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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN GRAMMAR MASTERY AND

WRITING ABILITY
(A Correlational Study at the 6th Semester of English Education Department Students of UIN
Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta)

“Skripsi”
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training In Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Degree of Strata I (S1)

BY:
RENI SEPTIANI
NIM: 109014000199

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING

STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY (UIN) SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH

JAKARTA

2014
ABSTRACT

RENI SEPTIANI, 2014, The Correlation Between Grammar Mastery and


Writing Ability (A Correlation Study at the 6th Semester of
English Education Department Students of UIN Jakarta),
Skripsi, English Education Department, The Faculty of
Tarbiyah and Teachers Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State
Islamic University Jakarta, 2014.
Key Words : Grammar Mastery, Writing Ability,
Grammar and Writing.

The purpose of this study is to know whether there is a significant correlation


between grammar mastery and writing ability at the 6th of English Education
(EED) students of UIN Jakarta. The sample of this study is 30 students taken from
B class of sixth semester of EED of UIN. The method used in this study was a
quantitative method and the technique used in this study was a correlational
technique. In collecting the data, the documentation of students‟ writing scores
and the test of grammar are used. The scores of writing were collected from the
lecturer of writing subject at EED of UIN Jakarta. Besides, in assessing students‟
mastery of grammar, this study conducted multiple choice and error identification
test to the students. The result of this study shows that there is a very low
correlation between students‟ grammar mastery and writing ability. It is proved by
the rxy (0.165) is lower than rtable in the degree of significance 5% (0.374) and 1%
(0.478). It is considered that the null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted and the
alternative hypothesis (Ha) is rejected. In conclusion, there is a negative
correlation between students‟ grammar mastery and writing ability. Students who
have minimum level of grammar, it does not mean that the students also get poor
achievement in writing.

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ABSTRAK
RENI SEPTIANI, 2014, The Correlation between Grammar Mastery and
Writing Ability (Penelitian korelasi di Universitas Islam
Negeri (UIN) Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, Skripsi,
Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan
Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah
Jakarta, 2014.

Key Words : Grammar Mastery, Writing Ability, Grammar and Writing.


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah ada korelasi antara penguasaan
terhadap aturan tata bahasa (Grammar) dan kemampuan menulis (Writing) pada
mahasiswa semeseter 6 Jurusan PBI (Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris) UIN Jakarta
Tahun Ajaran 2013/2014. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berjumlah
30 responden diambil dari mahasiswa semester 6 kelas B. Metode yang digunakan
dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kuantitatif melalui teknik korelasi. Dalam
pengumpulan data, peneliti menggunakan dokumentasi nilai writing dan tes
grammar. Nilai writing didapat dari dokumentasi dosen mata kuliah yang
bersangkutan. Kemudian, untuk mengukur penguasaan terhadap aturan tata
bahasa (Grammar) siswa, penelitian ini menggunakan tes berupa pilihan ganda
dan identifikasi kesalahan grammar. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa
terdapat korelasi yang sangat rendah antara penguasaan siswa terhadap aturan tata
bahasa (gramma) dan kemampuan menulis (writing). Terbukti dari besarnya rxy
0.165 < rtable pada signifikan 5% (0.374) dan 1% (0.478). Itu dianggap bahwa null
hypothesis (Ho) diterima dan alternative hypothesis (Ha) ditolak. Oleh karena itu,
penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat korealsi negatif antara
pengetahuan grammar siswa dengan kemampuan menulisnya. Siswa yang
memiliki kemampuan minimum dalam aturan tata bahasa, mereka masih mungkin
mendapat pencapaian yang baik dalam kemampuan menulisnya.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


All praised is due to Allah, Lord of the world, who has given the writer
love and blessing to finish her last assignment in her study, “Skripsi”. Peace and
salutation be upon to the prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, his companion,
and his adherence.
It is a pleasure to acknowledge the help and contributions to all of
lecturers, institution, family and friends who have contributed in the different
ways hence this “Skripsi” is processed until it becomes a complete writing which
will be presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training in partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the degree S.Pd (Bachelor of Arts) in English
Language Education.
The first, she would like to give her sincere thanks to her advisors Dr.
Ratna Sari Dewi, M.Pd, and M. Teguh Khaerudin, MAppLing who have given the
writer precious help, the guidance, and the advices patiently during the completion
and the development of the study.

Secondly, the writer also would like to express her thanks and gratitude to
her beloved parents, Udin Saadi and Royani and also her brother Yovan Hadi who
have given the greatest love, prayer, moral, and financial support to her. It also
will be expressed to the whole members of her family for their biggest love and
kindness to support her in finishing this „skripsi‟.

Thirdly, the writer also realized that she never finish this paper without the
help of some people around her. Therefore, the writer would like to give her
gratitude and appreciations to:
1. Nurlena Rifa‟i, MA.Ph.D, as the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and
Teachers Training Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University
Jakarta.
2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd, as the Head of English Education Department.
3. Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum, as the Secretary of English Education
Department.

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4. All lecturers in English Education Department who always give
motivation and valuable knowledge during her study.
5. Mr. Dr. Atiq Susilo, M.A, as the lecturer of Gammar V of English
Education Department.
6. Mrs. Maya Defianty, M.Pd, as the lecturer of Writing III of English
Education Department.
7. All Classes of the sixth semester of English Education Department
Academic Year 2013/2014.
8. All of her friends in English Education Department 2009 academic
year, especially E class and her best friends (Sari, Bayyini, Hayyin,
Trianti, Erna, Agung Sdayu, Zaki, Arif, Hari, and Zen).
The words are not enough to say any appreciation for their help and
contribution in this paper. May Allah, the Almighty bless them all. Moreover, the
writer also realized that this paper is far from perfect. It is a pleasure for her to get
critiques and suggestions to make this paper better.

Ciputat, 10th July, 2014

The writer

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE ................................................................................................................i
APPROVAL ......................................................................................................ii
ENDORSEMENT SHEET ...............................................................................iii
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI .....................................................iv
ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................v
ABSTRAK ...........................................................................................................vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................ix
LIST OF TABLE ..............................................................................................xi
LIST OF APPENDICES ..................................................................................xii
CHAPTER I:
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................1
A. Background of the Study ...............................................................1
B. Problem Identification ...................................................................3
C. Limitation of the Problem ..............................................................4
D. Formulation of Problem .................................................................4
E. Purpose of the Study ......................................................................4
F. Significance of the Study ...............................................................4

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................6


A. Grammar ........................................................................................6
1. Definition of Grammar ...........................................................6
2. Importance of Grammar .........................................................8
3. Types of Grammar ..................................................................9
4. Grammar Test .........................................................................11
B. Writing ...........................................................................................13
1. General Meaning of Writing ...................................................13
2. Importance of Writing ............................................................15
3. Process of Writing ..................................................................16
4. Writing Assessment ................................................................18
C. Grammar and Writing ......................................................................20
D. Previous Studies ..............................................................................22

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E. Theoretical Thinking .......................................................................25
F. Hypothesis .......................................................................................26

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOG ............................................27


A. Time and Place of the Research ......................................................27
B. Research Design ..............................................................................27
C. Population and Sample ....................................................................28
D. Instrument of the Research ..............................................................28
E. Try Out ............................................................................................29
F. Technique of Data Collection ..........................................................30
G. Technique of Data Analysis ............................................................31
H. Statistical Hypothesis ......................................................................33

CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDING .........................................................34


A. Data Description ..............................................................................34
B. Data Analysis ...................................................................................39
C. Data Interpretation ...........................................................................43

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ..............................45


A. Conclusions .....................................................................................45
B. Suggestions ......................................................................................45
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................47
APPENDICES ..................................................................................................50

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Holistic Scoring ............................. 19


Table 2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Analytic Scoring ............................ 20
Table 3.1 Category of Reliability .......................................................................... 30
Table 3.2 The Interpretation of Correlation “r” Product Moment ........................ 32
Table 4.1 Grammar Scores .................................................................................... 34
Table 4.2 Statistical Scores of Grammar............................................................... 36
Table 4.3 Writing Scores....................................................................................... 36
Table 4.4 Statistical Scores of Writing ................................................................. 38
Table 4.5 Data Analysis Table .............................................................................. 39
Table 4.6 SPSS Correlation Table ........................................................................ 41
Table 4.7 Pearson Correlation ............................................................................... 43

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LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 Students‟ Grammar Scores ............................................................ 50
APPENDIX 2 Students‟ Writing Scores ............................................................... 52
APPENDIX 3 Research Instrument ...................................................................... 54
APPENDIX 4 Grammar Test ................................................................................ 56
APPENDIX 5 Output Anatest4 of the Result of Try Out ..................................... 61
APPENDIX 6 Output SPSS of Students‟ Grammar Scores ................................. 63
APPENDIX 7 Output SPSS of Students‟ Writing Scores .................................... 64
APPENDIX 8 Output SPSS of Correlation between X variable and Y variable .. 65
APPENDIX 9 Grammar Syllabus ......................................................................... 66
APPENDIX 10 Writing Syllabus .......................................................................... 69

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study


Grammar is the structure and meaning system of language. All languages
have grammar, and each language has its own grammar. People who speak the
same language are able to communicate because they intuitively know the
grammar system of that language - that is, the rules of making meaning. Students
who are the native speakers of English have already knew about English grammar
and how to use it properly. They recognize the sounds of English words, the
meanings of those words, and the different ways of putting words together to
make meaningful sentences. However, no matter how good the students in
English, they still need to learn how to transfer their knowledge of grammatical
concept from spoken to written language.
Written language means the representation of a language by writing
system. Writing itself is a method of representing language in visual form through
the signs and symbols. Writing is also one of language skill that is always taught
in school. Writing skill is more complex and difficult than the other skills which
not only require the mastery of linguistic competence such as grammar,
vocabulary, pronunciation, punctuation, intonation, etc. but also it requires the
conceptual judgment. This is indicated by Heaton's statement that "The writing
skills are complex and sometimes difficult to teach, requiring mastery not only of
grammatical and rhetorical devices but also of conceptual and judgmental
elements".1
Based on the description above, the writer assumes that grammar is one of
language components which take a role in writing ability. Having strong skills in
writing and grammar, it allows writers to deliver their message to their readers in
a clear and understandable way. On the contrary, writing in grammatical incorrect
manner is only confusing the readers. It is important to use words properly in

1
J.B. Heaton, Writing English Language Test, (New York: Longman: 1988), p. 135.

1
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order to get the point directly, and to practice good basic grammar to add
credibility in writing.
Realizing that grammar is inescapable in writing process, people,
especially teachers, could encourage the students to examine grammatical errors
in their own writing. Although the students are good in grammatical concept, they
still get guidance to become effective writers. Effective grammar instruction
begins with what students have already known about grammar, and it helps them
to use this knowledge as they write. By connecting the mastery of grammatical
concept to writing strategy, the students can know that grammatical concept give
effect in their ability to write effectively.
In English Education Department (EED), the college students as pre-
service teachers are taught many subjects and two of them are grammar and
writing. Grammar subject is taught from grammar 1 up to grammar 5. In learning
grammar 1 up to grammar 4, students learn more about basic grammar rules. But
in learning grammar 5, the lecturer more focuses on TOEFL (Test of English as
Foreign Language) preparation because TOEFL is one of graduation requirements
of English Education Department. In TOEFL, students get all the aspects of
grammatical rules in structure test. That is why, before taking grammar 5, they
have to pass the grammar 1 up to grammar 4. The other skill that is taught is
writing. In writing subject, it starts from writing 1 up to Academic writing.
Students are taught about the first steps to write; such as learn about sentences,
punctuations, write a paragraph, make an essay outline, until make an essay and
research paper.

In writer's experience as a college student that also as a pre-service teacher


at English Education Department "Syarif Hidayatullah" State Islamic University,
the most problem appear in learning English is about comprehending the grammar
rules and the difficulties to write. This is because in grammatical rules, it is
regarded not as something interesting in its own right, but also as a necessary
function of language, and it is therefore taught by way of rules and structures.
Besides, the difficulties arise from the nature of the system itself and from the
3

differences between English and students' native language. Nevertheless, students


have to be concerned about grammar rules because they will always find it in
order to be able to communicate effectively in English, either spoken or written.
On the other side, in writing process, students often find it hard even to write in
their native language. The students cannot write well if they do not have a good
grammar competence. It happens because they have lack of confidence that make
them feel hard to write. Besides, the students sometimes get stuck to develop the
topic in their writing. On the contrary, the students who have good competence in
grammar, they could be more confident than those who are not, because they
know how to make good and proper sentences.
Based on the description above, the writer conducted an investigation on
the correlation between grammar mastery and writing ability. Based on the
background above, the writer is intended to research about:
"The Correlation between Grammar Mastery and Writing Ability (A Correlational
Study at 6th Semester of English Education Department Students of UIN Jakarta".

B. Problem Identification
Based on the background of the study above, the writer found some
problems which are developed into the following statements:
1. When learning English, grammar is one of the English components that
give effect in writing competence because that is the rules of making
meaning.
2. Students who have good competence in grammatical concept still need a
guidance to become effective writers.
3. Students feel difficult in learning grammar because it is a necessary
function of language and taught by way of rules and structures.
4. The students cannot write well if they do not have a good grammar
competence because they have lack of confidence to make a good text
even a sentence.
5. Students feel hard to write because they do not know how to develop the
topic and they get stuck in the middle of writing.
4

6. Students' mastery of grammar has more or less influence in improving


their ability in writing.

C. Limitation of the Study


As the topic suggests, this study is conducted to prove whether or not there
is a significant systematic relations between grammar mastery and the ability in
writing. Therefore, this study is limited to analyze the correlation between
grammar mastery and writing ability.

D. Formulation of the Problem


In order to make systematic approach to solve the problem, the writer
conducted the research on the correlation between grammar mastery and writing
ability. The research question can be formulated as "Is there any significant
correlation between students' grammar mastery and their ability in writing?"

E. Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study is to know whether there is a significant
correlation between grammar mastery and writing ability. Moreover, the study
conducted to get the empirical data from the both scores. Those are grammar 5
scores and writing 3 scores.

F. Significance of the Study


The study is expected to give some contributions to English language
teaching and learning.

1. For writer, this research can find whether there is a significant correlation
between grammar mastery and writing ability. Some people assume that
without a working knowledge of good grammar, good writing is
impossible. So, the extent to which grammar mastery affects the students'
ability in writing.
5

2. For the English teachers and learners, the finding of the research can
inform them about the relations between grammar and writing. The
researcher also hopes that the result of this study will become input to
English teachers and also English learners for their teaching and learning.
The students will know whether the grammar mastery will help them
much or not in making a good writing.

3. For Further researchers who are interested in correlation research, they can
get basic information from this research. So, they can do their research
deeper and better than this research.
CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Grammar

1. Definition of Grammar
In the context of education especially in the learning and teaching of a
foreign language, grammar is usually considered one of the language components
beside the vocabulary and sound system which students should acquire. Knowing
grammar means understanding what the text means correctly. The experts Stewart
and Vailette point out that "The word grammar means the sort of thing they
learned in English class or in other language classes, when they were taught about
subjects and predicates and part of speech, …".1 The statement indicates that the
students were taught about the rules of target language in their school. They learn
about it because the teacher aware that as foreign language learners, students
should know about the language rules that native speaker use as a communication
tool. Students commonly do not realize that when they express themselves
through writing or speaking, what they write or speak have its patterns and they
keep subconsciously applying the patterns in their communication.
Grammar gives language users the control of expression and
communication in everyday life. . "Grammar deals with the form of sentences and
smaller units such as clauses, phrases and words".2 Mastery over words helps
speakers to communicate their emotions and purpose more effectively. Otherwise,
communication can sound like a toddler getting frustrated because he or she does
not have many words to express his or her thoughts well. Moreover, grammar also
gives effect in written communication. Written communication skills with
grammatical precision evince professionalism. Employing inappropriate grammar
in a written communication in a letter or email - such as using "LOL" or flawed
1
Thomas W. Stewart and Jr. Nathan Vailette, Language Files; Materials for an
Introduction to Language and Linguistics, (Department of Linguistics The Ohio State University),
p. 8.
2
Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, A Student's Introduction to English
Grammar, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 1

6
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subject-verb agreement like "we was" - makes the message less effective because
the errors will distract from the intent. Understanding basic principle of word,
sentence and paragraph structures bestows writers with the flexibility to plan how
they communicate a message, from a simple text to a presentation. If people
cannot successfully speak or write to one another, they cannot share their thoughts
to other people.
In "Scientific Writing; Easy When You Know How", Peat states that
"Grammar is about knowing why something reads badly and knowing how to fix
it. It is impossible to write well without using words correctly". 3 It means that,
when people want to write something, they should know about grammar because
it shows the meaning and relation with every single word that becomes a sentence.
On the other hand, Harmer on his book says that
"Real language use is often very untidy and cannot be automatically reduced to simple
grammar patterns. Students need to be aware of this, just as they need to be aware of all
language possibilities. Such awareness does not mean that they have to be taught each
variation and linguistic twist, however. It just means they have to be aware of language
and how it is used".4

From Harmer's statement means that the students should aware about these
rules that they learn as a target language, however, these enable them to
communicate each other without creating misunderstanding and misinterpretation.
They should not learn it deeply because when they communicate to other people
especially in spoken, they just need to know how people understand about what
they say.
According to Radford, "grammar is traditionally subdivided into two
different but interrelated areas of study morphology and syntax. Morphology is
the study of how words are formed out of smaller units (called morphemes). And
syntax is the study of the way in which phrases and sentences are structured out of

3
Jennifer Peat, Scientific Writing; Easy When You Know How, (London: BMJ Books,
2002) p. 214.
4
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (New York: Longman
Group, 1991), p. 23.
8

words."5 In learning grammar means learning of morphology and syntax because


both of them are the components of language.
In addition Kolln and Funk point out three definitions of grammar. First,
grammar is the system of rules in our heads. Second, Grammar is the formal
description of the rules. And the third, grammar is the social implications of
usage, sometimes called "linguistic etiquette".6
Grammar is the system of rules in our heads. It means that the study of
grammar a lifetime of "knowing" how to produce sentences. This subconscious
system of rules is your "language competence". It is important to recognize that
these internalized rules vary from one language community to another. Grammar
is the formal description of the rules. This definition refers to the branch of
linguistic science concerned with the formal description of language, the subject
matter of books like this one, which identify in an objective way the form and
structure, the syntax of sentences. Grammar is the social implications of usage,
sometimes called "linguistic etiquette". This definition could be called do's and
don't's of usage, rather than grammar.
Considering those definitions and explanation, the writer shows that
grammar is a set of rules derived from a language that enable people to understand
what they read or what they construct in sentences or expressions when they
communicate. Grammar is the way of the spoken and written language to be
organized. It is concerned with the order of word groups, clauses and sentences
and morphemes in words. It is closely related to generic structure and cohesion.

2. Importance of Grammar
When teaching a language, teachers actually have two purposes; insure
fluency and accuracy in all language skills. Fluency is the ability to speak fluently
whereas accuracy is ability to speak with correct grammar structures, such as the
using of verb forms correctly, phrasal verbs, prepositions, etc. To communicate

5
Andrew Radford, An Introduction to English Sentence Structure, (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 1.
6
Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, Understanding English Grammar: Eight Edition,(New
York: Pearson, 2010), p. 3.
9

intelligibly, to make sense with each sentence, a learner should know the grammar
of the target language. According to Penny Ur "Grammar does not only affect how
units of language are combined in order to ‘look right'; it also affects their
meaning".7 Supporting his opinion, Knapp and Watkins state that "Grammar is a
name for the resources available to users of a language system for producing texts.
A knowledge of grammar by a speaker or writer shifts language use from the
implicit and unconscious to a conscious manipulation of language and choice of
appropriate text".8 From that statement, it is clear that grammar is one of the
important things in English because it is not just to make the sentence good but
also it will refers to its meaning. "A knowledge of grammar in this sense is not
just concerned with rules for what can and can't be done with the organization and
use of words in English sentences, but also with the way written English
function".9 Therefore, to write or speak in a clearer and more effective manner,
people have to study grammar. For the people who have unconscious knowledge
of grammar, it may be sufficient for simple language use. But the people who
wish to communicate in the artistic manner with well-defined structures must go
for the greater depth of understanding and proficiency what the study of grammar
offers.

3. Types of Grammar
Some linguists have their own perspective about different varieties of
grammar - that is, different ways of describing and analyzing the structures and
functions of language.
According to George Yule, there are three types of grammar.10 Those are:
1. Mental Grammar

7
Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching; practice and Theory, (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 76.
8
Peter Knapp and Megan Watkins, Genre, TEXT, grammar; Technologies for teaching
and assessing writing, p. 32
9
Ibid., 33
10
George Yule, The Study of Language, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985),
p. 69.
10

Mental grammar is a form of internal linguistic knowledge which operates in


the production and recognition of appropriately structured expressions. And
this is not the result of any teaching (purely skill).
2. Linguistic Ettiquette
Linguistic etiquette is the identification of the proper or best structures to be
used in a language.
3. Traditional grammar
Traditional grammar involves the analysis study of the structures found in a
language.
On the other hand, Kolln and Funk divided the types of grammar into two,
namely; Structural and Transformational Grammar.11
1. Structural Grammar
The structuralists recognize the importance of describing language on its own
terms. Instead of assuming that English words could fit into the traditional
eight word groups of Latin, the structuralists examined sentences objectively,
paying particular attention to how words change in sound and spelling (their
form) and how they are used in sentences (their function). Another important
feature of structuralism, which came to be called "new grammar", is its
emphasis on the systematic nature of English.
2. Transformational Grammar
Unlike the structuralists, whose goal was to examine the sentences we actually
speak and to describe their systematic nature, the transformationalists wanted
to unlock the secrets of language; to build a model of our internal rules, a
model that would produce all of the grammatical - and no ungrammatical -
sentences. It might be useful to think of our built-in language system as a
computer program. The transformationalists are trying to describe that
program. The several important concepts of transformational grammar are:
first, the recognition that a basic sentence can be transformed into variety of
forms, depending on intent or emphasis, while retaining its essential meaning;
for example, questions and exclamations and passive sentences. Another

11
Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, op. cit., p .6-7.
11

major adoption from transformational grammar is the description of our


system for expanding the verb.
Grammar is still an important component in English no matter how many
experts classified it into several types. In conclusion, the most important thing in
learning language is the learners have to know the language structure as well as
possible in order to increase their ability in using the target language itself.

4. Grammar Test
The testing of grammar is one of the mainstays of language testing. A
basic knowledge of grammar underlies the ability to use language to express
meaning, and so grammar tests have an important part in language program. This
is in line with Madsen's opinion that "Grammar tests are designed to measure
student proficiency in matters ranging from inflections in syntax. Syntax involves
the relationship of words in a sentence, including matters such a word order, use
of the negative, question forms and connectives".12
Madsen presents two basic ways to measure the grammar skills of the
beginning-level students:
a. Individual Testing
Individual testing is a test that designed for testing students individually by
using oral test. These requests can ask for easy spoken replies or simply for
nonverbal actions. This tests should use the familiar vocabulary in the test
question as well as structures those students have been taught.
b. Group Testing
In group testing, the teacher gives the students test by using directed physical
responses. First, the teacher explains and illustrates any new vocabulary
words. Then, he or she asks the students to make a drawing according to
teacher's spoken instruction.
Moreover, in testing grammar, there are also some types that could be used
by the teacher to measure students' achievement in grammar subject. And

12
Harold S. Madsen, Techniques in Testing, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983),
p. 34.
12

according to Heaton, there are some of the most common types that used to test of
the grammatical features of the language. The types of the test such as:13
a. Multiple- choice
Probably the most common way of testing grammatical knowledge is the
multiple choice test. These tests have the advantage of being easy to grade and
being able to cover a lot of grammatical points quickly.
b. Error correction
Error correction items are also useful for testing grammar. An error correction
item is one in which the student is given a sentence with an error. Four words
or phrase in the sentence marked by letters, and the students need to decide
which of the words or phrases has the error.
c. Completion items
Completion items are items in which the testees are asked to fill in blanks in
sentences. The advantage of completion items is that they test production, not
just recognition. The disadvantage is that they need to be marked by hand and
there will be some cases where the marker needs to make judgments about
whether a response is correct.
d. Transformation items
The transformation type of item is extremely useful for testing ability to
produce structures in the target language and helps to provide a balance when
included in tests containing multiple-choice items.
e. Items involving the changing of words
Another type of item is one in which testees are given a sentence and a word
which they need to fit into the sentence by changing the form of the word.
This type of grammar test item tests students' knowledge of different word
forms and how they are used in sentences.
f. ‘Broken sentence item'
This type of item tests the student's ability to write full sentence from series
of words and phrases, and thus does not allow the test writer to concentrate

13
J. B. Heaton, Writing English Language Test, (New York: Longman Group, 1988), p.
34.
13

exclusively on testing those particular grammatical features which may have


just been practiced in class. When setting this item, make sure that the
instructions are very clear indeed and provide one or two examples.
g. Pairing and matching items
This type of item usually consists of a short conversation; a stimulus in the
form of a statement or question followed by a response often in the form of
statement. The item is more useful for testing students' sensitivity and their
awareness of the functions of language rather than their knowledge of
grammar. Students are simply required to write the letter of the correct
response in the space provided.
h. Combination items and Addition items
These objective-type items have long been used in past tests. They should
used, sparingly, however, as they involve largely mechanical responses on the
part of students. Note that although the separate sentences are linked to one
another by theme, the items can hardly be described as being contextualized in
any real way.

B. Writing

1. General Meaning of Writing


It can be said that writing is a crucial part in our global society. Through
writing, we can learn a lot of things, from the simplest one such as how to make a
glass of milkshake until how this earth is formed, for example. In short, writing
plays a significance role in our life.
The statement above is from the writer' points of view. To the writer, in
addition, writing also means as one of communication tools. Through writing,
people can express their ideas, experiences, thoughts, and feelings. Moreover,
through writing, people can communicate over long distance and period.
Writing is an expression of ideas, thoughts, and stories on a piece of paper.
For some people, writing might be hard even in their first language. It could be
more difficult for them to write in foreign language. As Oshima and Hogue state
that writing is the action that needs the some process such as thinking, writing,
14

reading, correcting and revising. Those are not the simple steps in writing because
people have to realize that what they write is what they want to say or express. 14
Writing is not only a symbol on a piece of paper but it should be arranged into
good sentences or paragraph by using some grammatical rules.
"Writing as a skill: by far the most important reason for teaching writing,
of course, is that it is a basic language skill, just as important as speaking,
listening, and reading".15 And according to Ramsey, "Writing is a process of
synthesis. As you write, you used words and information to express your
viewpoint in a coherent whole, an essay. But writing draws on intuition as well as
reasoning, on sensation and emotion as well as fast and memory.16
According to Heaton, there are five skills necessary for writing. They are: 17

 Language use: the ability to write correct and appropriate sentences;

 Mechanical skills: the ability to use correctly those conventions peculiar


to the written language;

 Treatment of content: the ability to think creatively and develop


thoughts, excluding all irrelevant information;

 Stylistic skills: the ability to manipulate sentences and paragraphs, and


use language effectively;

 Judgment skills: the ability to write in appropriate manner for a


particular purpose with a particular audience in mind, together with an
ability to select, organize and order relevant information.
Based on the description above, the writer assumes that writing is the most
difficult skill of language because there are many rules and aspects that should be
considered by learners in order to the readers comprehend about the text.

14
Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Introduction to Academic Writing, (New York: Pearson
Longman, 2007), p.15.
15
Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach English, (England: Pearson Education Limited, 2000),
p.79.
16
H. Ramsley Fowler, The Little Hand Book. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company,
2001), p. 3.
17
Heaton, op. cit., p. 135.
15

2. Importance of Writing Skill


Undoubtedly, writing has become a prominent part in people's everyday
life. In almost all aspects of life, writing in whatever form it be, is proved to be an
effective way of communication. For example, people should understand about
written works in their life such as simple notices at shopping centers, printed
media such as newspaper and magazine; educational and scientific sources like
books, journals, and encyclopedia, and literary works such as poem and novel.
They show us that writing serves in any different forms and gives essential
function in day-to-day activities. We can imagine how hard people carry out their
duties without writing. Surely, there will be too much information untold and lots
of knowledge will be left.
Moreover, as the societies grew larger and more industrialized, people
need to be able to write and read well because it is very important for bureaucratic
organizations to be successful. In other words, writing skill can be a ticket to
better college grades and greater academic achievement since good writing skill is
so much needed in the academic context. Besides, most jobs nowadays as well as
future jobs will require writing skill; even to apply for a job, good writing skill is
demanded.
Meanwhile in the smaller scope of educational setting, i.e. at schools, most
of examinations require students to use their writing skill. Students' success at
school is partly determined by their writing skills. Furthermore, it is commonly
known that good writing will foster good thinking. When students are trying to
write, they should automatically think because they develop their ideas and
sometimes revise what they have written. On the other hand, good thinking, if
being properly applied, gives rise to what so-called good writing.
The fact that writing skill clearly gives many advantages to people, it
suggests that having good writing skill will give many benefits to them. In
addition, being able to take part in today's information culture, writers can express
themselves well through writing; they can communicate their ideas, thoughts,
feelings, and experiences and at the same time, let it known by others.
16

As a closing remark of this section, the writer quotes Chris Tribble's


statement (in Harmer, 2004:3):
"To be deprived of the opportunity to learn to write is.......... to be excluded from a wide
range social roles including those which the majority of people in industrialized societies
associate with power and prestige".18

This shows that writing is closely related to the society. To be successful in


whatever field we are in, having writing skill is very much helpful. Thus, writing,
especially in a foreign language is one skill which all teachers or educational
practitioners should pay attention to.

3. Process of Writing
Teaching writing focuses not only on a product of writing itself but also on
the process of writing. Writing process is a process which writer begins to write
down their ideas on the paper which is valuable aid to the whole learning process.
Oshima and Hogue state that the process of writing consists of four steps, those
are: prewriting, organizing, writing a draft, and the last step are polishing the draft
by editing and revising.19 The various processes of writing need various skills to
meet the aims in a writing activity. The prewriting stage encourages the writers to
generate ideas, which can happen in various ways, such as, reading a passage,
conducting some research, brainstorming, listing, clustering, discussing a topic
and free writing. Meanwhile, organizing and drafting stages are the core process
of writing in which the actual writing activity happens. And the last step is
polishing. Polishing is most successful if the writer do it in two steps are by
editing and revising. Revision is needed to improve writing work, especially for
improving books.
On the other side, editing is needed to check on the smaller issues of
grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. Frodesen wrote some techniques for
editing.
1. Read-Aloud Technique: many students find that slowly reading their drafts
aloud to listen for errors can help them in making corrections. For shorter

18
Harmer, How to Teach Writing, (London: Longman, 2004), p. 3.
19
Oshima and Hogue. Op.cit. p. 15.
17

papers, some students who are of their error patterns read through the paper
several times, listening for different kinds of errors each time.
2. Pointing to Words: some writers use a pencil, pen, or finger to point to words
one by one.
3. "Slow-Down" Techniques: This involves reading a draft in some way that is
in contrast to the normal linear process, such as starting with the last sentence
in each paragraph and reading in reverse. Such a technique may help writers
detect certain kinds of morphological errors such as missing plural endings,
but would not work well for others, such as reference words or subject-verb
agreement.
4. Word Processing Grammar Checkers: Grammar checkers in word
processors can flag certain kind of errors. As long as writers do not blindly
follow the suggestions (since grammar checkers can often create errors rather
than correct them if suggestion are taken indiscriminately), checkers can be
helpful in getting writers to pay attention to potential errors. If students do not
understand the suggested corrections, they should make the change.
In addition, Kane states that writing which is an activity that put
something on a paper has three steps. First is "thinking" that involves choosing a
subject, second is "doing" as known as drafting and the last is "doing again" that
means revising.20
From the explanation above, the writer concludes that writing is a process
that involves at least four distinct steps: prewriting, drafting, revising and editing.
Prewriting is anything the writers do before write a draft of their document.
Drafting occurs when the writers put their ideas into sentences and paragraph.
Revising is the key to effective writing because here the writers think more deeply
about their readers' need and expectation. And the last is editing which means the
process of checking for such things as grammar, mechanics and spelling. The last
thing the writers should do before printing their work.

20
Thomas S. Kane, The Oxford Essential Guide to Writing, (New York: Barekley Books,
1988), p. 17.
18

4. Writing Assessment
Evaluating students' performance is a crucial aspect of teaching. A
formative process related to the planning, design, and teaching strategies.
Assessment is not simply a matter of setting exams and giving grades. Scores and
evaluative feedback contribute enormously to the learning of individual students
and to the development of an effective and responsive writing course. As a result,
an understanding of assessment procedure is necessary to ensure that teaching is
having the desired impact and that students are being judged fairly.
There are many kinds of writing tests. The reason for this is fairly simple:
A wide variety of writing tests is needed to test the many kinds of writing task that
we engage in. For one thing, there are usually distinct stages of instruction of
writing, such as pre-writing, guided writing, and free writing. Another reason for
the variety of writing tests in use is the great number of factors that can be
evaluated; mechanics (including spelling and punctuation), vocabulary, grammar
appropriate content, diction (or word selection), rhetorical matters of various
kinds (organization, cohesion, unity; appropriateness to the audience, topic and
occasion); as well as sophisticated concerns such as logic and style.21
According to Hyland there are some methods that used in scoring writing
test and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Scoring guides,
called "rubrics", are used to aid raters by providing bands of descriptions
corresponding to particular proficiency or rhetorical criteria. Rubrics are designed
to suit different contexts and seek to reflect the goals of the course and what its
teachers value as "good writing". Rubrics need to be carefully written to avoid
over reliance on ambiguously subjective terms, but tend to fall back on such
description as "fairly", "quite", and "reasonably' to describe writing features in
intermediate bands.22 The most familiar rubrics that used by teacher to assess
students writing are holistic scoring and analytic scoring methods.

21
Harold S. Madsen, op.cit., p. 101.
22
Ken Hyland, Second Language Writing, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2003), p. 227-230.
19

 A holistic scale is based o a single, integrated score of writing behavior. This


method aims to rate a writer's overall proficiency through an individual
impression of the quality of a writing sample.

Table 2.1
Advantages and disadvantages of holistic scoring23
Advantages Disadvantages
Global impression not a single Provides no diagnostic
ability information
Emphasis on achievement not Difficult to interpret composite
deficiencies score
Weight can be assigned to certain Smooths out different abilities
criteria in subskills
Encourages rater discussion and Raters may overlook subskills
agreement Penalizes attempts to use
challenging forms
Longer essays may get higher
scores
One score reduces reliability
May confuse writing ability
with language proficiency

 Analytic scoring procedures require readers to judge a text against a set of


criteria seen as important to good writing. Analytic scoring more clearly
defines the features to be assessed by separating, and sometimes weighting,
individual components and is therefore more effective in discriminating
between weaker texts. Widely, used rubrics have separate scales for content,
organizations, and grammar, with vocabulary and mechanics sometimes added
separately, and these are assigned a numerical value. Appendix … provides an
example of analytic scoring method.

23
Ibid., p. 227.
20

Table 2.2
Advantages and disadvantages of analytic scoring24
Advantages Disadvantages
Encourages raters to address the May divert attention from overall
same features essay effect
Allows more diagnostic reporting Rating one scale may influence
Assists reliability as candidate others
gets several scores Very time consuming compared
Detailed criteria allow easier rater with holistic method
training Writing is more than simply the
Prevents conflation of categories sum of its parts
into one Favors essays where scalable info
Allows teachers to prioritize easily extracted
specific aspects Descriptors may overlap or
Ambiguous

C. Grammar and Writing

In the area of English as a foreign language learning, writing has been the
most difficult and complex skill to acquire. It is normal if the process of teaching
and learning in the classroom reflects that written cycle should be given after the
spoken cycle has been done. The assumption that the students are ready to write is
after they have prepared with a certain amount of vocabulary or words so that they
can arrange the words into sentences that represent the purpose of communication.
Besides, it is in line with the reason that they have had it in mind and they have
practiced it when they are doing the spoken cycle. Thus, when they have to write,
they can communicate and develop their ideas through their writing.
Moreover, this also implies that in order to master the four language skills
i.e., listening, speaking, reading, and writing, mastering language components is a
must. That is why the teaching of language components, namely grammar,
vocabulary, and sound system (pronunciation, intonation, etc) should be targeted
as much as possible to enhance the mastery of language skills.
Again, the writer here would like to point out that in order to be able to
write well, meaning that we can convey our ideas and opinions to the readers well
without leaving misunderstanding and misinterpretation. In some way, this

24
Ibid., p. 230.
21

indicates the relation between grammar and writing does exist. As Frodesen said
that in the second language writing classroom, grammar is a source to make
effective communication. But, it does not mean all kinds of grammar instruction
are useful in the EFL/ESL class, the students will automatically be able to
transform input received through explicit grammar instruction into productive
output.25
Meanwhile, concerning the nature of written communication, Harmer
(2004:6-7) explains:
"When we are engaged in spoken communication, we often decide what to say as the
conversation continuous on the basis of what our co-participant are saying.......instead of
being able to get our points across unhindered, we may be constantly interrupted and so
have to proceed in a less structured way than we had anticipated.........writing, however, is
as we have seen, significantly different".26

The statements indicate that in speaking, sometimes, it is fine to use


ungrammatical expression since clarifications and repetition are possible. Besides,
spoken communication is usually supported by its context such as the speakers'
tone, gestures, and facial expression so that saying everything in an exact
grammatical way is unnecessary. In written communication, however, the case is
different. The readers are totally dependent upon what they read without being
able to ask something weird or confusing they come across in a piece of written
work.
Hence, grammar and writing, however, are dependent each other. The
writing teachers need to be aware in making decision about grammar in the
writing classroom. Nevertheless, it seems that, in some form, the role of grammar
remains as an essential component of effective written communication.

25
Marianne Celce Murcia (ed), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language,
(Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001), p. 234.
26
Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach Writing, op. cit., p. 6-7.
22

D. Previous Studies

Several studies were conducted by some experts about grammar


knowledge and writing skill. Moreover, the researcher made a correlation between
the both of it. And the research findings of them can be elaborated briefly to give
foundation and support for this research.
First, the study entitled "The Relationship between Writing Competence,
Language Proficiency and Grammatical Errors in the Writing of Iranian TEFL
Sophomores". It had written by Mohammad Ali Fatemi from University Sains
Malaysia in 2008. This research investigated the relationship between writing
competence, language proficiency and grammatical errors in the writing of Iranian
TEFL sophomores. This research consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the
objectives were to assess the writing competence of the Iranian TEFL
sophomores, measure their language proficiency, and examine the relationship
between their writing competence and language proficiency and its sub skills
including listening, reading, and grammatical competence. The second phase was
mainly descriptive and error analysis of the subjects' writing was done. The
objectives of second phase found the most frequently occurring categories of
grammatical errors, establish a rank order of these errors, establish if their L1 was
the source of their grammatical errors and establish the probable interference of
grammatical errors with communicative purposes of their writing. A quantitative
approach was used to analyze the data collected from the first phase and
qualitative approach was employed for the second phrase. The findings of the
first phase showed that the significant correlations were found between the
subjects' writing competence and their language proficiency, between their writing
competence and the sub-skills of language proficiency. In sub-skills, the strongest
correlation was found to be between writing and grammatical competence. The
result of second phase indicated that their L1 was a source of grammatical errors
and in general grammatical errors interfered with communicative purposes among
which errors of miss-selection accounted for the major source of communicative
23

failure in their writing and that the majority of grammatical errors which were
rooted in their L1 led to communicative failure.27
Another study was conducted by Ulul Azmi entitled "A Correlation
between Students' Mastery of Past Tense and Their Ability in Writing Recount" at
Eleventh Grade Students of MA Hassamussholihat in the academic year of
2010/2011. The objectives of the study are to find out the correlation between the
students' mastery of past tense and their ability in writing recount text. The
method of this research is correlational study and applied a purposive sampling
technique, with the total number of the sample is 40 students. The data were
gained through tests, namely grammar test and writing test that were analyzed by
using product moment pearson. The findings of the research showed that there is a
significant correlation between students' mastery of past tense and their ability in
writing recount. From the result of his research, the researcher showed that the
better the students' mastery in past tense, the better they ability in writing recount.
It also means describe that there is a significant correlation between students'
grammar knowledge and their ability in writing.
And then, the study entitled "Does EFL Students' Grammatical Ability
Account for Writing Ability?" was conducted by Yun Hsuan Huang from
Department of Apllied Foreign Languages, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and
Science, Tainan, Taiwan. The objective of this study is to examine whether
grammar instruction could promote the students' grammatical ability, thereby
further helping their writing. In this study, the tests are divided into grammar
subset and writing subset. The research was administered to ten senior high school
students in a lower-intermediate English class at a cram school in Southern
Taiwan. The research findings implied that there was no strong relationship
between the knowledge of grammar and usage that means the ability in writing
among lower-intermediate learners.28 From her research, it was found that

27
Mohammad Ali Fatemi, "The Relationship between Writing Competence, Language
Proficiency and Grammatical Errors in the Writing of Iranian TEFL Sophomores", A Thesis
Presented to the University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, 2008, pp 1-24, not published.
28
Ulul Azmi, "A Correlation between Students' Mastery of Past Tense and Their Ability
in Writing Recount at Eleventh Grade Students of MA Hassamussholihat", a Skripsi Presented to
the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers Training in UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, Jakarta, 2011,
pp. 24-36, not published.
24

statistically, grammar mastery has no strong effect for making a good writing.
This is because there are some other factors such as about the quality and quantity
of test takers and test items, the instruction in writing test that should more
informative, and then about the rubric for the writing test itself.29
Those previous studies above used as references for the researcher in
comparing between those relevant studies with the study conducted by the
researcher this time. This study was the correlation between grammar knowledge
and writing ability. Some differences appeared between this study and previous
study were obviously the method of the study. The first previous study used two
phases and it was conducted more complex than this study because it used two
methods that were quantitative for the first phase and qualitative for the second
phase. For this study used just one phase so the writer used quantitative method
namely correlational study. Besides, the first previous study is connecting about
writing competence, language proficiency and also language sub skills such as
listening, reading and grammatical competence. In the second previous study, the
researcher connecting only past tense as a part of grammar and the ability of
students in writing recount. It is clearly different with this research; in this
research the researcher connecting between writing ability and the grammar
knowledge generally. The researcher took some areas of grammar that usually
appeared in TOEFL test and did the test to the participants. Moreover, the
differences also found for the data collection and sample of research. In the
second and third previous researches, the data got from two tests namely grammar
test and writing test. And sample that used in the second previous study was 40
and in the third previous study were 10 students. It is different with this research;
in this research the data got from doing the test but only one test. The researcher
did grammar test and asked for writing score from the subject's lecturer. The
sample was 30 students that took from one class.
Although there are a lot of differences, those previous studies has a similar
in the objectives with this research. The objective from the previous researches
and this research is to know the relationship between grammar and writing ability.

29
Yun Hsuan Huang, "Does EFL Students' Grammatical Ability Account for Writing
Ability?", CHIA-NAN ANNUAL BULLETIN, 2011, pp. 505-5011.
25

E. Theoretical Thinking

According to writer, Grammar is one of the Language components, which


plays very important roles for people who want to learn English language.
Students are taught about grammar in their English class because the teacher
knows that grammar still takes an important role in learning English. To learn and
to be able to communicate in English, students have to know how people usually
use this language; put words into sentences and use them in communication. This
related to the Huddleston and Pullum theory that grammar helps speakers to
communicate their emotions and purpose more effectively because grammar deals
with the form of sentences and smaller units such as clauses, phrases and words.
Therefore, the writer assumes that people who can use grammar properly is
considered having good English.
Meanwhile, writing is one of skills in a language. Writing skill deals with
the ability to arrange the graphic system such as letter, words, and sentences of
certain language that is used in written communication in order to understand the
message or the information. This also means that writing is used for
communication in written form. Writing refers to a process in which its activities
are not produced immediately. Oshima and Hogue state that writing is the action
that needs the some process such as thinking, writing, reading, correcting and
revising the words or the sentences that have been written.
In language learning, writing is a productive skill. When students produce
language into written form, they will get feedback from the reader either teachers
or their friends whether their writing is good or not. Without practicing of writing,
students will have no chance to improve their writing skill because the skill will
not be seen by the teacher or their friends to be evaluated. The teacher will assess
it by using rubric scale for assessing writing. There are many interrelated factors
that must be taken into consideration when designing tasks and scoring
procedures for writing assessment. One of the criteria in rubric scale, the teacher
should check students' grammar in their product of writing to minimize
ungrammatical features that can make the readers confused. Therefore, it indicates
that, the relation between grammar and writing does exist.
26

As the topic of this study, is attempted to reveal whether or not there is a


significance correlation between grammar knowledge and writing ability.
Therefore, it is conducted to find out the possible relations between the two
variables through correlational statistics.

F. Hypothesis

A Hypothesis in the research is a basic assumption of how the result of the


research will be. It is a prediction of a phenomenon. Moreover, in formulating
hypothesis, the researcher has to ensure that the hypothesis is real or based on
fact. There are two kinds of hypothesis:30
a. Alternative Hypothesis (HA): There is a significant correlation between
grammar mastery and writing ability.
b. Null Hypothesis (HO): There is no significant correlation between
grammar mastery and writing ability.

30
Etta Mamang Sangadji, Metodologi Penelitian, (Yogyakarta: Andi Yogyakarta, 2010),
p.92.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Time and Place of the Research

This research was conducted at English Education Department of "Syarif


Hidayatullah" State Islamic University that is located on Jl. Ir. Haji Juanda no 95,
Ciputat, Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15412. The research was carried out on 24
February 2014 to 14 May 2014.
After getting an agreement of the EED's chairman and then consult to
advisors who guided the writer about her research, the researcher chose this place
for her study because she is one of college students at English Education
Department. Therefore, it easier for her to get the data that she need. Besides, the
writer knew well about the grammar and writing subject which were taught in this
major and it was relevant for her research.
.

B. Research Design

The writer used the quantitative method in conducting this research. It


means that the writer collected and analyzed the data statistically from the
students' scores of variables to find out the correlation between grammar
knowledge and writing ability of 6th semester students of English Education
Department of UIN Jakarta. This research categorized into correlative type. As
Gay stated that "Correlational research involves collecting data in order to
determine whether, and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more
quantifiable variables".1 So that, the writer correlated two variables of this
research; they were grammar knowledge as X variable and writing ability as Y
variable of 6th semester students of EED.

1
L. R. Gay, Educational Research; Competencies for Analysis and Aplication Third
Edition, (Ohio: Merril Publishing Company, 1987), p. 230.

27
28

C. Population and Sample

1. Population
Arikunto states that "Population is all subjects of the research". 2 It means
that the population of this research was the whole students of 6th semester in EED.
Whereas, the total numbers of them are 120 students. They were divided into three
classes 6A, 6B and 6C.

2. Sample
According to Arikunto "Sample is the representative the population to be
research. If the total population is less than 100, it is better to take all of them as
the sample but if the total population is more than 100 students, the sample can be
taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more".3 Besides, Gay states that "The sample
for a correlational study is selected using an acceptable sampling method, and 30
subjects are generally considered to be a minimally acceptable sample size".4
Based on the quotation above, in this research, the sample of the
population is taken through purposive sampling. The B class of the 6th semester
was chosen for the sample of this research. The writer took 30 students as sample
from the population.

D. Instrument of the Research

In a study, instrument as a tool for collecting data plays a very significant


role. Thus, constructing research instrument carefully and in an appropriate
manner is greatly fundamental. With regard to the different desired data, research
instrument may be different from one study to another. Research instrument may
be in the forms of test, questionnaire, observation sheet, document analysis,
records of interview and interview sheet, etc.

2
Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek (Jakarta: Rineka
Cipta, 1996), p. 173.
3
Ibid., p. 174.
4
Gay, op. cit., p. 231.
29

Because there were two variables that the writer observed namely
grammar mastery and writing ability, the instrument that used in this research was
test and documentation score of sixth semester students in the subject of Writing.
The score of this subject was taken from available document from the subject
lecturer.

E. Try Out

Having finished constructing the instrument, the writer then consulted it to


the advisor. The next step was the tryout the instrument. Try out was intended to
measure validity and reliability of the test items.
The tryout of the test was held on May, 6th 2014. It was administered to
different students that were students of 6C. 20 students were taken as the subjects
of the try out.
The analysis of the validity and reliability were the next step conducted
after the tryout had been administered.

1. Validity
The validity was tested using ANATES 4. The test contained 50 numbers of
multiple choices. After the calculation by using ANATES 4, it was found that
19 number items of tests were very significant, 3 items were significant, 25
items were adequate, and 3 items were insignificant.

2. Reliability
Reliability of test was measured using ANATES 4, the result was:
Mean = 25, 65
Standard deviation = 5, 32
Correlation = 0.72
Reliability of tests = 0.83
30

The test which has reliability coefficient among 0,81 - 1,00 has been very
reliable.

Table 3.1
Category of Reliability5

Value Remark

0,00 - 0,20 Unreliable

0,21 - 0,40 Less Reliable

0,41 - 0,60 Sufficient

0,61 - 0,80 Reliable

0, 81 - 1,00 Very Reliable

F. Technique of Data Collection

1. Grammar Test
The researcher conducted the grammar test to 6th semester students. The
writer chose the material of Grammar 5 for the test because she knew that the
subject of Grammar 5 at EED of UIN Jakarta was more focus on TOEFL
preparation. Therefore, the researcher chose this subject because the 6th semester
students had already learned about this material at previous semester. The writer
gave the students the multiple choice and error identification test. It consisted of
15 items for multiple choice and 15 items number for error identification. The
total number of the test is 30.

2. Documentation of Score
The researcher collected the data from the lecturer at English Education
Department. The researcher chose Writing 3 because it was taught in line with
Grammar 5.

5
Zainal Arifin, Evaluasi Pembelajaran, (Bandung: PT REMAJA ROSDAKARYA, 2009), p. 257
31

G. Technique of Data Analysis

In analyzing the data, the researcher used correlation product moment


which developed by Carl Pearson. "Correlation product moment is used to show
whether there is a correlation between X variable and Y variable."6 The symbol of
the correlation product moment is "r".7 Data operation technique is done though
the steps below:
a. Finding the number of correlation using formula:

rxy =
N = Number of Participants
X = Students' Grammar Scores
Y = Students' Writing Scores
∑X = The Sum Scores of Grammar
∑Y = The Sum Scores of Writing
∑X2 = The Sum of the Squared Scores of Grammar
∑Y2 = The Sum of the Squared Scores of Writing
∑XY = The Sum of Multiplied Score between X and Y
This formula is used in finding index correlation "r" product moment
between X variable and Y variable (rxy)
b. To know the significance between two variables, the formula of the
significance test is:8

tcount =

6
http://eprints.undip.ac.id/6608/1/Korelasi_Product_Moment.pdf
7
Drs. Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan, (Jakarta: Rajawali, 2006), p.27.
8
Ridwan and H. Sunarto, Pengantar Statistika Pendidikan, Sosial, Ekonomi, Komunikasi,
dan Bisnis, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2011), p.81.
32

tcount = t value
r = value of correlation coefficient
n = number of participants

c. To interpret the index scores of "r" correlation, product moment (rxy)


usually used the interpretation such as bellow9:

Table 3.2
The Interpretation of Correlation "r" Product Moment

The score of "r"


Interpretation
product moment (rxy)

There is a correlation between X and Y, but


the correlation is very weak or little. So it is
0.00 - 0.199
considered no significant correlation in this
rating.

There is a correlation between X and Y, but


0.20 - 0.399
it is weak or little.

There is a correlation between X and Y. The


0.40 - 0.599
value is medium.

0.60 - 0.799 There is high correlation between X and Y.

There is a very high correlation between X


0.80 - 1.000
and Y.

9
Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D, (Bandung: Alfabeta,
2011), p.184.
33

H. Statistical Hypotheses
1. If ro as same as or higher than rt, the Ha is accepted. It means that there is a
significant correlation between grammar mastery and writing ability.
2. If ro is lower than rt, the Ha is rejected. It means that there is no significant
correlation between grammar mastery and writing ability.
CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDING

A. Data Description
The researcher conducted the research at State Islamic University
Jakarta (UIN) Syarif Hidayatullah in which the 6th semester students of
EED were chosen to be the participants of this research. There was one
test that was given to the participants. It was grammar test. The test of
grammar was conducted by the researcher using multiple choice and error
identification tests. However, the researcher did not conduct the test of
writing itself. She collected the writing scores from the lecturer of the
writing of EED of UIN Syarif Hidayatullah. The data that were gotten are:
Table 4.1
Grammar Scores
Participants Grammar Scores (X)
Student 1 63

Student 2 57

Student 3 60

Student 4 73

Student 5 60

Student 6 73

Student 7 57

Student 8 60

Student 9 63

Student 10 53

34
35

Student 11 50

Student 12 80

Student 13 47

Student 14 67

Student 15 60

Student 16 70

Student 17 73

Student 18 70

Student 19 50

Student 20 53

Student 21 60

Student 22 63

Student 23 53

Student 24 60

Student 25 63

Student 26 67

Student 27 60

Student 28 70

Student 29 77

Student 30 57

From the scores that were collected above, the researcher needed to
know the statistical score of the data including the mean, median, mode,
maximum score, minimum score, and standards deviation of the scores. To
36

find out those mean, etc… the researcher used SPSS. The finding can be
described such as bellow:

Table 4.2
Statistical Scores of Grammar
Statistics

Grammar Score
Valid 30
N
Missing 0
Mean 62.3000
Median 60.0000
Mode 60.00
Std. Deviation 8.33418
Variance 69.459
Minimum 47.00
Maximum 80.00

From the calculation of SPSS, the average score of grammar is


62.3. The median score of grammar is 60. The mode or the score that
appear the most is 60. The highest score of grammar test is 80.00 while the
lowest score is 47.00. The standard deviation is 8.33 with variance 64.459.

Table 4.3
Writing Scores
Participants Writing Scores (Y)
Student 1 77

Student 2 80

Student 3 77
37

Student 4 81

Student 5 80

Student 6 71

Student 7 74

Student 8 76

Student 9 80

Student 10 79

Student 11 75

Student 12 75

Student 13 64

Student 14 73

Student 15 74

Student 16 78

Student 17 77

Student 18 79

Student 19 79

Student 20 69

Student 21 76

Student 22 78

Student 23 76

Student 24 75

Student 25 73

Student 26 80

Student 27 72
38

Student 28 70

Student 29 72

Student 30 69

From the scores that were collected above, the researcher counted the
statistical scores using SPSS, such as bellow:

Table 4.4
Statistical Scores of Writing
Statistics

Writing Scores
Valid 30
N
Missing 0
Mean 75.3000

Median 76.0000
Mode 80.00

Std. Deviation 4.05267

Variance 16.424
Minimum 64.00

Maximum 81.00

From the statistic table, the mean of writing score is 75.3. Median
76, and mode 80. The highest score of writing is 81.00 and the lowest one
is 64.00. The standard deviation is 4.05 with variance 16.424.
39

B. Data Analysis
Table 4.5
Data Analysis Table

Participants X Y XY X2 Y2
Student 1 63 77 4851 3969 5929

Student 2 57 80 4560 3249 6400

Student 3 60 77 4620 3600 5929

Student 4 73 81 5913 5329 6561

Student 5 60 80 4800 3600 6400

Student 6 73 71 5183 5329 5041

Student 7 57 74 4218 3249 5476

Student 8 60 76 4560 3600 5776

Student 9 63 80 5040 3969 6400

Student 10 53 79 4187 2809 6241

Student 11 50 75 3750 2500 5625

Student 12 80 75 6000 6400 5625

Student 13 47 64 3008 2209 4096

Student 14 67 73 4891 4489 5329

Student 15 60 74 4440 3600 5476

Student 16 70 78 5460 4900 6084

Student 17 73 77 5621 5329 5929

Student 18 70 79 5530 4900 6241

Student 19 50 79 3950 2500 6241

Student 20 53 69 3657 2809 4761


40

Student 21 60 76 4560 3600 5776

Student 22 63 78 4914 3969 6084

Student 23 53 76 4028 2809 5776

Student 24 60 75 4500 3600 5625

Student 25 63 73 4599 3969 5329

Student 26 67 80 5360 4489 6400

Student 27 60 72 4320 3600 5184

Student 28 70 70 4900 4900 4900

Student 29 77 72 5544 5929 5184

Student 30 57 69 3933 3249 4761

N = 30 X=1869 Y=2259 XY=140897 X2=118453 Y2=170579

N = 30
X = 1869
Y = 2259
XY = 140897
X2 = 118453
Y2 = 170579

rxy =

=
41

= 0.165

To make sure the result of the calculation above, the researcher used
SPSS program. The using of SPSS is to know whether the calculation that
the researcher did manually was correct and to make sure that there is no
mismatching calculation between scores that the researcher counted. The
calculation of SPSS was described such as follow:

Table 4.6
SPSS Correlation Table
Correlations

Grammar Scores Writing Scores

Pearson Correlation 1 .165


Nilai grammar Sig. (2-tailed) .385
N 30 30
Pearson Correlation .165 1
Nilai writing Sig. (2-tailed) .385
N 30 30

The results of those two calculations (manual calculation and SPSS


calculation) are same, in which show the value of rxy 0.165. It means that
there is no mismatch in the process of calculating the data.
From the calculation above, it is found that rxy is 0.165. The next step
is to find the significance of variables by calculating rxy is tested by
significance test formula:

tcount =
42

In which: tcount = t value


R = 0.165
n = 30
Therefore, it is calculated that:

tcount = =

= = 0.89

Before testing the tcount, the writer made two hypotheses of


significance; they are:
Ha : There is a significant correlation between two variables
Ho : There is no significant correlation between two variables
The formulation of test:
1. If tcount> ttable, it means that the null hypothesis is rejected and there is
a significant correlation.
2. If tcount< ttable, the null hypothesis is accepted and there is no significant
correlation.
Based on the calculation above, the result is compared by ttable in the
significant of 5% and 1% and n=30, the writer found the Degree of
Freedom (Df) with the formula:
Df = N – nr
= 30 - 2
= 28
From Df = , it is obtained ttableof 5% = 2.05 and 1% = 2.77. It means
that tcount is lower than ttable 0.89 < 2.05 and 0.89 < 2.77. Therefore, the
43

alternative hypothesis (Ho) is accepted. In other words, there is no


significant correlation between grammar knowledge and writing ability.

C. Data Interpretation
Based on the calculation above, it shows that the correlation value
is rxy 0.165 and the degree of freedom (Df) is 28. In the table of
significance shows if Df value is 28, the table of significance 5% and 1%
are 0.374 and 0.478.
The statistical hypotheses state:
1. If ro as same as or higher than rt, the Ha is accepted.
2. If ro is lower than rt, the Ha is rejected.
Based on the score of rxy 0.165, it indicates the score of ro < rt, in
which 0.165 < 0.374 and 0.165 < 0.478. It means that Ha is rejected; or in
other word there is no significant correlation between Grammar mastery
and Writing ability.
To interpret the gravity of rxy 0.165, the table of “r” product
moment shows that the correlation value is on the very low size, in which
between 0.00-0.20. The table of “r” interpretation is such as follow:

Table 4.7
Pearson Correlation1
The score of “r”
Interpretation
product moment (rxy)
0.00 – 0.199 Very low
0.20 – 0.399 Low
0.40 – 0.599 Medium

1
Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D, (Bandung: Alfabeta,
2011), p.184.
44

0.60 – 0.799 High


0.80 – 1.000 Very high

The very low correlation indicates that if students only have


minimum level of grammar mastery does not mean they also get poor
achievement in writing. There were some students who got low scores in
grammar but they got high scores in writing. It can be inferred that the
students’ mastery of grammar features did not have a significant role in
writing. Grammar might be a source to make effective communication but
it does not mean all kinds of grammar are useful for students. However,
there were other possible factors resulting in a worse performance in the
grammar test but a better performance in writing. For the worst
performance on the grammar test, this might be because the students have
low comprehension about the grammatical areas and have limited time in
doing the test. They might be confused in putting the right words to make
the correct sentences. As for the writing, there were some other factors that
influence students to make their writing better such as the ability to think
creatively and develop thoughts, the ability to choose excellent
vocabulary, the ability to write with good spelling and punctuation, etc. It
simply illustrated that, students who did not have good grammar in their
writing might be good in other aspects that usually used in rating scale of
writing assessment.
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

A. Conclusions
According to the statistical calculation which was analyzed in the previous
chapter, a conclusion can be sum up that there is no significant correlation
between grammar mastery and writing ability. The data showed that most of
students got the minimum score of grammar but they got good score in writing.
Therefore, the writer summarizes that grammar mastery gives less contribution
and has very low correlation to the ability of writing. Students who have
minimum level of grammar mastery, does not mean that they also get poor
achievement in writing. It was affected by some relevant factors such as students’
motivation in learning grammar and writing, their frequency of practice, and the
writing assessment that was not only focus on grammatical area but also some
other factors such as content, organization, vocabulary and mechanics.

B. Suggestions
1. For Teachers or lecturers
Knowing the result, the English teacher as a motivator and stimulator can
explain that some students are still weak in their mastery of grammar. The
teacher should explain about grammar rules and increase the students’
comprehension by using a good method. Besides, the teacher should explain
to the students that there is some criteria to assess writing subject in order to
the students are not only focus on grammatical aspects in writing but also
learn more about how to organize the text well by considering the content,
vocabulary, spelling and also punctuation.

2. For Students
For language learners, even though students’ mastery of grammar has
less contribution to their writing, the students should pay attention to the

45
46

language structures. Grammar is one of language components which interacts


with other components. Knowing about grammar rules is very helpful for
them to communicate effectively either spoken or written.

3. For the Further Researcher


This research can be a contribution to the research in education which is
intended to find out the correlation of two variables, in this case grammar and
writing. This research may also be a relevant previous study that can be used
by other researchers to conduct a further research relating to the correlation
between language skills and language components.
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Fatemi, Mohammad Ali. The Relationship between Writing Competence,


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http://eprints.undip.ac.id/6608/1/Korelasi_Product_Moment.pdf

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48

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Komunikasi, dan Bisnis. Bandung: Alfabeta, 2011.

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Britain: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
50

APPENDIX 1

Grammar Scores

Date: 14 May 2014


Error Score
No. Participants MC
Identification

1 Rani Desita 120 70 63

2 Afni Amalia 90 80 57

3 Fuji Herawati 110 70 60

4 Syifa Fauziah 120 100 73

5 Nunik Kurniawati 100 80 60

6 Elin Ermasari 120 100 73

7 Ayatika Adawiah 90 80 57

8 Rafiqa Irza Amirat 100 80 60

9 Kumala Dewi 90 100 63

10 Nadia Karimah 90 70 53

11 Ervi Nur Azizah 90 60 50

12 Siti Khafidoh 130 110 80

13 Rachmanita Oktaviani 70 70 47

14 Nurita Wulandari 130 70 67


51

15 Ari Armadi 100 80 60

16 Firda Amelia 110 100 70

17 Salsabil Firdaus 120 100 73

18 Siti Raudotul Fushiah 130 90 70

19 Farhan 70 80 50

20 Tri Hanifah Agustina 90 70 53

21 Safitri Oktaviani 100 80 60

22 Fauziah Putri Rosalina 90 100 63

23 Yulianti Sari 80 80 53

24 Audrey Ningtyas 100 80 60

25 Utami Fauziyah 140 50 63

26 Putik Delima 110 90 67

27 Selinda Febriani 110 70 60

28 Kurnia Firdausi Nuzula 90 120 70

29 Mahmudova Ayna 140 90 77

30 Farzona Jurakhon 90 80 57

Score = MC + EI/3
52

APPENDIX 2

Writing Scores

PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS

UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA


DAFTAR NILAI

KODE MK : BHS 5110


MATA KULIAH : WRITING III
DOSEN 1 : Maya Devianti, M.Pd

NOMOR Formatif UTS UAS NILAI AKHIR


NO NAMA 20.0% 30.0% 50.0%
POKOK ANGKA HURUF

1 1111014000045 Rani Desita 70,00 75,00 80,00 76,50 B

2 1111014000046 Afni Amalia 80,00 80,00 80,00 80,00 A

3 1111014000047 Fuji Herawati 70,00 75,00 80,00 76,50 B

4 1111014000048 Syifa Fauziah 75,00 85,00 80,00 80,50 A

5 1111014000051 Nunik Kurniawati 80,00 80,00 80,00 80,00 A

6 1111014000052 Elin Ermasari 75,00 70,00 70,00 71,00 B

7 1111014000055 Ayatika Adawiah 70,00 75,00 75,00 74,00 B

8 1111014000056 Rafiqa Irza Amirot 70,00 80,00 75,00 75,50 B

9 1111014000057 Kumala Dewi 80,00 80,00 80,00 80,00 A

10 1111014000059 Nadia Karimah 80,00 75,00 80,00 78,50 B


53

11 1111014000062 Ervi Nur Azizah 75,00 75,00 75,00 75,00 B

12 1111014000063 Siti Khafidoh 75,00 75,00 75,00 75,00 B

13 1111014000064 Rachmanita Oktaviani 70,00 50,00 70,00 64,00 C

14 1111014000065 Nurita Wulandari 70,00 70,00 75,00 72,50 B

15 1111014000066 Ari Armadi 80,00 75,00 80,00 73,50 B

16 1111014000067 Firda Amelia 70,00 70,00 85,00 77,50 B

17 1111014000071 Salsabil Firdaus 80,00 75,00 75,00 76,50 B

18 1111014000074 Siti Raudotul Fushiah 70,00 75,00 85,00 79,00 B

19 1111014000075 Farhan 80,00 75,00 80,00 78,50 B

20 1111014000076 Tri Hanifah Agustina 70,00 50,00 80,00 69,00 C

21 1111014000078 Safitri Oktaviani 70,00 80,00 75,00 75,50 B

22 1111014000080 FauziahPutri Rosalina 70,00 80,00 80,00 78,00 B

23 1111014000082 Yulianti Sari 75,00 70,00 80,00 76,00 B

24 1111014000083 Audrey Ningtyas 70,00 70,00 80,00 75,00 B

25 1111014000084 Utami Fauziyah 75,00 75,00 70,00 72,50 B

26 1111014000085 Putik Delima 75,00 75,00 85,00 80,00 A

27 1111014000086 Selinda Febriani 70,00 50,00 85,00 71,50 B

28 1111014000088 Kurnia Firdausi Nuzula 70,00 70,00 70,00 70,00 B

29 1111014000132 Mahmudova Ayna 60,00 65,00 80,00 71,50 B

30 1111014000135 Farzona Jurakhon 60,00 70,00 70,00 68,00 C


54

APPENDIX 3

KISI-KISI INSTRUMENT

Nama Universitas : UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta Mata Kuliah : Grammar


Jurusan/Prodi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Alokasi Waktu : … menit
Semester : Genap

STANDAR KOMPETENSI INDIKATOR INDIKATOR JENIS NOMER JUMLAH


KOMPETENSI DASAR SOAL SOAL SOAL
Mahasiswa Dapat Memahami Subject-Verb MC, Error 1, 2, 16 3
menguasai menggunakan makna identification
aturan bahasa Inggris ungkapan atau Verb-Agreement, MC 3, 5, 8, 26 4
gramatika bhs. dengan aturan kalimat yang Tense, and Form
Inggris pada gramatika yang dibuat dengan Full Subordination PG 4, 27, 30 3
tingkatan lanjut efektif untuk susunan
yang diukur mengutarakan grammar pada The Verbals PG 17, 18, 20 3
dengan skor maksud atau tingkat tinggi
500 setara ekspresi (Advanced)
TOEFL Mampu Pronoun-Form, PG 6, 19, 21, 5
mengungkapkan Agreement, and 22, 25
fikiran dengan Reference
susunan kalimat Word-Form PG 7, 9, 10 3
berstruktur Word-Order PG 13, 11, 23 3
55

rumit Parallel Structure PG 12, 14, 29 3


(complicated)
secara efisien
Mampu Unnecessary PG 28, 15, 24 3
menunjukkan Repetition
tingkat
penguasaan
grammar yang
tinggi ditandai
dengan skor 500
setara TOEFL
Jumlah 30
56

APPENDIX 4

GRAMMAR TEST

Name :
Nim :

A. Direction: Question 1-15 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence


you will see for words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), or (D). You are to
choose one word or phrase that best complete the sentence.

1. You should postpone ______ the manager until we hear the outcome of
tomorrow’s meeting.
(A) to see
(B) seeing
(C) see
(D) will see
2. ___________ started as a modern sport in India at the same time that it did in
Europe.
(A) To ski
(B) That skiing
(C) Ski
(D) Skiing
3. Hollywood film producers have been regularly _________ millions of dollars
for a film.
(E) budgeted
(F) budgeting
(G) budgets
(H) budget
57

4. __________whose fauna and flora create an enchanted world.


(A) A biological park
(B) Where a biological park
(C) It is a biological park
(D) Being a biological park
5. Potatoes and onions _________ from sprouting by a new technology using
radiation.
(A) are preventing
(B) prevention is
(C) are prevented
(D) prevented
6. New chemicals are not always tested to determine if ________ will cause
cancer of genetic mutations.
(A) it
(B) he
(C) she
(D) they
7. _____________is surpassed only by that of monkeys and apes.
(A) The intelligent dog
(B) The dogs have intelligence
(C) The dogs whose intelligence
(D) The intelligence of dogs
8. The healthful properties of fiber have _________ for years.
(A) known
(B) knew
(C) be knowing
(D) been known
9. After she drank the lemonade, the cake tasted too _________ to her.
(A) sweetly
58

(B) sweet
(C) sweetness
(D) more sweet
10. Courses in ___________ linguistics are frequently offered at the university.
(A) comparison
(B) compare
(C) comparative
(D) comparable
11. Noise pollution generally receives less attention than ________air pollution.
(A) does
(B) it does
(C) over
(D) it does over
12. ________ oats and rye can endure severe winter weather
(A) Either
(B) They are
(C) Both
(D) Both of
13. Proponents of solar energy wonder ________ funded so few research projects.
(A) why the government has
(B) has the government
(C) why has the government
(D) the government has why
14. Painters of the expressionist school concentrated on themes of horror, fear,
and ______.
(A) violent
(B) violently
(C) more violence
(D) violence
59

15. Yeasts are tiny _____ plants


(A) and small
(B) single-celled
(C) small single-celled
(D) small one-celled
B. Direction: Question 26-50 are complete sentences. Identify the one word or
phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically
correct.

16. The jury took long times to reach an agreement among themselves.
A B C D

17. The excited movie drew large crowds of excited children every Saturday.
A B C D
18. I’ve finally assembled enough information for beginning writing my thesis.
A B C D

19. The Italian dramatist and poet Ugo Betti was a judge who gained literary
A B C
recognition late in their life.
D
20. Stop tell me what to do! Let me to make up my own mind.
A B C D

21. The various types of bacteria are classified according to its shapes.
A B C D
22. The secretary put the letter back in her envelope and filled it.
A B C D

23. Not until a baby kangaroo is four months old it begins to live outside its
A B C D
mother’s pouch.

24. Money is required for research to advance forward.


A B C D

25. Neither the students nor their teacher was happy with his test grades.
A B C D
60

26. The team really looks good tonight because that coach had them practiced
A B C D
every night this week.

27. Therefore pandas eat bamboo almost exclusively, they are also carnivorous.
A B C D

28. Famous for his new innovation in punctuation, typography, and language,
A B
Edward Estlin Cummings published his collected poems in 1954.
C D

29. My home offers me a feeling of security, warm, and love.


A B C D

30. The thief knew precisely what the collection of priceless jewels was hidden.
A B C D

ANSWER KEY

1. B 16. B (Time)
2. D 17. B (Exciting)
3. B 18. C (To begin)
4. C 19. D (His)
l
5. C 20. A (Telling)
6. D 21. D (Their)
7. D 22. C (Its)
8. D 23. C (Does it begin)
9. B 24. D (Forward)
10. C 25. D (Their)
11. A 26. D (Practice)
12. C 27. A (Although)
13. A 28. B (Innovation in)
14. D 29. C (Secure)
15. B 30. C (Where)
61

APPENDIX 5

TRY OUT BY USING ANATEST4

REKAP ANALISIS BUTIR


=====================

Rata2= 25.65
Simpang Baku= 5.32
KorelasiXY= 0.72
Reliabilitas Tes= 0.83
Butir Soal= 50
Jumlah Subyek= 20
Nama berkas: C:\USERS\ACER\DESKTOP\NILAI TRY OUT.ANA

Btr Baru Btr Asli D.Pembeda(%) T. Kesukaran Korelasi Sign. Korelasi


1 1 0.00 Sangat Mudah NAN NAN
2 2 -20.00 Sangat Sukar -0.338 -
3 3 80.00 Sedang 0.526 Sangat Signifikan
4 4 80.00 Sukar 0.617 Sangat Signifikan
5 5 -20.00 Sedang 0.022 -
6 6 80.00 Sedang 0.607 Sangat Signifikan
7 7 20.00 Sedang 0.191 -
8 8 40.00 Sukar 0.465 Sangat Signifikan
9 9 20.00 Mudah 0.206 -
10 10 60.00 Sedang 0.598 Sangat Signifikan
11 11 40.00 Sedang 0.414 Sangat Signifikan
12 12 40.00 Sukar 0.261 -
13 13 60.00 Sedang 0.555 Sangat Signifikan
14 14 40.00 Sedang 0.330 Signifikan
15 15 0.00 Sangat Mudah NAN NAN
16 16 40.00 Mudah 0.317 Signifikan
17 17 0.00 Sedang -0.112 -
18 18 -20.00 Sangat Mudah -0.369 -
19 19 40.00 Sedang 0.213 -
20 20 20.00 Sangat Sukar 0.271 -
21 21 60.00 Sedang 0.629 Sangat Signifikan
22 22 60.00 Mudah 0.496 Sangat Signifikan
23 23 40.00 Sukar 0.296 Signifikan
24 24 0.00 Sedang 0.090 -
25 25 0.00 Mudah -0.010 -
26 26 20.00 Mudah 0.188 -
62

27 27 0.00 Sangat Sukar NAN NAN


28 28 -20.00 Sukar -0.313 -
29 29 0.00 Sedang 0.070 -
30 30 40.00 Sedang 0.132 -
31 31 80.00 Sedang 0.574 Sangat Signifikan
32 32 60.00 Sedang 0.409 Sangat Signifikan
33 33 -20.00 Sukar -0.159 -
34 34 60.00 Sedang 0.404 Sangat Signifikan
35 35 0.00 Sedang 0.152 -
36 36 60.00 Sukar 0.467 Sangat Signifikan
37 37 -40.00 Mudah -0.261 -
38 38 40.00 Sukar 0.439 Sangat Signifikan
39 39 80.00 Sukar 0.617 Sangat Signifikan
40 40 80.00 Sedang 0.557 Sangat Signifikan
41 41 100.00 Sedang 0.704 Sangat Signifikan
42 42 0.00 Mudah -0.150 -
43 43 20.00 Mudah 0.228 -
44 44 -40.00 Sedang -0.212 -
45 45 -60.00 Sedang -0.423 -
46 46 0.00 Sukar -0.061 -
47 47 20.00 Sedang 0.240 -
48 48 40.00 Sukar 0.395 Sangat Signifikan
49 49 20.00 Mudah 0.250 -
50 50 40.00 Mudah 0.362 Sangat Signifikan
63

APPENDIX 6

Statistical Calculation of Grammar Scores

Statistics
Grammar Scores
Valid 30
N
Missing 0
Mean 62.3000
Median 60.0000
Mode 60.00
Std. Deviation 8.33418
Variance 69.459
Minimum 47.00
Maximum 80.00

Grammar Scores
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
47.00 1 3.3 3.3 3.3
50.00 2 6.7 6.7 10.0
53.00 3 10.0 10.0 20.0
57.00 3 10.0 10.0 30.0
60.00 7 23.3 23.3 53.3
63.00 4 13.3 13.3 66.7
Valid
67.00 2 6.7 6.7 73.3
70.00 3 10.0 10.0 83.3
73.00 3 10.0 10.0 93.3
77.00 1 3.3 3.3 96.7
80.00 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
64

APPENDIX 7

Statistical Calculation of Writing Scores

Statistics
Writing Scores
Valid 30
N
Missing 0
Mean 75.3000
Median 76.0000
Mode 80.00
Std. Deviation 4.05267
Variance 16.424
Minimum 64.00
Maximum 81.00

Writing Scores
Frequenc Percent Valid Cumulative
y Percent Percent
64.00 1 3.3 3.3 3.3
69.00 2 6.7 6.7 10.0
70.00 1 3.3 3.3 13.3
71.00 1 3.3 3.3 16.7
72.00 2 6.7 6.7 23.3
73.00 2 6.7 6.7 30.0
74.00 2 6.7 6.7 36.7
Valid 75.00 3 10.0 10.0 46.7
76.00 3 10.0 10.0 56.7
77.00 3 10.0 10.0 66.7
78.00 2 6.7 6.7 73.3
79.00 3 10.0 10.0 83.3
80.00 4 13.3 13.3 96.7
81.00 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0
65

APPENDIX 8

SPSS Correlations “r” Product Moment

Descriptive Statistics
Mean Std. N
Deviation
Grammar
62.3000 8.33418 30
Scores
Writing Scores 75.3000 4.05267 30

Correlations
Grammar Writing
Scores Scores
Pearson Correlation 1 .165
Sig. (2-tailed) .385
Grammar Sum of Squares and
2014.300 161.300
Scores Cross-products
Covariance 69.459 5.562
N 30 30
Pearson Correlation .165 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .385
Writing Sum of Squares and
161.300 476.300
Scores Cross-products
Covariance 5.562 16.424
N 30 30
66

APPENDIX 9
SILABI

Mata Kuliah : Bahasa Inggris V


Kode : BHS 7024
Bobot SKS : 2 sks
Jurusan : PBI
Program Studi : PBI
Semester : V (Lima)
Mata Kuliah Prasyarat : Grammar I, II, III, IV.
Pengajar : Atiq Susilo, MA, Dr.
Standar Kompetensi : Mahasiswa menguasai aturan gramatika bhs. Inggeris pada
tingkatan lanjut yang diukur dengan skor 500 setara TOEFL.
Kompetensi Dasar : Dapat menggunakan bahasa Inggeris dengan aturan gramatika yang
efektif untuk mengutarakan maksud atau ekspresi
Indikator : Setelah menyelesaikan seluruh materi perkuliahan diharapkan
mahasiswa memiliki kemampuan:
1. Memahami makna ungkapan atau kalimat yang dibuat dengan
susunan grammar pada tingkat tinggi (Advanced)
2. Mampu mengungkapkan fikiran dengan susunan kalimat
berstruktur rumit (complicated) secara efisien
3. Mampu menunjukkan tingkat penguasaan grammar yang tinggi
ditandai dengan skor 500 setara TOEFL.
Deskripsi Mata Kuliah : Grammar V mengupas tentang aturan gramatika bahasa Inggeris
yang dipakai oleh mereka yang tingkat penggunaan bahasa
Inggerisnya tinggi sehingga dapat menggunakan bahasa secara
efisien. Mata Kuliah ini bukan saja pengetahuan tetapi juga
keterampilan sehingga penguasaan melalui drilling dan latihan
67

sangat diperlukan.

Materi Pokok : 1. Pengenalan terhadap subject yang beraneka bentuk: Noun,


Perkuliahan Pronoun, Gerund, To infinitive, dan Noun Clauses.
2. Penggunaan subject dalam berbagai kalimat
3. Kesesuaian antara subject dengan predicate
4. Perubahan kata kerja (verb); tenses
5. The 12 tenses in English.
6. Kalimat majemuk bertingkat (complex sentences)
7. Clauses: Noun clauses, Adjective clauses, Adverbial clauses.
8. Ujian Tengah Semester.
9. Verbal and Gerund; reduced clauses.
10. Pronouns; agreement and references
11. Parts of Speeches; Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs
12. Word Order: Statement, Question, WO + adjective, WO+freq
wrds,
13. Parallel Structure
14. Redundancies
15. Usage
16. Ujian Akhir Semester
Pendekatan :
Pembelajaran
: Penilaian diperoleh dari aspek-aspek: 100%
1. class participation: 10%
Penilaian
2. UTS................: 30%
3. UAS................: 60%
: 1. Michael Swan,
Buku Sumber
2. Palmer,
68

3. Frank Marcella,

Mengetahui, Jakarta, 03 Maret 2010


Ketua Jurusan/Prodi Dosen Pengampu Mata
Kuliah

………………………… Dr. Atiq Susilo, MA


69

APPENDIX 10
SYLLABUS
WRITING III
Course Description

There are two main important elementsof writing, communication and message. To
get the message accross writers need to have the skill on how to communicate in
written form. Consequently, writers should have the knowledge on how to express
their ideas on paper. This course is designed to enable students to write effectively by
exposing the students through the writing process commonly taken by writers.
Specifically,topics to be discussed are as follow

SESSION TOPICS

1 Introductory Remarks

2 Writing process: Generating Ideas

3 Writing Process: Drafting

4 Writing Process: Editing and Proofreading

5 Overview

6-9 Writing Project 1

10-13 Writing Project 2

14 Final Examination

Attendance
Students are required to be present in the classroom at least 80%. Those who
cannot meet the requirement will not be able to join the final exam.

Assignment
 Sharing Session

Assessment
Students are assessed based on the following criteria
 Formative score 20%
70

 Midterm exam 40%


 Final exam 40%
References
Belcher, Wendy Laura.(2009). Writing Your Journal Article in 12 Weeks: A Guide to
Academic Publishing Success. Sage Publications Inc,. USA
Hopper, Vincent F, et.al. (2000). Essentials of Writing. Barron’s Educational Series.
Troyka, Lynn Quitman.(1987). Simon&Schuster: Handbook for Writers. Self
Published
Wishon, George E.and Burks, Julia M. (1980). Let’s Write English. American Book
Company

Lecturer
Maya Defianty, M.Pd
Contact
Mobile 081321657868 (sms only)
Email mayadefianty@gmail.com