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Concrete Deep Beams With and Without Opening

Asst. lecturer, College of engineering

Baghdad University, Iraq

E-mail: hayderqs@yahoo.com

Abstract

This paper presents a nonlinear finite element modeling and analysis of steel fiber reinforced

concrete (SFRC) deep beams with and without openings in web subjected to two- point

loading. In this study, the beams were modeled using ANSYS nonlinear finite element

software. The percentage of steel fiber was varied from 0 to 1.0%.The influence of fiber

content in the concrete deep beams has been studied by measuring the deflection of the deep

beams at mid- span and marking the cracking patterns, compute the failure loads for each

deep beam, and also study the shearing and first principal stresses for the deep beams with

and without openings and with different steel fiber ratios. The above study indicates that the

location of openings and the amount steel fiber are affects to the behavior and strength of

deep beams. And also when the results of the experiments taken from the literature were

compared with the results obtained from the beam modeled with ANSYS finite element

program, it was shown that the results of computer model gave similar results to the

experimental behavior.

Keywords: Deep beams, Steel fibers, Beam Web openings, SFRC Beams, Ansys

ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴ ِل ﺍﻟﻼﺨﻁﹼﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﻭﺍﺓ ﺒﺄﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻭ

ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼ ِﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩ ِﺩﺓ

-:ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼﺔ

ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻨﻤﺫﺠﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻻﺨﻁﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﻭﺍﺓ ﺒﺄﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺏ ﻤﻊ

ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻡ ﻨﻤﺫﺠﺔ. ( ﻤﺘﻌﺭﻀﺔ ﻟﺤﻤل ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺒﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩِﺓSFRC) ﻭ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ

ﺤﻴـﺙ ﻴﺘـﻀﻤﻥ.1.0% ﺇﻟـﻰ0 ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺒﺎﻴﻨﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ. ANSYS ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ

ﺙ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺏ ﻟﻠﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻭ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺨـﻼل

ﺍﻟﺒﺤ ﹰ

ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺃﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔـﺸل ﻟﺠﻤﻴـﻊ.ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀ ﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺭﺼﺩ ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻘﻘﺎﺕ

ﺃﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﺠﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺹ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻋـﻼﻩ.ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ

ﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺇﻥ.ﻭﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺏ ﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻭﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ

، ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤـﺩﺩﺓANSYS ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ

.ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻭﺘﺭ ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺘﻌﻁﻲ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﻱ

اﻻﻧﺴﺰ، اﻟﺠﺴﻮر اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﻮاة ﺑﺎﻻﻳﺎف اﻟﻔﻮﻻذﻳﺔ، اﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎت اﻟﺠﺬﻋﻴﺔ، اﻻﻟﻴﺎف اﻟﻔﻮﻻذﻳﺔ، اﻟﺠﺴﻮر اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ:اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ

1421

Hayder Qais Majeed Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings

For reinforced concrete, improvement of 2010].

calculation methods and analysis of The uniform dispersion of steel fiber

behavior by either creating a model on throughout the concrete provided isotropic

computer or counting with analytical strength properties which are not exhibited

calculation methods are used extensively by conventionally reinforced concrete.

in recent years. The behavior of a A number of investigations are being

reinforced concrete element is generally carried out on the behavior of fiber

observed by conducting experiment on reinforced composites. Since 1972, a

laboratory environment; but this process number of experimental and analytical

considerably takes up much time. The investigations have been carried out to

studies are limited due to the problems in study the behavior and collapse loads of

providing the materials and the proper deep beams with and without web opening

conditions to conduct the experiments and [Leonharadt,F 1972].

scarcity of usage of materials which are The openings are usually provided in such

constituted according to certain size and beams to have an access for utility ducts

number of elements. Modeling of all these without further increases in ceiling head

processes unlimitedly in computer is room. As the usage of those beams with or

dependent on the capacity of the computer without openings increases, it becomes

being used. While modeling on the imperative that the design criteria of such

computer, properties and limit conditions beams is widely tested and established

of materials should be defined properly [Vengatachalapathy.V 2010].

and completely [Lawrance KL 2002].

ANSYS finite element program is chosen 2. Experimental Study

for this study. Finite element method is a Vengatachalapathy et al. (2010)

numeric method which can solve complex [Vengatachalapathy.V 2010] modeled

and difficult physical problems) with of simply supported nine concrete

acceptable approximation. deep beams of dimensions 750mm

As concrete is a material showing ×350mm×75mm thickness were tested to

nonlinear behavior during loading, it is destruction by applying gradually

modeled in such a way that it will show a increased load. The percentage of steel

nonlinear behavior with ANSYS finite fiber was varied from 0 to 1.0.

element program [Barbosa AF, Riberio

2004]. 3. Finite Element Modeling of Steel

Deep beams are often used as structural Reinforcement and Steel Fiber

members in Civil Engineering works. In Tavarez discusses three techniques that

many cases, web openings are required to exist to model steel reinforcement in finite

provide for services or for access. Because element models for reinforced concrete is

of the geometric proportions of deep shown in figure 1 the discrete model, the

beams, their strength is usually controlled embedded model, and the smeared model

by shear rather than flexure, if normal [Tavarez (2001)]. In this study the main

amounts of reinforcements are provided. A and web steel reinforcement are modeled

proliferation of new developments in steel as discrete and embedded, and the steel

fiber reinforced concrete technology has fiber modeled as smeared model.

greatly extended the range of applications.

The application currently depends on the

4. The Finite Element Model

ingenuity of the designer and builder

The material models used for transferring

taking advantage of the improved static

material properties of the specimen to the

and dynamic tensile strength, ductility,

designed computer program are given in

energy – absorbing characteristics,

this section. ANSYS 11, finite element

abrasion resistance, and fatigue strength of

program is used for modeling. Material

this material of construction [Mansur,

properties of concrete, reinforcement and

1422

Number 12 Volume 18 December 2012 Journal of Engineering

adhesive are defined and entered as data in the material number of steel fiber indicated

the model. Some criteria given below are in table 2.

based on to define the material properties: Parameters needed to define the material

models can be found in Table 2. The

Solid65 element requires linear isotropic

4.1. Reinforced Concrete and multi-linear isotropic material

The solid element (Solid 65) has eight properties to properly model concrete. The

nodes with three degrees of freedom at multi-linear isotropic material uses the von

each node and translations in the nodal x, Mises failure criterion along with the

y, and z directions. The element is capable Willam and Warnke (1975) model to

of plastic deformation, cracking in three define the failure of the concrete. EX is the

orthogonal directions, and crushing. The modulus of elasticity of the concrete (Ec),

geometry` and node locations for this and PRXY is the Poisson’s ratio (µ). The

element type are shown in figure 3. compressive uniaxial stress-strain

Smeared cracking approach has been used relationship for the concrete model was

in modeling the concrete in the present obtained using the following equations to

study [ANSYS, Inc 2006]. compute the multi-linear isotropic stress-

The geometry and node locations for Link strain [Saifullah, et al 2011].

8 element used to model the steel

reinforcement are shown in figure 4. Two Ec ε

nodes are required for this element. Each f = (1)

ε

node has three degrees of freedom, 1 + ( )2

translations in the nodal x, y, and z εo

directions. The element is also capable of 2 f c−

plastic deformation [ANSYS, Inc 2006]. εo = (2)

Ec

4.2. Steel Plates f

Ec = (3)

An eight-node solid element, Solid45, was ε

used for the steel plates at support and load Where:

locations. The element is defined with f = stress at any strain ε, N/mm2

eight nodes having three degrees of ε = strain at stress f

freedom at each node and translations in εo = strain at the ultimate compressive

the nodal x, y, and z directions. The strength, f’c.

geometry and node locations for this The multi-linear curve is used to help

element type are shown in Figure 4. Steel with convergence of the nonlinear

plate modeled using Solid45 elements, was solution algorithm. Figure 5 shows the

added at the support locations in order to

stress-strain relationship used for this

avoid stress concentration problems and to

prevent localized crushing of concrete study and is based on work done by

elements near the supporting points and Vengatachalapathy et al. (2010).

load application locations. This provided a Nonlinear model curve Point 1, defined

more even stress distribution over the as 0.3 fc’ is calculated in the linear

support area [ANSYS, Inc 2006]. range Equation 3. Other points are

calculated from Equation 1 with ε0

5. Real Constant and Material obtained from Equation 2. Last point is

Properties:- defined at f’c and ε0=0.003 mm/mm

The real constants for these models are indicating traditional crushing strain.

shown in Table 1. Note that individual Figures 6 and 7 show the stress- strain

elements contain different real constants. curves for the main steel reinforcement

No real constant set exists for the Solid45 and web reinforcement respectively.

element. In this study the volume ratio of

the real constant for solid 65 element

varying from 0% - 1.0% depending on the

steel fiber ratio imbedded in concrete, and

1423

Hayder Qais Majeed Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings

6. Modeling:- linear range. Several factors may cause the

The beam specimen consists of 350 x higher stiffness in the finite element

75mm section of 750 mm long. The models. The bond between the concrete

geometry of these samples and the and steel reinforcing is assumed to be

perfect (no slip) in the finite element

location of the openings are shown in

analyses, but for the actual beams the

figure 8. Due to symmetry half of the

assumption would not be true slip occurs,

beam is modeling as shown in figure 9. therefore the composite action between the

The bond between steel reinforcement and

concrete and steel reinforcing is lost in the

concrete was assumed as perfect in the

actual beams. After the initiation of

modeling of RC control beam specimen.

flexural cracks, the beam stiffness was

Each beam contained two steel rods of

reduced and the linear load –deflection

16mm diameter of 415 N/mm2 yield

behavior ended when the internal steel

strength were used as the main tension,

reinforcement began to yield.

and web reinforcement consisting of two

layers of welded wire fabric of 3.3mm

diameter and 50mm on centers having 8. 2 Crack Pattern

yield strength of 300 N/mm2, as shown in The ANSYS program records a crack

figure 10. The FE mesh for the beam pattern at each applied load step. Figure16

model is shown in figure 11. shows evolutions of crack patterns

developing for each beam at the last

loading step. ANSYS program displays

7. Non-Linear Solution circles at locations of cracking or crushing

In this study the total load applied was

in concrete elements. Cracking is shown

divided into a series of load increments

with a circle outline in the plane of the

(or) load steps. Newton -Raphson

crack, and crushing is shown with an

equilibrium iterations provide convergence

octahedron outline. The first crack at

at the end of each load increment within

integration point is shown with a red circle

tolerance limits. The automatic time

outline, the second crack with a green

stepping in the ANSYS program predicts

outline, and the third crack with a blue

and controls load step sizes for which the

outline [ANSYS, Inc 2006].

maximum and minimum load step sizes

are required. After attempting many trials

the number of load steps, minimum and 8. 3 Failure Load

maximum step sizes was determined. The failure load obtained from the

During concrete cracking, steel yielding numerical solution for all beams is slightly

and ultimate stage in which large numbers smaller than experimental load. The final

of cracks occur the loads were applied loads for the finite element models are the

gradually with smaller load increments. last applied load step before the solution

diverges due to numerous cracks and large

deflections. Table1 shows comparison

8. Discussions of Results

between the ultimate loads of the

8.1 Load Deflection Curves experimental beams and the final loads

The experimental carried by

from the finite element models for deep

Vengatachalapathy et al. (2010)

beams with deferent ratios of steel content

and ansys load-deflection curves obtained

with and without opening, and also show

for the beams are illustrated in figures12,

the percentage of increase in the final load

13, and 14. The curves show good

with the different values of steel fiber.

agreement in finite element analysis with

the experimental results throughout the

entire range of behavior and failure mode.

8.4 Shearing and Principal Stresses

Figures (17-25) show the shearing and 1st

Figure 15 shows deferent ratios of steel

principal stress at first crack for the deep

fiber content, in this study the ratios of

beams with and without opening and with

0.25% and 0.5% are added to the results to

steel fiber ratios varying from (0- 1.0%).

make comparison with more steel fiber

For the solid deep beam the bearing load at

ratios, for all beams the finite element

the 1st crack increase with increases in the

model is stiffer than the actual beam in the

steel fiber percentage as shown in figures

1424

Number 12 Volume 18 December 2012 Journal of Engineering

openings the bearing load at 1st crack is - ANSYS, Inc., "ANSYS Help", Release

remained constant with increase in the 11.0, Documentation, Copyright 2006

steel fiber ratios as shown in figures (20- - Bangash, M.Y.H. (1989), Concrete and

25 a). For the solid deep beam the Concrete Structures: Numerical Modeling

shearing stress transfer from the point load and Applications, London, England:

to the support as fusiform shape, when the Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd.

way between loading point and support - Barbosa AF, Riberio GO (2004).

intersects with the opening the shearing Analysis of reinforced concrete structures

stress transform to the support come using ANSYS nonlinear concrete model.

around the opening as shown in figures Computer. Mech. 1(8): pp. 1-7.

(17-25 b). For the solid deep beam the

largest stress appears at the mid-span at - Barzegar, F., Maddipudi, S. (1997),

the 1st crack happened as shown in figures “Three – Dimensional Modeling of

(17-19 c), and for deep beam with opening Concrete structures. I". Plain Concrete

the big stress appears at the edges of the Journal of Structural Engineering,

opening along loading point as shown in pp.1339-1346.

figures (20-25 c).

- Leonharadt,F. H.A.R.de Paiva and

9. Conclusions C.P.Siess 1972,Discussion of :Strength

• The general conclusion is that 3D and behavior of deep beams in shear.

ANSYS modeling is able to properly Proceedings of the American Society of

simulate the nonlinear behavior of the Civil Engineers.Vol.92, No. 2

steel fiber reinforced concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings. - Lawrance KL (2002). ANSYS Tutorial

• In simple, ANSYS is a rapid way Release 7.0 and 6.1, SDC Publications,

compared with experimental test. Canonsburg, 1.1- 2.25.

• The general behavior of the finite

element models shows good - Mansur,M.A, and Alwis,W.A.M.,

agreement with observations and data 1982,Reinforced fiber concrete deep

from the experimental beam tests of beams with web openings, The

the others. international journal of cement composites

• The results obtained demonstrate that and lightweight concrete,Vol.6.,No.4.

web openings may be provided in the

compression zone of the beams and - Saifullah, M.A. Hossain, (2011) "

fiber content of 0.75%by volume may Nonlinear Analysis of RC Beam for

be added to improve the strength of Different Shear Reinforcement Patterns by

the structure. The openings in the Finite Element Analysis". International

tension zone weaken the beam. And Journal of Civil & Environmental

Fiber content of 0.75%by volume of Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01

the beam improves the ultimate load. pp.86-98.

• The percentage of increase in load

- Tavarez, F.A., (2001), “Simulation of

capacity at the 1st crack for the solid

Behavior of Composite Grid Reinforced

deep beam is 32.3% when 0.75% steel

Concrete Beams Using Explicit Finite

fiber added, and 33.3% for 1.0% steel

Element Methods,” Master’s Thesis,

fiber added therefore use o.75% fiber

University of Wisconsin-Madison,

give good strength and more economic

Madison, Wisconsin.-

than 1.0% steel fiber.

• No significant increase in the load

- Vengatachalapathy.V, Ilangovan.R 2010,

capacity at the 1st crack for the deep

A Study on Steel Fibre Reinforced

beam with opening.

Concrete Deep Beams With and without

Openings. International Journal of Civil

and Structural Engineering Volume 1, No

3, 2010 pp.509-517.

1425

Hayder Qais Majeed Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings

Real Element

Constant set Type

Real Real Real

Constant for Constant for Constant for

Rebar 1 Rebar 2 Rebar 3

Material

0 0 0

Number

1 Solid 65 Volume

0 0 0

Ratio

Orientation

0 0 0

Angle

Orientation

0 0 0

Angle

Cross-

Sectional 201

2 Link8 Area (mm2)

Initial Strain

0

(mm/mm)

Cross-

Sectional 8.56

3 Link8 Area (mm2)

Initial Strain

0

(mm/mm)

Material Properties

Number

Linear Isotropic

EX (MPa) 29,715

PRXY 0.2

Multilinear Isotropic

Strain (mm/mm) Stress (MPa)

0.0002736 8.13

0.0004 11.34

0.0008 20

0.0012 24.89

0.0016 26.87

0.001824 27.1

0.003 27.1

Concrete

ShrCf-Op 0.2

ShrCf-Cl 0.8

UnTensSt 2.57

UnCompSt -1

BiCompSt 0

HydroPs 0

BiCompSt 0

1426

Number 12 Volume 18 December 2012 Journal of Engineering

UnTensSt 0

0

TenCrFac

2 Linear Isotropic

EX (MPa) 200,000

Link 8

PRXY 0.3

Bilinear Isotropic

Yield Stress (MPa) 415

Tangent Modulus (MPa) 0

Linear Isotropic

EX (MPa) 200,000

3 Link 8 PRXY 0.3

Bilinear Isotropic

Yield Stress (MPa) 300

Tangent Modulus (MPa) 0

Linear Isotropic

4 Solid 45 EX (MPa) 200,000

PRXY 0.3

Linear Isotropic

EX (MPa) 200,000

5 Link 8 PRXY 0.3

Bilinear Isotropic

Yield Stress (MPa) 1100

Tangent Modulus (MPa) 0

[Vengatachalapathy.V 2010]

[Vengatachalapathy.V 2010]

[Vengatachalapathy.V 2010]

% Increase in the

% Increase in the

Experimental

Experimental

Experimental

% Difference

% Difference

% Difference

Ultimate Load

Ultimate Load

Analytical

Analytical

Analytical

load(kN)

load(kN)

load(kN)

load(kN)

load(kN)

load(kN)

Opening

Position

Without

web

204.50 183.56 10.2 238.14 218.62 8.20 16.04 220.23 212.76 3.39 13.72

opening

(WWBO)

Web

opening

173.00 163.76 5.34 234.36 211.23 9.87 22.47 209.44 187.26 10.6 12.55

at A

(WBOA)

Web

opening

position 165.30 150.23 9.12 190.51 183.11 3.88 17.96 180.99 167.77 7.3 10.45

at B

(WBOB)

1427

Hayder Qais Majeed Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings

(a) discrete; (b) embedded; and (c) smeared

Number 12 Volume 18 December 2012 Journal of Engineering

Fig. 6: Idealized Stress-Strain Curve of Main Fig. 7: Idealized Stress-Strain Curve of Web

Reinforcing Steel

350

1429

Hayder Qais Majeed Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings

WWBO

WBOA WBOB

Ф3.3 @

50mm c/c

2 Ф 16mm located 25mm.

from the end of the Cross-Section

and Steel Support

1430

Number 12 Volume 18 December 2012 Journal of Engineering

AND NO OPENING (WWBO)

Deflection (mm)

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

Load (kN)

Experimental. Ansys

WITH TOP OPENING (WBOA)

4

Deflection (mm)

0

0 50 100 150 200

Load (kN)

Experimental Ansys

BOTTOM OPENING (WBOB)

4

Deflection (mm)

3

2

1

0

0 50 100 150 200

Load (kN)

Experimental Ansys

Fig.12 Deep Beam With 0% Fiber Contents With and Without Opening

1431

Hayder Qais Majeed Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings

OPENING (WWBO)

3.5

Deflection (mm)

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Load (kN)

Experimental Ansys

TOP OPENING (WBOA)

4

Deflectin (mm)

2

1

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Load (kN)

Experimental Ansys

BOTTOM OPENING (WBOB)

4

Deflection (mm)

3

2

1

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

Load (kN)

Experimental Ansys

Fig. 13 Deep Beam With 0.75% Fiber Contents With and Without Opening

1432

Number 12 Volume 18 December 2012 Journal of Engineering

OPENING (WWBO)

4

Deflection (m m )

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

Load (kN)

Experimental Ansys

CONTENTAND WITH TOP OPENING (WBOA)

Deflection (mm)

3

2

1

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

Load (kN)

Experimental Ansys

BOTTOM OPENING (WBOB)

3.5

3

Deflection (mm)

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0 50 100 150 200

Load (kN)

Experimental Ansys

Fig.14 Deep Beam With 1.0% Fiber Contents With and Without Opening

1433

Hayder Qais Majeed Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings

OPENING (WWBO)

2.5

2

Deflection (mm)

1.5

0.5

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

-0.5

Load (kN)

DEEP BEAM WITH DEFFERENT RATIOS OF FIBER CONTENT AND WITH TOP

OPENING (WBOA)

3.5

2.5

Deflection (mm)

1.5

0.5

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

Load (kN)

BOTTOM OPENING (WBOB)

4

3.5

Deflection (m m )

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Load (kN)

Fig.15 Deep Beam with Different Ratios of Fiber Contents With and Without Opening

1434

Number 12 Volume 18 December 2012 Journal of Engineering

Shear crack

Flexural crack

Shear crack

Flexural crack

Shear crack

Flexural crack

1435

Hayder Qais Majeed Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings

a) 1st Crack of WWBO

along XY

Fig. (17) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WWBO at 0% Steel Fiber

a) 1st Crack of WWBO b) Shearing stress of WWBO c) The first principal stress of WWBO

along XY

Fig. (18) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WWBO at 0.75% Steel Fiber

a) 1st Crack of WWBO b) Shearing stress of WWBO c) The first principal stress of WWBO

along XY

Fig. (19) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WWBO at 1.0% Steel Fiber

Fig. (19) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WWBO at 1.0 % Steel Fiber

1436

Number 12 Volume 18 December 2012 Journal of Engineering

a) 1st Crack of WBOA b) Shearing stress of WBOA c) The first principal stress of WBOA

along XY

Fig. (20) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WBOA at 0 % Steel Fiber

a) 1st Crack of WBOA b) Shearing stress of WBOA c) The first principal stress of WBOA

along XY

Fig. (21) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WBOA at 0.75 % Steel Fiber

a) 1st Crack of WBOA b) Shearing stress of WBOA c) The first principal stress of WBOA

along XY

Fig. (22) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WBOA at 1.0 % Steel Fiber

1437

Hayder Qais Majeed Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep

Beams With and Without Openings

a) 1st Crack of WBOB b) Shearing stress of WBOB c) The first principal stress of WBOB

along XY

Fig. (23) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WBOB at 0 % Steel Fiber

a) 1st Crack of WBOB b) Shearing stress of WBOB c) The first principal stress of WBOB

along XY

Fig. (24) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WBOB at 0.75 % Steel Fiber

a) 1st Crack of WBOB b) Shearing stress of WBOB c) The first principal stress of WBOB

along XY

Fig. (25) 1st Crack, Shearing and Principal Stresses for WBOB at 1.0 % Steel Fiber

1438

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