p ⎞ ⎛ p ⎞ 1+ i 3 4 4

⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

= cos ⎜ + i sin ⎜ 3 ⎟ 1 3

1⎟ 1 = − −

2 2

i .

⎜1− ⎟ ⎜1− ⎟

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

⎛ 1 3 ⎞ 2p

p p \ arg ⎜ − − i⎟ = – (p – tan–1 3) = –

= cos + i sin = 0 + i ⋅ 1 = i ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 3

2 2

10 23. arg bi (b > 0) is

⎛ 2p k 2p k ⎞ p p

20. The value of ∑ ⎜ sin − i cos is (A) p (B)

11 ⎟⎠

⎝ (C) – (D) 0

k =1 11 2 2

(A) 1 (B) – 1 (C) i (D) –i Solution: (B)

Since b > 0, bi represents a point on the positive side

Solution: (C)

of the imaginary axis on which the argument of every

We have, p

10 point is .

⎛ 2p k 2p k ⎞ 2

∑ ⎜⎝ sin 11

− i cos

11 ⎟⎠ 24. Let zk (k = 0, 1, 2, …, 6) be the roots of the equation

k =1

10 6

⎛ 2 2p k 2p k ⎞

= ∑ ⎜ −i sin

⎝ 11

− i cos

11 ⎟⎠

(z + 1)7 + z7 = 0, then ∑ Re (z k ) is equal to

k =1 k =0

10 10 2p k 3 7 7

⎛ 2p k 2p k ⎞ i (A) 0 (B) (C) – (D)

= –i ∑ ⎜ cos + i sin =–i ∑e 11

11 ⎟⎠

⎝ 2 2 2

k =1 11 k =1 Solution: (C)

⎡ 10 i 2p k ⎤

= – i ⎢ ∑ e 11 − 1⎥ Let zk = xk + iyk,

⎢ k =0 ⎥

⎣ ⎦ we have (zk + 1)7 + z k7 = 0

= – i (sum of 11th roots of unity – 1)

⇒ (zk + 1)7 = – zk7 ⇒ |zk + 1|7 = |zk|7

= – i (0 – 1) = i.

21. The inequality |z – 4| < |z – 2| represents the region ⇒ |zk + 1| = |zk| ⇒ |xk + iyk + 1|2 = |xk + iyk|2

given by

⇒ (xk + 1)2 + y k2 = xk2 + yk2

(A) Re (z) > 0 (B) Re (z) < 0

(C) Re (z) > 2 (D) None of these 1

⇒ 2xk + 1 = 0 or xk = –

Solution: (D) 2

6 6

We have, 7

Thus, ∑ Re ( z k ) = ∑ x k = – 2 .

|z – 4| < |z – 2| ⇒ |z – 4|2 < |z – 2|2 k =0 k =0

3.10 Chapter 3

(A) p (B) –p

notE

p p e iq + e − iq e iq − e − iq

(C) – (D) cos q = and sin q =

2 2 2 2i

Solution: (A)

As –q = arg (z) < 0,

SOLvEd EXAMPLE

we take z = r [cos (– q ) + i sin (– q )]

= r (cos q – i sinq ) ( 3 + i ) 4 n +1

26. For any integer n, the argument of z = is

(1 − i 3 ) 4 n

(–z) p p

(A) (B)

r 6 3

π –θ

p 2p

(C) (D)

O –θ 2 3

r (E) All of the above

(Z) Solution: (A)

We have,

⇒ – z = r (– cos q + i sinq )

( 3 + i ) 4 n +1

= r [cos (p – q ) + i sin (p – q )] z=

(1 − i 3 ) 4 n

\ arg (–z) = p – q 4 n +1

Thus, ⎛ ip ⎞

arg (–z) – arg (z) = p – q + (q ) = p ⎜ 2e 6 ⎟ i ( 4 n +1)

p

⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 2 4 n +1e 6

= 4n

= p

PARTICULAR CASES OF POLAR FORM ⎛ −i p ⎞ − i 4n

⎜ 2e 3 ⎟ 24n e 3

⎜⎝ ⎟⎠

1. 1 = 1 + i0 = cos 0 + i sin 0

2. –1 = – 1 + i0 = cos p + i sin p i (12 n +1)

p pi

p p = 2⋅e 6 = 2 ⋅ e 2 np i ⋅ e 6

3. i = 0 + i1 = cos + i sin

2 2 = 2 ⋅ epi/6 (∵ e2npi = 1)

⎛ p⎞ ⎛ p⎞

4. –i = 0 + i (– 1) = cos ⎜ − ⎟ + i sin ⎜ − ⎟ p

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ \ arg z = .

6

⎡ ⎛ p⎞ ⎛ p⎞⎤

5. 1 – i = 2 ⎢cos ⎜ − ⎟ + i sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ LOgARITHM OF A COMPLEX NUMBER

⎣ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ 4⎠⎦

⎡ ⎛ 3p ⎞ ⎛ 3p ⎞ ⎤ log (x + iy) = loge (reiq) = loge eiq = loge r + iq

6. –1 – i = 2 ⎢cos ⎜ − ⎟ + i sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎛ y⎞

= loge ( x 2 + y 2 ) + i tan −1 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ x⎠

EULERIAN REPRESENTATION OF A

loge (z) = loge |z| + i arg (z)

COMPLEX NUMBER

Since eiq = cos q + i sin q, thus any non zero complex num- caution

ber z = x + iy = r (cos q + i sin q ) can be represented in

Eulerian form as Since the argument of a complex number is not unique, the

log of a complex number cannot be unique. In general,

z = reiq = r (cos q + i sin q ), loge (z) = loge |z| + i [2kp + arg (z)], k ∈ I

where |z| = r and q = arg (z).

Complex Numbers 3.11

ip

ip ⎛ ip ⎞ 27. If z = cos q + i sin q, then

log i = log e 2 = , log (log i) = log ⎜ ⎟ 1

2 ⎝ 2⎠

(A) z n + n = 2 cos nq

⎛p⎞ ip z

= log i + log ⎜ ⎟ = + log (p/2).

⎝ 2⎠ 2 1

(B) z n + n = 2n cos nq

z

1

(C) z n − n = 2i sin nq

vECTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF A z

COMPLEX NUMBER

1

(D) z n − n = (2i)n sin nq

z

If P is the point (a, b) on the argand plane corresponding to

the complex number z = a + ib. Solution: (A, C)

Then We have,

1 1

OP i=ˆ aiˆ + bjˆ , = = cos q – i sin q.

z cos q + i sin q

\ OP = a 2 + b 2 = |z| \ zn = (cos q + i sinq)n = cos nq + i sin nq,

1

and and = (cos q – i sinq)n = cos nq – i sin nq

⎛ b⎞ zn

arg(z) = direction of the vector OP = tan–1 ⎜ ⎟ . 1

⎝ a⎠ Hence, z n + n = 2 cos nq

z

de’Moivre’s Theorem n 1

and z − n = 2i sin nq.

If n is any integer, then z

z 2n − 1

28. If z = cos q + i sin q, then 2 n =

(cos q + i sin q)n = cos nq + i sin nq z +1

(A) i cot nq (B) i tan nq

TRICk(S) FOR PROBLEM SOLvINg (C) tan nq (D) cot nq

(n is an integer)

If n is any rational number, then cos nq + i sin nq is one of

the values of (cos q + i sinq)n. Solution: (B)

(cos q + i sinq )– n = cos (–n)q + i sin (–n)q We have,

= cos nq – i sin n q z 2n − 1 (cos q + i sin q )2 n − 1

=

(cos q – isinq )n = [cos (–q ) + i sin (–q )]n (cos q + i sin q )2 n + 1

z 2n + 1

= cos (–nq ) + isin (–nq )

cos 2nq + i sin 2nq − 1

= cos nq – isin nq =

cos 2nq + i sin 2nq + 1

1

= (cos q + isin q )–1 = cos q – i sin q (Using De Moivre’s Theorem)

cos q + i sinq

The theorem cannot be applied to (cos q + isinf)n i.e., q (1 − 2 sin 2 nq ) + 2i sin nq cos nq − 1

must be same with cos and sin both.

=

(2 cos2 nq − 1) + 2i sin nq cos nq + 1

The theorem is not directly applicable to (sin q + i cosq )n,

i sin nq cos nq + i 2 sin 2 nq

rather n = (∵ i2 = –1)

⎡ ⎛p ⎞ ⎛p ⎞⎤ cos 2 nq + i sin nq cos nq

(sin q + icosq )n = ⎢cos ⎜ − q ⎟ + i sin ⎜ − q ⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠⎦

i sin nq (cos nq + i sin nq )

= = i tan nq.

⎛p ⎞ ⎛p ⎞ cos nq (cos nq + i sin nq )

= cos n ⎜ − q ⎟ + i sin ⎜ − q ⎟

⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠

(cosq1 + i sinq1) (cos q2 + isin q2) … (cosqn + isin qn)

29. If a = cos a + i sin a, b = cos b + i sin b,

a b c

= cos (q1 + q2 + … + qn) + isin (q1 + q2 + … + qn) c = cos g + i sin g and + + = – 1, then

b c a

cos (b – g ) + cos (g – a) + cos (a – b ) =

3.12 Chapter 3

(A) 0 (B) 1 31. If (sin q1 + i cos q1) (sin q2 + i cos q2) … (sin qn + i cos

(C) –1 (D) None of these qn) = a + ib, then a2 + b2 =

Solution: (C) (A) 4 (B) 2

(C) 1 (D) None of these

We have,

1 1 Solution: (C)

= cos a – i sin a, = cos b – i sin b

a b Given expression

a n

⎛ ⎛p ⎞ ⎛p ⎞⎞

= (cos a + i sina) (cos b – i sinb )

Now

b = ∏ ⎜⎝ cos ⎜⎝ 2 − q r ⎟⎠ + i sin ⎜⎝ 2 − q r ⎟⎠ ⎟⎠

r =1

a

or = cos (a – b ) + i sin (a – b ) ⎛p

n

⎞

n

⎛p ⎞

b = cos ∑ ⎜ − q r ⎟ + i sin ∑ ⎜ − q r ⎟

⎝

r =1 2

⎠ ⎝

r =1 2

⎠

b

Similarly, = cos (b – g ) + i sin (b – g ) = cos a + i sin a,

c

n

c ⎛p ⎞

and

a

= cos (g – a) + i sin (g – a) where a= ∑ ⎜⎝ 2 − q r ⎟⎠

r =1

a b c

Putting these values in + + = –1, = a + ib

b c a

we get \ a2 + b2 = cos2 a + sin2 a = 1.

[cos (a – b ) + cos (b – g ) + cos (g – a)]

32. If z2 – 2zcosθ + 1 = 0, then z2 + z–2 is equal to

+ i [sin (a – b ) + sin (b – g ) + sin (g – a)]

(A) 2cos2θ (B) 2sin2θ (C) 2 cosθ (D) 2 sinθ

= –1 = – 1 + 0 i

Solution: (A)

Comparing real part on both sides, we get

We have,

cos (a – b ) + cos (b – g ) + cos (g – a) = –1 z2 – 2zcosθ + 1 = 0

30. If n is a positive integer, then ( 3 + i)n + ( 3 – i)n is 2 cos q ± 4 cos 2 q − 4

equal to ⇒ z= = cos q ± cos 2 q − 1

np np 2

(A) 2n cos (B) 2n + 1 cos

6 6 = cos q ± − sin 2 q = cos q ± i 2 sin 2 q

n–1 np

(C) 2 cos (D) None of these = cosθ ± isinθ.

6

Solution: (B) When z = cosθ + isinθ

so that = 2cos2θ

1 p and when z = cosθ – isinθ,

r2 = 4 and tan q = ⇒ r = 2, q =

3 6 2 –2

z + z = cos2θ – isin2θ + cos2θ + isin2θ

n

⎛ p p ⎞ = 2cos2θ

\ ( 3 + i)n = 2n ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟

⎝ 6 6⎠

⎧ ⎛ np ⎞ ⎛ np ⎞ ⎫ Roots of a Complex Number

or ( 3 + i)n = 2n ⎨cos ⎜ ⎟ + i sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎬ (1)

⎩ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠⎭

If z = r (cos q + i sinq ) and n is a positive integer, then

Similarly,

1 1

⎧ ⎛ np ⎞ ⎛ np ⎞ ⎫ ⎡ ⎛ 2k p + q ⎞ ⎛ 2k p + q ⎞ ⎤

n n

( 3 – i) = 2 ⎨cos ⎜ ⎟ − i sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎬ (2) z n = r n ⎢cos ⎜ ⎟⎠ + i sin ⎜⎝ ,

⎩ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠⎭ ⎣ ⎝ n n ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦

Adding Eq. (1) and (2), we obtain where k = 0, 1, 2, 3, … (n – 1).

⎛ np ⎞

( 3 + i)n + ( 3 – i)n = 2 ⋅ 2n cos ⎜ ⎟ Cube Roots of Unity

⎝ 6 ⎠

⎛ np ⎞ Let z = 11/3 or z3 – 1 = 0

= 2n + 1 cos ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 6⎠ ⇒ (z – 1) (z2 + z + 1) = 0

Complex Numbers 3.13

i.e., z = 1, , 1 = (x + w) (x + w2)

2 2

6. x2 + y2 + z2 – xy – xz – yz = (x + yw + zw2) (x + yw2 + zw)

−1 + i 3 7. x3 + y3 + z3 – 3xyz = (x + y + z) (x + w y + w2z) (x + w2y

Put w= ,

2 + w z)

−1 − i 3

then w2 = .

2 Solved Examples

2

Thus cube roots of unity are 1, w, w .

33. If 1, w, w2 be the three cube roots of unity, then (1 + w)

Properties of Cube Roots of Unity (1 + w2) (1 + w4) (1 + w8) … to 2n factors =

1. 1 + w + w2 = 0 (A) 1 (B) –1

2. w3 = 1 (C) 0 (D) None of these

3. w3n = 1, w3n + 1 = w, w3n + 2 = w2 2p i Solution: (A)

2 2 3

4. w = w and ( w ) = w, w w = w , w = e 3 , We have,

2p i

−

w2 = e 3 (1 + w) (1 + w2) (1 + w4) (1 + w8) … to 2n factors

5. If a + bw + cw2 = 0, then a = b = c provided a, b, c are = (1 + w) (1 + w2) (1 + w3 ⋅ w) (1 + w6 ⋅ w2) ... to 2n

real. factors

6. If these roots are marked on the argand plane, then

these are vertices of an equilateral triangle with = (1 + w) (1 + w2) (1 + w) (1 + w2) … to 2n factors

circumcentre at origin, as shown in the Fig. 3.1. (∵ w3 = w6 = … = 1)

Imaginary = [(1 + w) (1 + w) … to n factors]

axis

–1 , 3

[(1 + w2) (1 + w2) … to n factors]

2 2 = (1 + w)n (1 + w2)n = [(1 + w) (1 + w2)]n

= (1 + w + w2 + w3)n = (0 + 1)n = 1

2π

3 (∵ 1 + w + w2 = 0, w3 = 1).

Real axis

O 2π (1, 0)

3 34. If 1, w, w2 are the three cube roots of unity, then (1 – w

+ w2) (1 – w2 + w4) (1 – w4 + w8) … to 2n factors =

–1 , 3 (A) 2n (B) 22n

4n

2 2 (C) 2 (D) None of these

Fig. 3.1 Solution: (B)

We have,

Fourth Roots of Unity

(1 – w + w2) (1 – w2 + w4) (1 – w4 + w8)

The four, fourth roots of unity are given by the solution set

of the equation x4 – 1 = 0 (1 – w8 + w16) … to 2n factors

⇒ (x2 – 1) (x2 + 1) = 0 ⇒ x = ± 1, ± i = (1 – w + w2) (1 – w2 + w) (1 – w + w2)

Fourth roots of unity are vertices of a square which lies on (1 – w2 + w) … to 2n factors.

coordinate axes.

[∵ w4 = w, w8 = w2, w16 = w and so on]

Some Useful Relations

1. x2 + y2 = (x + iy) (x – iy) = (– 2w) (– 2w2) (– 2w) (– 2w2) … to 2n factors

2. x3 + y3 = (x + y) (x + yw) (x + yw 2) = (22 w3) (22 w3) … to n factors

3. x3 – y3 = (x – y) (x – yw) (x – yw 2)

4. x2 + xy + y2 = (x – yw) (x – yw 2), in particular, x2 + x + [∵ (– 2w) (– 2w2) = 22 w3 = 22]

1 = (x – w) (x – w 2) = (22)n = 22n.

3.14 Chapter 3

Solution: (B)

35. − 1 − − 1 − − 1 − ... to ∞ =

We have, (x – 1)3 + 8 = 0

2

(A) 1 (B) –1 (C) w (D)

w ⇒ (x – 1)3 = – 8

Solution: (C, D) \ x – 1 = (– 8)1/3 = – 2, – 2w, – 2w2

Let x= − 1 − − 1 − − 1 − ... to ∞ Hence, x = –1, 1 – 2w, 1 – 2w2

2

Then x= − 1 − x or x = – 1 – x 39. (i + 3 )100 + (i – 3 )100 + 2100 =

or x2 + x + 1 = 0 (A) 1 (B) – 1

(C) 0 (D) None of these

− 1 ± 1 − 4 ⋅1⋅1 −1 ± − 3

\ x= = Solution: (C)

2 ⋅1 2

−1 + 3 i 2 2w

− 1 ± 3i We have, i+⋅ = 3 =

= = w or w2. 2 i i

2

−1 − 3 i 2 2w 2

6 6 and i– 3 = ⋅ =

⎛ 3 + i⎞ ⎛ i − 3⎞ 2 i i

36. ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ =

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 100 100

\ (i + 3 ) + (i – 3 ) + 2 100

⎛ 2w 2 ⎞

100

⎛ 2w ⎞

= ⎜ +⎜ + 2100

Solution: (A) ⎝ i ⎟⎠ ⎝ i ⎠

⎟

We have,

2100

⎛ −1 + 3 i ⎞ = (w100 + w200) + 2100

3+i i 3 + i2 i100

= =–i ⎜ ⎟ = –iw

2 2i ⎝ 2 ⎠ = 2100 (w + w2) + 2100

i− 3 i2 − i 3 ⎛ −1 − 3 i ⎞

and = =–i ⎜ ⎟ = –iw

2 = –2100 + 2100 = 0.

2 2i ⎝ 2 ⎠

⎛ 3 + i⎞

6

⎛ i − 3⎞

6 nth Roots of Unity

6 2 6

Hence, ⎜ 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ = (–iw) + (–iw ) Since 1 = cos 0 + i sin 0, therefore,

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

(1)1/n = (cos 0 + i sin 0)1/n

= i6(w6 + w12)

2p r + 0 2p r + 0

= –1 (1 + 1) = –2. = cos + i sin ; r = 0, 1, 2, …, (n – 1)

n n

37. The common roots of the equations z3 + 2 z2 + 2 z + 1 = 0 2p r 2p r

and z1985 + z100 + 1 = 0 are = cos + i sin ; r = 0, 1, 2, …, (n – 1)

n n

(A) –1, w (B) –1, w2 2 rp

2 i

(C) w, w (D) None of these =e n ; r = 0, 1, 2, …, (n – 1)

(i2p/n)

Solution: (C) = 1, e , e(i4p/n), …, e[i2(n – 1)p/n]

3 2

We have, z + 2 z + 2 z + 1 = 0

= 1, a, a2, a3, …, a n – 1,

⇒ (z + 1) (z2 + z + 1) = 0

where a = e(i2p/n)

2

Its roots are – 1, w and w . The root z = – 1 does not

satisfy the equation z1985 + z100 + 1 = 0 but z = w and Properties of nth Roots of Unity

z = w2 satisfy it. Hence, w and w2 are the common 1. 1 + a + a2 + … + a n – 1 = 0

roots. 2. 1 ⋅ a ⋅ a2 ⋅ … a n–1 = (–1)n–1

38. If the cube roots of unity are 1, w, w2, then the roots of 3. The n, nth roots of unity lie on the unit circle |z| = 1 and

the equation (x – 1)3 + 8 = 0 are form the vertices of a regular polygon of n sides.

(A) –1, 1 + 2w, 1 + 2w2 (B) –1, 1 – 2w, 1 – 2w2 4. nth roots of unity form a G.P. with common ratio

(C) –1, –1, –1 (D) None of these e(i2p/n).

Complex Numbers 3.15

Solved examples joining P(z1) and Q(z2) in the ratio m1 : m2(m1, m2 > 0)

then

40. If r is non-real and r = 5 1, then the value of m z + m2z1

(i) For internal division, z = 1 2

(

1 + r + r 2 + r −2 − r −1 is equal to ) m1 + m 2

(A) 2 (B) 4 m1z 2 − m 2 z 1

(ii) For external division, z =

(C) 8 (D) None of these m1 − m 2

3. Equation of the Perpendicular Bisector: If P(z1) and

Solution: (B)

Q(z2) are two fixed points and R(z) is moving point

|1 + r + r2 + r–2 – r–1| = |1 + r + r2 + r3 – r4| (see Fig. 3.3) such that it is always at equal distance

from P(z1) and Q(z2) then locus of R(z) is perpendicu-

[Q r5 = 1 ⇒ r3 ⋅ r2 = 1 or r–2 = r3 lar bisector of PQ

and r4 ⋅ r = 1 or r–1 = r4] i.e., PR = QR or |z – z1| = |z – z2|

= |1 + r + r2 + r3 + r4 – 2r4| ⇒ |z – z1|2 = |z – z2|2

1 − r5 P(z1)

− 2r 4 = 0 − 2r 4 (Q r5 = 1)

1− r

= 2|r|4 = 2(1) = 2 (Q |r| = 1 as r5 = 1)

R(z)

2|1+ r + r + r −2 − r −1 |

= 22 = 4

2

\

41. The values of (16)1/4 are

(A) ±2, ±2 i (B) ±4, ±4 i Q(z2)

(C) ±1, ±i (D) None of these

Fig. 3.3

Solution: (A)

After solving,

We have

z ( z1 − z2 ) + z ( z1 − z2 ) = |z1|2 – |z2|2

1/4 4 1/4 1/4

(16) = (2 ) = 2 (1)

4. Equation of a Straight Line

= 2 (cos 0 + i sin 0)1/4 (i) Parametric form: Equation of a straight line join-

⎧ 1 1 ⎫ ing the points having affixes z1 and z2 is z = t z1 +

= 2 ⎨cos (2 k p + 0) + i sin (2 k p + 0) ⎬ ,

⎩ 4 4 ⎭ (1 – t)z2, where t ∈ R

k = 0, 1, 2, 3 (ii) Non-parametric form: Equation of a straight

line joining the points having affixes z1 and z2 is

= 2 × 1, 2 × i, 2 × –1, 2 × –i = ±2, ±2i

z z 1

z1 z1 1 = 0

Geometry of Complex Numbers

z2 z2 1

1. Distance Formula: The distance between two points

⇒ z ( z 1 − z 2 ) − z ( z 1 − z 2 ) + z 1z 2 − z 2 z 1 = 0

P(z1) and Q(z2) is given by PQ = |z2 – z1| = |affix of

Q – affix of P| (see Fig. 3.2)

Trick(s) for Problem Solving

Q(z2)

Three points z1, z2 and z3 are collinear if,

z1 z1 1

z2 z2 1 = 0

z3 z3 1

If three points A(z1), B(z2), C(z3) are collinear then slope

P(z1) of AB = slope of BC = slope of AC

Fig. 3.2 z1 − z2 z2 − z3 z1 − z3

⇒ = =

z1 − z2 z2 − z3 z1 − z3

3.16 Chapter 3

Trick(s) for Problem Solving

equation of a straight line is of the form az + az

+ b, where a is complex number and b is real If z is a variable point and z1, z2 are two fixed points in the

number. argand plane, then

(iv)

Slope of a line: The complex slope of the line 1. |z – z1| = |z – z2| ⇒ Locus of z is the perpendicular

a coeff. of z bisector of the line segment joining z1 and z2.

az + az + b = 0 is – =– and real

a coeff. of z 2. |z – z1| + |z – z2| = constant (≠ |z1 – z2|)

Re(a) ⇒ Locus of z is an ellipse

slope of the line az + az + b is – = –i

Im(a) 3. |z – z1| + |z – z2| = |z1 – z2|

(a + a )

. ⇒ Locus of z is the line segment joining z1 and z2

(a − a ) 4. |z – z1| – |z – z2| = |z – z2|

(v) Length of perpendicular: The length of perpen- ⇒ Locus of z is a straight line joining z1 and z2 but z

dicular from a point z1 to the line az + az + b = 0 does not lie between z1 and z2.

az 1 + az 1 + b az 1 + az 1 + b 5. |z – z1| – |z – z2| = constant (≠ |z1 – z2|)

is given by or . ⇒ Locus of z is a hyperbola.

a+a 2a

6. |z – z1|2 + |z – z2|2 = |z1 – z2|2 ⇒ Locus of z is a

5. Equation of a circle circle with z1 and z2 as the extremities of diameter.

(i) The equation of a circle whose centre is at point 7. |z – z1| = k |z – z2|, (k ≠ 1) ⇒ Locus of z is a circle.

having affix z0 and radius r is |z – z0 | = r.

⎛ z − z1 ⎞

(ii) If the centre of the circle is at origin and radius r, 8. arg ⎜ = a (fixed) ⇒ Locus of z is a segment of

then its equation is |z| = r (see Fig. 3.4). ⎝ z − z2 ⎟⎠

circle.

P(z) ⎛ z − z1 ⎞ p

9. arg ⎜ = ± ⇒ Locus of z is a circle with z1 and

r ⎝ z − z2 ⎟⎠ 2

z2 as the vertices of diameter.

C(z0) ⎛ z − z1 ⎞

10. arg ⎜ = 0 or p ⇒ Locus of z is a straight line

⎝ z − z2 ⎟⎠

passing through z1 and z2.

Fig. 3.4

whereas |z – z0| > r represents exterior of the circle Time Saving Tips

|z – z0| = r.

||z1| – |z2|| ≤ |z1 + z2| ≤ |z1| + |z2|

A C = AB eiq or (z3 – z1) = (z2 – z1)eiq Thus |z1| + |z2| is the greatest possible value of |z1 + z2|

z3 − z1 and ||z1| – |z2|| is the least possible value of |z1 + z2|.

or = eiq

z2 − z1 1

If z + = a, the greatest and least values of |z| are

z

(iv) If A, B and C are three points in argand plane such

that AC = AB and ∠CAB = q then use the rota- a + a2 + 4 − a + a2 + 4

respectively and .

tion about A to find eiq, but if AC ≠ AB use coni 2 2

The area of the triangle whose vertices are z, iz and z + iz

method.

1

(v) If four points z1, z2, z3 and z4 are con-cyclic then is |z|2.

2

(z 4 − z 1 ) (z 2 − z 3 ) The area of the triangle with vertices z, wz and z + wz is

= real

(z 4 − z 2 ) (z 1 − z 3 ) 3

|z|2.

4

⎛ (z − z 3 ) (z 4 − z 1 ) ⎞ If z1, z2, z3 be the vertices of an equilateral triangle and z0

or arg ⎜ 2

= ±p, 0

⎝ ( z 1 − z 3 ) ( z 4 − z 2 ) ⎟⎠ be the circumcentre, then z12 + z22 + z32 = 3z02 .

If z1, z2, z3 be the vertices of a triangle, then the triangle is

Complex Numbers 3.17

z1 z

or z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2z3 + z3z1 = (1 + 0 + i – 1 + 0) = 1 i

3 3

or

1

+

1

+

1

=0 z1 ⎛ p p⎞

= cos + i sin ⎟

z1 − z2 z2 − z3 z3 − z1 3 ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠

The equation |z – z|2 + |z – z2|2 = k (where k is a real

43. If z1 and z2 (≠ 0) are two complex numbers such that

1

number) will represent a circle with centre at (z1 + z2) z1 − z2

2 = 1, then

1 1 z1 + z2

and radius 2k − | z1 − z2 |2 provided k ≥ |z – z |2.

2 2 1 2 (A) z2 = ikz1, k ∈ R (B) z2 = kz1, k ∈ R

The one and only one case in which |z1| + |z2| + … +

(C) z2 = z1 (D) None of these

|zn| = |z1 + z2 + … + zn| is that the numbers z1, z2, … zn

have the same amplitude. Solution: (A)

If three points z1, z2, z3 are connected by relation az1 + We have,

bz2 + cz3 = 0 where a + b + c = 0, then the three points z1 − z 2 z /z − 1

are collinear. =1⇒ 1 2 = 1

z z1 + z 2 z 1/z 2 + 1

If z is a complex number, then e is periodic.

straight line in the complex plane. ⇒ −1 = 1 +1

z2 z2

z1

⇒ lies on the perpendicular bisector of the

z2

Solved Examples segment joining A (–1 + 0i) and B (1 + 0i).

z1

42. The centre of a square ABCD is at z = 0. If A is z1, then \ = ai for some a ∈ R

z2

the centroid of triangle ABC is

z2 1 −i

z ⎛ p p⎞ ⇒ = =

(A) 1 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ z1 ai a

3 ⎝ 2 2⎠

\ z2 = i kz1 for some k ∈ R

z

(B) 1 (cos p + i sin p) 44. If z = x + iy and ‘a’ is a real number such that |z – ai| =

3

⎛ p p⎞ |z + ai|, then locus of z is

(C) z1 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟

⎝ 2 2⎠ (A) x-axis (B) y-axis

(C) x = y (B) x2 + y2 = 1

(D) None of these

Solution: (A)

Solution: (A)

p

Since A is z1 and ∠AOB = We have, |z – ai| = |z + ai|

2

⎛ p p ⎞ ⇒ |x + i (y – a)|2 = |x + i (y + a)|2

\ B is z1 cos + i sin

⎜⎝ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⇒ x2 + (y – a)2 = x2 + (y + a)2

⇒ 4ay = 0; y = 0, which is x-axis.

B B(z1)

45. The locus represented by |z – 1| = |z + i| is

(A) a circle of radius 1

O (0, 0) (B) an ellipse with foci at 1 and –i

(C) a line through the origin

(D) a circle on the join of 1 and –i as diameter

C D

Solution: (C)

Also, c is z1(cos p + i sin p) We have, |z – 1| = |z + i|

\ Centroid of DABC is

⇒ |(x – 1) + iy| = |x + i (y + 1)|

z1 ⎛ p p ⎞

1 + cos + i sin + cos p + i sin p ⎟ ⇒ (x – 1)2 + y2 = x2 + (y + 1)2

3 ⎜⎝ 2 2 ⎠

⇒ x + y = 0, which is a line through the origin.

3.18 Chapter 3

46. The centre of a regular polygon of n sides is located at 48. The equation |z – 1|2 + |z + 1|2 = 4 represents on the

the point z = 0, and one of its vertex z1 is known. If z2 Argand plane

be the vertex adjacent to z1, then z2 is equal to (A) a straight line

⎛ 2p 2p ⎞ (B) an ellipse

(A) z1 ⎜ cos ± i sin ⎟ (C) a circle with centre origin and radius 2

⎝ n n⎠

(D) a circle with centre origin and radius unity

⎛ p p⎞

(B) z1 ⎜ cos ± i sin ⎟ Solution: (D)

⎝ n n⎠

We have, |z – 1|2 + |z + 1|2 = 4 (1)

⎛ p p⎞

(C) z1 ⎜ cos ± i sin ⎟ 2 2 2 2

⎝ 2n 2n ⎠ ⇒ (x – 1) + y + (x + 1) + y = 4

(D) None of these (Putting z = x + iy)

⇒ 2 (x2 + y2 + 1) = 4

Solution: (A)

Let A be the vertex with affix z1. There are two possi- \ x2 + y2 = 1 or |z|2 = 1

2p

bilities and can be obtained by rotating z1 through ⇒ |z| = 1 (since |z| cannot be –ve)

either in clockwise or in anti-clockwise direction. n

Thus, the Eq. (1) represents all points z on the circle

12p

± with centre origin and radius unity.

z2 = z1e n (Q |z2| = |z1|)

49. The locus of the point z satisfying the condition

O

z −1 p

arg = is

z +1 3

(A) a straight line (B) circle

(C) a parabola (D) None of these

A(z1)

z −1 p

We have, arg =

47. The locus of the complex number z in the Argand z +1 3

1− iz x + iy − 1 p

plane if = 1, is ⇒ arg = (Putting z = x + iy)

z −i x + iy + 1 3

(A) a circle (B) x-axis y y p

⇒ tan −1 − tan −1 =

(C) y-axis (D) None of these x −1 x +1 3

Solution: (B) ⎛ z1 ⎞

Let z = x + iy ⎜⎝∵ Arg z = Arg z1 − Arg z2 ⎟⎠

2

1− iz y y

Given, = 1 −

p

z −i ⇒ tan −1 x − 1 x2 + 1 =

y 3

1− i ( x + iy ) 1+ 2

⇒ = 1

x + iy − i x −1

2y p

1 + y − ix ⇒ = tan = 3

⇒ = 1 2

x + y −12 3

x + i ( y − 1)

2

(1 + y )2 + x 2 ⇒ x2 + y2 – y – 1 = 0, which is a circle.

⇒ = 1 3

x 2 + ( y − 1)2 n

⎛ z −i ⎞

50. If w = ⎜ , n integral, then w lies on the unit

⇒ (1 + y)2 + x2 = x2 + (y – 1)2 ⎝ 1 + iz ⎟⎠

⇒ 1 + y2 + 2 y + x2 = x2 + y2 – 2 y + 1 circle for

⇒ 4 y = 0 (A) only even n (B) only odd n

(C) only positive n (D) all n

⇒ y = 0, which is the equation of x-axis.

Complex Numbers 3.19

Solution: (D) 54. Let z1 and z2 be two non real complex cube roots of

⎛ z −i ⎞

n n unity and |z – z1|2 + |z – z2|2 = λ be the equation of a

⎛ z −i ⎞

We have, w= ⎜ = ⎜ circle with z1, z2 as ends of a diameter, then the value

⎝ 1 + iz ⎟⎠ ⎝ i ( z − i ) ⎟⎠

of λ is

n

⎛ 1⎞ n (A) 4 (B) 3 (C) 2 (D) 2

= ⎜ ⎟ = (–i)

⎝ i⎠

Solution: (B)

\ |w | = |(–i)n| = |–i|n = 1 for all n. We have,

\ w lies on unit circle for all n. |z – ω |2 + |z – ω2|2 = λ

51. The equation z z + a z + a z + b = 0, b ∈ R represents ⇒ λ = |ω – ω2|2 = |ω2 + ω4 – 2ω3|

a circle (not point circle) if = |ω2 + ω – 2| = |– 1 – 2| = 3

(A) |a|2 > b (B) |a|2 < b

(C) |a| > b (D) |a| < b 55. The region in the Argand diagram defined by |z – 3| +

|z + 3| < 6 is the interior of the ellipse with major axis

Solution: (A) along

We have, z z + a z + a z + b = 0 (A) real axis (B) imaginary axis

⇒ z z + a z + a z + a a = a a – b (C) y = x (D) y=–x

⇒ (z + a) ( z + a ) = a a – b Solution: (A)

⇒ |z + a| = |a| – b 2 2

The equation |z – (3 + 0i)| + |z – (–3 + 0i)| < 6 rep-

This represents a circle (not point circle) if |a|2 > b. resents the interior of ellipse with foci at (3, 0) and

(–3, 0). So, major axis is along real axis.

52. If z4 = (z – 1)4, then the roots are represented in the

argand plane by the points that are 56. If the area of the triangle on the argand plane formed

by the complex numbers –z, iz, z – iz is 600 square

(A) collinear

units, then |z| is equal to

(B) concyclic

(C) vertices of a parallelogram (A) 10 (B) 20

(D) None of these (C) 30 (D) None of these

Solution: (A) Solution: (B)

We have, z4 = (z – 1)4 Area of the triangle on the argand plane formed by the

2 np i

3 2

complex numbers – z, iz, z – iz is |z| .

⎛ z − 1⎞ 1/4 2

⇒ ⎜⎝ z ⎟⎠ = 1 = e

4 , n = 0, 1, 2, 3 3 2

\ |z| = 600 ⇒ |z| = 20

Since for all these values of z, 2

z −1 57. If |z + z | + |z – z | = 8, then z lies on

= 1 so they lie on the line bisecting perpendic-

z (A) a circle

ularly the join of z = 1 and z = 0. (B) a straight line

(C) a square

53. The equation z2 + z 2 – 2|z|2 + z + z = 0 represents a (D) None of these

(A) straight line (B) circle Solution: (C)

(C) hyperbola (D) parabola

We have, |z + z | + |z – z | = 8

Solution: (D)

⇒ 2|x| + 2|y| = 8 or |x| + |y| = 4

We have, z2 + z 2

– 2|z|2 + z + z = 0

⎛ z + 2i ⎞

⇒ (x + iy)2 + (x – iy)2 – 2(x2 + y2) + x + iy + x – iy = 0 58. If Im ⎜ = 0, then z lies on the curve

⎝ z + 2 ⎟⎠

(Putting z = x + iy)

⇒ 2x2 + 2 (iy)2 – 2x2 – 2y2 + 2x = 0 (A) x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y = 0

(B) x2 + y2 – 2x = 0

1

⇒ – 4 y2 + 2x = 0 or y2 = x, (C) x + y + 2 = 0

2 (D) None of these

which is a parabola.

3.20 Chapter 3

Solution: (C) ⎛ 1 i 3⎞

Let z = x + iy and |1 – w2| = 1 − ⎜ − −

⎝ 2 2 ⎟⎠

z + 2i x + iy + 2i x + ( y + 2) i

Then, = =

z+2 x + iy + 2 ( x + 2) + iy 3 i 3

= + = 3 .

[ x + ( y + 2) i ] [( x + 2) − iy ] 2 2

=

( x + 2) 2 + y 2 Therefore, 1, w, w2 form an equilateral triangle.

( x 2 + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y ) + i ( 2 x + 2 y + 4) 60. If |z – 1| + |z + 3| ≤ 8, then the range of values of |z – 4|

=

( x + 2) 2 + y 2 is

⎛ z + 2i ⎞ (A) (0, 8) (B) [0, 8]

Since Im ⎜ = 0 ⇒ x + y + 2 = 0

⎝ z + 2 ⎟⎠ (C) [1, 9] (D) [5, 9]

which represents a straight line. Solution: (C)

59. The cube roots of unity Given |z – 1| + |z + 3| ≤ 8

(A) lie on the circle |z| = 1 \ z lies inside or on the ellipse whose foci are (1, 0)

(B) are collinear and (– 3, 0) and vertices are (– 5, 0) and (3, 0).

(C) form an equilateral triangle Y

(D) None of these

Solution: (A, C)

(4, 0)

Clearly, cube roots of unity 1, w, w2 satisfy |z| = 1. X

(–5, 0) (–3, 0) O (1, 0) (3, 0)

2 2

⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞

Also, |1 – w |2 = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 3

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

⇒ |1 – w | = 3 Now, |z – 4| is distance of z from (4, 0). Minimum

distance is 1 and maximum is 9.

|w – w2| = | 3 i| = 3

EXERCISES

1. If a, b, c, p, q, r are three complex numbers such that 4. The number of solutions of the equation z2 + |z|2 = 0,

p q r a b c where z ∈ C is

+ + = 1 + i and + + = 0, then the value

a b c p q r (A) one (B) two

p2 q2 r 2 (C) three (D) infinitely many

of 2 + 2 + 2 is

a b c 5. If w is the nth root of unity, then

(A) 2i (B) i (1 + w + w2 + … + wn –1) is

(C) –2i (D) None of these

(A) 2 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) –1

2. The complex numbers sin x + i cos 2x and cos x –

6. The complex number which satisfies the equation

i sin 2x are conjugate to each other, for

(A) x = np (B) x=0 z+ 2 |z + 1| + i = 0 is

⎛ 1⎞ (A) 2 – i (B)

–2 – i

(C) x = ⎜ n + ⎟ p (D) no value of x

⎝ 2⎠ (C) 2 + i (D) –2 + i

3. If z1 and z2 are two non-zero complex numbers such 7. z1, z2 are two non-real complex numbers such that

that |z1 + z2| = |z1| + |z2|, then arg z1 – arg z2 is equal to z1 z 2

p p + = 1. Then z1, z2 and the origin

(A) – p (B) – (C) p (D) z 2 z1

2 2

Complex Numbers 3.21

(B) form right angled triangle 1

(A) z2 = z1 (B) z2 =

(C) form right angle isosceles triangle z1

(D) form an equilateral triangle (C) arg z1 = arg z2 (D) |z1| = |z2|

⎡ a − ib ⎤ 17. If z = x + iy, x, y real, then |x| + |y| ≤ k |z|, where k is

8. tan ⎢i log is equal to

⎣ a + ib ⎥⎦ equal to

2ab a2 − b 2 (A) 1 (B) 2

(A) 2 (B)

a + b2 2ab (C) 3 (D) None of these

2ab 18. If (1 + i) (1 + 2i) (1 + 3i) … (1 + ni) = a + ib then 2 × 5

(C) (D)

ab

2

a −b 2 × 10 … (1 + n2) =

(A) a – ib (B) a2 – b2

9. If ( 3 + i)100 = 299 (a + ib), then b = 2

(C) a + b 2

(D) None of these

(A) 3 (B) 2

19. Let z1 = a + ib, z2 = p + iq be two unimodular complex

(C) 1 (D) None of these

numbers such that Im ( z 1z 2 ) = 1.

10. The real value of a for which the expression If w1 = a + ip, w2 = b + iq, then

1 − i sin a

is purely real is (A) Re (w1 w2) = 1 (B) Im (w1 w2) = 1

1 + 2i sin a

p p (C) Re (w1 w2) = 0 (D) Im (w1 w 2 ) = 1

(A) (2n + 1) (B) (n + 1)

2 2 3 a b

20. If + =

a + ib = x + iy, then

(C) np (D) None of these x y

11. The locus of z which satisfies the inequality (A) 4 (x2 + y2) (B) 4 (x2 – y2)

2 2

(C) 2 (x – y ) (D) None of these

log0.3 |z – 1| > log0.3 |z – i| is given by,

(A) x + y > 0 (B) x – y < 0 21. If z = a + ib where a > 0, b > 0, then

(C) x + y < 0 (D) x – y > 0 1 1

(A) |z| ≥ (a – b) (B) |z| ≥ (a + b)

2 2

12. If centre of a regular hexagon is at origin and one

of the vertices on argand diagram is 1 + 2i then its 1

(C) |z| < (a + b) (D) None of these

perimeter is 2

(A) 2 5 (B) 6 2 (C) 4 5 (D) 6 5 z −z

22. The complex numbers z1, z2 and z3 satisfying 1 3 =

z2 − z3

13. If z1, z2, z3 are three complex numbers, then z1 Im 1 − 3i

( z2 z3 ) + z2 Im ( z 3 z 1 ) + z3 Im ( z 1z 2 ) is equal to are the vertices of a triangle which is

2

(A) 1 (B) –1 (A) of area zero (B) right angled isosceles

(C) 0 (D) None of these (C) equilateral (D) obtuse angled isosceles

4

2z 1 z − z2 23. If (1 + x + x2)n = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + … + a2n x2n, then

14. If is purely imaginary number, then 1

3z 2 z1 + z 2 a0 + a3 + a6 + … =

is equal to (A) 3n (B) 3n – 1

n–2

3 2 4 (C) 3 (D) None of these

(A) (B) 1 (C) (D)

2 3 9 24. If 1, a1, a2, …, an – 1 are the n nth roots of unity, then

6 5

15. If x = (4 – 3i) , then the product of all of its roots is (1 – a1) (1 – a2) (1 – a3) … (1 – an – 1) =

(where q = – tan–1 (3/4)) (A) n + 1 (B) n

(A) 55 (cos 5q + i sin 5q) (C) n – 1 (D) None of these

(B) –55 (cos 5q + i sin 5q) 25. The closest distance of the origin from a curve given

(C) 55 (cos 5q – i sin 5q) as = 0 (a is a complex number) is

(D) –55 (cos 5q – i sin 5q) |a| Re a Im a

(A) 1 (B) (C) (D)

2 |a| |a|

3.22 Chapter 3

(A) (0, 8) (B) [0, 8] (C) [1, 9] (D) [5, 9] (A) three real roots

(B) one real root

27. The roots of the equation z4 + 1 = 0 are

(C) no real roots

(A) (± 1 ± i) (B) (± 2 ± 2i) (D) no real or complex roots

1

(C) (± 1 ± i) (D) None of these 36. If all the roots of z3 + az2 + bz + c = 0 are of unit

2

modulus, then

28. The integral solution of the equation (1 – i)n = 2n is (A) |a| ≤ 3 (B) |b| > 3

(A) n = 0 (B) n=1 (C) |c| ≤ 3 (D) None of these

(C) n = – 1 (D) None of these

37. Let z1 and z2 be two complex numbers such that

29. The greatest value of the moduli of complex numbres z1 z2

+ = 1, then

4 z2 z1

z satisfying the equation z− = 2 is

z (A) z1, z2 are collinear

(B) z1, z2 and the origin from a right angled triangle

(A) 5 (B) 5 –1 (C) z1, z2 and the origin form an equilateral triangle

(C) 5 + 1 (D) None of these (D) None of these

30. The locus of the complex number z in an argand plane 38. If S (n) = i n + i –n, where i = −1 and n is a positive

satisfying the equation integer, then the total number of distinct values of S (n)

p

Arg (z + i) – Arg (z – i) = is is

2 (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

(A) boundary of a circle (B) interior of a circle

(C) exterior of a circle (D) None of these 1 1

39. If z1 ≠ –z2 and |z1 + z2| = + , then

z 2 z1 z 2

31. is always real, then

z −1 (A) at least one of z1, z2 is unimodular

(A) z lies only on a circle (B) z1 × z2 is unimodular

(B) z lies only on the real axis (C) both z1, z2 are unimodular

(C) z lies either on the real axis or on a circle (D) None of these

(D) None of these

z − 2z 2 40. If z = x + iy satisfies amp (z – 1) = amp (z + 3i) then the

32. z1 and z2 are two complex numbers such that 1 value of (x – 1) : y is equal to

2 − z 1z 2

(A) 2 : 1 (B) – 1 : 3

is unimodular whereas z2 is not unimodular. Then |z1| =

(C) 1 : 3 (D) None of these

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

41. If z1, z2, z3, z4 are the four complex numbers repre-

33. If for the complex numbers z1 and z2, |z1 + z2| = |z1 – z2|, sented by the vertices of a quadrilateral taken in order

then amp z1 ~ amp z2 = z −z p

p such that z1 – z4 = z2 – z3 and amp 4 1 = then

(A) p (B) z2 − z1 2

2 the quadrilateral is a

p

(C) (D) None of these (A) square

4

(B) rhombus

34. The locus of the complex number z in an argand plane (C) rectangle

satisfying the inequality (D) a cyclic quadrilateral

⎛ | z − 1| + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ 42. Let z be a complex number with modulus 2 and argu-

log1/ 2 ⎜ >1 ⎜⎝ where | z − 1| ≠ 3 ⎟⎠ is

⎝ 3 | z − 1| − 2 ⎟⎠ 2p

ment , then z is equal to

(A) a circle 3

(B) interior of a circle (A) –1 + i 3 (B) 1 – i 3

(C) exterior of a circle

(D) None of these 1 i 3

(C) − + (D) None of these

2 2

Complex Numbers 3.23

⎛ | z |2 − | z | +1⎞ ⎛ 2k ⎞ ⎛ 2k ⎞

⎟ < 2, then the locus of z is (A) tan–1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ (B) tan–1 ⎜

43. If log

3⎜

⎝ 2 + |z | ⎠ ⎝ k + 1⎠ ⎝ 1 − k 2 ⎟⎠

(A) |z| < 5 (B) |z| = 5 (C) –2 tan–1(k) (D) 2 tan–1(k)

(C) |z| > 5 (D) None of these 24 2

⎛ 1⎞

⎛z

44. If |z| = 1, then the value of ⎜

− 1⎞

is

51. 1 + x2 = ∑ ⎜⎝ x n − x n ⎟⎠ is equal to

3x , then

+ 1⎟⎠

n =1

⎝z

(A) 48 (B) – 48

(A) 0 (B) purely real (C) ±48(w – w2) (D) 1 ± 48w

(C) purely imaginary (D) complex number

52. For all complex numbers z1, z2 satisfying |z1| = 12 and

45. If z1 and z2 are complex numbers, such that z1 + z2 is a |z2 – 3 – 4i| = 5, the minimum value of |z1 – z2| is

real number, then (A) 0 (B) 2 (C) 7 (D) 17

(A) z1 = – z2

(B) z2 = z 1 53. For any two complex numbers z1 and z2 with |z1| ≠ |z2|

2 2

(C) z1 and z2 are any two complex numbers 2 z 1 + i 3z 2 + 3z 1 + i 2 z 2 is

(D) z1 = z1 , z2 = z 2

(A) less than 5 |z1|2 + |z2|2

46. The locus of the points representing the complex num-

(B) greater than 10 |z1z2|

bers which satisfy |z| – 2 = 0, |z – i| – |z + 5i| = 0 is:

(C) equal to 2|z1|2 + 3 |z2|2

(A) a circle with centre at origin

(D) zero

(B) a straight line passing through origin

(C) the single point (0, –2) 54. If the complex numbers z1, z2, z3 are in AP, then they

(D) None of these lie on a

47. Let the affix of 2 – 4i be P. Then OP is rotated about (A) circle (B) parabola

O through an angle of 180° and is stretched 5/2 times. (C) line (D) ellipse

The complex number corresponding to the new posi- 55. If the roots of (z – 1)25 = 2w2(z + 1)25 where w is a

tion of P is complex cube root of unity are plotted in the argand

(A) 5 – 10i (B) 5 + 10i plane, they lie on

(C) –5 + 10i (D) None of these (A) a straight line (B) a circle

48. If P, P′ represent the complex number z1 and its addi- (C) an ellipse (D) None of these

tive inverse respectively then the complex equation of 56. Let A0A1A2A3A4A5 be a regular hexagon inscribed in a

the circle with PP′ as a diameter is circle of unit radius. Then the product of the lengths of

z ⎛z ⎞ the line segments A0A1, A0A2 and A0A4 is

(A) = ⎜ 1 ⎟ (B) zz + z 1z 1 = 0 3 3 3

z1 ⎝ z ⎠ (A) (B) 3 3 (C) 3 (D)

4 2

(C) zz1 + zz1 (D) None of these

57. If z1 and z2 are the two complex roots of equal magni-

49. If a, b, c, p, q, r are three non-zero complex numbers p

tude and their arguments differ by , of the quadratic

p q r a b c 2

such that + + = 1 + i and + + = 0, then

a b c p q r equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 (a ≠ 0) then a (in terms of b

p2 q2 r 2 and c) is

value of 2 + 2 + 2 is b 2 b2

a b c (A) (B)

(A) 0 (B) –1 2c c

(C) 2i (D) –2i b

(C) (D) None of these

2c

z −z

50. If z1, z2 are two complex numbers such that 1 2 = 1 58. Common roots of the equations z3 + 2z2 + 2z + 1 = 0

z1 + z2

and z1985 + z100 + 1 = 0 are

and tz1 = kz2 where k ∈ , then the angle between

(A) w, w2 (B) 1, w, w2

(z1 – z2) and (z1 + z2) is 2

(C) –1, w, w (D) –w, – w2

3.24 Chapter 3

59. sin–1 ⎢ ( z − 1) ⎥ , where z is non-real, can be the angle C1: |z – i| = 2

⎣i ⎦

of a triangle if C2: |z – 1 – 2i| = 4. Then

(A) Re (z) = 1, Im (z) = 2 (A) C1 and C2 touch each other.

(B) Re (z) = 1, –1 ≤ Im (z) ≤ 1 (B) C1 and C2 intersect at two distinct points.

(C) Re (z) + Im (z) = 0 (C) C1 lies within C2.

(D) Re (z) = Im (z) (D) C2 lies within C1.

5 2

⎛ 1⎞ 1

60. If x2 – x + 1 = 0 then the value of ∑ ⎜ x n + n ⎟ is 69. The conjugate of a complex number is . Then the

n =1

⎝ x ⎠ complex number is i − 1

(A) 8 (B) 10 −1 1 −1 1

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(C) 12 (D) None of these i −1 i +1 i +1 i −1

1+ i 4

61. The triangle formed by the points 1, and i as 70. If z − = 2, then the maximum value of |z| is equal to

vertices in the Argand diagram is 2 z

(A) scalene (B) equilateral (A) 3 + 1 (B)

5 +1

(C) isosceles (D) right-angled

(C) 2+ 2

2 (D)

62. If the quadratic equation z2 + (a + ib)z + c + id = 0,

where a, b, c, d are non-zero real numbers, has a real 71. If z1z2 ∈ C, z21 + z22 ∈ R, z1(z21 – 3z22) = 2 and z2(3z21

root, then – z22) = 11, then the value of z21 + z22 is

(A) d2 – abd – c2 = 0 (B) d2 – abd + b2c = 0 (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5

2 2

(C) d + abd + c = 0 (D) None of these

72. If 1 − C 2 = nc – 1 and z = eiq,

63. If |z – i| ≤ 2 and z0 = 5 + 3i, the maximum value of |iz c ⎛ n⎞

+ z0| is then (1 + nz ) ⎜1 + ⎟ =

2n ⎝ z⎠

(A) 7 (B) 9 (A) 1 + c cosq (B) 1 – c cosq

(C) 13 (D) None of these (C) 1 + 2c cosq (D) 1 – 2c cosq

( )

64. The solutions of the equation z z − 2i = 2 (2 + i) are 73. Let ‘a’ be a complex number such that | a | < 1 and z1,

z2,..., zn be the vetices of a polygon such that zk = 1 +

(A) 3 + i, 3 – i (B) 1 + 3i, 1 – 3i

(C) 1 + 3i, 1 – i (D) 1 – 3i, 1 + i a + a2 + … + ak, then the vertices of the polygon lie

within the circle

65. Let a, b be real and z be a complex number. If z2 + a z 1 1

+ b = 0 has two distinct roots on the line Re z = 1, then (A) | z | = (B) |z – a | =

|1 − a | |1 − a |

it is necessary that

(A) b ∈ (1, ∞) (B) b ∈ (0, 1) 1 1

(C) z − = (D) None of these

(C) b ∈ (–1, 0) (D) | b | = 1 1− a |1 − a |

66. If w (≠1) is a cube root of unity, and (1 + w)7 = A + Bw. 74. All the roots of the equation a1z3 + a2z2 + a3z + a4 = 3,

Then (A, B) equals where |ai| ≤ 1, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 lie outside the circle with

(A) (–1, 1) (B) (0, 1) (C) (1, 1) (D) (1, 0) centre origin and radius

1 2

z2 (A) (B)

67. If z ≠ 1 and is real, then the point represented by 3 3

z −1 (C) 1 (D) None of these

the complex number z lies

(A) either on the real axis or on a circle passing 75. If z4 = (z – 1)4, then the roots are represented in the

through the origin. argand plane by the points that are

(B) on a circle with centre at the origin. (A) collinear

(C) either on the real axis or on a circle not passing (B) concyclic

through the origin. (C) vertices of a parallelogram

(D) on the imaginary axis. (D) None of these

Complex Numbers 3.25

76. The maximum value of |z| when z satisfies the condition 86. The locus of the complex number z in an argand plane

2 satisfying the equation

z+ = 2 is p

z Arg (z + i) – Arg (z – i) = is

2

(A) 3 – 1 (B) 3+1 (A) boundary of a circle (B) interior of a circle

2+ 3

(C) 3 (D) (C) exterior of a circle (D) None of these

77. If |z + z | + |z – z | = 8, then z lies on 87. If for the complex numbers z1 and z2, |z1 + z2| = |z1 – z2|,

then amp z1 ~ amp z2 =

(A) a circle (B) a straight line p

(C) a square (D) None of these (A) p (B)

2

p

78. The complex number which satisfies the equation (C) (D) None of these

4

z + 2 |z + 1| + i = 0 is 88. The locus of the complex number z in an argand plane

(A) 2 – i (B) –2 – i satisfying the inequality

(C) 2 + i (D) –2 + i

⎛ | z − 1| + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 2⎞

log1/ 2 ⎜ ⎟ > 1 ⎜ where | z − 1| ≠ ⎟ is

⎡ a − ib ⎤ ⎝ 3 | z − 1| − 2 ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

79. tan ⎢i log is equal to

⎣ a + ib ⎥⎦ (A) a circle (B) interior of a circle

2ab a2 − b 2 (C) exterior of a circle (D) None of these

(A) 2 (B)

a + b2 2ab

89. Let z1 and z2 be two complex numbers such that

2ab z1 z 2

(C) (D) ab + = 1, then

a2 − b 2 z 2 z1

80. |z1 + z2| = |z1| + |z2| is possible if (A) z1, z2 are collinear

1 (B) z1, z2 and the origin from a right angled triangle

(A) z2 = z 1 (B) z2 =

z1 (C) z1, z2 and the origin form an equilateral triangle

(C) arg z1 = arg z2 (D) |z1| = |z2| (D) None of these

81. If z = x + iy, x, y real, then |x| + |y| ≤ k |z|, where k is 90. If P, P′ represent the complex number z1 and its addi-

equal to tive inverse respectively, then the complex equation of

the circle with PP′ as a diameter is

(A) 1 (B) 2

(C) 3 (D) None of these z ⎛z ⎞

(A) = ⎜ 1⎟ (B) zz + z 1z 1 = 0

z1 ⎝z ⎠

82. If z = a + ib where a > 0, b > 0, then

1 1 (C) zz 1 + zz 1 (D) None of these

(A) |z| ≥ (a – b) (B) |z| ≥ (a + b)

2 2 91. If a, b, c, p, q, r are three non-zero complex numbers

1 p q r a b c

(C) |z| < (a + b) (D) None of these such that + + = 1 + i and + + = 0, then

2 a b c p q r

p2 q2 r2

83. If (1 + x + x2)n = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + … + a2n x2n, then value of 2 + 2 + 2 is

a0 + a3 + a6 + … = a b c

(A) 0 (B) –1 (C) 2i (D) –2i

(A) 3n (B) 3n – 1

(C) 3 n–2

(D) None of these z1 − z2

92. If z1, z2 are two complex numbers such that =1

84. The closest distance of the origin from a curve given z1 + z2

as a z + a z + aa = 0 (a is a complex number) is and tz1 = kz2 where k ∈ R, then the angle between

|a| Re a Im a (z1 – z2) and (z1 + z2) is

(A) 1 (B) (B) (D)

2 |a| |a| ⎛ 2k ⎞ ⎛ 2k ⎞

n n (A) tan–1 ⎜⎝ k 2 + 1⎟⎠ (B) tan–1 ⎜⎝ 1 − k 2 ⎟⎠

85. The integral solution of the equation (1 – i) = 2 is

(A) n = 0 (B) n=1 (C) –2 tan–1(k) (D) 2 tan–1(k)

(C) n = – 1 (D) None of these

3.26 Chapter 3

⎛ n 1⎞

93. 1 + x = 2 3x , then

∑

⎜⎝ x − n ⎟⎠ is equal to

x then

1 + iz

=

n =1 1 − iz

(A) 48 (B) –48 a − ib a + ib

(C) ±48(w – w2) (D) 1 ± 48w (A) (B)

1+ c 1+ c

94. For any two complex numbers z1 and z2 with |z1| ≠ |z2| a + ib a − ib

2 2

(C) (D)

2 z 1 + i 3z 2 + 3z 1 + i 2 z 2 is 1 − c 1− c

101. If z1, z2 are two complex numbers and wk, k = 0, 1, …,

(A) less than 5 (|z1|2 + |z2|2) n −1

(B) greater than 10 |z1z2| n – 1 are the nth roots of unity, then ∑ | z1 + z2 w k |2

k =0

(C) equal to 2|z1|2 + 3 |z2|2

(A) < n (|z1|2 + |z2|2) (B) = n (|z1|2 + |z2|2)

(D) zero

(C) > n (|z1|2 + |z2|2) (D) can’t say

95. If the roots of (z – 1)25 = 2w2(z + 1)25 (where w is a

complex cube root of unity) are plotted in the argand 102. The equation |z – z1|2 + |z – z2|2 = k, k ∈ R represents

plane, they lie on a circle if

1 1

(A) a straight line (B) a circle (A) k ≥ | z 1 − z 2 |2 (B) k ≤ | z1 − z2 |2

(C) an ellipse (D) None of these 2 2

1 1

96. If z1 and z2 are the two complex roots of equal magni- (C) k ≥ | z 1 + z 2 |2 (D) k ≤ | z 1 + z 2 |2

p 2 2

tude and their arguments differ by , of the quadratic

2 103. f (z) when divided by z – i gives remainder i; when

equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 (a ≠ 0) then a (in terms of b divided by z + i gives remainder i + 1. When f (z) is

and c) is divided by z2 + 1, the remainder is

b 2 b2 i ⎛ 1⎞ i ⎛ 1⎞

(A) (B) (A) z + ⎜ i − ⎟ (B) z − ⎜ i + ⎟

2c c 2 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 ⎝ 2⎠

b i ⎛ 1⎞ −i ⎛ 1⎞

(C) (D) None of these (C) z + ⎜ i + ⎟ (D) z + ⎜ i + ⎟

2c 2 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 ⎝ 2⎠

z −z

97. The complex numbers z1, z2 and z3 satisfying 1 3

z2 − z3 104. The value of the expression (w – 1) (w – w2) (w – w3)

1 − 3i … (w – wn–1), where w is the nth root of unity, is

= are the vertices of a triangle which is

2 (A) nwn–1 (B) nwn

(A) of area zero (C) (n – 1) w n

(D) (n – 1) wn–1

(B) right angled isosceles

(C) equilateral ⎛ p⎞

105. If |z – i| = 1 and arg (z) = q, q ∈ ⎜ 0, ⎟ , then the value

(D) obtuse angled isosceles ⎝ 2⎠

2

of cot q − is equal to

98. z1, z2 are two non-real complex numbers such that z

z1 z 2 (A) 0 (B) i (C) – i (D) 1

+ = 1. Then, z1, z2 and the origin

z 2 z1 4 + 3i

106. The reflection of the complex number in the

(A) are collinear straight line iz = is 1 + 2i

(B) form right angled triangle

(A) 2 + i (B) 2–i

(C) form right angle isosceles triangle

(C) 1 + 2i (D) 1 – 2i

(D) form an equilateral triangle

107. If i = −1 , then

99. If z1 and z2 (±0) are two complex numbers such that

334 365

z1 − z2 ⎛ 1 i 3⎞ ⎛ 1 i 3⎞

= 1, then 4 + 5 ⎜ − + +3 ⎜− + is equal to

z1 + z2 ⎝ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎟⎠

(A) z2 = ikz1, k ∈ R (B) z2 = kz1, k ∈ R (A) 1 – i 3 (B) – 1 + i 3

(C) z2 = z1 (D) None of these (C) i 3 (D) – 3i

Complex Numbers 3.27

108. Let b z + b z = c, b ≠ 0, be a line in the complex (A) 0 (B) real and positive

plane, where b is the complex conjugate of b. If a (C) real and negative (D) purely imaginary

point z1 is the reflection of a point z2 through the line, 116. If the complex numbers z1, z2, z3 are the vertices A,

then z 1 b + z2 b = B, C respectively of an isosceles right angled triangle

(A) 4c (B) 2c with right angle at C, then

(C) c (D) None of these (z1 – z2)2 = k (z1 – z3) (z3 – z2), where k =

109. Let z1 and z2 be roots of the equation z2 + pz + q = 0, (A) 1 (B) 2

where the coefficients p and q may be complex (C) 4 (D) None of these

numbers. Let A and B represent z1 and z2 in the com-

117. If the origin and the two points represented by com-

plex plane. If ∠AOB = a ≠ 0 and OA = OB, where O

a plex numbers A and B form vertices of an equilateral

is the origin, then p2 = k cos2 , where k = A B

2 triangle, then + =

(A) q (B) 2q B A

(C) 4q (D) None of these (A) 1 (B) – 1

(C) 2 (D) None of these

110. If z1, z2, z3 are complex numbers such that |z1| = |z2| =

118. If 2 2 x 4 = ( 3 – 1) + i ( 3 + 1), then

1 1 1

|z3| = + + = 1, then |z1 + z2 + z3| is 1 1

z1 z2 z3 x = cos (2np + k) + i sin (2np + k);

4 4

(A) equal to 1 (B) less than 1 n = 0, 1, 2, 3, where k =

(C) greater than 3 (D) equal to 3

p 5p

(A) (B)

111. If |z| ≤ 1, |w | ≤ 1, then |z – w |2 12 12

(A) ≤ (|z| – |w |)2 – (Arg z – Arg w)2 7p

(B) ≤ (|z| – |w |)2 + (Arg z – Arg w)2 (C) (D) None of these

12

(C) ≤ (|z| – |w |)2 + 2 (Arg z – Arg w)2 p

(D) None of these 32 ⎡ 10 ⎛ 2q p 2q p ⎞ ⎤

112. Suppose, z1, z2, z3 are the vertices of an equilateral

119. ∑ ∑

(3 p + 2) ⎢ ⎜ sin

⎢⎣ q =1 ⎝ 11

− i cos ⎥ =

11 ⎟⎠ ⎥

p =1 ⎦

triangle inscribed in the circle |z| = 2. If z1 = 1 + i 3 (A) 8 (1 – i) (B) 16 (1 – i)

then z2 and z3 are equal to (C) 48 (1 – i) (D) None of these

(A) – 2, 1 – i 3 (B) 2, 1 – i 3

120. The three vertices of a triangle are represented by

(C) – 2, 1 + i 3 (D) None of these the complex numbers 0, z1 and z2. If the triangle is

3n equilateral, then

113. If k = , where n is an even positive integer, then

2 (A) z 12 + z 22 + z 1 z 2 = 0 (B) z 12 + z 22 = z1 z2

k

(C) z 22 − z 12 = z1 z2 (D) z 12 − z 22 = z1 z2

∑ (−3)r −1 ⋅ 3n C2r −1 =

r =1 121. If |z – 25i| ≤ 15, then |maximum amp (z) – minimum

(A) 0 (B) 1 amp (z)| is equal to

(C) – 1 (D) None of these

⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞

(A) sin–1 ⎜ ⎟ – cos–1 ⎜ ⎟

114. If a and b are real numbers between 0 and 1 such that ⎝ 5⎠ ⎝ 5⎠

the points z1 = a + i, z2 = 1 + bi and z3 = 0 form an p ⎛ 3⎞

equilateral triangle, then a and b are (B) + cos −1 ⎜ ⎟

2 ⎝ 5⎠

(A) 2 + 3 , 2 – 3 (B) 2 – 3,2– 3 ⎛ 3⎞

(C) p – 2 cos–1 ⎜ ⎟

(C) 2 – 3 , 2 + 3 (D) None of these ⎝ 5⎠

115. Let z1 and z2 be complex numbers such that z1 ≠ z2 ⎛ 3⎞

(D) cos–1 ⎜ ⎟

and |z1| = |z2|. If z1 has positive real part and z2 has ⎝ 5⎠

z + z2

negative imaginary part, then 1 may be 122. If z2 + (p + iq) z + r + is = 0 where p, q, r, s are

z1 − z 2 non-zero, has real roots, then

3.28 Chapter 3

(B) 1 1

(A) |z – a| = (B) |z – 1| =

(C) prs = q2 + r2p qrs = p2 + s2q

(D) |1 − a | |1 − a |

123. If z1 and z2 are any two complex numbers, then 1 1

(C) z − = (D) None of these

1− a |1 − a |

z 1 + z 12 − z 22 + z1 − z 12 − z 22 is equal to

131. If A, B, C are the angles of a triangle and eiA, eiB, eiC

(A) |z1 + z2| (B) |z1| are in A.P., then the triangle must be

(C) |z2| (D) None of these (A) right angle (B) isosceles triangle

z (C) equilateral (D) None of these

124. If z = x + iy lies in IIIrd quadrant, then also lies in m

the IIIrd quadrant if z −1 ⎛ pi + 1⎞

132. e 2 mi cot p

⋅⎜ =

(A) y > x > 0 (B) y < x < 0 ⎝ pi − 1⎟⎠

(C) x < y < 0 (D) x > y > 0 (A) 0 (B) 1

125. If in an argand plane points z1, z2, z3 are the vertices (C) – 1 (D) None of these

of an isosceles triangle right angled at z2, then 133. If z1 and z1 represent adjacent vertices of a regular

(A) z12 + 2 z22 + z32 = 2 z2 (z1 + z3) Im ( z 1 )

polygon of n sides and if = 2 – 1, then n

(B) z 12 + z 22 + z 32 = 2 z2 (z1 + z3) is equal to Re ( z 1 )

(C) z 12 + z 22 + 2 z 32 = 2 z2 (z1 + z3) (A) 4 (B) 8

(D) 2 z12 + z22 + z32 = 2 z2 (z1 + z3) (C) 16 (D) None of these

126. In the Argand diagram, if O, P and Q represent 134. If z1, z2, z3 are non-zero, non-collinear complex num-

respectively the origin and the complex numbers z 2 1 1

bers such that = + , then the points z1, z2, z3

and z + iz, then the ∠OPQ is z1 z 2 z 3

p p p 2p lie

(A) (B) (C) (D) (A) in the interior of a circle

4 3 2 3

(B) on a circle passing through origin

1 27. If z satisfies |z + 1| < |z – 2|, and w = 3z + 2 + i, then (C) in the exterior of a circle

(A) |w + 1| < |w – 8| (B) |w + 1| < |w – 7| (D) None of these

(C) w + w > 7 (D) |w + 5| < |w – 4| 135. If |z – 25 i| ≤ 15, then the least positive value of arg

128. If P (x) and Q (x) are two polynomials such that f (x) = z is 4

4

P (x3) + x Q (x3) is divisible by x2 + x + 1, then (A) p – tan– 1 (B) tan– 1 3

3

(A) P (x) is divisible by (x – 1) but Q (x) is not divis-

4

ible by x – 1 (C) –p + tan– 1 (D) None of these

(B) Q (x) is divisible by (x – 1) but P (x) is not divis- 3

ible by x – 1 136. If |z – 4 + 3i| ≤ 2, then the least and the greatest values

(C) Both P (x) and Q (x) are divisible by x – 1 of |z| are

(D) f (x) is divisible by x – 1 (A) 3, 7 (B) 4, 7

⎛ 8p ⎞ ⎛ 8p ⎞ (C) 3, 9 (D) None of these

129. If a = cos ⎜ ⎟ + i sin ⎜ ⎟ , then

⎝ 11 ⎠ ⎝ 11 ⎠ 137. If z1, z2 are two complex numbers and c > 0 such that

Re (a + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5) is equal to |z1 + z2|2 ≤ (1 + c) |z1|2 + k |z2|2, then k =

1 1

(A) (B) – (A) 1 – c (B)

c – 1 (C) 1 + c–1 (D) 1 – c–1

2 2

(C) 0 (D) None of these 138. If |z – 4 + 3i| ≤ 1 and m and n are the least and greatest

x4 + x2 + 4

130. Let p be a complex number such that |a| < 1 and z1, values of |z| and k is the least value of on

z2, …, zn be the vertices of a polygon such that zk = 1 the interval (0, ∞), then k is equal to x

+ a + a2 + … a k, then the vertices of the polygon lie (A) m (B) n

within the circle (C) m + n (D) None of these

Complex Numbers 3.29

1 46. If a, b are the roots of z + = 2(cos q + sin q ) Then,

(A) circle z

(A) |a – i| > |b – i| (B) |a – i| < |b – i|

(B) straight line

(C) |a – i| = |i – b | (D) |a – i| = |b – i|

(C) parabola

(D) None of these 147. If at least one value of the complex number z = x + iy

2

140. Let z be a complex number satisfying z + z + 1 = 0. satisfies the condition z + 2 = a2 – 3a + 2 and the

If n is not a multiple of 3, then the value of zn + z2n = inequality z + i 2 < a2 , then

(A) 2 (B) –2

(C) 0 (D) –1 (A) a > 2 (B) a=2

(C) a < 2 (D) None of these

141. If 1, a1, a2, a3 and a4 be the roots of x5 – 1 = 0, then

148. If a is the nth root of unity, then 1 + 2a + 3a2 + … to

w −a w −a w −a w −a n terms is equal to

2 1 ⋅ 2 2 ⋅ 2 3 ⋅ 2 4 =

w − a1 w − a 2 w − a 3 w − a 4 n n

(A) − (B) −

(A) 1 (B) w (1 − a ) 2 1 − a

w2

(C) (D) None of these 2n 2n

(C) − (D) −

142. If z1 and z2 both satisfy the relation z + z = 2|z – 1| 1−a (1 − a ) 2

p

and arg (z1 – z2) = , then the imaginary part of 149. Let O, A, B be three collinear points such that

4 OA · OB = 1. If O and B represent the complex

(z1 + z2) is

(A) 0 (B) 1 numbers o and z, then A represents

(C) 2 (D) None of these 1 1

(A) (B)

z z

143. All the roots of the equation a1 z3 + a2 z2 + a3 z +

a4 = 3, where |ai| ≤ 1, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, lie outside the (C) z (D) z2

circle with centre origin and radius

150. ABCD is a rhombus. Its diagonals AC and BD inter-

1 sect at the point M and satisfy BD = 2AC. If the points

(A) 1 (B)

3 D and M represent the complex numbers 1 + i and

2

(C) (D) None of these 2 – i, respectively, then A represents the complex

3 number

1 1 1 1 i i i 3

144. If + + + =, where a, b, c are (A) 3 − or 3 + (B) 3 + or 1 + i

a+w b +w c +w d +w 2 2 2 2

real and w is a non-real cube root of unity, then (C) 3 – i or 1 – 3i (D) None of these

(A) a + b + c + d = – 2abcd

151. The locus represented by the complex equation

1 1 1 1

(B) + + + =2 ⎛p ⎞

1+ a 1+ b 1+ c 1+ d |z – 2 – i| = | z | sin ⎜ − arg z ⎟ is the part of

⎝4 ⎠

1 1 1 1 2

(C) 2

+ 2

+ 2

+ 2

=– 2 (A) a pair of straight lines

a+w b +w c +w d +w w

(B) a circle

(D) abc + bcd + abd + acd = 4

(C) a parabola

145. If z1 + z2 + z3 = A, z1 + z2 w + z3 w2 = B and z1 + z2 (D) a rectangular hyperbola

w2 + z3 w = C, where 1, w, w2 are the three cube roots 152. If z1, z2, z3 are three points lying on the circle |z| = 2,

of unity, then |A|2 + |B|2 + |C|2 =

then the minimum value of |z1 + z2|2 + |z2 + z3|2 +