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Chemistry Notes

Solids of different sizes

I. Sieving: Sieving involves passing the mixture through gauze like device which lets finer particle go
through but retains the larger particles behind in the sieve.

II. Froth flotation: process which separates the wanted minerals from the unwanted gangue.
III. Centrifugation: spinning liquids very fast to separate them into layers with different densities.

IV. Sedimentation: Sedimentation is the process of letting the denser solids settles to the bottle of a
V. Magnetism: Magnetism is used to separate certain substance based on their ferromagnetism.
These substances will attract to the magnet and hence separated.

Solids and liquids

I. Filtration: Involves passing a mixture which has insoluble solids suspended in it through filter
paper. The filter paper will let out the liquid (filtrate) but retain the solid on the paper.
II. Sedimentation/Decanting: This process involves letting denser particles settle to the bottom
before the liquid is carefully removed leaving some liquid and most of the solid at the bottom.

Dissolved solids in liquids

I. Evaporation: In evaporation the liquid is heated to a temperature just below its boiling point, so
the liquid escapes leaving the solid behind.

II. Crystallisation: When a concentrated solution is evaporated at room temperature. The solutions
turn more concentrated until it is saturated before its starts to form crystals.

Liquids (miscible)
I. Simple distillation: Distillation is the process in which a solution or mixture of liquids is boiled with
the more volatility (lower boiling pt) changing into a gas and converted back to liquid when it hits
the condenser and drips to an external filter.

II. Fractional distillation: Uses a similar method as simple distillation but involve multiple
condensations and vaporisations until a pure substance is achieved .This method suits solutions or
mixture of liquids with very small differences in boiling points.

Liquids (immiscible)
I. Separation funnel: When two immiscible liquids are mixed with the heavier one on the bottom. A
tap can be turned and the denser liquids flow into the external beaker.
I. Fractional distillation: e.g. Nitrogen and Oxygen gas. The mixture must be cooled down to about -
200oC so both gases condense into liquids.
II. Zeolite Sieve: Using selective adsorption, it allows other gases to pass through while restricting

III. Chromatography: The gas is dissolved into a fluid called ‘mobile phase’. Since each component
travels at different speeds hence separating the components.

Covalent Prefixes:
Di-, tri-, tetra, penta, hexa-, hepta-, oct-, non- and dec-
They are used to indicate HOW MANY atoms there are for that element
Distinguish between metal, ionic and covalent bonding.
Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between delocalised electrons and the positive
metallic ions.

Covalent bonding is the electrostatic attraction between shared electrons and the nuclei of
adjacent atoms.
Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Metallic bonds are held together by a sea of delocalized electrons, with positive ions (cations)
Ionic bonds are held together by the electrostatic attraction of positive and negative ions

Covalent bonds are held together between anions (negatively charged ions) with weak
intermolecular forces

Covalent Bonds
A covalent bond is between two non-metals. When an atom doesn’t have a complete outer
shell, it can attain a full outer shell by sharing electrons. In a covalent bond, the positive
nucleus of each atom is attracted to the negative shared electrons.
In each case, the atoms achieve a stable octet by the sharing of electron pairs. Double or triple
covalent bonds involve the sharing of two and three pairs of electrons respectively. Such
bonds are stronger then single covalent bonds.
Covalent Bonding
Covalent bonds are formed between pairs of atoms by the atoms sharing electrons.
(Generally, for non-metals).

This Leads to…

Dot (Lewis) Diagrams

The number of electrons in the outer shell is represented by dots surrounding the element.
Eg: *Mg* (2,8,2)
The diagrams are used to represent covalent bonds. The elements are drawn beside each other
with the valance electrons represented. The electrons are then paired up and the shared
electrons circled.

1. A chlorine atom (2,8,7) tends to gain one electron to gain noble gas config. 2 Chlorine
atoms can combine to form a chlorine molecule Cl2

2. Hydrogen and chlorine combine to form the gaseous compound, hydrogen chloride.

Hydrogen (1) needs to gain 1 electron and Chlorine (2,8,7) needs to gain 1 electron.
Therefore, they each share 1:
3. Hydrogen and Oxygen combine to form water. Oxygen (2,6) needs to gain 2 electrons and
Hydrogen (1) needs to gain 1 electron. As there are 2 atoms of Hydrogen they need to be
considered as 2 parts in the diagram:

First ionisation energy :

In order to remove an electron from an atom, energy is required. Ionisation energy is the
amount of energy to remove electrons from atoms. The first ionisation energy is the energy
required to remove one electron from the neutral atom. Ionisation energy decreases down
groups, because the valence electrons are further away from the nucleus because of the
presence of additional shells of electrons.
Trends in Periodic Table
Relationship Trends
Electrical  Decreases from left to right
Conductivity  Increases down a group.
 Copper, silver, gold and aluminium have the highest conductivity

Ionisation  Across the period: 1st IE increases because there is a stronger nuclear pull from
Energy (IE) the nucleus as the atomic radii decreases due to the presence of more protons
and electrons

 Down the group: 1st IE decreases due to a weaker nuclear pull to the
outermost electrons as the atomic radius increases.
Atomic Radius  Across the period: the atomic radius decreases due to the increasing nucleus
charge which results in a stronger electrostatic attraction to the outermost
(The size of the electrons i.e. stronger nuclear pull (valence electrons are pulled closer to the
atom. It includes nucleus).
the nucleus to its
outer shell.)  Down the group: the atomic radius increases down the group as there are more
electron shells due to the greater number of electrons.
Melting and  Across the period: Increase from group 1 to group 4(group 4 are covalent
boiling points network) then it decreases (group 5 to group 7 is covalent molecules)

 Down the group: For non-metals, each molecule contains a greater mass
which produces a stronger intermolecular force (dispersion force). Hence
melting and boiling point increases.

- While non-metal has a low boiling point.

Combining  Same down a group

power (valency)  Group 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 valency is indicated by their group number

Electronegativity  Across the period: Electronegativity increases since the left side is non-metal(they
(how strongly an attract electron, while metal donates electrons)
atom attracts
electrons)  Down the group: Electronegativity decreases because the elements have a greater
tendency to give away electrons due to the increasing atomic radius, hence weaker
nuclear pull to the outermost electrons.

Reactivity  Metals
- Across period it decrease
- Reactivity generally increases because metallic elements can move easily. As you go
down the group, electrons are lost since 1st IE decreases.

 Non-metals (exceptions)
- Across Periods it Increase
- Reactivity decreases down the group because electronegativity decreases.
The higher up in the periodic table, the easier it is for a non-metallic element
to accept electrons.

 Noble gases unreactive

There are 3 types of radioactive decay:

- Alpha decay: alpha radiation is created when 2 protons and 2 neutrons (equivalent to
Helium nuclei) are ejected from a large unstable nucleus
For example: the alpha decay of Radium-222

- Beta decay: electrons are ejected from an unstable nucleus. NOTE: The neutron
decomposes into an electron (ejected as beta radiation) and a proton (which is captures by
the nucleus). Therefore, beta decay results in atomic number increase.
For example: the beta decay of Carbon-14

- Gamma decay does not exist. Gamma radiation (high energy electromagnetic waves) is
emitted in addition to alpha or beta decays.

Describe Hydrogen bonding between Molecules
 Strongest intermolecular forces
 Hydrogen bonding occurs between molecules that have a hydrogen atom bonding to
a more electronegative N, O or F atom -> these are stronger than London and dipole-
dipole forces, but weaker than covalent bonds
 Plays an important role in biological molecules (double helix of DNA are held
together by hydrogen bonds).

Describe the attractive forces between polar molecules as dipole-dipole forces and
dispersion forces:
Dipole-Dipole forces

 A force caused by the positive end of one dipole attracting the negative end of another
 Electrons in the covalent bond are not evenly shared
 Unevenly distributed: electronegativity of some atoms in molecules are different and
molecules is symmetric
 Forces of attraction (electrostatic forces) between δ+ and δ- on two polar molecules
 Caused from the attraction of the positive regions of one molecular Dispersion forces
(London forces)

Dispersion Forces

 An intermolecular attractive force caused by a temporary dipole inducing in a nearby

 Molecule of CO2 and Br2 have weak intermolecular forces, however are strong
enough to allow liquid and solid states to exist at the correct temperatures
 These dispersion forces occur as at any given time electrons are unevenly distributed
 The size of atom/molecule changes the strength of dispersion forces
 The larger the particles, the stronger the dispersion forces, which is because there are
more electrons in large molecules/ atoms and their uneven distribution results in
larger plus and minus charges
 Alkane: Any of the series of saturated hydrocarbons including methane, ethane,
propane (BBQ gas) and higher members -> Dispersion forces increase in size
 All molecules experience dispersion forces
 Explain what intermolecular forces are: Forces of attraction or repulsion, which act
between neighbouring particles (atoms, molecules or ions). They are weak compared
to intermolecular forces, which keep molecule together o Covalent Bond =
intramolecular forces (very strong) and need electrolysis to break.
Intermolecular Forces
 Forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighboring particles (atoms,
molecules or ions).
 Covalent Bond=intramolecular force (very strong) and need electrolysis to break.
 Intermolecular forces are forces of attraction between molecules.