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Chapter1

Introduction to Linux System

Mr. Chea Samnang


Linux Lecturer
What is open source

• Open source: software and source code


available to all

– The freedom to distribute software and


source code

– The ability to modify and create


derived works

– Integrity of author’s code


GNU’s ( not UNIX )

• The GNU project wad started in 1983 for


developing a complete Unix-like
operating system, including software
development tool and application
programs, entirely of free software

• By the release of the first version of the


Linux kernel, the GNU project had
produced all the necessary components
of this system except the kernel
Linux Origins

• 1984: The GNU Project and the Free


Software Foundation
– Create open source version of UNIX
utilities
– Create the General Public License (GPL)
• Software license enforcing open source
principles
• 1991: Linus Tarvalds
– Create open source, UNIX-like kernel,
released under the GPL
What is LINUX

• Linux is a free Unix-type


operating system originally
created by Linus Torvalds
with the assistance of
developers around the
world.

• It originated in 1991 as a
personal project of Linus
Torvalds, a Finnish
graduate student.
What is LINUX

• The Kernel version 1.0 was released in


1994 and today the most recent stable
version is 2.6.9.

• Developed under the GNU General


Public License , the source code for Linux
is freely available to everyone.
LINUX Principles

• Everything is a file (including hardware)

• Small, single-purpose programs

• Ability to chain programs together to


perform complex task

• Configuration data stored in text


LINUX distribution

• Ubuntu
• openSUSE
• Debian
• Redhat
– Fedora
– Centos
– Redhat Enterprise Linux
• Moon OS
• Slackware
Feature of Linux Operating System

• Open Source development model

• Supports wide variety of hardware

• Supports many networking protocol and


configurations

• Supports more file systems


LINUX Kernel

• The kernel is the essential center of a


computer operating system, the core that
provides basic services for all other part
of the operating system.

• A kernel can be contrasted with a shell,


shell is the outmost part of an operating
system that interacts with user
commands
LINUX Structure

Users

Shell
Linux Kernel
Hardware
LINUX Shells

• Bash shell (Bourne again shell)


– Developed for the GNU Project
– The actual standard Linux shell
– Default shell for Red Hat Linux
• Borne shell (sh)
– Original Unix Shell written by Bill Joy at UC
Barkeley
• C shell (csh)
– Added many features such as command
and job control
Red Hat Distributions

• Linux distribution are OSs based on the


Linux kernel
• Red Hat Enterprise Linux
– Stable, thoroughly tested software
– Professional support services
• The Fedora Project
– More and newer applications
– Community supported ( no official Red
Hat support)
– For personal systems
The Fedora Project

• Red Hat sponsored open source project


• Focused on latest open source
technology
• Rapid four to six month release cycle
• Available as free download from the
Internet
• Red Hat does no provide formal support
Fedora Core and Fedora Extra

• Fedora Core
- The Fedora Core software repository
contained the base packages require
to run Fedora.

• Fedora Extra
- Extra packages were generally
obtained online, and could be
downloaded with yum or other
package management software.
Logging into a Linux System

• Two types of login screens:


- Virtual consoles (text-based)
- Graphical logins (called display manager)

• Login using login name and password

• Each user has a home directory for


personal file storage
Virtual Console and Graphical Login

• A typical Linux system will run six virtual


consoles and one graphical login
– Server system often have only virtual console
– Desktops and workstation typically has both

• Switch among virtual consoled by


pressing Ctrl + Alt + (F2—F7)

• Access the graphical console by pressing


Ctrl + Alt + F1
Starting and Terminating Linux System

• Login
– Process of initiating a Linux Operating
System session

• Logout
– Process of terminating a Linux
Operating System session
Elements of the X Window System

• The X Window System is Linux’s


graphical subsystem
• Xorg is particular version of the X Window
System used by Red Hat
– Open source implementation of X
• Desktop environments provided by Red
Had:
– GNOME: the default desktop environment
– KDE: an alternate desktop environment
Starting the X server

• On some systems, the X server starts


automatically at boot time
• Otherwise, if system come up in virtual
consoles, users must start the X server
manually
• The X server must be pre-configured by
the system administrator
- Log into a virtual console and run startx
- The X server appears on Ctrl+Alt+F1
Changing Your Password

• Password control access to the system


– Change the password the first time you log in
– Change the regularly thereafter
– Select a password that is hard to guess

• To change your password from a


terminal:
# passwd username
The root User

• The root user


– a special administrative user account
– Also called the super user
– root has near complete control over
the system
• Do not login as root
The End