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Kaluwala Khol i.e.

Hindon River starts from Shivalik mountain range near

Kaluwala. It is a monsoon-fed river. Many smaller streams flow into it.
Distributing Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand borders in Saharanpur district, this
Shivalik mountain range has a stream originating in its south near Kaluwala
and Khothri milaan which is known as Barsani River. Other smaller streams
namely Strot, Chajjewali, Peerwali, Sapoliya, Khothri and Andhakundi flow
into Barsani. Also present is the Shivalik reserved forest area which includes
forest ranges of Mohand, Shahjahanpur, and Shakumbhri.
The distance between Shivalik ranges facing towards Uttar Pradesh and the
border of forest reserve is around 15 kms. In this whole stretch of 15 kms,
Hindon is surrounded by dense forest and mountains on both sides. Most of
the rainwater flows into Hindon stream down from the mountains sometimes
passing along trees in the forest. The river receives a great amount of waters
in monsoons and flows downstream. All the small streams join themselves
and Hindon are originated which also consumes the stream which flows
from Pur ka Tanda village, at Kamaalpur village. The residents of the
villages on the upper side of the range and Van Gujjar community has given
different names to Hindon, such as Barsani, Kaluwala khol and Guleria, but
use these names only to distinguish different lengths of the stream.

Hindon River was till now was believed to be originating from forests of Pur ka
Tanda village in Saharanpur village but according to British Gazatier and
Satellite mapping, it actually originates from the Kaluwala village at Shivalik
mountain range in Muzaffarabad block of Saharanpur district. It passes
from districts Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Baghpat, and Ghaziabad
traveling for 355 km before finally meeting the Yamuna River at forests of
Momnathal village situated about 500 m from Tilwada village in
Gautambudhnagar district. There are about 865 villages situated near Hindon
and its tributary rivers.
The water collected in monsoons at Pur ka tanda village flows as a stream.
Irrigation dept has also constructed two small check dams in the forests here
to collect water. This stream flows into Hindon River i.e. Kaluwala khol, which
carries pure and clear waters from Shivalik mountain range, at forests of
Kamaalpur village. About 90 % of the stream water is carried by Hindon itself
and rest are contributed by the stream of Pur ka tanda.
Flow of Hindon
After crossing Saharanpur district, this river enters Muzaffarnagar and
Shamli districts. Hindon River has been used to mark as borders for these
two districts. Muzaffarnagar falls in east and Shamli at the west side of the
Hindon. In both of these districts, Hindon receives agricultural runoffs in
addition to solid-liquid wastes of Budhana village. As soon as Hindon enters
Meerut district, in Meerut – Muzaffarnagar border in forests of Pithlokar
village, Kali (West) River flowing from the east, flows into Hindon.

After Muzaffarnagar – Shamli, Hindon enters Meerut and Baghpat

districts. Even these two district’s borders have been marked using Hindon
River. Meerut falls in east and Baghpat on the west side of Hindon. Flowing
forward for nearly 10 km, Hindon receives Krishna stream from the west near
Barnawa village. But before Barnawa, a filthy drain has also entered Hindon
in forests of Kalina village coming from Sardhana village in the east of Meerut

As Hindon moves forward, at its east in Meerut District, about 1500 cusecs
water is added to Hindon from Jaani escape of Upper Ganga River. The
capacity of Jaani escape is about 2000 cusec to add waters. This happens in
the forests of Mohammad dhoomi village which is about 2 km before Meerut-
Baghpat road. Henceforth the flow of river increases from here and also its
waters get cleaner. The water here was added for the purpose of further
extraction at Mohannagar through the medium of a river to send it towards
Agra city. Furthermore, Hindon receives un-treated liquid and solid wastes
from numerous industries and villages along its length before entering
Ghaziabad borders. Challenges are further increased for Hindon in Ghaziabad
as it receives a heavy amount of pollution in form of city sewage, solid
wastage and liquid waste discharge of industries, throwing the river in the
most critical condition where it also faces encroachment of its basin too.

Waters of Hindon River are controlled by a dam at Mohannagar in Ghaziabad

where only about 30% of the waters are allowed for further flow. Rest of the
water is directed west towards Yamuna River in Kalindi Kunj Dam. This
stream flowing from Mohannagar dam meets Yamuna waters from the east
side and the same amount of waters added to the Yamuna here, is sent
towards Agra River from west of Yamuna River. Therefore, the water added to
Hindon at Jaani escape is actually sent to Agra River passing from
Mohannagar and Kalindikunj.
Hindon keeps receiving sewage and industrial wastages even at Mohannagar
dam. After leaving this dam, Hindon enters Gautambudhnagar where more
serious challenges await it. More of the sewage, non treated harmful industrial
waste and encroachment await Hindon here which almost kills the river but
somehow Hindon reaches Yamuna River. Around 2 km before this merging
point, Hindon receives about 400 cusecs of waters at the east side from upper
Ganga River, but even this water boost doesn’t help Hindon much to gain its
life back from its poisoned condition.

Tributary Rivers
Main tributary rivers of Hindon are Kali west, Krishni, Pur ka Tanda River,
Dhamola, Paavdhoi, Sheela, Naagdev and Chacha raav. And supporting
streams consist of Barsani, Sapolia, Chajjewali, Peerwali, Khothri,
Andhakundi, and Stroti. These all together give life to Hindon by flowing into
it at different locations.
Naagdev River also originates from Shivalik Mountains at the west side of
Hindon River. It flows for about 45 km before merging with Hindon in forests of
Ghorki village of Saharanpur district. It flows heavily in the rainy season and
acts as the main source of waters in Hindon.
Another main tributary Kali west River originates from eastern side of Hindon
in Gangali village of Saharanpur district and flows for nearly 145 kms before
merging with Hindon at forests of Pithlokar village of Muzaffarnagar district. A
tributary stream Sheela which starts from Chudiyala already flows into Kali
west in Matoli village near Deoband. Before meeting Hindon, Kali west
receives 1000 cuesec of waters through the medium of a drain from upper
Ganga Stream Khatauli at forests of Ambarpur village which fall 25kms before
Muzffarnagar city. At present due to technical issues, waters are not being

Also, 100 cusec of waters are being added to Kali west from Bhanera
escape in Saharanpur district, again from upper Ganga stream. Kali
West is one of the most polluted rivers in our nation as it receives un-treated
wastes of about 80 small and large industries of Muzaffarnagar district along
with household liquid waste. The point where Kali west merges with Hindon, it
contributes to 80% of the Hindon waters there.
Krishni flows in the east of Hindon from Darari village of Saharanpur district
and crosses Shamli and Baghpat districts before merging with Hindon in
forests of Barnawa village of Baghpat district. It flows for about 153 km. This
river also receives a heavy amount of pollutants in form of non treated wastes
of industries of Nanota, Sikka, Thanabhawan, Charthawal, Shamli, and
Banghpat along with household waste disposal which finally goes into

Dhamola River which starts from Sansarpur village of Saharanpur district in

the west of Hindon flows for about 25 km before merging with Hindon in
forests of the historical Sharkathal village in Saharanpur district itself. This
village is “Majra” of Sadoli Hariya village which makes it historical. Dhamola’s
tributary stream Paavdhoi starts from Shanklapuri village of Saharanpur
district where a historical Shiva temple exists. Two monsoons drains namely
Khurd and Gun kat originating from Meherbaani village also flow into
Paavdhoi stream. Flowing forward for nearly 7 kms from Shanklapuri village,
Paavdhoi enters Dhamola in Saharanpur city. Paavdhoi starts with clean
waters which it receives from underground sourcing natural way “chauye” but
until reaching Dhamola it gets heavily polluted by un-treated wastes of
Saharanpur city. Dhamola receives whole sewage waters of Saharanpur city
along with Paavdhoi’s polluted waters and flows into Hindon with its totally
polluted waters.

Hindon & Its Tributaries

 Hindon River, Origination- Shivalik mountain range (Village Kaluwala
Rai, Dist Saharanpur, U.P.) , Meet point- Village Tilwada/Momthal, Dist
Gautambudhnagar, U.P., Length- 355
 Krishni River, Origination- Darari village, Saharanpur district, U.P., Meet
point- Village Barnawa, Baghpat dist, U.P., Length- 153
 Kali River west, Origination- Gangali village, dist Saharanpur,
U.P., Meet point- Village Atali/Pithlokar, dist Muzafarnagar/Meerut,
U.P., Length- 145
 Sheela River, Origination- Village Bhagwanpur, Dist Haridwar, U.K.
, Meet point- Village Matauli, Dist. Saharanpur, U.P., Length- 61
 Dhamola River, Origination- Sansarpur village, Saharanpur dist,
U.P., Meet point- Village Sharakthal/Sadoli Hariya, dist. Saharanpur,
U.P., Length- 52
 Pavdhoi River, Origination- Village Shanklapuri, dist Saharanpur,
U.P., Meet point- Saharanpur city, U.P., Length- 7
 Naagdev Rau, Origination- Village Khothri, Shivalik mountain range,
Saharanpur dist, U.P., Meet point- Village Ghorki, Saharanpur dist,
U.P., Length- 45
 Chacha Rau, Origination- Village Kaluwala, Saharanpur dist, U.P., Meet
point- Village Kamaalpur, Saharanpur dist, U.P., Length- 18

Pollution and Industries

Three main sources of pollution in Hindon are

1. non-treated wastes of industries,

2. city sewage,
3. and agricultural runoff.

The initiation of heavy pollution can be witnessed in Paraagpur village of

Saharanpur district where non treated liquid wastes of Star paper mill is
disposed of in Hindon through a drain. Before this point, Naagdev carries
wastes of many small industries which are added to Hindon at Naugaja Peer,
but in a smaller quantity. Until Hindon merges with Yamuna River, more than
a dozen drains flow into it carrying heavily polluted waters that Hindon waters
turn black and give a foul smell. The whole length of Hindon from Paraagpur
village to Tilwada village in Gautambudhnagar district, all the sewage
and waste disposal makes the river alarmingly polluted that no living
organism is able to sustain in it.

There are about 316 industries in total which are situated on/near banks of
Hindon and its tributaries in all of seven districts. Apart from these, 07
industries (5 Pulp and paper & 2 Sugarcane mills) are located near Sheela
river’s bank which flows in Haridwar district and merges with Kali west river.
Hence, total of 323 industries pollutes Hindon directly/indirectly with their un-
treated liquid and treated wastes.

According to Uttar Pradesh Water Dept, 1215.43 MLD of sewage is

produced from Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Budhana, Baghpat, Meerut,
Ghaziabad and Noida city which is transported through 68 drains. About 450
MLD of this sewage is being filtered in different city systems but rest 765.43
MLD is unfiltered due to unavailability of sewage treatment system. All of it is
disposed of in Hindon River and its tributaries.

Effects of Pollution
Due to flowing polluted waters of Hindon and its tributaries, underground
waters of villages established on banks of these rivers has also turned
poisonous. Several villages are witnessing water borne diseases. Many
deaths have been reported caused by deadly diseases caused straight to
polluted water consumption. Even some farmers still use these polluted
waters for irrigating their crops due to unavailability of alternate water source,
which has caused presence of banned Persistent Organic Pollutants in the
field soil and crops. Under the orders of National Green Tribunal, large
numbers of hand pumps have been extracted from villages residing near
Hindon and its tributaries. Once these rivers were the reason to cause
communities reside near them but now their condition is forcing them to
evacuate. The pollution level has become so high making it untouchable but
also hard to even stand nearby. According to aged residents, once these
waters were so clear that one could look at a coin lying under water but today
one cannot see one’s own palm lines when river water is taken in hand.

And at the end, our once very lively river Hindon originating from Shivalik
mountain range merges with Yamuna waters at east of Momnathal & west of
Tilwada village in a very quiet manner stating its painful journey. Even
Yamuna River witnesses painful condition of Hindon waters and welcomes it
quietly. Both the rivers merge into one and flow forward.