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APPENDIX Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance


Greek letters
α ( alpha ) Angle of attack
γ ( gamma ) Climb or descent angle
δ ( delta ) Pressure ratio = P / P0
∆ ( DELTA ) Parameters’ variation (ex : ∆ISA, ∆P)
φ ( phi ) Bank angle
µ ( mu ) Runway friction coefficient
θ ( theta ) Aircraft attitude
ρ ( rho ) Air density
ρ0 ( rho zero ) Air density at Mean Sea Level
σ ( sigma ) Air density ratio = ρ / ρ0

a Sound velocity
A0 Sound velocity at sea level
AC Advisory Circular (FAA)
ACJ Advisory Circular Joint (JAA)
ADIRS Air Data / Inertial Reference System
AFM Aircraft Flight Manual
ALD Actual Landing Distance
AMC Acceptable Means of Compliance (JAA)
AMJ Advisory Material Joint (JAA)
AOM Airline Operation Manual
APM Aircraft Performance Monitoring (program)
ASD Accelerate-Stop Distance
ASDA Accelerate-Stop Distance Available
ATC Air Traffic Control

CD Drag coefficient
CL Lift coefficient
CAS Calibrated Air Speed
CDL Configuration Deviation List
CG Center of gravity
CI Cost Index
CL Climb throttle position
CWY Clearway

DA Drift Angle
DGAC Direction Générale de l’Aviation Civile
DOC Direct Operating Cost
DOW Dry operating weight

Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance APPENDIX

ECON Economic (minimum cost) speed
EGT Exhaust Gas Temperature
EOSID Engine Out Standard Instrument Departure
EPR Engine Pressure Ratio
ETOPS Extended range with Twin engine aircraft OPerationS

f( ) Function of ( )
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FAR Federal Aviation Regulation
FBW Fly-By-Wire (aircraft)
FCOM Flight Crew Operating Manual
FF Fuel Flow (hourly consumption)
FL Flight Level
FLIP Flight Planning (program)
FMGS Flight Management and Guidance System

g Gravitational acceleration
GAL US gallon
GD Green Dot speed
GS Ground Speed

hPa hecto Pascal

IA Indicated Altitude
IAS Indicated Air Speed
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IEM Interpretative / Explanatory material (JAA)
IFP In Flight Performance (program)
IFR Instrument Flight Rules
IL Information Leaflet (JAA)
IMC Instrument Meteorological Conditions
in Hg Inches of mercury
ISA International Standard Atmosphere

JAA Joint Aviation Authority
JAR Joint Airworthiness Requirements

Ki Instrumental correction (Antenna error)

APPENDIX Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance

LDA Landing Distance Available
LPC Less Paper Cockpit (program)
LRC Long Range Cruise speed
LW Landing Weight

m Aircraft’s mass
M Mach number
MLR Mach of Long Range
MMR Mach of Maximum Range
MMO Maximum Operating Mach number
MCDU Multipurpose Control and Display Unit
MCT Maximum Continuous Thrust
MEA Minimum safe En route Altitude
MEL Minimum Equipment List
MEW Manufacturer Empty Weight
MGA Minimum safe Grid Altitude
MLW Maximum Landing Weight
MOCA Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude
MORA Minimum Off Route Altitude
MSL Mean Sea Level
MTOW Maximum TakeOff Weight
MTW Maximum Taxi Weight
MZFW Maximum Zero Fuel Weight

n Load factor
nz Load factor component normal to the aircraft’s longitudinal axis
N All engines operating
N1 Speed rotation of the fan
N-1 One engine inoperative
N-2 Two engines inoperative
NLC Noise Level Computation (program)
NPA Notice for Proposed Amendment (JAA)
NPRM Notice for Proposed Rule Making (FAA)

OAT Outside Air Temperature
OCTOPUS Operational and Certified Takeoff and landing Universal Software
OEW Operational Empty Weight
OFP Operational Flight Path (program)

P Pressure
P0 Standard pressure at Mean Sea Level
Pamb Ambient pressure at the flight altitude
Pforce Force power

Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance APPENDIX

Ps Static pressure
Pset Altimeter’s reference pressure
Pt Total pressure
PA Pressure Altitude
PEP Performance Engineering Programs
PFD Primary Flight Display
PNR Point of No Return

q Dynamic pressure
QFE Pressure at the airport reference point
QNH Mean Sea Level pressure
QRH Quick Reference Handbook

R Universal gas constant
RC Rate of Climb
RD Rate of Descent
RLD Required Landing Distance
RTOW Regulatory TakeOff Weight chart

S Wing area
SAT Static Air Temperature
SFC Specific Fuel Consumption
SID Standard Instrument Departure procedure
SR Specific Range
STAR STandard ARrival procedure
STD Standard
SWY Stopway

T Temperature
T0 Standard temperature at Mean Seal Level
TISA Standard temperature
TREF Flat Rating Temperature
T/C Top of Climb
T/D Top of Descent
TA True Altitude
TAS True Air Speed
TAT Total Air Temperature
TLC Takeoff and Landing Computation (program)
TLO TakeOff and Landing Optimization (program)
TO TakeOff
TOD TakeOff Distance
TODA TakeOff Distance Available
TOR TakeOff Run
TORA TakeOff Run Available

APPENDIX Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance

TOGA TakeOff / Go-Around thrust

TOW TakeOff Weight

V Velocity
V1 Takeoff decision speed
V2 Takeoff climb speed
VAPP Final approach speed
VEF Engine failure speed
VFE Maximum flap extended speed
VLE Landing gear extended speed
VLO Landing gear operating speed
VLOF Lift Off speed
VLS Lowest selectable speed
VMBE Maximum brake energy speed
VMCA Minimum control speed in the air
VMCG Minimum control speed on ground
VMCL Minimum control speed during approach and landing
VMCL-2 VMCL two engines inoperative
VMO Maximum Operating speed
VMU Minimum Unstick speed
VR Rotation speed
VREF Reference landing speed
VS Stalling speed
VS1G Stalling speed at one g
VSR Reference stalling speed
Vtire Maximum tire speed
VFR Visual Flight Rules
VMC Visual Meteorological Conditions

W Weight
Wa Apparent weight
WC Wind component