also known as heat flow, heat exchange, or transfer of thermal energy is the movement of heat from one place to another. When an object is at a different temperature from its surroundings, heat transfer occurs so that the body and the surroundings reach the same temperature (thermal equilibrium). Heat transfer always occurs from a highertemperature region to a cooler-temperature one as described by the second law of thermodynamics or the Clausius statement. Where there is a temperature difference between objects in proximity, heat transfer between them cannot be stopped although its rate can be controlled.
The driving force for atmospheric motion is the sun and, in particular, the uneven distribution of solar radiation across the earth. It is the primary job of the atmosphere to redistribute energy in order to achieve a balance from pole to equator. We need to understand methods of heat exchange in the atmosphere to appreciate how the thin atmosphere keeps us alive.
Evaporation and Condensation
Latent heat is the heat energy required to change a substance from one state to another. There are basically three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The difference between them is how the molecules are arranged. Solids have tightly-packed molecules, liquids are still bound together but not strongly enough to keep them from flowing, and gas molecules are free-flowing, not bound to one another at all. Energy is required to change from one state to another because bonds must be loosened, broken, tightened, or made. Energy must be given to the molecules if bonds are to be loosened or broken and taken from the molecules if they are to be tightened or made
Energy is required to change from solid to liquid, liquid to gas (evaporation), or solid
to gas (sublimation). Energy will be released to change from liquid to solid (fusion), gas to
liquid (condensation), or gas to solid. Latent heat of evaporation is the energy used to change liquid to vapor.
IMPORTANT The temperature does not change during this process, so heat added goes directly into changing the state of the substance. About 600 calories of energy are needed for every gram of water at room temperature. This is why you cool when you step out of the shower. Heat is taken from your skin to evaporate the water on your body. Evaporation is a cooling process.
Latent heat of condensation is energy released when water vapor condenses to form liquid droplets. An identical amount of calories (about 600 cal/g) is released in this process as was needed in the evaporation process. This is one mechanism of how thunderstorms maintain their intensity. As moist air is lifted and cooled, water vapor eventually condenses, which then allows for huge amounts of latent heat energy to be released, feeding the storm. Condensation is a warming process. Latent heat of fusion describes both changing from solid to liquid and from liquid to solid. From solid to liquid, about 80 calories per gram are needed. From liquid to solid, about 80 cal/g are released. Latent heat of sublimation describes both changing from solid to gas and gas to solid.
Sublimation is rare as compared to the other changes of state. From solid to gas 600 + 80 = 680 calories per gram are needed. From gas to solid, 680 cal/g are require
Specific heat is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius. The specific heat of water is very high compared to other substances, so water can store energy longer than most other substances.
For example, the Gulf of Mexico remains warm during the night, when air and soil temperatures decrease rapidly. Why is the Southern Hemisphere summer generally not warmer than the Northern Hemisphere summer although Earth is closer to the sun during the Southern Hemisphere summer? Because most of the Southern Hemisphere is water, which regulates the seasonal temperatures
methods in heat transferring
Conductionenergy is transferred by the direct contact of molecules, not by the movement of the material -Conduction transfers energy from one particle to the next, distributing heat energy from
one atom to another. Heat energy excites some of the particles in a substance, and these particles vibrate faster than before. The increase in speed makes them collide with the particles that are moving more slowly, and heat energy gets transferred through these collisions. An example of conduction is melting an ice cube in your hand--as you hold the cube, heat is transferred from your hand to the ice. The extra heat energy excites the molecules of the ice and the ice changes to a liquid (melts).
When the barrier is removed, the fast (``hot'') atoms collide with the slow (``cold'') ones. In such collisions the faster atoms lose some speed and the slower ones gain speed; thus, the fast ones transfer some of their kinetic energy to the slow ones. This transfer of kinetic energy from the hot to the cold side is called a flow of heat through conduction.
Thus, for a given temperature difference between the reservoirs, materials with a large thermal conductivity will transfer large amounts of heat over time - such materials, like copper, are good thermal conductors. Conversely, materials with low thermal conductivities
will transfer small amounts of heat over time - these materials, like concrete, are poor thermal conductors. This is why if you throw a piece of copper and a piece of concrete into a campfire, the copper will heat up much more quickly than the concrete. It is also why fiberglass insulation, and also feathers and fur, have air pockets - dead air is a poor thermal conductor, and so the air pockets aid in cutting back on the heat loss through the material. Home insulation is thus a poor thermal conductor, which keeps as much heat in as possible. Instead of being rated in terms of thermal conductivity, insulation is therefore usually rated in terms of its thermal resistance, which is defined as
putting your hand on a stove burner. The amount of energy transferred depends on how conductive the material is. Metals are good conductors, so they are used to transfer energy from the stove to the food in pots and pans. Air is the best insulator, so good insulating products try to trap air and not allow it to move.
Convectionenergy is transferred by the mass motion of groups of molecules resulting in transport and mixing of properties Convection is heat transfer through movement of a substance. The substance
usually is a gas or a liquid (e.g., air or water), but sometimes convection happens through solids too. With convection, the substance expands as it gets hotter. As it gets hotter, the substance also becomes less dense, and the matter will rise. The
cooler parts of the substance will sink to the bottom. This is what causes convection, or density, currents. The movements of these currents transports the heat energy. An example of convection is rice in water--as the water boils, the hot water rises to the top, the colder water sinks and the rice can be observed moving with the resultant convection current.
Convection is the flow of heat through a bulk, macroscopic movement of matter from a hot region to a cool region, as opposed to the microscopic transfer of heat between atoms involved with conduction. Suppose we consider heating up a local region of air. As this air heats, the molecules spread out, causing this region to become less dense than the surrounding, unheated air. For reasons discussed in the previous section, being less dense than the surrounding cooler air, the hot air will subsequently rise due to buoyant forces - this movement of hot air into a cooler region is then said to transfer heat by convection. Heating a pot of water on a stove is a good example of the transfer of heat by convection. When the stove is first turned on heat is transferred first by conduction between the element through the bottom of the pot to the water. However, eventually the water starts bubbling - these bubbles are actually local regions of hot water rising to the surface, thereby transferring heat from the hot water at the bottom to the cooler water at the top by convection. At the same time, the cooler, more dense water at the top will sink to the bottom, where it is subsequently heated Example: holding your hand over a stove burner. In meteorology, we speak of convection predominantly as that caused by rising currents of warm air. We refer to all other mass motions of air as advection. When the barrier is removed, material in the high pressure (high density) area will flow to the low pressure (low density) area. If the low pressure region was originally created by heating of the material, one sees that movement of material in this way is an example of heat flow by convection. An important example of convection currents that can be interpreted in this manner is the creation of breezes over land masses next to large bodies of water. Water has a larger heat capacity than land, and subsequently holds heat better. It therefore takes longer to change its temperature, either upward or downward. Thus, during the day the air above
the water will be cooler than that over the land. This creates a low pressure area over the land, relative to the high pressure area over the water, and subsequently one finds breezes blowing from the water to the land. On the other hand, during the night water cools off more slowly than the land, and the air above the water is slightly warmer than over the land. This creates a low pressure area over the water relative to the high pressure area over the land, and breezes will blow from the land to the water.
RadiationThe third and last form of heat transfer we shall consider is that of radiation, which in this context means light (visible or not). This is the means by which heat is transferred, For example, from the sun to the earth through mostly empty space - such a transfer cannot occur via convection nor conduction, which require the movement of material from one place to another or the collisions of molecules within the material. Often the energy of heat can go into making light, such as that coming from a hot campfire. This light, being a wave, carries energy, as we saw in the last chapter, and so can move from one place to another without requiring an intervening medium. When this light reaches you, part of the energy of the wave gets converted back into heat, which is why you feel warm sitting beside a campfire. Some of the light can be in the form of visible light that we can see, but a great deal of the light emitted is infrared light, whose longer wavelength is detectable only with special infrared detectors. The hotter the object is, the less infrared light is emitted, and the more visible light. For example, human beings, at a temperature of about 37 o Celsius, emit almost exclusively infrared light, which is why we don't see each other glowing in the dark. On other hand, the hot filament of a light bulb emits considerably more visible light.
is the transfer of heat energy through waves. It is the only method of heat transfer that works in space--in space there are no fluids that can transfer heat through convection, and matter doesn't touch (at least not consistently enough) to allow for conduction. The waves of radiation result from excited electrons that give off their excess energy in the form of photons (light particles). Some of these particles are outside of the visible spectrum, such as ultraviolet rays, but some of them are in the white light spectrum and we see them. The earth is heated by thermal radiation that comes
heat felt when standing away from a large fire on a calm night.
Everything that has a temperature above absolute zero radiates energy. Radiation is not "felt" until it is absorbed by a substance. It does not require a medium to transfer energy through as do conduction and convection. from the sun. Additionally, when you
receive an X-ray, you actually are getting a picture of your body by utilizing a particular kind of heat energy light ray that can penetrate tissue.
It is possible to move heat by physical transfer of a hot or cold object from one place to another. This can be as simple as placing hot water in a bottle and heating your bed or the movement of an iceberg and changing ocean currents. A practical example is thermal hydraulics
In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy driven flow (also known as free convection or natural convection). ...
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is "thickness". Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while honey is "thick", having a higher viscosity
is the thermal conductivity divided by the volumetric heat capacity. It has the SI unit of m²/s.
temperature. When a substance is heated, its particles begin moving and become active thus maintaining a greater average separation.
The ratio of the absolute viscosity of a liquid to its specific gravity at the temperature at which the viscosity is measured. Expressed in Stokes or Centistokes. Example: Viscosity, kinematic, cS @ 100F.....5.2 dynamic viscosity divided by the fluid density
Convection vs. conduction
Consider a body of fluid where heat is produced or enters at its lower end and leaves at its upper end. Ignoring radiation, conduction and convection can be considered to "compete" for dominance. If heat conduction is too great, fluid moving down by convection will be heated by conduction so fast that its downward movement will be stopped due to its buoyancy, while fluid moving up by convection will be cooled by conduction so fast that its driving buoyancy will diminish. If, on the other hand, heat conduction is very low, a large temperature gradient will be formed and convection will be very strong. The Rayleigh number (Ra) is a measure determining the result of this competition.
y y y y y y
g is acceleration due to gravity is the density with being the density difference between the lower and upper ends is the dynamic viscosity is the Thermal diffusivity is the volume thermal expansivity (sometimes denoted T is the temperature and is the kinematic viscosity. elsewhere)
The Rayleigh number can be understood as the ratio between the rate of heat transfer by convection to the rate of heat transfer by conduction, or, equivalently, the ratio between the corresponding timescales (i.e. conduction timescale divided by convection timescale), up to a numerical factor. This can be seen as follows, where all calculations are up to numerical factors depending on the geometry of the system.
The buoyancy force driving the convection is roughly g corresponding pressure is roughly g
L3 so the
L. In steady state, this is canceled by the shear stress
due to viscosity and therefore roughly equals V / L = / Tconv, where V is the typical fluid velocity due to convection and Tconv the order of its timescale. The conduction timescale, on the other hand, is of the order of Tcond = L2 / . Convection occurs when Rayleigh number is above 1000-2000. For example, the Earth's mantle, exhibiting non-stable convection, has Rayleigh number of the order of 103, and Tconv as calculated above is around 108 years.
Research paper in physics
Erwin m. Labios BSIA IA 2A2
Conduction - A Particulate View Let's begin our discussion by returning to our thought experiment in which a metal can containing hot water was placed within a Styrofoam cup containing cold water. Heat is transferred from the hot water to the cold water until both samples have the same temperature. In this instance, the transfer of heat from the hot water through the metal can to the cold water is sometimes referred to as conduction. Conductive heat flow involves the transfer of heat from one location to another in the absence of any material flow. There is nothing physical or material moving from the hot water to the cold water. Only energy is transferred from the hot water to the cold water. Other than the loss of energy, there is nothing else escaping from the hot water. And other than the gain of energy, there is nothing else entering the cold water. How does this happen? What is the mechanism that makes conductive heat flow possible? A question like this is a particle-level question. To understand the answer, we have to think about matter as consisting of tiny particles atoms, molecules and ions. These particles are in constant motion; this gives them kinetic energy. As mentioned previously in this lesson, these particles move throughout the space of a container, colliding with each other and with the walls of their container. This is known as translational kinetic energy and is the main form of kinetic energy for gases and liquids. But these particles can also vibrate about a fixed position. This gives the particles vibrational kinetic energy and is the main form of kinetic energy for solids. To put it more simply, matter consists of little wigglers and little bangers. The wigglers are those particles vibrating about a fixed position.
They possess vibrational kinetic energy. The bangers are those particles that move through the container with translational kinetic energy and collide with the container walls. The container walls represent the perimeters of a sample of matter. Just as the perimeter of your property (as in real estate property) is the furthest extension of the property, so the perimeter of an object is the furthest extension of the particles within a sample of matter. At the perimeter, the little bangers are colliding with particles of another substance - the particles of the container or even the surrounding air. Even the wigglers that are fixed in a position along the perimeter are doing some banging. Being at the perimeter, their wiggling results in collisions with the particles that are next to them; these are the particles of the container or of the surrounding air. At this perimeter or boundary, the collisions of the little bangers and wigglers are elastic collisions in which the total amount of kinetic energy of all colliding particles is conserved. The net effect of these elastic collisions is that there is a transfer of kinetic energy across the boundary to the particles on the opposite side. The more energetic particles will lose a little kinetic energy and the less energetic particles will gain a little kinetic energy. Temperature is a measure of the average amount of kinetic energy possessed by the particles in a sample of matter. So on average, there are more particles in the higher temperature object with greater kinetic energy than there are in the lower temperature object. So when we average all the collisions together and apply the principles associated with elastic collisions to the particles within a sample of matter, it is logical to conclude that the higher temperature object will lose some kinetic energy and the lower temperature object will gain some kinetic energy. The collisions of our little bangers and wigglers will continue to transfer energy until the temperatures of the two objects are identical. When this state of thermal equilibrium has been reached, the average kinetic energy of both objects' particles is equal. At thermal equilibrium, there are an equal number of collisions resulting in an energy gain as there are collisions resulting in an energy loss. On average, there is no net energy transfer resulting from the collisions of particles at the perimeter. At the macroscopic level, heat is the transfer of energy from the high temperature object to the low temperature object. At the particulate level, heat flow can be
explained in terms of the net effect of the collisions of a whole bunch of little bangers. Warming and cooling is the macroscopic result of this particle-level phenomenon. Now let's apply this particle view to the scenario of the metal can with the hot water positioned inside of a Styrofoam cup containing cold water. On average, the particles with the greatest kinetic energy are the particles of the hot water. Being a fluid, those particles move about with translational kinetic energy and bang upon the particles of the metal can. As the hot water particles bang upon the particles of the metal can, they transfer energy to the metal can. This warms the metal can up. Most metals are good thermal conductors so they warm up quite quickly throughout the bulk of the can. The can assumes nearly the same temperature as the hot water. Being a solid, the metal can consists of little wigglers. The wigglers at the outer perimeter of the metal can bang upon particles in the cold water. The collisions between the particles of the metal can and the particles of the cold water result in the transfer of energy to the cold water. This slowly warms the cold water up. The interaction between the particles of the hot water, the metal can and the cold water results in a transfer of energy outward from the hot water to the cold water. The average kinetic energy of the hot water particles gradually decreases; the average kinetic energy of the cold-water particles gradually increases; and eventually, thermal equilibrium would be reached at the point that the particles of the hot water and the cold water have the same average kinetic energy. At the macroscopic level, one would observe a decrease in temperature of the hot water and an increase in temperature of the cold water.
The mechanism in which heat is transferred from one object to another object through particle collisions is known as conduction. In conduction, there is no net transfer of physical stuff between the objects. Nothing material moves across the boundary. The changes in temperature are wholly explained as the result of the gains and losses of kinetic energy during collisions.
Conduction Through The Bulk of an Object We have discussed how heat transfers from one object to another through conduction. But how does it transfer through the bulk of an object? For instance, suppose we pull a ceramic coffee mug out of the cupboard and place it on the countertop. The mug is at room temperature - maybe at 26°C. Then suppose we fill the ceramic coffee mug with hot coffee at a temperature of 80°C. The mug quickly warms up. Energy first flows into the particles at the boundary between the hot coffee and the ceramic mug. But then it flows through the bulk of the ceramic to all parts of the ceramic mug. How does heat conduction occur in the ceramic itself? The mechanism of heat transfer through the bulk of the ceramic mug is described in a similar manner as it before. The ceramic mug consists of a collection of orderly arranged wigglers. These are particles that wiggle about a fixed position. As the ceramic particles at the boundary between the hot coffee and the mug warm up, they attain a kinetic energy that is much higher than their neighbors. As they wiggle more vigorously, they bang into their neighbors and increase their vibrational kinetic energy. These particles in turn begin to wiggle more vigorously and their collisions with their neighbors increase their vibrational kinetic energy. The process of energy transfer by means of the little bangers continues from the particles at the inside of the mug (in contact with the coffee particles) to the outside of the mug (in contact with the surrounding air). Soon the entire coffee mug is warm and your hand feels it.
This mechanism of conduction by particle-to-particle interaction is very common in ceramic materials such as a coffee mug. Does it work the same in metal objects? For instance, you likely have noticed the high temperatures attained by the metal handle of a skillet when placed upon a stovetop. The burners on the stove transfer heat to the metal skillet. If the handle of the skillet is metallic, it too attains a high temperature, certainly high enough to cause a bad burn. The transfer of heat from the skillet to the skillet handle occurs by conduction. But in metals, the conduction mechanism is slightly more complicated. In a manner similar to electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity in metals occurs by the movement of free electrons. Outer shell electrons of metal atoms are shared among atoms and are free to move throughout the bulk of the metal. These electrons carry the energy from the skillet to the skillet handle. The details of this mechanism of thermal conduction in metals are considerably more complex than the discussion given here. The main point to grasp is that heat transfer through metals occurs without any movement of atoms from the skillet to the skillet handle. This qualifies the heat transfer as being categorized as thermal conduction.
Heat Transfer by Convection Is conduction the only means of heat transfer? Can heat be transferred across through the bulk of an object in methods other than conduction? The answer is yes. The model of heat
transfer through the ceramic coffee mug and the metal skillet involved conduction. The ceramic of the coffee mug and the metal of the skillet are both solids. Heat transfer through solids occurs by conduction. This is primarily due to the fact that solids have orderly arrangements of particles that are fixed in place. Liquids and gases are not very good conductors of heat. In fact, they are considered good thermal insulators. Heat typically does not flow through liquids and gases by means of conduction. Liquids and gases are fluids; their particles are not fixed in place; they move about the bulk of the sample of matter. The model used for explaining heat transfer through the bulk of liquids and gases involves convection. Convection is the process of heat transfer from one location to the next by the movement of fluids. The moving fluid carries energy with it. The fluid flows from a high temperature location to a low temperature location. To understand convection in fluids, let's consider the heat transfer through the water that is being heated in a pot on a stove. Of course the source of the heat is the stove burner. The metal pot that holds the water is heated by the stove burner. As the metal becomes hot, it begins to conduct heat to the water. The water at the boundary with the metal pan becomes hot. Fluids expand when heated and become less dense. So as the water at the bottom of the pot becomes hot, its density decreases. Differences in water density between the bottom of the pot and the top of the pot results in the gradual formation of circulation currents. Hot water begins to rise to the top of the pot displacing the colder water that was originally there. And the colder water that was present at the top of the pot moves towards the bottom of the pot where it is heated and begins to rise. These circulation currents slowly develop over time, providing the pathway for heated water to transfer energy from the bottom of the pot to the surface. Convection also explains how an electric heater placed on the floor of a cold room warms up the air in the room. Air present near the coils of the heater warm up. As the air warms up, it expands, becomes less dense and begins to rise. As the hot air rises, it pushes some
of the cold air near the top of the room out of the way. The cold air moves towards the bottom of the room to replace the hot air that has risen. As the colder air approaches the heater at the bottom of the room, it becomes warmed by the heater and begins to rise. Once more, convection currents are slowly formed. Air travels along these pathways, carrying energy with it from the heater throughout the room. Convection is the main method of heat transfer in fluids such as water and air. It is often said that heat rises in these situations. The more appropriate explanation is to say that heated fluid rises. For instance, as the heated air rises from the heater on a floor, it carries more energetic particles with it. As the more energetic particles of the heated air mix with the cooler air near the ceiling, the average kinetic energy of the air near the top of the room increases. This increase in the average kinetic energy corresponds to an increase in temperature. The net result of the rising hot fluid is the transfer of heat from one location to another location. The convection method of heat transfer always involves the transfer of heat by the movement of matter. This is not to be confused with the caloric theory discussed earlier in this lesson. In caloric theory, heat was the fluid and the fluid that moved was the heat. Our model of convection considers heat to be energy transfer that is simply the result of the movement of more energetic particles. The two examples of convection discussed here - heating water in a pot and heating air in a room - are examples of natural convection. The driving force of the circulation of fluid is natural - differences in density between two locations as the result of fluid being heated at some source. (Some sources introduce the concept of buoyant forces to explain why the heated fluids rise. We will not pursue such explanations here.) Natural convection is common in nature. The earth's oceans and atmosphere are heated by natural convection. In contrast to natural convection, forced convection involves fluid being forced from one location to another by fans, pumps and other devices. Many home heating systems involve force air heating. Air is heated at a furnace and blown by fans through ductwork and released into rooms at vent locations. This is an example of forced convection. The movement of the fluid from the hot location (near the furnace) to the cool location (the rooms throughout the house) is driven or forced by a fan. Some ovens are forced convection ovens; they have fans that blow heated air from a heat source into the oven. Some fireplaces enhance the heating ability of the fire by blowing heated air from the fireplace unit into the adjacent room. This is another example of forced convection.
Heat Transfer by Radiation A final method of heat transfer involves radiation. Radiation is the transfer of heat by means of electromagnetic waves. To radiate means to send out or spread from a central location. Whether it is light, sound, waves, rays, flower petals, wheel spokes or pain, if something radiates then it protrudes or spreads outward from an origin. The transfer of heat by radiation involves the carrying of energy from an origin to the space surrounding it. The energy is carried by electromagnetic waves and does not involve the movement or the interaction of matter. Thermal radiation can occur through matter or through a region of space that is void of matter (i.e., a vacuum). In fact, the heat received on Earth from the sun is the result of electromagnetic waves traveling through the void of space between the Earth and the sun. All objects radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The rate at which this energy is released is proportional to the Kelvin temperature (T) raised to the fourth power. Radiation rate = kT4 The hotter the object, the more it radiates. The sun obviously radiates off more energy than a hot mug of coffee. The temperature also affects the wavelength and frequency of the radiated waves. Objects at typical room temperatures radiate energy as infrared waves. Being invisible to the human eye, we do not see this form of radiation. An infrared camera is capable of detecting such radiation. Perhaps you have seen thermal photographs or videos of the radiation surrounding a person or animal or a hot mug of coffee or the Earth. The energy radiated from an object is usually a collection or range of wavelengths. This is usually referred to as an emission spectrum. As the temperature of an object increases, the wavelengths within the spectra of the emitted radiation also decrease. Hotter objects tend to emit shorter wavelength, higher frequency radiation. The coils of an electric toaster are considerably hotter than room temperature and emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Fortunately, this provides a convenient warning to its users that the coils are hot. The tungsten filament of an incandescent light bulb emits electromagnetic radiation in the visible (and beyond) range. This radiation not only allows us to see, it also warms the glass bulb that contains the filament. Put your hand near the bulb (without touching it) and you will feel the radiation from the bulb as well.
Thermal radiation is a form of heat transfer because the electromagnetic radiation emitted from the source carries energy away from the source to surrounding (or distant) objects. This energy is absorbed by those objects, causing the average kinetic energy of their particles to increase and causing the temperatures to rise. In this sense, energy is transferred from one location to another by means of electromagnetic radiation. The image at the right was taken by a thermal imaging camera. The camera detects the radiation emitted by objects and represents it by means of a color photograph. The hotter colors represent areas of objects that are emitting thermal radiation at a more intense rate. (Images courtesy Peter Lewis and Chris West of Standford's SLAC.)
Our discussion on this page has pertained to the various methods of heat transfer. Conduction, convection and radiation have been described and illustrated. The macroscopic has been explained in terms of the particulate - an ongoing goal of this chapter of The Physics Classroom Tutorial. The last topic to be discussed in Lesson 1 is more quantitative in nature. On the next page, we will investigate the mathematics associated with the rate of heat transfer.