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LET TERS

Proposed legislation in Brazil

Downloaded from http://science.sciencemag.org/ on August 2, 2018
could compromise conservation
efforts in the Cerrado.

Edited by Jennifer Sills appointment of a candidate for presi-
dent of the Instituto Chico Mendes de
British Columbia’s
Brazil’s protected Conservação da Biodiversidade (the
national PA authority) resulted in a
wildlife model reform
areas under threat nationwide protest organized by PA staff
across Brazil (8). Ill-informed policies
British Columbia (BC), Canada—
a continental hotspot of wildlife (1)
Brazil has relished a reputation of jeopardize Brazilian international leader- and a Canadian hotspot of endangered
international leadership in biodiversity ship in conservation, pose substantial species (2)—recently committed an
conservation. The country not only ranks global threats to our ability to mitigate unprecedented $14 million to reassess
first in megadiversity (1) but has one of climatic change and secure ecosystem ser- their wildlife management approach (3).
the most extensive protected area (PA) vices, and undermine attempts to achieve The province’s justifications for reform
networks (2). PAs protect biodiversity and the goals established by the Convention are laudable, including implementing
ecosystem services (3), mitigating climate on Biological Diversity (9). We urge the United Nations Declaration on the
change (4). However, a recently proposed Brazil’s legislators and decision-makers to Rights of Indigenous Peoples (4), address-
law (5) aims to repeal the legal status of turn down this unseemly proposal. ing changing societal expectations about
newly established strict PAs (which allow F. A. O. Silveira,1* M. C. Ferreira,2 L. N. wildlife, and engaging a broad spectrum
only conservation-related use) for which Perillo,2,3 F. F. Carmo,3,4 F. S. Neves2 of the public. This shift in strategy would
land ownership conflicts are not resolved 1
Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal mark a substantial departure from the
within 5 years of PA creation. If the law is de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. prevailing focus in North America, where
2
Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade
passed, all future PAs will be affected, as Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. wildlife is managed primarily for hunters
well as many current PAs. The retroactive 3
Bocaina Biologia da Conservação, Belo Horizonte, (5). Drawing on the diverse perspectives,
effect of this law could compromise both MG, Brazil. 4Instituto Prístino, Belo Horizonte, MG, rights, and rich knowledge of numerous
30642-020, Brazil.
terrestrial and marine PAs, including *Corresponding author. other members of the public who also
those in the Amazon and in two biodiver- Email: faosilveira@icb.ufmg.br value wildlife—including indigenous
sity hotspots: the Cerrado and the Atlantic peoples, conservationists, scientists—
REFERENCES
Forest. In practice, the law would prevent could provide a unique opportunity
1. R. Forzza et al., Bioscience 62, 39 (2012).
the expansion of the PA network because 2. R. D. Loyola, Divers. Distrib. 20, 1365 (2014). for transformation.
PHOTO: JUNIORS BILDARCHIV GMBH/ALAMY STOCK PHOTO

socioeconomic conflicts take much longer 3. A. G. Bruner et al., Science 291, 125 (2001). Reassessing the fundamental scientific
than 5 years to be fully settled in Brazil. 4. T. H. Ricketts et al., PLOS Biol. 8, e1000331 (2010). underpinnings of wildlife management
5. Lei No 3.751/2015; www.camara.gov.br/sileg/inte-
This setback has no precedent. gras/1507957.pdf [in Portuguese].
would also provide continental leadership.
This law is in conflict with Article 225 6. Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 3rd Measurable objectives, evidence, transpar-
of the Brazilian constitution, which states Edition (2010); http://english.tse.jus.br/arquivos/ ency, and independent review are often
federal-constitution.
that “all have the right to an ecologically 6. S. M. Pack et al., Biol. Conserv. 197, 32 (2016).
missing from wildlife management across
balanced environment” (6), and repre- 7. U. Oliveira et al., Sci. Rep. 7, 1 (2017). Canada and the United States (6). Ushering
sents the culmination of a long-standing 8. WWF Brazil, “Appointment of political associate with these important characteristics of research
no technical experience to chair ICMBio causes revolt”
series of attacks on Brazil’s biodiversity into practice would substantially improve
(2018); www.wwf.org.br/informacoes/sala_de_
PA network (6). Such actions are at odds imprensa/?uNewsID=65682 [in Portuguese]. the rigor in BC and make the province a
with scientific evidence suggesting the 9. Convention on Biological Diversity (United Nations, 1992); model for elsewhere.
need for expanding, rather than decreas- www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf. Translating BC’s aspirations into tangible
ing, PAs (7). Recently, the nontechnical 10.1126/science.aau4222 change will require independent oversight.

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N. and explain why the concept of “genomic docid/471355a82. Eds. Vinh Le Underwood.2* Faisal M. marijuana studies. advocates have long argued that legaliza. “Improving wildlife management to confirm or refute these claims. J.refworld. BC V8L 2P6. Wolfgang committees/wildlife. www. www. 217 (1971). University of Kentucky. Canada seeks to prevent marijuana access 10. Paul C. B. https://engage.un. elucidat. M. 4. M. USA. reduce incarcerations. S. F. G.2.org/ on August 2. *Corresponding author.aat7956 460 3 AUGUST 2018 • VOL 361 ISSUE 6401 sciencemag.net/index. R.raincoast. cally unbiased studies. Crim. (8. 2Raincoast Conservation Foundation.aat7279 7. 6&clang=_en. 5 January 2018. C. and breeding Rachael A. represents an important research opportunity.1126/science. 565 (2017). permits investigations into policy effects on tion problems. Adv. Clark. United Nations Treaty Collection. 32. UN General Assembly. With the passage of the Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol (United Nations. Artelle. Vigil. dients for transformation are available. 72 (2018). our findings would not change with different analysis and maintain that our study repre- Countries worldwide struggle to manage However. changes in user consumption. for decades. discuss issues that they had baseline data.3 to youth. 3University of Guelph. Clark.php/ ing basic marijuana biology. pp. Darimont. violates international treaties (6).org SCIENCE Published by AAAS . https://treaties. Page. K.1. The severity of many tools in conservation management.1126/science.bc. Moola. 4. Chapter VI. 4). 2014). Federal legalization before application to real-world conserva- Chicago. 672 (2018). (Reports. Nature 551. The needed ingre. the economics of marijuana. P.org/10. agement (6). Keller. will have access to more diverse germplasm signals of selection predict climate-driven org/projects/grizzly-bears/habitat/. J. M. Farnsworth.1126/science.pdf. “Coastal grizzly ously recalcitrant to research. Ministry of Forests. BC Wildlife Federation. Standish. North America for years to come. and Full text: dx. Artelle et al. A. experiments (1). Moola. P. that accurately assess claims made by both For example. Larkin Jr. C. It has been difficult to find evidence combine genomics.. Shackelford. common interests already exist. J. Switzerland. C. to which the potential for climate adaptation as one of tion. Darimont1. S. T. Lands. and they suggest that their sites/377/2018/05/WL_DiscussionPapers_FINAL_ underground market have been thwarted by methods can inform conservation. cuss problems in their statistical analyses Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007). Artelle. Lisle agriculture sector. population declines in a migratory bird” 9. KY 40546. the BC public about whether the recently Craig Schluttenhofer banned grizzly bear hunt was acceptable (7). Owens.org/Pages/ViewDetails. hunting advocates disagreed advocates and opponents of legalizing with conservation groups and most of recreational marijuana. Paquet. Ripple. could be imminent. Although this exploit this opportunity to conduct politi- would entail bringing together often discor. Marijuana Sidney. Bill C-45 (2018).ca/ foresighted wildlife management reform DocumentViewer/en/42-1/bill/C-45/royal-assent. 1.aau6992 soon. areas previ- 8. in Large Carnivore Conservation. Connolly. Harrigan. 153 (2018). “BC NDP on grizzly bear trophy hunt ban” (2016). http://bcwf. without the establishment of strong Fitzpatrick et al. Conserv.ca/app/uploads/ to materials representative of those on the climate change. S. because future climate scenarios to examine yellow and habitat conservation in British Columbia” (Victoria. Science 352. Canada. 289–324. with analyses and interpretation in our recent PHOTO: PHILIP STEFFAN/FLICKR/CC BY Canada begins a great tigate transformations instigated by the new policy could be squandered. Raincoast Conservation Foundation.com tion of recreational use could lessen black predict climate-driven population declines market sales. Sci. Biodiversity 8. The legalization of recreational marijuana in Canada 3. Nature 555. marijuana research and access warbler population trends in response to BC. REFERENCES BC stands at an historic moment where 1. prioritizing those dant groups.schluttenhofer@uky. 2. tem by reversing the prohibitionist system Canada. Single framework for more rigorous wildlife man. promote public health and safety.sciencemag. Psychiatry 128. 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S. 1 of which you can access for free http://science.1126/science. F. Neves Science 361 (6401).1 REFERENCES This article cites 6 articles. Perillo. Ferreira. some rights reserved. online ISSN 1095-9203) is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Government Works.sciencemag. .org/content/361/6401/459.sciencemag. exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science.1#BIBL PERMISSIONS http://www. DOI: 10.org/content/361/6401/459. F. DC 20005.Brazil's protected areas under threat F. No claim to original U. Washington. L. 2018 ARTICLE TOOLS http://science. 2017 © The Authors. N.sciencemag.sciencemag. 459.aau4222 Downloaded from http://science. Silveira. M.S. O.org/help/reprints-and-permissions Use of this article is subject to the Terms of Service Science (print ISSN 0036-8075. 1200 New York Avenue NW. Carmo and F.org/ on August 2. A. C. The title Science is a registered trademark of AAAS.