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# Theories of failure

Introduction
Theories of failure are those theories which help us to determine the safe dimensions of
a machine component when it is subjected to combined stresses due to various loads
acting on it during its functionality.

Some examples of such components are as follows:

1. I.C. engine crankshaft

2. Shaft used in power transmission

3. Spindle of a screw jaw

5. Ceiling fan rod

Theories of failure are employed in the design of a machine component due to the

Theories of failure play a key role in establishing the relationship between stresses
like ultimate tensile strength (Sut) and yield strength (Syt).

Examples:

1. Syt = 200 MPa
Sut = 300 MPa

Directly we can get (d) without using any failure
d theory because only uniaxial load (P)

𝜎1 ≤ Syt

4P
πd2 ≤ Syt

P

Maximum Principal Stress theory also known as RANKINE’S THEORY 2. We cannot determine (d) directly in this case d because failure stresses under combined loading conditions are unknown. Member is subjected to both Twisting moment and uniaxial load.P.S. Maximum Principal Strain theory also known as St. T . Maximum Distortion Energy theory or VONMISES AND HENCKY’S THEORY 1. different scientists give relationships between Stresses induced under combined loading conditions and (Syt and Sut) obtained using tension test which are called theories of failure.P.T) According to M. Total Strain Energy theory or HAIGH’S THEORY 5. Various Theories of Failure 1. hence combined loading conditions. Maximum Shear Stress theory or GUEST AND TRESCA’S THEORY 3. Maximum Principal Stress theory (M.S. VENANT’S THEORY 4. T P So.2.

) because brittle materials are weak in tension. biaxial etc.O.O. 3. This theory is not suitable for the safe design of machine components made of ductile materials because ductile materials are weak in shear.Condition for failure is. This theory is suitable for the safe design of machine components made of brittle materials under all loading conditions (tri-axial. This theory can be suitable for the safe design of machine components made of ductile materials under following state of stress conditions. Maximum principal stress ( 1) failure stresses (Syt or Sut ) and Factor of safety (F. 1 (i) Uniaxial state of stress (Absolute max = 2 ) 1 (ii) Biaxial state of stress when principal stresses are like in nature (Absolute max = 2 ) (iii) Under hydrostatic stress condition (shear stress in all the planes is zero). .S) > 1 Maximum principal stress ( 1) ≤ Permissible stress ( per) Failure stress Syt Sut where permissible stress = Factor of safety = N or N Syt Sut 1 ≤ N or N Eqn (1) Note: 1. Factor of safety (F. 2.S) = 1 If 1 is +ve then Syt or Sut 1 is –ve then Syc or Suc Condition for safe design.

Maximum Shear Stress theory (M.T Syt Absolute max ≤ N or 2N For tri-axial state of stress.T Syt Permissible shear stress = Factor of safety = N = 2N (Sys)T.σ3 |.σ2 Syt | 21 | or | 2 |≤ 2N .σ1 larger of [| σ1 2. |σ2 2. | σ3 – σ1|] ≤ N For Biaxial state of stress. | 2 |] ≤ Syt 2N Syt larger of [ |σ1 – σ2|.S.T or 2 unknown therefore use Syt Condition for safe design. σ3 . σ3 = 0 σ σ1 .S.σ2 |. Yield strength in shear under tension test (Sys)T. Maximum shear stress induced at a critical Yield strength in shear under tensile point under triaxial combined stress test Syt Absolute max (Sys)T. Maximum shear stress induced at a critical ≤ Permissible shear stress (τper) tensile point under triaxial combined stress where.T) Condition for failure.2. | σ2 – σ3|.

T) Condition for failure.T Syt ε1 (ε Y. Maximum Principal strain ≤ Permissible strain Yielding strain under tensile test (ε Y.)T.S.T will give same results for ductile materials under uniaxial state of stress and biaxial state of stress when principal stresses are like in nature.)T. safe and uneconomic design.P.P. M.e.T or E where E is Young’s Modulus of Elasticity Condition for safe design.T is not suitable under hydrostatic stress condition.µ(σ2 + σ3)] ≤ EN . M. 2.S.P.T Syt where Permissible strain = Factor of safety = N = EN Syt ε1 ≤ EN 1 Syt E [σ1 .St. σ2 are like in nature Eqn (2) Syt |σ1 – σ2| ≤ N when σ1.S.)T. 3.S. Maximum Principal Strain theory (M. 3.S.P.P.T and M. Maximum Principal strain (ε1) Yielding strain under tensile test (ε Y. σ2 are unlike in nature Eqn (3) Note: 1. Syt |σ1| ≤ N when σ1. This theory is suitable for ductile materials and gives oversafe design i.

Total Strain Energy per unit volume ≤ Strain energy per unit volume at yield point under tension test.E /vol) Y.E.St. Syt σ1 .E. Total Strain Energy theory (T. Total Strain Energy per unit volume Strain energy per unit volume at yield point (T.P.L Strain energy per unit volume up 1 to Elastic limit (E.] T.L εE.S.T Condition for safe design. /vol) under tension test (S.L 1 1 1 Total Strain Energy per unit volume = 2 σ1 ε1 + 2 σ2 ε2 + 2 σ3 ε3 Eqn (6) (triaxial) .L εE.µ(σ2 + σ3) ≤ N for biaxial state of stress.T) Condition for failure. Eqn (5) σE.L) = 2 σE.µ(σ2) ≤ N Eqn (4) 4. σ3 = 0 Syt σ1 .

P. σ3 = 0 Syt σ12 + σ22 . Eqn (10) is an equation of ellipse (x2 + y2 .2 Syt √ √ For µ = 0.2µ (σ1 σ2 + σ2 σ3 +σ3 σ1)] (8) To get [(S. Semi major axis of the ellipse = = = 1.T .P.2µ σ1 σ2 ≤ ( N )^2 (10) Note: 1.] T. 5. Total strain energy theory is suitable under hydrostatic stress condition.E /vol) Y.E. σ2 = σ3 = 0 in equation (8) 1 Syt [(S. /vol = 2E [σ12 + σ22 + σ32 .87 Syt √ √ 3.T = 2E ( N )^2 (9) By Substituting equations (8) and (9) in equation (5).µ(σ1 + σ3)] Eqn (7) 1 ε3 = E [σ3 .T) . 2. 1 ε1 = E [σ1 .E.xy = a2). Syt Substitute σ1 = σ = N .3 Semi minor axis of the ellipse = = = 0.E /vol) Y. the following equation is obtained Syt σ12 + σ22 + σ32 .S.2µ (σ1 σ2 + σ2 σ3 +σ3 σ1) ≤ ( N )^2 for biaxial state of stress.D.] T.µ(σ1 + σ2)] By substituting equations (6) in equations (5) 1 T. Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (M.µ(σ2 + σ3)] 1 ε2 = E [σ2 .

σ2 = σ3 = 0 in equation (14) .Volumetric S.σ3)2 + (σ3 .E/vol) under tension test (D.E/vol = 2 (Average stress) (Volumetric strain) 1 σ1 + σ2 + σ3 1-2µ = 2( 3 ) [( E ) (σ1 + σ2 + σ3) ] 1-2µ Vol S.E/vol = 2E [σ12 + σ22 + σ32 .E/vol = 0 and Under pure shear stress condition.P.S.σ2)2 + (σ2 .E/vol = T.Condition for failure. Maximum Distortion Energy/volume Distortion energy/volume at yield point (M.E/vol = 6E [(σ1 .E /vol (12) Under hydrostatic stress condition.E/vol) Y.P.] T. Syt Substitute σ1 = σ = N .D. D.T .E/vol) Y.E/vol .E/vol = 6E (σ1 + σ2 + σ3)2 (13) From equation (12) and (13) 1+µ D.2µ (σ1 σ2 + σ2 σ3 +σ3 σ1)] 1 Volumetric S.σ1)2] (14) To get [(D. Volumetric S. Maximum Distortion Energy/volume ≤ Distortion energy/volume at yield point under tension test (11) T.T Condition for safe design.E/vol D.E/vol + D.S.E/vol = Volumetric S.S.] T.E/vol = 0 From equation (8) 1 T.

3. σ3 = 0 S σ1 2 + σ22 – σ1 σ2 ≤ ( Nyt ) ^2 (16) Note: 1. It gives safe and economic design. Sys (Yield strength in shear) is obtained from torsion test. τ = Sys. 2. pure shear state of stress (σx = σy= 0. 4. SYS Ration of S by using theories of failure Yt 1. 1+µ Syt [(D.] T. σ2 = .T = 3E ( N )^2 (15) Substituting equation (14) and (15) in the condition for safe design .σ3)2 + (σ3 . τxy = τ ). . Semi major axis of the ellipse = √ Syt Semi minor axis of the ellipse = √ Syt 3. 5.E/vol) Y.P. the following equation is obtained Syt [(σ1 .τ and τ = d3 4. This theory is not suitable under hydrostatic stress condition. When yielding in shear occurs under pure shear state of stress. Torsion test is conducted under pure torsion i. This theory is best theory of failure for ductile material. Equation (16) is an equation of ellipse. Sys can also be obtained by applying theories of failure for pure shear state of stress condition. 2.σ2)2 + (σ2 . Under pure shear state of stress 16T σ1 = τ .e.σ1)2] ≤ 2 ( N )^2 For biaxial state of stress.

S. σ1 = τ τ = Syt When yielding occurs in shear under pure shear state of stress.T. Considering Factor of safety (N) = 1 σ1 ≤ Syt or σ1 Syt But in pure shear state of stress.S.S.P.T. τ = Sys SYS 1 SYt = 2 . τ = Sys Sys = Syt SYS SYt = 1 SYS (b) S in Maximum shear stress theory Yt According to M. σ1 = τ and σ2 = -τ τ – (-τ) = Syt 2 τ = Syt When yielding occurs in shear under pure shear state of stress. SYS (a) S in Maximum Principal stress theory Yt According to M. |σ1 – σ2| ≤ Syt But in pure shear state of stress.

E.St. SYS (c) S in Maximum principal strain theory Yt According to M.T.2µ σ1 σ2 Syt2 τ2 + τ2 + 2 τ2 = Syt2 τ= √ Sys = √ for µ = 0. σ1 .P. σ1 2 + σ22 – σ1 σ2 Syt2 .3 SYS SYt = 0.T.T.E. σ12 + σ22 .µ(-τ) Syt τ(1+ µ) = Syt Syt Sys = 1+ µ for µ = 0.D.µ(σ2) Syt τ .77 SYS (d) S in Total strain energy theory Yt According to T.62 SYt SYS (d) S in Maximum distortion energy theory Yt According to M.3 SYS = 0.St.

577 Equivalent Bending Moment (Me) and Twisting Moment (Te) equations These equations should be used when the component is subjected to both Bending Moment and Twisting Moment simultaneously.D.T Me = 1 [ M + √ ] = 32 d3 σper 2 M. T T M M d T.O.S.F Me and Te Equations M.T Te = √ = 16 d3 τper M.S.E.P.T Me = √ = d3 σper 32 .S.τ2 + τ2 + τ2 = Syt2 τ= √ Sys = √ SYS SYt = 0.

τxy σx σx τxy T.P.Normal Stress Equations (σt equations) Normal stress equations should be used when a point in a component is subjected to normal stress in one direction only and a shear stress.D.S.O.S.F σt equations M.T σt = √ = N Syt M. As per theories of failure for ductile material.T Syt σt = 1 [σx + √ ] = N 2 Syt M.S.T σt = √ = N Shape of safe boundaries for theories of failure Graphical representation or safe boundaries are used to check whether the given dimensions of a component are safe or not under given loading conditions.Syt . Syc = .E.

T :.S.P.S.T :.S.Hexagon σ2 σ1 -σ2 = -Syt -σ1 σ1 σ1 -σ2 = Syt -σ2 .(a) M.Square σ2 Syt -σ1 σ1 Syc Syt Syc = -Syt -σ2 (b) M.

T -Syt -σ1 σ1 Syt -Syt . σ1 σ1 -Syt Syt -Syt -σ2 (c) M.P. σ2 .T :.Rhombus σ2 Syt .D.St.E.T :.S.Ellipse σ2 M.(c) M.D.E.T Syt M.S.

In all the quadrants Area bounded by the MDET curve Aread bounded by MSST curve Hence (Dimensions)MDET (Dimensions)MSST (c) T. σ2 . Semi major axis of the ellipse = √ Syt Semi minor axis of the ellipse = √ Syt 2. As the area bounded by the curve increases.E. failure stresses increases thereby decreases dimensions and hence cost of safety.Ellipse σ2 Syt -Syt -σ1 σ1 Syc Syt Syt Syc = -Syt .St.T :. Note :- 1.

TSET will be preferred over MPST.B Bhandari 2. Introduction to Machine Design by V.minor axis of the ellipse = √ For Objective Questions 1. All the theories of the failure will give the same result when uniaxial state of stress Examples – 1. Bar subjected to uniaxial load 2. All the theories of the failure will give the same result when one of the principal stresses is very large as compared to the other principal stresses. all the theories of failure will give the different result. MSST and MDET are not valid for hydrostatic state of stress condition. 3. References 1. (a) MDET and MSST will be used under pure shear state of stress. TSET and MPST will be used for hydrostatic state of stress condition. 5. For pure shear state of stress. (b) MDET will be preferred over MSST. Beam subjected to pure bending 2. NPTEL content and Videos . 4.major axis of the ellipse = √ Semi.Note: Semi.