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mcRNC Architecture

NOKIAEDU
mcRNC Architecture

3G Radio Access Network Essential

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mcRNC Architecture

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mcRNC Architecture

Objectives

• After this module the student should be able to:


• Describe the hardware architecture and functional units of
mcRNC
• Explain mcRNC Configuration
• List mcRNC Hardware Items
• Explain mcRNC Data Flow

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mcRNC Architecture

Contents

• Introduction to mcRNC and Differences with IPA2800 RNC


• mcRNC Architecture and Functional Units
• mcRNC Configuration and Hardware
• Hardware Items
• mcRNC Data Flow

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mcRNC Architecture

Introduction to mcRNC
and Differences with IPA-RNC

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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC Introduction

• Multi-controller RNC
• Optimized for all-IP network
environment and mini
• Use Multi-controller platform
common with mcBSC and mcTC for
smooth upgrade from GSM to
WCDMA
• Based on easily installable, standard-
sized, compact modules
• Minimum configuration 2 modules
• Expandable through capacity licenses
and addition of modules
• 2, 4, 6, 8 modules possible
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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC Benefits

• Full WCDMA feature set support


• High data and voice capacity
• High reliability and availability
• Easy installation and maintenance
• Saving rollout cost and easy capacity upgrades
• Lowest RNC power consumption
• Future proof product to Single RAN

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mcRNC Architecture

IPA-RNC VS mcRNC

RNC2600
ATM and/or IP connectivity
mcRNC
IP connectivity only
Same capacity and
service availability
(except ATM)

4U (U=44,45mm) high boxes,


that can be installed in
Two 2,10 m high standard 19”ETSI rack or on a
60cm*60 cm cabinets desk top

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mcRNC Architecture

Differences with IPA-RNC

• No support for ATM interfaces in mcRNC


• No support for dual Iub and the related features like transport
fallback to ATM
• The site solution may be different
• The redundancy solution in mcRNC is more fine-grained than
that of IPA-RNC
• Different database solution: SQL-based database engine in
mcRNC, proprietary database engine using object collections
in IPA-RNC
• Different resource management principles
• No dedicated plug-in unit HW for a specific functional unit as
in IPA-RNC

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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC Comparison with RNC2600

• Small size
• Low HW price
• Easy installation (75% shorter commissioning time)
• Improved product architecture enabling easy fault diagnostics
and bug fixing as well as shorter release lead times
• Low power consumption
• Flexible network building and topology
• IP interfaces only

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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC Interfaces

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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC Interface

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mcRNC Architecture

Interface description

• Iu-CS Logical interface between the radio network controller (RNC) and circuit
switched core network: the mobile services switching center (MSC) and the
multimedia gateway (MGW)
• Iu-PS Logical interface between the RNC and the packet core network: the
serving GPRS support node (SGSN) and/or the gateway GRPS support node
(GGSN)
• Iur Logical interface for the interconnection of two neighboring RNCs
• Iub Logical interface between the RNC and the WCDMA base transceiver station
WBTS
• Iu-BC Logical interface between the RNC and the cell broadcast center(CBC)
• Iu-PC Logical interface between the RNC and the Stand-alone SMLC (SAS)
• O&M Proprietary management interface between network management system
(NMS) and RNC

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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC management interfaces

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mcRNC Architecture

Network management interface

The mcRNC has management interface to Nokia’s management system NetAct via a
standalone Operation & Management Server (OMS). A proprietary BTSO&M protocol is
utilized between the mcRNC and OMS and NWI3 is used between OMS and NetAct. The
Data Communications network (DCN) architecture provides connections for the
implementation of O&M functions from mcRNC to the operation support system (NetAct).
A common transport protocol is provided for the DCN network and IP is used as a flexible
solution for network management.

Following network internal management interfaces are used:


• CORBA and SOAP/HTTP based NWI3 interface for OMS – NetAct interconnection
• BTS O&M interface for OMS – RNC, RNC – WBTS, and OMS – WBTS interconnection

The O&M traffic is secured by IPSec protocol between OMS/RNC and NetAct and by https
between RNC and BTS.

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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC Configuration and Hardware

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mcRNC Architecture

Configuration and Dimensioning


BCN-A1 BCN-B2
Configurations Configurations

Step S1-A1 Step S5-A1 Step S1-B2 Step S3-B2 Step S7-B2

BCN-A1 modules (available since Multicontroller RNC 2.0)


• Octeon+ processor
• 1 Gigabit Ethernet network connectivity
• S1-A1 is no longer supported in mcRNC4.1 and must be upgraded to S5-A1
BCN-B2 modules (introduced with Multicontroller RNC 3.0)
• Octeon II processor
• 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet network connectivity
• S7-B2 is new in mcRNC 4.1 (RU50EP1)
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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC HW Release1 capacity

mcRNC capacity targets with BCN-A1 HW in WCDMA16 (mcRNC16)

Configuration ID S5-A1
NE level performance
Number of subscribers per RNC coverage area 1380000
AMR Busy Hour Call Attempts 1380000
PS BHCA (HSPA) 1940000
Signaling capacity (CS+PS session BHCA) -
AMR Erlangs 34500
AMR Erlangs (including soft handover) 48300
NE level capacity
Iub max total UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, UL+DL)/ Mbps 5190
Iub max total HSDPA UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, DL) 3660
Iub max total HSDPA UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, UL) 1530
Connectivity
Max number of cells 3110
Max number of BTS sites 1037
Max number of RRC connected UE's 780000

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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC HW Release2 capacity


mcRNC capacity targets with BCN-B2 HW in WCDMA16 (mcRNC16)

Configuration ID S1-B2 S3-B2 S7-B2


NE level performance
Number of subscribers per RNC coverage area 840000 2160000 4920000
AMR Busy Hour Call Attempts 840000 2160000 4920000
PS BHCA (HSPA) 1694000 4235000 9559000
Signaling capacity (CS+PS session BHCA) 3388000 8470000 19118000
AMR Erlangs 21500 54000 123000
AMR Erlangs (including soft handover) 26600 74900 158200
NE level capacity
Iub max total UP throughput (CS+PS, FP, UL+DL)/
Mbps 4260 10000 24000
Iub max total HSDPA UP throughput (CS+PS, FP,
DL) 3000 7050 16910
Iub max total HSDPA UP throughput (CS+PS, FP,
UL) 1260 2950 7090
Connectivity
Max number of cells 2600 6600 10000
Max number of BTS sites 520 1320 2000
Max number of RRC connected UE's 390000 1000000 1000000

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mcRNC Architecture

BCN-A module (HW release 1)

Dimensions (H x W x D) 178 mm (4U) x 444 mm x 450 mm


Weight Fully equipped:
Approx. 25-30 kg (depends on the
configuration)

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mcRNC Architecture

BCN-B module (HW release 2)

Dimensions (H x W x D) 178 mm (4U) x 444 mm x 450 mm


Weight Fully equipped:
Approx. 25-30 kg (depends on the
configuration)

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mcRNC Architecture

BCN-A Block Diagram


PCI
1 4xGigE
USB
2 4xGigE UART USB/
PCI USB
1GigE 10GigE
SFP 22 UART
PCIe#0
GigE 10GigE Add-in Card FE Flash
SFP 21 USB
Slot 1 IPMB-L disc
GigE LMP

VCMC
PCIe#1
SFP 20 5 UART
10GigE PQ
GigE UART RS232
SFP 19 Add-in Card PCIe#0
processor
10GigE FE
GigE Slot 2 USB
SFP 18 IPMB-L External
GigE alarms
Extension Ethernet Switch

SFP 17 10GigE
UART
24 x1GE + 2 x 10GE

GigE Add-in Card PCIe#0


SFP 16 10GigE FE
Slot 3 USB Telco 2MHz sync. In
GigE IPMB-L RTC

UART
SFP 15 synch..

IPMB-L
PCIe
2MHz sync. 0ut

FE

USB
GigE 10GigE
SFP 14 UART

GigE 10GigE Add-in Card PCIe#0


FE
SFP 13 Slot 4 USB
IPMB-L
GigE 3
SFP 12 BI
10GigE
GigE UART 1 AMC
SFP 11 Add-in Card PCIe#0 FI
10GigE FE 7
GigE Slot 5 USB Bay 2
SFP 10 IPMB-L
GigE
SFP 9 10GigE
UART
GigE BI
SFP 8 10GigE Add-in Card PCIe#0
FE
4 AMC
GigE Slot 6 USB
2
SFP 7
IPMB-L
HD FI Bay 1
10GigE Contr.
UART
PCIe#0
10GigE Add-in Card FE
10GigE USB Hard disc
SFP+ 6 Slot 7 IPMB-L
Cross connect
Ethernet Switch Domain

10GigE
SFP+ 5 10GigE
24 x10GE + 4 x 1GE

UART PCIe LAN1


10GigE Add-in Card PCIe#0 5 MAC
SFP+ 4 10GigE FE

10GigE Slot 8 USB


IPMB-L PCIe
SFP+ 3 PCIe#1 6 MAC LAN2
6
SFP+ 2
10GigE USB
HW Mgt.
Ethernet

GigE PCIe HUB


Switch

10GigE
SFP+ 1 GigE 3 switch
GigE
1000Base-T MGT
4
7
GigE

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mcRNC Architecture

BCN-B Block Diagram


PCI

UART USB
USB1
Ctrl
1GE 10GE USB2
SFP UART

1GE Add-in Card PCIe#0


1GE FE RTC
SFP #1 U SB
IPMB-L
Flash
1GE PCIe#1
5 disk
SFP

VCMC
10GE UART LMP
1GE UART RS232
SFP Add-in Card PCIe#0 SPI
10GE FE

SFP 1GE #2 U SB
IPMB-L
I 2C External
1GE alarms
SFP 10GE
UART

SFP 1GE Add-in Card PCIe#0


10GE FE

#3 U SB
Telco Sync1 in/out
SFP 1GE IPMB-L

UART
synch.

IPMB-L
USB
PCIe

FE
Sync2 in/out
Ethernet Switch Domain

1GE 10GE
SFP UART

1GE 10GE Add-in Card PCIe#0


FE
SFP #4 U SB
IPMB-L
3 BI
10GE 1 FI
SFP+ 10GE
Add-in Card
UART
PCIe#0 AMC
10GE FE 7
SFP+ 10GE #5 U SB
Bay 2
IPMB-L

10GE
UART
Add-in Card PCIe#0 4 BI
10GE FE

10GE #6 U SB
2 FI
SFP+ IPMB-L
AMC
HD
SFP+ 10GE 10GE
UAR T
Ctrl Bay 1
10GE 10GE Add-in Card PCIe#0
SFP+ FE
Hard disc
#7 U SB

10GE
IPMB- L
Cross connect
SFP+ Power
10GE supplies
SFP+ 10GE UAR T
PCIe
Add-in Card PCIe#0 5 MAC SFP
10GE FE

SFP+ 10GE #8
U SB
IPMB- L
1GE PCIe#1
6 System 6 PCIe
10GE MAC SFP
1 fans
Management

SFP+ 1GE USB


2
Ethernet

1GE 1GE PCIe USB


Switch

TRACE HUB
3
1GE switch
1GE 4
7 1000Base-T
1GE
= removable/
exchangeable item
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mcRNC Architecture

BCN-B Ethernet Switch Domain


Reset f rom VCMC
PCI
P1 AMC 1 CPU 0/25 MGMT Switch MGT
0/21
0/22 P8
UART
0/23 P9 0/19 xaui0 PCIe#0
mgmt0
0/24 P10 0/26 xaui1 USB
IPMB-L
0/6 P0 Add-in Card 1 PCIe#1

0/17 P1 AMC 2

mgt0
mgt0.800

dtl0,dtl1
UART
0/18 P8 P0 0/27 0/17 xaui0 PCIe#0
mgmt0
0/19 P9 0/18 xaui1 USB
IPMB-L
0/20 P10 Add-in Card 2
0/5 P11
LMP
UART
0/15 xaui0 PCIe#0
1GE mgmt0
SFP 22 0/16 0/16 xaui1 USB
IPMB-L
1GE Add-in Card 3
SFP 21 0/15
1GE UART
SFP 20 0/14 0/13 xaui0 PCIe#0
mgmt0
1GE 0/14 xaui1 USB
SFP 19 0/13 IPMB-L
BCM56514 Add-in Card 4
1GE
SFP 18 0/12
UART
1GE 0/11 xaui0 PCIe#0
SFP 17 0/11 mgmt0
1GE 0/12 xaui1 USB
IPMB-L
SFP 16 0/10 Add-in Card 5
BCM56820
1GE
SFP 15 0/9 UART
0/9 xaui0 PCIe#0
1GE 0/25 0/4 mgmt0
SFP 14 0/8 0/10 xaui1 USB
0/26 0/3 IPMB-L
1GE Add-in Card 6
SFP 13 0/7
UART
0/7 xaui0 PCIe#0
mgmt0
0/8 xaui1 USB
MDIO IPMB-L
Add-in Card 7
10GE
SFP+ 12 PHY 0/28
UART
10GE 0/5 xaui0 PCIe#0
SFP+ 11 0/27 mgmt0
0/6 xaui1 USB
IPMB-L
Add-in Card 8 PCIe#1
MDIO
TRACE 1GE 1GE/ 10GE
0/28 SFP+ 6
0/2
1GE/ 10GE SFP+ 5
0/1
1GE/ 10GE
0/24 SFP+ 4
1GE/ 10GE
0/23 PHY SFP+ 3
1GE/ 10GE
= removable/ 0/22 SFP+ 2
exchangeable item 1GE/ 10GE
0/21 SFP+ 1
1GE/ 10GE
0/20 SFP+ 0

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mcRNC Architecture

The main processing power of the controller module comes from the cutting-edge
processor technology used. From the HW point of view processor environments are
identical, so SW can allocate any kind of processing type to any of these processors.
The processor uses hardware acceleration for various tasks. With these features, the
same hardware can be used for processing of user, control, transport and
management plane functions.

PCI Express (PCIe) interconnecting


Communication between the add-in cards, LMP, hard disk controller and AMC
modules takes place through a PCIe switch.

Local Management Processor (LMP)


The LMP is a central component on the motherboard that is mainly responsible for
the following functions:
 Hardware management of the controller module (in cooperation with the Virtual
Carrier Management Controller (VCMC)
 Ethernet switch and interface management
 Offers services for USB mass storage devices
 Performs the function of a console server and provides direct access to the serial
consoles of processors

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mcRNC Architecture

BCN = Box Controller Node


BCN-A Front View = mcRNC Module

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mcRNC Architecture

BCN = Box Controller Node


BCN-B Front View = mcRNC Module

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mcRNC Architecture

BCN Rear View

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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC Field Replaceable Units from service point of view

FRU name Access point Hot swappable


mcRNC module No
Processor add-in card No
Power unit (AC/DC) Rear Yes
AMC HDD Front Yes
SFP transceivers Front Yes
Main fan Rear Yes
Aux fan Rear Yes
Air filter Front Yes
AMC filler Front Yes
Power cords Rear Yes *
Cables Yes

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mcRNC Architecture

mcRNC Hardware Architecture


• The mcRNC consists of maximum eight 4U rack mount boxes, interconnected
by 10Gbps XAUI cables

• Each BCN (Box Controller Node) contains a motherboard with a management


processor and 8 separate add-on cards containing Octeon processors that
are connected to the motherboard through PCI-e connectors.

• There are two releases of mcRNC hardware:


• BCN-A (HW release 1) containing Octeon+ add-on cards
• BCN-B (HW release 2) containing Octeon II add-on cards

• There are 3 physical switches in every box


• One for external network communication.
• One for internal network communication.
• One for local management.

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mcRNC Architecture

• The major architectural change with the mcRNC is the move from multi-
subrack blade system to a few identical rack mount modules. Depending
on the capacity needs, one mcRNC can consist of two up to several
modules. A multicontroller module is tightly integrated and has only a few
field-replaceable parts. The key enablers of this approach are IP/Ethernet
technology and advanced CPU technology. They simplify network element

• Architecture especially when IP proliferates in mobile networks.

• The new hardware and software platform allows new, optimized placement
of the RNC functionalities in the system. A key principle in the design of the
mcRNC is to simplify the processing and implement the services that are
required by customers. Simplicity contributes to the performance as well by
eliminating the unnecessary complexity involved in data processing.

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mcRNC Architecture

Octeon processor comparison

Cavium Octeon+ CN5650 Cavium Octeon II CN6680


64 bit 64 bit
12 cores
800MHz
VS 32 cores
1.2GHz
4 x 2GB DDR DIMS 4 x 8GB DDR DIMS

The same Octeon hardware can be used for processing of user, control,
transport and management plane functions.

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mcRNC Architecture

Motherboard and Processor Add-in Cards


Dual Fan Module

Processor Add-in Card Power Supply

~40mm

AMC Slot Motherboard


(BCN-A)
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mcRNC Architecture

Front panel LEDs

P0
NS
A1
A2

P1 P5
P2 P6
P3 P7
P4 P8

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mcRNC Architecture

Front panel Ethernet interface LEDs


Link/Activity for all Ethernet ports
Green: Ethernet link is detected
Green blink: Port receives or sends
frame

Link speed
SFP+ ports
Amber: 10GE
AMC Bay

No light: 1GE
SFP10 Speed
SFP10 Link/Activity
SFP, Trace, LAN1/LAN2 and MGT ports
Amber: 1GE
SFP+2 SFP+4 SFP+6 SFP8 SFP10 SFP6
No light: 100Base-T

SFP+1 SFP+3 SFP+5 SFP7 SFP9 SFP5

SFP9 Speed
SFP9 Link/Activity

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mcRNC Architecture

Box Controller Node Ethernet interfaces (BCN-A)


Provided interfaces and supported standards

Five of these ports 1x RJ-45


required for connecting (HW maintenance)
the BCN modules

SFP
6x SFP+ 16x SFP (EM,
(BCN interconnect) (UTRAN interfaces) DCN)
• Provided network interfaces for UTRAN traffic (i.e. Iu, Iur, Iub interfaces)
– 6x 10 GE: 10GBASE-SR/LR, SFP+ (LC-type connector), four of these ports reserved for internal connections
– 16x 1 GE: 1000BASE-SX/LX/TX, SFP (LC-type or RJ-45)
• Provided network interfaces for NetAct/Element Manager connectivity
– 1x 1 GE: 1000BASE-SX/LX/TX, SFP (LC-type or RJ-45)
– 2nd SFP reserved for future use
• Provided network interfaces for local HW maintenance & service terminal
– 1x 1 GE: 1000BASE-TX, RJ-45
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mcRNC Architecture

Box Controller Node Ethernet interfaces (BCN-B)


Provided interfaces and supported standards

2x USB
1x RJ-45 Software download
Hardware maintenance

Debugging
interfaces

1x SFP 9x SFP+ 10x SFP 4x RJ-45


Tracing 7x BCN interconnect, UTRAN interfaces
SFP Alarm and sync interfaces,
2x UTRAN interfaces EM, not used by mcRNC
SFP13 – SFP22 DCN

10GE external ports


SFP+ 11, SFP+ 12

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mcRNC Architecture

BCN-A Interfaces

Number
Interface Printed
of
type label
interfaces
Backplane
ports SFP1 –
6 External 1GE network connectivity is implemented
(Internal SFP6
10GE) based on the following standards:
• 1000Base-TX, electrical transmission via SFP with RJ-
SFP7 – 45 connector
External 1GE 16
SFP22
• 1000Base-SX/LX, optical transmission via SFP with
LC-type connector
External 10GE 0 External 10GE network connectivity is implemented
based on the following standards:
• 10GBASE-SR acc. IEEE 802.3-2008 Clause 49 and
Trace port 1 52.5
• 10GBASE-LR acc. IEEE 802.3-2008 Clause 49 and
52.6

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BCN-B Interfaces

Number
Interface Printed
of
type label
interfaces
Backplane
ports SFP0 –
7
(Internal SFP6
External 1GE network connectivity is implemented
10GE)
based on the following standards:

External 1GE 10
SFP13 – • 1000Base-TX, electrical transmission via SFP with RJ-
SFP22 45 connector
• 1000Base-SX/LX, optical transmission via SFP with
SFP+ 11 LC-type connector
External 10GE 2
SFP+ 12 External 10GE network connectivity is implemented
based on the following standards:
Trace port 1 T • 10GBASE-SR acc. IEEE 802.3-2008 Clause 49 and
52.5
• 10GBASE-LR acc. IEEE 802.3-2008 Clause 49 and
52.6

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mcRNC Architecture

Hardware management – controller module level

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mcRNC Architecture

• At the controller module level, the central hardware management entity is


called node manager. The node manager consists of Virtual Carrier
Management Controller (VCMC) and specific management software
running on the Local Management Processor (LMP).

• Each add-in card, as well as AMC contains a Module Management


Controller (MMC) which is connected to the VCMC through the Local
Intelligent Platform Management Bus (IPMB-L). Under the control of the
VCMC, the MMCs perform hardware management operations on the
processor add-in cards and AMCs. The MMCs are connected to the add-in
card processors or the AMC processors through a Universal Asynchronous
Receiver/Transmitter (UART) serial interface.

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mcRNC Architecture

Hardware management – network element level

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mcRNC Architecture

At the network element level, the central hardware management entity is


called System Management Software (SMS).
The network element, consisting of one or more controller modules, contains
of one active and one standby SMS entity, which provides system manager
functionality for the network element. In multimodule configurations, system
manager entities are located in different controller modules.

The system manager in one controller module can access a node manager
located in another controller module through external inter-module Ethernet
cabling. The active system manager is able to control any controller module
within one network element. The control is performed by the node manager.

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mcRNC Architecture

Network Resiliency for mcRNC

• N+1 protection with N up to 16. Manual protection switch.


• Applicable to BCN-B only:
• S1-B2 can backup only S1-B2
• S3-B2 can backup S1-B2 and S3-B2
• S7-B2 can backup S1-B2, S3-B2 and S7-B2
• New feature in WCDMA16
• Terminology:
• PRNC = Physical RNC (Hardware + Software)
• PrPRNC = Protected PRNC
• BkPRNC = Backup PRNC
• RNC-cl = Interface between PrPRNC and BkPRNC

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Network Resiliency for mcRNC: Example

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mcRNC Architecture

Network Resiliency for mcRNC: Required Configuration

• RNC-cl interface
• Iu, Iur and Iu-PC interface control plane
• Iu and Iur interface user plane
• Iu-BC interface
• Iub interface
• Transport network
• Interface with OMS and NetAct

The remaining configurations are synchronized from PrPRNC to


BkPRNC.

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mcRNC Architecture

Network Resiliency for mcRNC: Activity Model

• Synchronization is done at Backup mode, configuration is done at Loaded mode,


mobile service is up in Active mode
• RNCSRV (RNC Service) object inside BkPRNC corresponds to the PrPRNC
configuration loaded into BkPRNC for taking over service

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Network Resiliency for mcRNC: Normal Redundancy Switch

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Network Resiliency for mcRNC: Forced Redundancy Switch

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Power distribution principles

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• There are two power supply units (PSU) per BCN module and two power distribution units
(PDU) per cabinet. The PDUs in the cabinet are optional. Either DC or AC PDUs and PSUs
can be used, but both PSUs in any one BCN module must be of the same type. The
supported options for the input voltages are 230 VAC for the mains power and -48 VDC /
-60 VDC for battery feed. The DC PSU in BCN is BDFE-B, and the AC PSU is BAFE-B. The
PDUs are called BDPDU-A for DC power feed, and BAPDU-A for AC power feed,
respectively.

• In cabinet installations, the power feed input can be connected from the site power feed
directly to the PSUs, or from the site power feed to the PDUs and from the PDU to the
PSUs. The outputs of the DC PDU and the AC PDU are protected by circuit breakers. Each
PDU has 8 output channels, and each 4 output group is independent and can be the
redundancy to the other.

• Each PSU has one input, and the PSU provides protection against surges and transients in
the power feed cables.

• To ensure 2N redundancy for the power distribution lines, the two PSUs in a BCN module
provide two mutually redundant input feeds (PSU A and PSU B). Each input is capable of
supplying the entire BCN module’s power feed. For further details about the BCN power
supply, refer to Installation Site Requirements document.

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Power Distribution Units

DC PDU AC PDU

International power cable

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Mechanics and electromechanics

• Nokia CAB216SET-D 19-inch cabinet is recommended to be used as rack mount


enclosure for BCN modules
• Fulfills requirements concerning earthquake, mechanical and electric shock,
electromagnetic radiation and safety
• Temperature control using three dual Fans with rotation speed control
• Two dual fans for the temperature control of all elements on the mother board
• One dual fan for the temperature control AMC modules
• A removable air filter is used on the front side for filtering inlet air
• Normal dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs) can be used because of the space
between modules
• Contains two mid-size AMC bays
• Field-replaceable AMCs offer the possibility of expanding the BCN functionality

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mcRNC installation: CAB216SET-B

Installation kit for


CAB216SET-B cabinet

Empty CAB216SET-B
cabinet
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mcRNC installation: CAB216SET-D

Mounting mcRNC to Empty CAB216SET-D


CAB216SET-B cabinet cabinet
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mcRNC installation: Completed cabinet


PDU
Power
Distribution
Unit

2 to 8
mcRNC
Modules

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Hardware items

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Processor add-in card (BOC-A) – Octeon+

Memory module for BOC-A processor add-in


card (BDM2G-A)

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Processor add-in card (BMPP2-B) – Octeon 2 variant B

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Add-in filler card (BFC-A)

• Dummy module with


no electrical
components
• Placed on empty
card slots to ensure
proper cooling of
BCN module

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Hard disk drive carrier AMC (HDSAM-A)

• AMC (HDSAM-A) is a mid-size (single-


width, 4 HP) AMC module
• Provides serial attached SCSI (SAS)
storage in the system
• HDSAM-A is equipped with a 2.5-inch
small form factor serial attached SCSI
(SAS) hard disk drive
• Hard disk drive needs to be acquired
separately

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BCN AMC filler (BAMF-A)

• AMC filler is a dummy module with no


electrical components
• Empty AMC bays must always be equipped
with AMC fillers to ensure proper cooling
of the BCN module
• AMC filler acts also as an EMC shield

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AC power distribution unit (BAPDU-A)

485 mm 230 mm

90 mm

• Used in 19-inch cabinet installation


• Take the input power from the site power supply (180-264V)
• Eight circuit breakers installed in the front panel
• One PDU provides eight outputs
• Can provide power up to eight BCN if the two PSU in each module take power from
two PDUs
• Can provide power up to four BCN if the two PSUs in each module take power from
the same PDUs

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DC power distribution unit (BDPDU-A)


485 mm 230 mm

90 mm

• Used in 19-inch cabinet installation


• Take the input power from the site power supply
• Eight circuit breakers installed in the front panel
• One PDU provides eight outputs
• Can provide power up to eight BCN if the two PSU in each module take power
from two PDUs
• Can provide power up to four BCN if the two PSUs in each module take power
from the same PDUs
• A 30 A circuit breaker on the negative wire at the input to protect the PDU from
over-current
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AC power supply unit, variant B (BAFE-B)

• 1200-watt redundant AC power supply


units
• Located on the rear of the BCN module
• Hot swappable and has an IEC 320 C20
type input which operates on 230 VAC
• Two outputs to BCN module
• Main output with 12V for all BCN
electronics including HW
management
• Standby output with 3.3V for BCN
HW management

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DC power supply unit, variant B (BDFE-B)

• 1200-watt redundant DC power supply


units
• Located on the rear of the BCN
module
• Hot swappable and takes -48/-60 VDC
input.
• Two outputs to BCN module
• Main output with 12V for all BCN
electronics including HW
management
• Standby output with 3.3V for BCN
HW management
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Main fan (BMFU-A/BMFU-B)

• For cooling the BCN


• Contains two dual-fans
• Located on the rear of the BCN module
• Fan speed is controlled by the hardware
management system to regulate the
temperature within the BCN
• BMFU-A is used in BCN-A with max
rotation speed 3700 rpm
• BMFU-B is used in BCN-B with max
rotation speed 4000 rpm
• Dimensions (H x W x D) - 142 mm x 140
mm x 75 mm

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Fan for the AMCs (BAFU-A)

• For cooling the AMCs that are installed


in BCN
• Located on the rear of the BCN
module
• Fan speed is controlled by the
hardware management system to
regulate the temperature within the
BCN
• Dimensions (H x W x D) - 95 mm x 75
mm x 105 mm

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Air filter (BAFI-A)

• Located at the front of the BCN module in the cooling air inlet
• Prevent dust from accumulating inside the equipment
• Meets the NEBS GR 63 CORE and GR 78 CORE requirements

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Overview of cabling in BCN

• Types of cabling
• Internal cables
• External cables
• Internal cables
• Cables inside the network element or the cabinet
• Example: cables between BCN modules or PDU and BCN module
• Internal cables between BCN modules come with attached pluggable
transceivers
• External cables
• cables leaving the network element and the cabinet, such as cables to external
networks
• External cables to external networks need pluggable transceivers (SFP and
SFP+) to connect to the 1GE interfaces of BCN modules.

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Internal BCN cabling

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External BCN cabling

• LAN/Ethernet cables for connection to external networks


• External synchronization cables
• External alarm cable
• Power cables between site AC/DC power supply and BCN module
• in standalone installations (without PDU and cabinet)
• EU plug model AC power cord between site AC power supply and BCN
module is a part of equipment delivery of mcRNC
• Power cables between site AC/DC power supply and PDU
• when cabinet and PDU are in use

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SFP and SFP+ transceivers

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mcRNC Software Architecture

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mcRNC SW Architecture

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mcRNC SW Architecture, cont.

• All control plane and O&M software runs on Linux in the mcRNC compared to
DMX in the IPA2800 RNC.

• In the mcRNC the user plane software runs without an actual operating system, on
top of a hardware abstraction layer called Simple Executive. A set of services
provided by the user plane middleware create a pseudo-OS interface to the user
plane applications to ensure that the programming of user plane applications is
kept simple.

• Linux distribution is provided by WindRiver and it is provided as part of the


FlexiPlatform in mcRNC.

• In the mcRNC all SW runs on MIPS64-based Cavium Octeon, replacing the


dedicated processing architectures used in the past: x86, TI DSP, PowerQuicc and
APP network processors. The Octeon processor is big-endian, which is different
compared to x86 hardware and that has some minor impact on the current
control plane SW.

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mcRNC SW Architecture

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mcRNC SW Architecture, cont.


Control plane
• The mcRNC has a completely new and different platform compared to IPA2800 RNC and to
minimize the impact on the currently already available control plane SW an IPA Light layer will
be implemented between the Flexi Platform and the control plane SW. This has the benefit that
no, or almost no, changes are needed to the current control plane SW as the IPA Light layer
will provide the API needed by the control plane SW and IPA light will then use the Flexi
Platform API and in that way hide the changes from the control plane SW.
User plane
• The SW architecture of the user plane is pretty much similar to the SW architecture in the
IPA2800 RNC to the outside world, e.g. control plane. Internally the SW architecture is quite
different. To the outside world the biggest difference in the user plane application is that it is
running in the same processor as the control plane counter part.
• The simple executive does not share memory or cores with the control plane that is running
on Linux so even if the RNC application and the user plane application is running on the same
processor they still need to interact like they would be located in different processors, i.e. by
using messages. Some Libgen functionality will be implemented also in SE to make it possible
for SW running in SE to communicate with the control plane.
• The user plane of mcRNC consists of 4 significant layers the Octeon hardware, the Cavium
Simple Executive for Octeon, the middleware for the user plane applications and the user
plane applications themselves.

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Flexi Platform Architecture and Services

FlexiPlatform is the strategic choice for Linux middleware within Nokia and for radio access gateway kind of
products. FlexiPlatform consists of several parts that can be individually selected, except for Base Platform, which
is part of all FlexiPlatform configurations

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mcRNC Architecture and Functional Units

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Terminology
Functional unit
• A unit of execution and deployment that relates to a node in the cluster.
• Belongs to one of Control, User, Transport or Management planes.
• Equivalent to a “computer” in the traditional sense.
- In a Linux based node, the Functional unit has one-to-one mapping to the concept of Recovery Unit.
- In a SE based node, the Functional unit has one-to-one mapping to the SE based node itself.
Processing Unit
• A unit of deployment that spans one multi-core processor containing one or more functional
units.
• The functional units contained may belong to any of the planes but are grouped together to
ease processing and communication.
Interface card / Transport card
• An add-in card containing one or more processing units (one in mcRNC16) used to process
network interface related functions and transport layer services.
Service card
• An add-in card containing one or more processing units (one in mcRNC16) that are used for
radio layer services.
BCN module
• 1 Box Controller Node hardware containing 8 add-in cards. Also referred to as “the box”.

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Four main mcRNC Processing Units

CFPU Centralized Functions Processing Unit


CSPU Cell-Specific Processing Unit
USPU UE-Specific Processing Unit
EIPU External Interface Processing Unit

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• Conceptually, mcRNC functionality is comprised of 4 planes – Control Plane, User


Plane, Transport Plane and Management Plane. Thanks to the unique type of
computing processing used in mcRNC hardware, a large degree of freedom is
available in design of RNC functional architecture
• The mcRNC architecture consists of consists of the following high level functions:
• network interface functions
• switching functions
• control plane processing
• user plane processing
• carrier connectivity functions
• O&M functions
• The functions are distributed in the entities of mcRNC hardware and software, and
the logical functions can freely be allocated inside mcRNC physical units.
• To simplify mcRNC architecture, the number of different types of physical units as
well as the number of functional units is highly minimized. Four main functional
units are utilized in mcRNC functional architecture design. They are CFPU, CSPU,
USPU and EIPU

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mcRNC Processing Units


CFPU
Operation and Management Unit (OMU)
and Centralized Functions for Control
Plane (CFCP)

CSPU
Cell-specific control and user plane
processing

USPU
All services for UE-specific control and
user plane processing

EIPU
Hosts the networking and transport
stacks needed for processing signaling
and user plane data

Ethernet Switches (no redundancy)

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The distributed processing architecture of the mcRNC is implemented by a


multiprocessor system, where the data processing capacity is divided among
several processors. Based on the application need several general purpose
processing units with appropriate redundancy principle can be assigned to
different tasks. In general, processing capacity can even be increased later
on by distributing the functionality of the network element to multiple
modules, and by upgrading processors with more powerful variants. As the
mcRNC has only one type of processing hardware, it allows a large degree of
freedom in the design of functional software architecture.

The Centralized Functions Processing Unit (CFPU) consists of Operation and


Management Unit (OMU) and Centralized Functions for Control Plane
(CFCP). OMU performs the basic system maintenance functions such as
hardware configuration, alarm system, configuration of signaling transport
and centralized recovery functions. It also contains cellular network related
functions such as radio network configuration management, radio network
recovery and RNW database.

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The CFPU is the only processing unit that uses 2N redundancy type. All the
functions that require 2N redundancy are located in CFPU, as well as all the
location services related functions requiring this kind of redundancy type or
centralized processing. For example, accounting of simultaneous on-going
location related procedures in the whole network element are located in the
CFPU.
The communication between OMU in CFPU and OMS/NetAct happens
through dedicated Ethernet interface.

The Cell-Specific Processing Unit (CSPU) processing unit implements all cell-
specific control and user plane processing. All control and user plane
resources for a single BTS are allocated from the same CSPU unit. Therefore
CSPU units are completely independent of each others and different CSPU’s
might not have mutual communication at all. Allocation of BTSs under control
of specific CSPUs is controlled by OMU. The same functionality in OMU allows
also graceful reallocation of BTSs one-by-one from one CSPU under control
of different CSPUs. This feature provides quite seamless shutdown and
replacement of one mcRNC hardware unit. The CSPU unit uses N+M (M
greater or equal to 1) redundancy type.

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The UE-Specific Processing Unit (USPU) This processing unit implements all
services for UE-specific control and user plane processing. Further, all
dedicated control and user plane resources for a single UE are allocated
from the same USPU unit. Therefore USPU units are completely independent
of each others and different USPUs might not have mutual communication
at all. It makes implementation of SN+ redundancy features like moving UE
specific processing from processor to another simpler.

The External Interface Processing Unit (EIPU) hosts the networking and
transport stacks needed for processing both signaling and user plane data.

The mcRNC provides Ethernet switching functionality both for the internal
communication between the various processing units (USPUs, CSPUs and
CFPUs) as well as for flexible connecting the external network interfaces to
the processing units. The internal communication and external network
switching parts are kept totally separated.

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Functional Architecture of mcRNC


SFP
EIPU
CSPU
CSPU
SFP

SFP
EIPU SFP
USPU
USPU
USPU
CFPU SFP

Backbone
Identical hardware units network
SFP
EIPU
CSPU
CSPU SFP
DCN
SFP
EIPU SFP
USPU
USPU
USPU
CFPU SFP

• Each processing unit physically corresponds to an add-in card


• The add-in cards are identical from the hardware point of view but can be
differentiated by loading different software to different add-in cards

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• The mcRNC functional architecture consists of four types of processing units: USPU,
CSPU, CFPU, and EIPU. Each processing unit physically corresponds to an add-in
card in the hardware architecture. The add-in cards are identical from the hardware
point of view but can be differentiated by loading different software to different add-
in cards - in this way implementing the processing units shown in the figure.

• Only CFPU and EIPU processing units are involved in IP-layer and transport-layer
protocol processing.

• The CFPU processing unit is in charge of handling Operations and Maintenance


(O&M) functions and thus provides a Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) port for
connecting towards the data communications network via the site switches.

• EIPU processing units provide several SFP ports towards the network. There are two
EIPU units in each hardware module. For redundancy reasons the connectivity
towards the site switches should be arranged as shown in the figure.

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mcRNC Redundancy Schemes

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Duplication (2N)
Duplication redundancy scheme, abbreviated "2N", uses a dedicated spare unit designated for
one active unit only. The spare unit is hot standby state, and all of data in a spare unit is always
synchronized with the active unit. The spare unit will be taken into use immediately if the active
unit fails.
Replacement (N+M)
Replacement redundancy scheme, named as “N+M”, takes M spare units and tries to allocate the
M spare units to N active units. The spare units are kept in cold standby states. The
synchronization of a spare unit is performed during the switchover procedure between a spare
unit and an active unit. A higher level Fault Management System monitors the health of the N
active units, and selects one of spare units from the M units to replace an active unit if it fails.
Load sharing (SN+)
Load sharing, called SN+, employs resource pool concept. A group of units form a resource
pool. The number of used units in the pool is defined, so that there is a certain amount of extra
capacity left in the pool. Faulty units will be disabled in the resource pool. The whole group of
units can still perform its designated functions if a few units in the pool are disabled because of
faults, A higher level module performs the load distribution. It also maintains the health status of
the hardware units. If one of the load sharing module fails, the higher level module starts
distributing the load among the rest of the units. There is graceful degradation of performance
with hardware failure.

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mcRNC Functional units

Control Plane and User Plane


• CSCP – Cell Specific functions and services in Control Plane
• USCP – UE Specific functions and services in Control Plane
• CFCP – Centralized Functions and services in Control Plane
• CSUP – Cell Specific functions and services in User Plane
• USUP - UE Specific functions and services in User Plane. This includes the dedicated and shared
channel services since they are relevant for a UE.
Transport Plane
• SITP – Signaling Transport Plane
• EITP – External Interface functions in Transport Plane.
Management Plane
• OMU – Operation and Maintenance Unit for Management Plane
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CFPU: Centralized Functions Processing Unit


CFPU
Linux
CFCP OMU
UDP UDP
DMX IP IP DMX

SE USSR IP
IPsec

Ethernet MAC
PHY Interface

• Contains OMU and CFCP


• USSR terminates IP for management plane
• Hosts critical services
• Redundancy : 2N

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The Centralized Functions Processing Unit (CFPU) consists of OMU and CFCP. Operation and
Management Unit (OMU) performs the basic system maintenance functions such as hardware
configuration, alarm system, configuration of signaling transport and centralized recovery
functions. It also contains cellular network related functions such as radio network configuration
management, radio network recovery and RNW database.
All the functions that requires 2N type of redundancy are located in CFPU as it is the only 2N
(hot standby) redundant processing unit. In addition to existing functionality from earlier
releases all the location services related functions requiring 2N redundancy or centralized
processing, like accounting of simultaneous on-going location related procedures in the whole
network element are located in the CFCP part of CFPU.
The USSR (User Specific SE for RNC O&M) in CFPU terminates the external Ethernet interface
needed for management plane operations. Management connections (ssh) and connection to
OMS goes through this interface. It runs in Simple Executive (SE) domain.

OMU
• Basic system maintenance functions
• CM, FM, PM, HW and SW management
• Hosts RNW Database
• Plan management

CFCP
• LCS services, Iu-PC, SABP
• Centralized information maintenance
• Connectionless protocols including paging

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CSPU: Cell Specific Processing Unit


CSPU

CSCP CSUP

RRCs RLC
NBAP RRCc MAC
SCTP FP
IP DMX DMX VCP

Ethernet Switch

Ethernet MAC
PHY Interface

• Contains CSCP and CSUP


• Co-located user and control planes for cell specific services
• Redundancy: N+M
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This processing unit implements all cell-specific control and user plane processing. Further, all
control- and user plane resources for a single BTS are allocated from the same CSPU unit.
Therefore CSPU units can function are completely independent of each others one another. and
different CSPUs might not have mutual communication at all The communication between
CSCPs in different CSPUs shall be limited to exchange of information on own state rather than to
delegate processing of Radio Layer functionality.

The unit uses N+M (M >= 1) redundancy. Allocation of BTSs under control of specific CSPUs is
controlled by OMU. The same functionality in OMU allows also graceful reallocation of BTSs
one-by-one from one CSPU under control of different CSPU’s. Although each cell in turn is
brought down for a moment during the operation, the feature provides quite seamless
shutdown and replacement of one mcRNC hardware unit.

CSUP
• Handles common channels and BTSs
• Resources for a BTS allocated from the same unit.

CSCP
• Handles NBAP, RRC-c and RRC-s
• Admission control, load control and packet scheduler

IP is used only by Flexi PF, not by RNC applications


SCTP is optional

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USPU: UE Specific Processing Unit


USPU

USCP USUP

RANAPd RNSAPd IuUP RLC


SCCP
adaptation RRCd RTP MAC
SCTP FP
IP DMX DMX VCP

Ethernet Switch

Ethernet MAC
PHY Interface

• Contains USCP and USUP


• Co-located user and control planes for UE specific services
• Redundancy: SN+ (load shared)

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This processing unit implements all UE-specific control and user plane processing.
Further, all dedicated control- and user plane resources for a single UE are allocated
from the same USPU unit, as long as the resource management policies permit.
Overload handling and shared channel processing optimization require some
communication between the USPUs but this is minimal and is mostly limited to
control message exchange only. Otherwise, the USPU units are mostly independent
of one another. This design narrows the scope of UE-related software bugs and
protects cell processing from them. Additionally, it makes implementation of SN+
redundancy features like moving UE specific processing from processor to another
simpler.

SCTP optional
• IP used only by Flexi PF, not by RNC applications

USUP
• Handles DCH, HS-DSCH and E-DCH channels
• Hosts RTP, RTCP

USCP
• Handles connection oriented protocols
• Localized User plane resource manager

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EIPU: External Interface Processing Unit

EIPU

SITP EITP
SCCP

M3UA GTPu
SCTP UDP VCP
DMX IP DMX
IPsec

Ethernet Switch

Ethernet MAC
PHY Interface

• Transport Network Layer unit


• Handles incoming packets
• Contains SITP and EITP
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The External Interface Processing Unit (EIPU) hosts the networking and
transport stacks needed for processing both signaling and user plane data. It
also handles the load balancing and distribution to other units. It consists of
two functional units - the Signaling Transport Plane (SITP) and External
Interface Transport Plane (EITP).

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mcRNC Example Configuration

Physical units are identical


Functional units are SW definable with the following principles

Cell specific services processing:


Number depends on the
coverage/connectivity, (N+M)

USPU
CFPU

CSPU
CSPU

USPU

USPU
EIPU

EIPU
External interface processing: Two per

HDU
module for transport processing, (1+1)

Centralized functions processing: Mandatory for


centralized functions, one card in each of

CFPU

USPU

CSPU
CSPU

USPU

USPU
EIPU

EIPU
module 1 and 2 (2N)

HDU
User specific services processing: The rest of the
processors (violet color) are shared between
user specific UP and CP by SW, (SN+)

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mcRNC Data Flows

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Scenario: Selecting a CSPU for a BTS

• A BTS object is added to the RNW DB


• The BTS handler chooses the next available CSCP by round robin
• The eligible list is maintained based on existing load
• A unit in overload mode can ask to be made ineligible
• The CSCP uses its own CSUP in same processor for user plane resources
• Typically, all resources needed for a BTS provided from the same processing
unit
• In case of CSCP switchover, CSUP may stay in the original CSPU to avoid
service interruption (requires RAN2251 Automatic mcRNC Resource
Optimization)
• The Transport Resource Manager selects an EIPU
• Configures it with the address and port information for the newly added BTS
and the address of the selected CSCP
• The distribution table in EIPU is updated.

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Scenario: Selecting a USPU for a call

• A new RRC Connection Request comes to the CSPU


• The USCP to handle the call is chosen by round robin with USPU load information
to ensure sufficient resource for both CP and UP.
• The co-located USUP handles user plane resources
• If the co-located USUP resource is unavailable due to congestion, USUP from
other USPU may be used

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IuCS User Plane data flow

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Figure shows the path of AMR and CS data traffic through the system:

Downlink data processing


When a packet arrives, the EITP in the EIPU terminates the network and transport layer
protocols – IP, IPsec (if configured) and UDP.
Application layerTNL protocols RTP and RTCP (if used) are terminated in USUP. These protocols
are used to take care of real time transport issues and the control of call QoS.
IuUP is used to decouple the service related user data characteristics from the underlying
transport protocols and is used in the support mode. It is also terminated in the USUP since it
belongs to the Radio Network Layer, serves to adapt the transport layers and needs to interact
closely with the User Plane.
After the processing and adaptation needed for the air interface, the data frames are sent to
the EITP of the EIPU that serves the BTS, where the transport and network layer functions are
located.
The centralized scheduling of data is enforced to ensure that the transport functions can evolve
independently and are localized to the transport plane unit only.
If the UE is in a SHO mode, the data is copied to multiple links by the FP layer

Uplink data processing


When a packet arrives, the EITP in the EIPU terminates the network and transport layer
protocols – IP, IPsec (if configured) and UDP. The frames are forwarded to the respective USPU
unit using the internal transport and MDC is performed in the USUP. The data is forwarded to
the Iu interface after required RNL processing through the EITP.

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IuPS NRT DCH and HS-DSCh data flow

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Figure shows the path of HSPA traffic through the RNC.

Downlink
The data processing is similar to PS over DCH and the protocols used
are identical. The only difference is that the SHO mode of the UE is not
applicable for HSDPA traffic and the data is sent through one carrier
only.

Uplink
The Uplink processing is similar to the PS over DCH scenario for both
E-DCH and DCH uplink channels. The MDC is performed in the USUP.

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IuPS NRT traffic over CCH data flow

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Figure shows the path for PS data sent over common channels.

Downlink
The data path for the transfer over FACH follows the same principles as
discussed for PS data. The only difference is in the MAC scheduling. The
MAC-c scheduler and the associated FP are involved after the MAC-d
processing is completed.

Uplink
The data path for the transfer over RACH involves the MAC-c in CSUP and
then the MAC-d in USUP. The other parts are similar to that of the PS data
transfer over DCH.

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CS Data flow comparison with IPA2800 RNC

The picture shows CS user data flow involving ATM based Iub and IP based Iu-CS. DCH
is used and AAL2 switching of traffic is done in NPS1(P).
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Control Plane comparison


DCH
DMCU
NPS1 SFU MXU MXU SFU MXU ICSU
DSP

Eth Switch EIPU Int Switch USPU

CCH
DMCU
NPS1 SFU MXU MXU SFU MXU ICSU
DSP

Eth Switch EIPU Int Switch CSPU


IPA
mcRNC

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Data Plane comparison


AMR
DMCU
NPS1 SFU MXU MXU SFU NPS1
DSP

Eth Switch EIPU Int Switch USPU Int Switch EIPU Eth Switch

NRT (DCH)
DMCU
NPS1 SFU MXU MXU SFU NPS1
DSP

Eth Switch EIPU Int Switch USPU Int Switch EIPU Eth Switch

IPA

mcRNC

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Data Plane comparison

NRT (CCH)
DMCU DMCU
NPS1 SFU MXU MXU SFU MXU MXU SFU NPS1
DSP DSP

Eth Switch EIPU Int Switch CSPU Int Switch USPU Int Switch EIPU Eth Switch

IPA

mcRNC

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Backplane Connections

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mcRNC Capacity Step5


Step S5-A1 - 6box configuration

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mcRNC Capacity Step1


Step S1-B2 - 2box configuration

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mcRNC Capacity Step3


Step S3-B2 - 4box configuration

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mcRNC Capacity Step7


Step S7-B2 -
8box configuration

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