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Q:1-A physical therapist is working in an outpatient orthopedic clinic.

During the

patient’s history the patient reports, “I tore 3 of my 4 Rotator cuff muscles in the

past.” Which of the following muscles cannot be considered as possibly being torn?

Mark one answer:

Teres major

Teres minor



Q:2-A physical therapist at an outpatient clinic is returning phone calls that have

been made to the clinic. Which of the following calls should have the highest

priority for medical intervention?

Mark one answer:

A young female reports, ”I think I sprained my ankle about 2 weeks ago.”

A home health patient reports, “I am starting to have breakdown of my heels.”

A middle-aged patient reports, ”My knee is still hurting from the TKR.”

A patient that received an upper extremity cast yesterday reports, “I can’t feel my

fingers in my right hand today.”

Q:3-A physical therapist working on an ICU unit, notices a patient is experiencing

SOB, calf pain, and warmth over the posterior calf. All of these may indicate which

of the following medical conditions?

Mark one answer:

Patient may have a DVT

Patient may be in the late phases of CHF

Patient may be experiencing anxiety after surgery

Patient may be exhibiting signs of dermatitis

Q:4-A physical therapist is performing a screening on a patient that has been casted

recently on the left lower extremity. Which of the following statements should the

physical therapist be most concerned about?

Mark one answer:

The patient reports, “The arthritis in my wrists is flaring up, when I put weight on my


The patient reports, “My left leg has really been itching.”

The patient reports, “I didn’t keep my extremity elevated like the doctor asked me to.”

The patient reports, “I have been having pain in my left calf.”

Q:5-A 93 year-old female with a history of Alzheimer’s Disease gets admitted to an

Alzheimer’s unit. The patient has exhibited signs of increased confusion and limited

stability with gait. Moreover, the patient is refusing to use a w/c. Which of the

following is the most appropriate course of action for the physical therapist?

Mark one answer:

Recommend a speech therapy consult to the doctor

Recommend the patient remain in her room at all times

Recommend family members bring pictures to the patient’s room

Recommend the patient attempt to walk pushing the w/c for safety

Q:6-A physical therapist is covering a pediatric unit and is responsible for a 15 year-

old male patient on the floor. The mother of the child states, “I think my son is

sexually interested in girls.” The most appropriate course of action of the physical

therapist is to respond by stating:

Mark one answer:

“I will talk to the doctor about it.”

“Has this been going on for a while?”

“Teenagers often exhibit signs of sexual interest in females.”

“How do you know this?”

Q:7-A physical therapist is caring for a patient who has recently been diagnosed

with fibromyalgia and COPD. Which of the following tasks should the physical

therapist delegate to an aide?

Mark one answer:

Educating the patient on monitoring fatigue

Transferring the patient during the third visit

Ambulating the patient for the first time

Taking the patient’s vital sign while setting up an exercise program

Q:8-A physical therapist has been instructed to provide wound care for a patient

that has active TB and HIV. The physical therapist should where which of the

following safety equipment?

Mark one answer:

Sterile gloves, mask, and goggles

Surgical cap, gloves, mask, and proper shoewear

Double gloves, gown, and mask

Goggles, mask, gloves, and gown

Q:9-A 64 year-old Alzheimer’s patient has exhibited excessive cognitive decline

resulting in harmful behaviors. The physician orders restraints to be placed on the

patient. Which of the following is the appropriate procedure?

Mark one answer:

Communicate with the patient and family the need for restraints

Notify the physician that restraints have been placed properly

Secure the restraints to the bed rails on all extremities

Position the head of the bed at a 45 degree angle

Q:10-A 22 year-old patient in a mental health lock-down unit under suicide watch

appears happy about being discharged. Which of the following is probably


Mark one answer:

The patient’s suicide plan has probably progressed

The patient is excited about being around family again

The patient’s mood is improving

The patient’s plans for the future have been clarified

Q:1-A patient that has delivered a 8.2 lb. baby boy 3 days ago via c-section, reports

white patches on her breast that aren’t going away. Which of the following

medications may be necessary?

Mark one answer:





Q:2-A 64 year-old male who has been diagnosed with COPD, and CHF exhibits an

increase in total body weight of 10 lbs. over the last few days during inpatient

therapy. The physical therapist should:

Mark one answer:

Check the intake and output on the patient’s flow sheet

Check the patient’s vitals every 2 hours

Encourage the patient to ambulate to reduce lower extremity edema

Contact the patient’s physician immediately

Q:3-A patient that has TB can be taken off restrictions after which of the following

parameters have been met?

Mark one answer:

After 30 days of isolation

Negative culture results

Non-productive cough for 72 hours

Normal body temperature for 48 hours

Q:4-A physical therapist teaching a patient with COPD pulmonary exercises should

do which of the following?

Mark one answer:

Take breaks every 10-20 minutes with exercises

Limit exercises based on respiratory acidosis

Encourage repetitive heavy lifting exercises that will increase strength

Teach purse-lip breathing techniques

Q:5-What are the three types of muscle tissue?

Mark one answer:

Cardiac, smooth, rough

Cardiac, smooth, skeletal

Smooth, rough, skeletal

Cardiac, type I, type II

Q:6-Which muscular structure surrounds the actual muscle fiber and is responsible

for depolarization of the surface of the fiber and protection and insulation of the

fiber from others around it?

Mark one answer:

Satellite cells




Q:7-Within the myofibril, which of the following is the lighter band that contains only

Mark one answer:

H zone

M line

A band

I band

Q:8-Which of the following does not correctly describe fast-twitch muscles fibers?

Mark one answer:

They have a quick rate of calcium ion releases

They use blood glucose and muscle glycogen for energy.

They are used during aerobic exercises.

They generate fast, powerful muscle actions.

Q:9-What is the correct name for the type of nerves that excite organ systems, such

as the digestive system or the circulatory system?

Mark one answer:





Q:10-What is the anatomical name for the location on a muscle fiber where a nerve

impulse is received?

Mark one answer:


Motor endplate

Neuromuscular junction

Golgi organ

Q:1-Which part of the muscle fiber senses changes in the tension of the muscle?

Mark one answer:

Pacinian corpuscles


Muscle spindles

Golgi tendon organs

Q:2-What type of osseous tissue makes up the Haversian system and comprises up

80% of skeletal mass?

Mark one answer:





Q:3-What occurs at the epiphyseal plate?

Mark one answer:





Q:4-What type of tissue has a form called serous, which is fluid-filled?

Mark one answer:





Q:5-Which organ system is responsible for transport of nutrients, removal of waste

and overall environmental maintenance to support the body’s function?

Mark one answer:




Q:6-All of the following are components of the heart’s electrical conduction system


Mark one answer:

Sinoatrial node

Atrioventricular node


Purkinje fibers

Q:7-Which of the following is a measure of the pressure exerted upon the artery

walls as blood is forced out of the heart during ventricular contraction?

Mark one answer:

Diastolic blood pressure

Systolic blood pressure

Total peripheral resistance

Mean arterial pressure

Q:8-What is the movement of oxygen across a cell membrane called?

Mark one answer:

Concentration gradient




Q:9-Movement in and out of the lungs is controlled mainly by which of the following


Mark one answer:

Changes in the pleural pressure and deep abdominal relaxation of the rectus

Downward and upward motion of the diaphragm and elevation and depression of the

ribs to increase the diameter of the chest cavity

Alveolar contraction and contractions of the heart, circulating blood through the lung


Changes in atmospheric pressure within the respiratory cavities and relaxation of

abdominal musculature

Q:10-What causes air to flow into the lungs during inspiration?

Mark one answer:

A decrease in alveolar pressure as compared to atmospheric pressure

An increase in alveolar pressure as compared to atmospheric pressure

A decrease in osmotic pressure as compared to atmospheric pressure

A decrease in pleural pressure as compared to atmospheric pressure

Q:1-Which of the following fields of study is concerned with the conversion of food

into biologically usable energy?

Mark one answer:




Anatomical biochemistry

Q:2-Which energy system is the primary one for short-term, high-intensity activity?

Mark one answer:

Oxidative system

Glycolysis system

Phosphagen system

Metabolic system
Q:3-What is the energy yield of the process of glycolysis when glycogen is the


Mark one answer:

2 molecules of ATP

3 molecules of ATP

6 molecules of ATP

8 molecules of ATP

Q:4-What bioenergetic system is dominant while at rest and during aerobic


Mark one answer:

Phosphagen system

Glycogen system

Oxidative system

Krebs cycle

Q:5-Which of the following is a measure of the amount of physical work performed

for a particular duration of time?

Mark one answer:





Q:6-Which knowledge base allows personal trainers to select exercise programming

that meets their clients’ goals and minimizes risk of injury?

Mark one answer:




Q:7-In which type of lever are the applied and resistive forces on the same side of

the fulcrum?

Mark one answer:

First class

Second class

Third class

Fourth class

Q:8-Which of the following factors affects the ability to determine actual work done

during resistance training?

Mark one answer:

Body weight of the participant

Angle of the weight movement during the exercise

Mass of the weight used relative to the body weight of the participant

None of the above

Q:9-Which type of muscle arrangement resembles the layout of a feather, with

angled fibers?

Mark one answer:




Q:10-Which of the following anatomical locations is an example of a type of pennate

muscle arrangement?

Mark one answer:

Biceps brachii

Rectus abdominis

Gluteus medius

Tibialis posterior

Q:1-During what phase of exercise is the greatest amount of muscle force possible?

Mark one answer:




Possible muscle force does not vary dependent upon phase.

Q:2-When fitness training is focused on a target activity and improvement in

performance of that activity is an example of which principle?

Mark one answer:

Kinetic energy

Bracketing principle

Newton’s law

Specificity principle

Q:3-Which of the following hormones increases as a result of exercise in order to

facilitate the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates?

Mark one answer:




Q:4-Which of the following conditions can possibly be improved by the chronic

adaptation of bone formation and degeneration that comes with exercise?

Mark one answer:





Q:5-What do the following symptoms likely indicate when present in a person who

has been practicing resistance training?

Sleep disturbance

Lingering colds


Mood changes

Flu-like symptoms

Mark one answer:




Fitness plateau

Q:6-What response to exercise is thought to be a result of increased

parasympathetic influence, decreased sympathetic influence, and lower heart rate?

Mark one answer:

Decreased resting and sub-maximal heart rate

Increased resting and sub-maximal heart rate

Decreased resting and increased sub-maximal heart rate

Increased resting and decreased sub-maximal heart rate

Q:7-Which of the following changes in the body’s relationship to insulin could

greatly affect the status of a diabetic’s health as aging occurs?

Mark one answer:

Increased sensitivity to insulin due to long term aerobic training

Decreased sensitivity to insulin due to long term aerobic training

Greater rate of insulin secretion

Increased cooperation between insulin and other hormones within the endocrine


Q:8-What do the following symptoms indicate?Altered blood pressureDecreased

muscle glycogenIncreased muscle sorenessA decrease in performance

Mark one answer:


Aerobic overtraining

Resistance overtraining


Q:9-Which of the following is a measure of the calories required to maintain normal

bodily functions?

Mark one answer:

Resting energy expenditure

Energy requirement

Resting metabolic rate

Minimum daily intake value

Q:10-What is the most commonly recommended daily intake of carbohydrates for

non-performance individuals?

Mark one answer:

15-20 grams per kilogram of body weight

8-10 grams per kilogram of body weight

5-6 grams per kilogram of body weight

2-3 grams per kilogram of body weight

Q:1-What is the estimated percentage of calories derived from fat in the average

American’s diet?

Mark one answer:





Q:2-What is the recommended amount of water to drink daily in order to maintain

healthy integrity of body cells?

Mark one answer:

6 to 8 8-ounce glasses daily.

7.5 liters.

Amount is assessed individually based on activity levels, food and drink intake, health

conditions, etc.

Water should be consumed when thirst is felt, in order to avoid dehydration.

Q:3-What is the danger of rapid weight loss due to extreme calorie restriction?

Mark one answer:

Greater muscle definition becomes apparent

Females’ menstrual cycles may cease

Loss of lean muscle mass, vitamin and mineral status, and dehydration

Extreme hunger

Q:4-What is the recommended dietary allowance for male and female adults for

calcium (in milligrams per day)?

Mark one answer:




Q:5-What is the name of the effect of exercise on the function of neurotransmitters?

Mark one answer:

Dopamine effect.

Psychotropic effect.

Neuropathic effect.

Neurotrophic effect.

Q:6-Over which type of goal does the client have little control?

Mark one answer:

Performance goals.

Process goals.

Outcome goals.

Diversified goals.

Q:7-Which of the following is not a part of the self-determination continuum?

Mark one answer:

Extroverted regulation

Introjected regulation


Integrated regulation

Q:8-What is the method in which a client fully contracts each muscle group and

then relaxes it?

Mark one answer:

Warming up.

Progressive warming up.

Progressive relaxation.


Q:9-Which of the following is not a part of informed consent?

Mark one answer:

Description of the fitness program.

Risks and benefits.

Non-compete clause.

Responsibility of the participant.

Q:10-What condition is characterized by spasmodic contraction of smooth muscles

around the bronchi, swelling, and excessive mucous production?

Mark one answer:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)




Q:1-Which of the following should a client not engage in prior to performing

assessment tests with a personal trainer?

Mark one answer:

Moderate food intake 2-4 hrs before testing.

Partaking of chemicals that affect heart rate (non-medically).

Adequate hydration.

Resting for 6-8 hrs of sleep the night before testing is to occur.

Q:2-What type of athletic performance test is a 300-yard shuttle run?

Mark one answer:


Anaerobic capacity.

Maximal aerobic capacity.

Q:3-What is the proper term for the process of using a stethoscope to hear heart


Mark one answer:





Q:4-What is the body mass index (BMI) of a client who is 5’ 7” tall and weighs 176


Mark one answer:





Q:5-Which of the following tests is used for assessing muscular endurance?.

Mark one answer:

Astrand-Rhyming test.

YMCA step test.

Partial curl-up test.

1RM bench press.

Q:6-Which of the following is a factor that can be affected by flexibility training?

Mark one answer:

Muscle and connective tissue.

Joint structure.


Q:7-Which is not a characteristic benefit of a pre-exercise warm-up and increase in

body temperature?

Mark one answer:

Increased blood flow to muscles.

Increased nerve receptor sensitivity.

Increased muscle viscosity.

Decreased energy rate of metabolic chemical reactions.

Q:8-What makes proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching superior to

other forms of stretching?

Mark one answer:

It does not involve bouncing movements.

It activates the stretch reflex.

It assists in muscle relaxation and promotes more ROM.

It is safe.

Q:9-Where should the trainer be standing when spotting for a forward lunge with a

client holding weight?

Mark one answer:

In front of the client.

In front of the client, but slightly to the side to avoid the forward lunging leg.

Slightly behind the client on the side that will lunge forward.

Directly behind the client, moving forward simultaneously as the lunge is performed.

Q:10-Which types of exercise equipment is a very popular one that offers a wide

range of motion, no impact and multiple modes of operation in order to really vary a


Mark one answer:


Upright bike

Recumbent bike


Q:1-What is the result of a slow overstride in running?

Mark one answer:

Greater speed

Less speed

More impact

Less impact

Q:2-What is necessary for a client to experience in order to move forward in

progress during fitness training?

Mark one answer:





Q:3-Which of the following is not a resistance training goal?

Mark one answer:




Weight loss

Q:4-How many resistance training sessions per week are recommended for a


Mark one answer:



Is client specific

Q:5-Which is not a commonly used way of arranging a resistance training workout?

Mark one answer:

Core then assistance exercises.

Alternating “push” and “pull” exercises.

Alternating upper and lower body exercises.

Alternating loaded and then repetitive exercises.

Q:6-Which of the following is the correct term for either the total number of

repetitions or the total weight lifted in a training session?

Mark one answer:





Q:7-Your client can perform 2 more repetitions than the repetition goal on the last

set for 2 consecutive sessions. According to the 2-for-2 rule, what does this


Mark one answer:

Maximum effort is not being exerted.

Repetitions should be increased gradually throughout all sets.

Repetitions should be increased immediately throughout all sets.

Load should be increased in all sets of that exercise the next session.
Q:8-Heart rate is commonly used to assess physical intensity of activities, and its

relationship to oxygen consumption is described as what?

Mark one answer:

A bell curve.




Q:9-What is the amount of oxygen required to continue bodily functions while at


Mark one answer:

Minimal oxygen consumption.

Resting functional capacity.

Resting metabolism.

Metabolic equivalent.

Q:10-What type of exercise is defined as a quick, powerful movement that is

preceded by a countermovement and involves the stretch-shortening cycle?

Mark one answer:





Q:1-What is another name for the amortization phase of a plyometric action?

Mark one answer:




Q:2-Which client would be markedly inappropriate as a candidate for plyometric


Mark one answer:

A 12-year-old student athlete.

A 57-year-old very active adult.

A 41-year-old triathlete.

A 28-year-old semi-pro soccer player.

Q:3-What type of plyometric activity involves jumping and landing in the same spot,

repeatedly, with no rest between repetitions?

Mark one answer:

Depth jumps

Box jumps


Standing jumps

Q:4-Which of the following exercises is a speed drill?

Mark one answer:

Jump from box

Alternate-leg bound

Butt kick

Front barrier hop

Q:5-What affect does supine hypotensive syndrome have on exercising during


Mark one answer:

It causes increased blood pressure due to greater blood volume.

It requires cessation of supine positioned exercises.

It increases risk of overtraining.

It decreases risk of syncope.

Q:6-What effect can medications such as beta-blockers have on cardiovascular

response, especially in seniors?

Mark one answer:

Diminished lung capacity.

Lower maximum heart rate.

Increased chance of blood clots in the lung.

Increased rate of cardiovascular fatigue.

Q:7-What is thought to be the most effective way to reduce sports-related injuries in


Mark one answer:

Eliminate sports under the age of 12, or the onset of puberty.

Spend more time practicing sport-specific maneuvers.

Participate in 6-8 weeks of conditioning before sports begin.

Always remember to stretch before activities commence.

Q:8-Which of the following will result in an increase in body weight?

Mark one answer:

Positive energy balance.

Negative energy balance.

Positive resting metabolic rate.

Adipose tissue.

Q:9-What is a generally safe recommendation for weight loss goals over time?

Mark one answer:

A very low calorie diet will achieve weigh loss goals more quickly and inexpensively.

An overall weight loss of 10% in the first month shows great success and will motivate

the client to continue..

Overall weight loss of 10% over 6 months time.

Overall weight loss of 10% per month

Q:10-What are some aspects of lifestyle change support that the personal trainer

can provide the client, especially one who has not had any fitness programs in the


Mark one answer:

Goal setting, rewards and teaching stimulus control.

Goal setting, rewards and consequences.

Teaching stimulus control and rewarding with healthy foods.

Allowing desserts as rewards but only in small portions so the client doesn’t feel

deprived, then working harder at the next session.

Q:1-Which exercise would not be appropriate to help reduce the weight-bearing

stress of exercise on an obese client?

Mark one answer:


Water aerobics

Step aerobics

Deep water running

Q:2-Which of the following is not a specific set of health conditions that may be

found concurrent with disordered eating?

Mark one answer:

Depression, anxiety and low self-esteem.

Amenorrhea, digestive problems and extremely low body fat.

Vomiting, diarrhea and decreased urine output.

Euphoria, self-efficacy and body dysmorphia.

Q:3-What interrelated conditions are indicative of the female athlete triad?

Mark one answer:

Disordered eating, hair loss and extreme weight loss

Disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis

Amenorrhea, osteoporosis and extreme weight loss

Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and amenorrhea

Q:4-What is the general term used to describe elevated lipid concentrations in the


Mark one answer:





Q:5-Obesity, type-2 diabetes, chronic renal failure, certain medications and excess

alcohol intake can all contribute to an elevation of what blood factor?

Mark one answer:

High-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL).

Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).


Q:6-What value below indicates an acceptable and healthy level for total


Mark one answer:

200-499 mg/dL

200-239 mg/dL

Under 200 mg/dL

Under 150 mg/dL

Q:7-Which of the following is not a term that describes the combination of cardiac

risk factors and abdominal obesity?

Mark one answer:

Syndrome Z
Dyslipidemic hypertension

Insulin resistance syndrome

Metabolic syndrome

Q:8-Which of the following laboratory findings may indicate that there are limited

numbers of insulin receptors on cells?

Mark one answer:

Elevated blood glucose levels.

Elevated red cell counts.

Bilirubin present in urine.

Protein present in urine.

Q:9-A client becomes hypoglycemic during a session. Which of the following

actions would not be appropriate?

Mark one answer:

Call 911.

Immediately treat by administering a carbohydrate.

Give about a 1/2 cup of soda or juice if the client is diabetic.

Slowly give water and attempt to reduce body temperature and heart rate gradually.

Q:10-A client fitting which of the following descriptions should be immediately

referred to their physician for further testing for underlying secondary conditions?

Mark one answer:

47-year-old female with obesity and controlled diabetes.

51-year-old male taking cholesterol medication.

19-year-old female triathlete experiencing amenorrhea.

32-year-old male with unmedicated hypertension.