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CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE

  
12. Given : P = A - B and P  A  B . The Ay Ay
  cos   
angle between A and B is A A 2x  A 2y  A 2z
1) 0° 2) 90° 3) 180° 4) 270°
13. A set of vectors taken in a given order Az Az
cos   
gives a closed polygon. Then the resultant A A 2x  A 2y  A 2z
of these vectors is a
1) scalar quantity 2) pseudo vector Here cos ,cos  and cos  are called

3) unit vector 4) null vector. direction cosines of A
14. The vector sum of two forces P and Q is
cos2   cos 2   cos2   1 and
minimum when the angle θ between
their positive directions, is sin2   sin2   sin2   2

   2. If A  A x ˆi  A y ˆj  A z k
ˆ and
1) 2) 3) 4) 
4 3 2 
B  Bx ˆi  B y ˆj  Bz kˆ then
DAY-6 : SYNOPSIS  
 A  B   A x  Bx  ˆi   A y  By  ˆj   A z  Bz  k
ˆ
1. If a vector A in the X – Y plane makes an  
angle  with X–axis, it can be resolved A  B   A x  Bx  ˆi   A y  By  ˆj   A z  Bz  k
ˆ
into two rectangular components along 3. If the co–ordinates of P and Q are (x1, y1,
X and Y directions. z1) and (x2, y2, z2)position vectors of P and
 
Component along X–axis is Ax = Acos  Q with respect to origin are r1 and r2
Component along Y–axis is Ay = Asin   
 r1  x1ˆi  y1ˆj  z1kˆ r2  x 2ˆi  y 2ˆj  z 2 k ˆ
A  A x ˆi  A y ˆj   A cos   ˆi   A sin   ˆj    
Displacement vector PQ  r  r2  r1
A A 2x  A 2y and tan   A y /A x 
r   x 2  x1  ˆi   y 2  y1  ˆj   z 2  z1  k
ˆ

If vector A makes angles ,  
Not e: Any vector (like r ) can be
and  respectively with X, Y and Z axes,
 expressed as the difference of to co–
then A  A x ˆi  A y ˆj  A z k
ˆ . Here A , A and  
x y initial vectors (like r2  r1 )
Az are component along X, Y and Z axes.  
 4. If A is parallel to B , then
A or A  A 2x  A 2y  A 2z
Ax Ay Az
  
A Bx A y Bz = K (constant)
 
Unit vector a along A is A and is given  
5. If A and B are antiparallel vectors,

A x ˆi  A y ˆj  A z k
ˆ   Ax Ay Az
or    K
by â  A  KB Bx A y Bz
A 2x  A 2y  A 2z
6. Component of a vector is a scalar. But a

If , ,  are the angles made by A with x, vector will have component vectors.

y and z axes respectively, then e.g: If A  A x ˆi  A y ˆj  A z k
ˆ
Ax Ax 
cos    Ax, Ay, Az are component of A along X, Y,
A A  A 2y  A 2z
2
x
Z direction. Whereas A ˆi, A ˆj, A k ˆ are
x y z

component vectors along the same


direction respectively.
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CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE
7. If a vector is represented by xiˆ  yjˆ  zkˆ . Fv

Its length, in X – Y plane is x 2  y 2 , in 


F

Y – Z plane is y 2  z 2 , in X – Z plane is 45°


FH
x2  z2
1) 4 2N, 4 2N 2) 4N, 4N
8. If a vector is in the horizontal direction,
its vertical component is zero. For any 3) 4 2N, 4N 4) 4N, 4 2N
vector its perpendicular component is

zero. 6. If three forces F1  3iˆ  4ˆj  5k
ˆ,
   
9. If component of vector A and B is same
  F2  3iˆ  4ˆj and F3  5k ˆ are acted on
as component of vector B along A , then a body, then the direction of resultant
A=B. force on the body is:
DAY-6 : WORKSHEET 1) along x–axis 2) along y–axis
3) along z–axis 4) in indeterminate form
1. A child takes 8 steps towards east and
7. A man first moves 4 m due east, then 5
6 steps towards north. If each step is
m due north and finally 7 m due west,
equal to 1 cm, then the magnitude of
then the magnitude of the resultant
displacement is :
displacement is :
1) 10 m 2) 0.1 m
3) 10 m 4) None of these 1) 90 2) 80 3) 70 4) 60
2. A man first moves 3 m due east, then 6
m due north and finally 7 m due west, DAY-7 : SYNOPSIS
then the magnitude of the resultant 1. Mechanics is said to be the grammar of
displacement is : science.
1) 16 2) 24 3) 52 4) 94 Mechanics is the science which deals
3. What is the maximum number of with the motion and effects of force on a
rectangular components into which a body.
vector can be split in its own plane ? Mechanics has been divided into three
1) 2 2) 3 3) 4 4) Infinite parts:
a) Statics b) Dynamics & c) Kinematics.
Statics deals with the bodies at rest
W 30° W
 under the action of forces .
4. W=10 Dynamics deals with the bodies in
30°
motion, considering the cause of motion.
In the diagram a weight W = 10N is acting
Kinematics deals with motion itself
vertically downwards, then the
without having any regard to the cause
components of weight parallel ( Wll ) and of motion.
perpendiculer ( W ) to the incline 2. Terms related to Kinematics :
respectively are 1. Displacement :
1) 5 3N,5N 2) 5N, 5 3N If a particle moves from its initial position
A to a final position B, the distance
3) 5N, 5N 4) 0N,10N covered may have any value which is
5. Figure shows a force F = 8 N which greater than or equal to the length of
makes an angle of 45° with the the straight line joining the two points A
horizontal. Then the horizontal and and B. The vector joining A & B and
vertical components of the force directed along the line AB is known as
respectively are 
the displacement vector  r .
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CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE
Let the position vector of  i n  i n
   v av   v i t i  t i
A = r1 = OA  x1ˆi  y1ˆj  z1k
ˆ i 1 i 1

Let the position vector of b) Instantaneous Velocity :


  Instantaneous velocity
B = r2 = OB  x 2ˆi  y 2ˆj  z 2 k
ˆ
 
From the vector triangle,  s  s
   v  Lim v
t0  t t
OA  AB  OB
    * Instantaneous speed is equal to the
 AB   r  r2  r1   x 2  x1  ˆi   y 2  y1  ˆj   z 2  z1  k
ˆ
magnitude of instantaneous velocity.
=  x ˆi   y ˆj   z k
ˆ c) Uniform Velocity :
Here  x ,  y and  z represent the When a particle moves with constant
 instantaneous velocity for any time
components of displacement vector  r interval, it is said to be moving with
along x, y and z directions. uniform velocity. Therefore the motion of
2. Velocity : the particle is known as uniform motion.
a) Average Velocity : ACCELERATION
Since the displacement of a particle a) Average Acceleration :
changes with time, the ratio of change When a particle changes its velocity, we
  can say that the magnitude or direction
 s of displacement vector s in a time or both magnitude and direction of the
interval  t to that interval of time is velocity vector change. Then the body is
known as time rate of change of said be moving with non-uniform velocity.
displacement (vector), that is specially 
Let the body change its velocity by  v
termed as velocity of the particle
over a time interval  t , the time rate of
averaged over the time interval  t or in 
 change of velocity is given as  v/  t , that
short we call it as average velocity v av .
 is termed as the acceleration of the
 s particle averaged over the time interval or
Mathematically, v av  simply we call it as average acceleration.
t

Not e: When a particle moves with  v
   Mathematically a av  .
different velocities v1 , v2 , v3 etc., in t
b) Instantaneous Acceleration :
different time intervals  t1 ,  t 2 ,  t 3 etc. For an instant (infinitely small or
respectively, its average velocity over the infinitesimal time interval), the change
total time of motion can be given as in velocity of the particle is infinitely
small, but the ratio of infinitesimal
Net displacement vector
vav  change in velocity and the infinitesimal
total time time is finite. This finite ratio is termed as
   
 s  s1   s 2   s 3  ........ instantaneous acceleration.
   
t  t1   t 2   t 3  ......   v dv
 a  Lim 
Where the displacement of the particle t0  t dt
during time interval  t1 ,  t 2 etc. are c) Uniform Acceleration :
    When a particle possesses constant
given as s1  v1  t1 , s2  v2  t 2 etc.,
instantaneous acceleration (vector) for
 
 v1 t1  v 2 t 2  ..... some time interval we say that it is
 vav  moving with constant or uniform
 t1  t 2  .....
acceleration in that time interval.
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CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE

DAY-7 : WORKSHEET r r
1) , 2r 2) , 4r
2 4
1. A player hits a baseball at some angle.
The ball goes high up in space. The player r
runs and catches the ball before it hits 3) , 2r 4) 2  r, zero
2
the ground. Which of the two has greater 6. A player completes a circular path of
displacement ? radius ‘r’ in 40s. At the end of 2 minutes
1) the player 2) the ball 20 seconds, displacement will be
3) data in sufficient 1) 2r 2) 2 r 3) 7r 4) Zero
4) both have same displacement 7. A car moves for half of its time at 80 km/
2. A ball is thrown up with a certain velocity. h and for next half of time at 40 km/h.
It attains a height of 40m and comes back Total distance covered is 60 km. The
to the thrower. Then the average speed of the car is____________
1) total distance covered is 40m 1) 60 km/h 2) 80 km/h
2) magnitude of displacement is 80m 3) 120 km/h 4) 180 km/h
3) displacement is zero 8. A car travels 30 km at a uniform speed
4) total distance covered is zero of 40 km/h and the next 30 km at a
3. A cyclist moves from a certain point X and uniform speed of 20 km/h. Find its
completes one revolution around a average speed.
circular path of radius ‘r’. The distance 1) 35km/h 2) 40km/h
travelled and magnitude of displacement 3) 22km/h 4) 26.6km/h
of the cyclist are respectively 9. There is a square field of side ‘a’ units. An
insect starts from one corner and
 reaches the diagonally opposite corner in
1) 2r ,  r 2) , 2
2 a time t. The magnitude of its average
3) 2  r, zero 4) r, 2r velocity is
4. In the above problem of the cyclist 2a 2a 4 2a
reaches exactly the other side of the 1) 2) 3) 4) 2at
t t t
point X (i.e. diametrically opposite point 10. A man leaves his house for a cycle ride.
to X). Then the distance travelled and He comes back to his house after half-an-
magnitude of displacement of cyclist are hour after covering a distance of one km.
respectively What is his magnitude of average velocity
r for the ride?
1)  r , 2r 2) , 2
2 1
1) 2kmh–1 2) 0 3) 2 kms–1 kms 1
4)
3) 2  r, zero 4) r, 2r 2
5. Considering the above problem if the 11. A body covers an arc of a circle of radius
cyclist reaches a point ‘Z’ as shown in the ‘r’, subtending an angle of 120° at the
figure, centre of the circle. The magnitude of the
Z displacement of the body is
1) r 3 2) r 2 3) 2r 4) 3r

X
12. A carrom board (4ft × 4ft square) has
O r the queen at the centre. The queen, hit
by the striker moves to the front edge,
rebounds and goes in the hole being the
then the distance travelled and striking line. The magnitude of
magnitude of displacement of the cyclist displacement of the queen from the
are respectively centre to the front edge is
1) 2 ft 2) 4 2 ft 3) 2 2 ft 4) 2
NARAYANA GROUP OF SCHOOLS 53
CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE

DAY-8 : SYNOPSIS 2. A body starting from rest with uniform


acceleration travels distance s 1 in the
Uniform Acceleration : An object is said first ‘t’ second and travels a distance s2
to be moving with uniform acceleration with uniform velocity in the next 2t
if its velocity changes by equal amounts second. Then
in equal intervals of time.
1) s2 = 4s12) s2 = 2s1 3) s1 = 4s2 4) s1 = 2s2
1) Formulae for uniformly accelerated
3. Starting from rest a body travels 36m in
motion along a straight line :
the first 2 second of its journey. Distance
1. Velocity - time relation :- v = u + at it can travel in the 11th second is
2. Displacement- time relation :-
1) 72 m 2) 108 m 3) 144 m 4) 189 m
1 4. A bullet travelling horizontally loosess 1/
s = ut + at2
2 20th of its velocity while piercing a wooden
3. Displacement - velocity relation:- v2 – plank. Number of such planks required
u2 =2as to stop the bullet is
Where ‘u’ is initial velocity ‘v’ is final 1) 6 2) 9 3) 11 4) 13
velocity, ‘a’ is acceleration (uniform) ‘t’ 5. A body starting from rest and travelling
is total time , ‘s’ is the displacement. with uniform acceleration has a velocity
Distance travelled in n th second of of 40 m/s after 10 second at A. Velocity
uniformly accelerated motion is of the body 4 second before it crosses
a the point ‘A’ is
Sn  u + (2n  1)
2 1) 16 m/s 2) 20 m/s 3) 24 m/s 4) 32 m/s
2) For two or three dimensional motion 6. A bullet fired into a fixed target looses
equation of motion for uniformly half of its velocity in penetrating 15 cm.
 Before coming to rest, it can penetrate a
accelerated motion ( a = constant) are,
further distance of
     1  2 1) 5 cm 2) 15 cm 3) 7.5 cm 4) 10 cm
v  u  a t, s  u t  a t
2 7. Velocity of a body moving with uniform
 
acceleration of 3m/s2 is changed through
Here, u = initial velocity of particle, v 30m/s in certain time. Average velocity
= velocity of particle at time t and of body during this time is 30m/s.
 Distance covered by it during this time
s = displacement of particle in time t is
Note: If initial position vector of a particle 1) 300 m 2) 200 m 3) 400 m 4) 250 m

is r0 , then position vector at time t can be 8. If a body travels 30m in an interval of 2s
and 50m in the next interval of 2s, then
     1 2 the acceleration of the body is
written as r  r0  s  r0  ut  at .
2 1) 10 m/s2 2) 5 m/s2
3) 20 m/s2 4) 25 m/s2
DAY-8 : WORKSHEET
9. A particle is moving with uniform
1. A particle experiences constant acceleration along a straight line ABC.
acceleration for 6s after starting from Its velocity at ‘A’ and ‘B’ are 6 m/s and 9
r est . I f i t t r avel s a d i st an ce s 1 in the m/s respectively. If AB:BC = 5:16 then
first 2s and a distance s2 in the next 2s its velocity at ‘C’ is
and a distance s 3 in the last 2s, then
s1:s2:s3 is 1) 9.6 m/s 2) 12 m/s
1) 1:1:1 2) 1:2:3 3) 1:3:5 4) 1:5:9 3) 15 m/s 4) 21.5 m/s

NARAYANA GROUP OF SCHOOLS 54


CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE
th
10.A body covers 30m and 40m during 10 b) Body projected vertically upwards:
and 15 th second respectively. The Whenever a body is projected vertically
acceleration and initial velocity of the upwards, then a = –g. The equations of
body are respectively motion for a body projected vertically
1) 2 m/s2,  35 m/s 2) 2 m/s2,  11 m/s upwards are:
3) 11 m/s2,  2 m/s 4) 1 m/s2,  10 m/s 1 2
a) v  u  gt b) s or h  ut  gt
11. A body travels 200m in the first two 2
second and 220m in the next four second.
The velocity at the end of the seventh g
c) v2  u2  2gh d) sn  u (2n  1)
second from the start will be 2
1) 10 m/s 2) 15 m/s Whenever a body is projected vertically
3) 220 m/s 4) 5 m/s upwards: velocity becomes zero at the
12. A bus starts from rest and moves with a highest point.
uniform acceleration of 1ms-2. A boy 10m 3. Maximum height : The vertical distance
behind the bus at the start runs at a travelled by a body before its velocity
constant speed and catches the bus in becomes zero is called maximum height
10s. Speed of the boy is reached by the body.
1) 10 m/s 2) 1 m/s 3) 6 m/s 4) 4 m/s If a body is projected vertically upwards
with a velocity 'u', the maximum height
DAY-9 : SYNOPSIS
u2
1. Recap of equations of motion for a body (h) reached by the body is h  . Where
2g
moving with uniform acceleration are:
g = acceleration due to gravity.
1 2 4. Time of ascent : Time taken by the body
1) v  u  at 2) s  ut  at 3 )
2 to reach the highest point is called time
a u
v2  u2  2as 4) sn  u  2 (2n  1) of ascent ( ta )and is given by t a  g

Where u = initial velocity, v = final 5. Time of descent : Time taken by the body
velocity, a = acceleration, t = total time, to travel from the maximum height to the
s = displacement and sn = displacement ground is called time of descent ( t d ) is
in nth second.
u
2. Motion due to gravity : Motion due to given by t d  g .
gravity can be studied as:
a) Freely falling body b) Body projected In the absence of air resistance, time of
vertically upwards ascent is equal to time of descent.
c) Projectile motion.(will be discussed 6. Time of flight : The total time spent by
later) the body in air is called time of flight (t)
a) Freely falling body: Whenever a body is u u 2u
falling freely ( no initial force is applied ) is given by t = ta+td=  g  g  g .
then u = 0 and a = +g. The equations for
a freely falling body are: Note: If 'u' is the velocity with which a
body is projected vertically upwards and
1 2 'v' is the velocity with which the body
a) v  at b) s or h  gt
2 reaches the point of projection, then
g v = u.
c) v 2  2gh  v  2gh d) sn  [2n  1] 7. Sign convention: Normally we take
2
vertically upward direction positive (and
downward negative) and horizontally
rightwards positive (or leftwards negative)
NARAYANA GROUP OF SCHOOLS 55
CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE
(a) Sign convention for motion in vertical 5. Two bodies are projected simultaneously
with the same velocity of 19.6 m/s from
the top of a tower, one vertically upwards
direction and the other vertically downwards. As
+ve ve they reach the ground, the time gap is
(b) Sign convention for motion in 1) 0 s 2) 2 s 3) 4 s 4) 6 s
6. The time taken by a vertically projected
horizontal direction +ve ve body before reaching the ground is
Important points: 1) directly proportional to initial velocity.
i) It can be observed when either u = 0, 2) directly proportional to square of initial
   
velocity.
u   a or u   a 3) inversely proportional to square of
ii) In the first two cases when either u = 0 or initial velocity.
  4) inversely proportional to initial velocity.
u   a motion is only accelerated. 7. A body projected vertically up with a
  velocity of 10m/s reaches a height of
iii) When u   a motion is first retarded (till 20m. If it is projected with a velocity of
the velocity becomes zero) and then 20m/s, then the maximum height
accelerated in opposite direction. reached by the body is
iv) As per our convention (vertically upward 1) 20 m 2) 10 m 3) 80 m 4) 40 m
positive) acceleration due to gravity ‘g’ is 8. A body projected up with a velocity ‘u’
always negative whether the particle is reaches a height ‘h’. To reach double
moving upwards or downwards. We are the height, it must be projected up with
now left with the sign of u and s. a velocity of
Displacement s is measured from the
point of projection. u
1) 2u 2) u/2 3) 2u 4)
2
DAY-9 : WORKSHEET
9. A body is dropped from the top of a tower.
1. A body falls freely from rest. If the velocity Simultaneously, another body is
acquired is numerically equal to the projected vertically up. If they meet with
displacement, then the velocity acquired equal velocity ‘V’, then initial velocity of
is the body projected upwards is
1) 9.8 m/s 2) 19.6 m/s 1) V 2) V/2 3) V/4 4) 2V
3) 29.4 m/s 4) 39.2 m/s 10. A body dropped from a height reaches
2. A body dropped from the top of a tower the ground is 5s. The velocity with which
reaches the ground in 4s. Height of the it reaches the ground is
tower is 1) 0 m/s 2) 49 m/s 3) 29 m/s 4) 9.8 m/s
1) 39.2 m 2) 44.1 m 3) 58.8 m 4) 78.4 m 11. A stone dropped from the top of a tower
3. A ball dropped freely takes 0.2s to cross covers 24.5m in the last second of its
the last 6m distance before hitting the fall. Height of the tower is
ground. Total time of fall is (g = 10 m/s2) 1) 24.5 m 2) 44.1 m 3) 78.4 m 4) 122.5 m
1) 2.9 s 2) 3.1 s 3) 2.7 s 4) 0.2 s 12. A ball is dropped from a bridge 122.5m
4. A body thrown vertically upwards reaches above a river. After 2s, a second ball is
the highest point in 2s. Velocity of thrown down after it. What must its
projection is initial velocity be so that both hit the
1) 9.8 m/s 2) 19.6 m/s water at the same time ?
3) 29.4 m/s 4) 39.2 m/s 1) 49 m/s 2) 55.5 m/s
3) 26.1 m/s 4) 9.8 m/s

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CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE

DAY-10 : SYNOPSIS DAY-10 : WORKSHEET


1. If a constant force (and hence constant
1. A projectile thrown from a horizontal
acceleration ) acts on a particle at an
plane reaches back the plane after
angle    0 or180  with the direction of covering a horizontal distance of 40 m. If
its initial velocity (  zero), the path te horizontal velocity of the projectile is
followed by the particle is a parabola and 10 ms  1 , then what is the initial velocity?
the motion of the particle is called
projectile motion. Given g  10 ms  2
Projectile motion is a two dimensional
1) 2 0 m s  1 2) 10 m s  1 3) 4 0 m s  1 4) 3 0 m s  1
motion, i.e., motion of the particle is
constrained in a plane.
2. A bullet is fired with a velocity of 10 ms 1
When a particle is thrown obliquely near
the earth’s surface it moves in a parabolic in a direction making an angle of 30o
path, provided the particle remains close with the vertical. Calculate its time of
to the surface of earth and the air flight and the maximum height reached
resistance is negligible. This is an by it.
example of projectile motion.
1) 0.6s,1.8m 2) 1.7s,3.8m
Let us first make ourselves familiar with
3) 3.6s,3.2m 4) 3.1s,4.9m
certain terms used in projectile motion.
3. The maximum vertical height of a
projectile is 10 m. If the magnitude of the
initial velocity is 28 m/s. What is the
direction of initial velocity
1) 10 0 2) 20 0 3) 30 0 4) 40 0
4. A bullet is fired at an angle of 30 0 to the
horizontal with a velocity of 196 m/s.
Calculate the total time of flight is
Here u x  u cos  ; u y  u sin   g  9 .8 m / s 2

1) 10 s 2) 20 s 3) 30 s 4) 40 s
2uy 2usin 5. Take the same data in the above problem
Time of Flight (T)   and find maximum height attained
g g
1) 240 m 2) 350 m 3) 490 m 4) 120 m
u 2 sin 2  6. In the previous question find the
Horizontal Range (R)  and horizontal range covered by the body
g
1) 1122 m 2) 2142 m 3) 5162 m 4) 3394 m
u 2 sin  7. The formula of horizontal range is
Maximum Height (H) 
2g u 2 sin 2  u2
u 2 sin 2 u 2 s in 2 
Therefore, speed of projectile at time t is 1) 2 g 2) 3) 4)
g g g
v v 2x  v 2y and the angle made by its 8. A projectile is fired from the ground level
velocity vector with positive x-axis is with velocity 500 m/s at 30 0 to the
horizontal. Filnd the horizontal range
 vy 
  tan1   1) 21650 m 2) 31520 m
 vx  3) 51623 m 4) 33942 m

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CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE
9. Angle made by the velocity vector of a but this does not happen. This is because
projectile with x - axis is the books stay where they were due to
inertia of rest when the paper is pulled
 vy  vx
1)   tan  1   2)   tan  1 out.
 vx  vy (ii) Inertia of motion: The tendency of a
body to continue in its state of motion is
3) Both 1 & 2 4) None of these
called inertia of motion.
10. The formula of time of flight is
Example: When a fan is switched off, it
2 u sin  2 u cos  continues to move due to inertia of
1) 2) motion.
g g
(iii) Inertia of direction: The tendency of a
2u 2u body to maintain its direction of motion
3) 4) is known as inertia of direction.
g cos g s in 
Ex ample : A stone tied to a string is
11. The horizontal component of velocity
whirled. If the string is released, the
vector of projectile makes an angle  stone flies away tangentially.
with horizontal is Linear momentum:- This quantity of motion
1) u sin  2) u tan  3) u cos 4) u cot  possessed by a moving body is known as
12. The vertical component of velocity momentum of the body. ( or ) The total
quantity of motion contained in a body is
vector of projectile makes an angle  called momentum.
with vertical is Mathematical expression:
1) u sin  2) u tan  3) u cos 4) u cot   
momentum = mass × velocity; p  mv ;
DAY-11 : SYNOPSIS Momentum is a vector quantity
Newton has given three laws to describe S.I. unit of momentum = kg m/s. ,
the motion of bodies. These laws are C. G. S. unit of momentum is g.cms 1 .
known as Newton’s laws of motion.
Newton’s 2nd Law: The rate of change of
Newton’s First law:
momentum of an object is proportional
If no external force acts, a body continues
to the net force. Applied on the object.
to be in its state of rest or of uniform
The direction of the change of momentum
motion along a straight line.
is the same as the Direction of the net
Inertia: force. F= ma
The inability of a body to change by itself S.I unit of force = kg m/s2 = newton,
its state of rest or of uniform motion is C.G.S unit of force = g cm/s2 = dyne.
called inertia of the body or inertia can Gravitational unit of force in S.I. system
also be defined as the tendency of a body is kilogram weight or kilogram force.
to remain in the state of rest or uniform 1 kg wt = 9.8 N (on earth) ,
motion. Mass is the measure of inertia.
1 g wt = 1g × 980 cm/s2 (on earth)
Force : Force may be defined as that Newton’s Third Law: In any interaction
physical cause which changes or tends between two bodies, the force applied by
to change the state of rest or the state the first body on the second is equal and
of motion of a body. There are three opposite to the force applied by the
different types of inertia. They are: second body on the first body.
(i) Inertia of rest: The tendency of a body
to continue in its state of rest is called
inertia of rest.
Example: When a paper on which a pile of
books are placed is suddenly pulled with
a jerk, we expect the books also to move,
NARAYANA GROUP OF SCHOOLS 58
CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE

DAY-11 : WORKSHEET 9. When the branch of a tree is shaken,


the fruits fall due to
1 Inertia of a body directly depends on
its 1) Inertia of motion of fruits
1) velocity 2) mass 3) area 4) volume 2) Inertia of rest of fruits
2. The athlete runs some distance before 3) Inertia of direction of fruits
taking along jump to
4) The fruits are ripen
1) acquire larger inertia of motion
2) overcome inertia of rest 10. Third law of motion is best given by the
3) get inertia of direction statement
4) acquire maximum energy 1) To every action, there is anequal and
3. A rider on a horse falls forward, when opposite reaction
the horse suddenly stops because of 2) When an object exerts a force on
1) inertia of motion of horse another object, the second object
2) inertia of motion of rider instantaneously exerts a force back on
3) larger weight of horse the first, which is equal to the first force
4) losing of balance but in opposite direction
4. A 4 kg object is moving across a 3) There is a pair of opposing forces acting
frictionless surface with a constant on different objects
velocity of 2 m/s. The force necessary to
4) All of these
maintain this state of motion ———— N
1) 2 2) 4 3) 0 4) 8 11.A body of mass 25 kg has a m o m e n tu m
5. Before taking a long jump, an athlete run of 125 kg-m/s, what is its velocity?
a certain distance, he picks up _____ 1) 6 m/s 2) 5 m/s 3) 4 m/s 4) 3 m/s
which helps in taking a longer leap 12. What is the momentum of a person of
1) inertia of motion 2) inertia of rest mass 75kg when he walks with a uniform
3) inertia of direction 4) can’t say velocity of 2m/s
6. _______ may be defined as that physical
1) 100 kg m/s 2) 200 kg m/s
cause which changes or tends to Change
the state of rest or the state of motion of 3) 150 kg m/s 4) 125 kg m/s
a body 13.A car of mass 200 kg is moving with a
1) force 2) momentum speed of 20 m/s, after 25 seconds the
3) mass 4) acceleration velocity increased by 10 m/s, then what
7. The action and reaction forces always is the change in momentum?
acts on the _______. 1) 4000kg m/s 2) 3000kg m/s
1) same bodies 2) different bodies
3) 1000kg m/s 4) 2000kg m/s
3) some time different and some time
same bodies 4) can’t say 14. A mass of m kg is subjected to a constant
8. Newton’s first law of motion states: force of ‘F’ kg wt for t sec initial the Body
1) An object remains in a state of rest or is being at rest. Under the action of force
of uniform motion in a straight line the body moves a distance ‘x’ meters (in
unless compelled tochange that state by ‘t’ sec)and acquires a velocity of V m/s.
an applied force Then x is
2) All objects resist a change in their 1) gt2F/m 2) gtF/2m
state of motion.
3) V2m/2gF 4) V2m/g2F
3) Both (1) and (2)
4) None of these

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CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE

DAY-12 : SYNOPSIS DAY-12 : WORKSHEET


Kinds of Forces : In most situations that 1. Whenever two surfaces are in
we are going to encounter, there will so contact, they press (or push) each
many kinds of forces otherby a force called _______.
i) Field Forces 1) non-contact force 2) contact force
ii) Contact Force 3) gravitational force 4) both (1) and (2)
iii) Normal Force or Normal Reaction (N 2. The component of the contact force
Tension : When a body is connected by perpendicular to the surface is called ___
means of a string or a rope, a force may 1) normal reaction 2) frictional force
be exerted on the body by the string or 3) weight 4) speed
the rope. This force is called tension. 3. The number of normal forces acting on a
To find the direction of tension, body depends on
remember this point “Tension force 1) number of points or surfaces of contact
always pulls a body”.
2) mass of body
3) colour of the body 4) both (1) and (2)
4. The free body diagram of the freely falling
body (neglecting airs resistance)

FREE BODY DIAGRAM


A free body diagram (FBD) consists of a
diagrammatic representation of a 5. A book lying on a smooth horizontal table.
single body or a subsystem of bodies Then the free body diagram of the book.
isolated from its surroundings showing
all the forces acting on it.
Consider, for example, a book lying on a
horizontal surface.

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CLASS-IX MPC BRIDGE COURSE
6. Tension force always _____ a body.
DAY-13 : SYNOPSIS
1) pushes
Light is a form of energy which makes
2) pulls tghe objects visible to eye. Light
3) sometimes pushes, sometimes pulls propagates as electromagnetic wave. It
does not require medium for its
4) Both (1) and (2) propagation. Light travels in a straight
7. The tension in the mass less string is line as long as it is travelling in the same
_______ at any point and it is different medium, this is called rectilinear
for a mass less string propagatio of light.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, in
1) infinity 2) constant
visible region there are infinite colours
3) different 4) can’t say but our eyes can distinguish the colour
8. If the two bodies are in contact, the force from violet to read (VIBGYOR).
exists between these two bodies are Speed of light in free space or vacuum is
3 × 1 0 8 m/s which is independent of
1) gravitational force 2) electrostatic force
relative motion between the source and
3) normal force 4) none of these observer.
9. If a string is inextensible the magnitude All colours of light travel with same speed
of acceleration of any number of masses in vacuum. In a medium different colours
connected through string is _________ of light travels with different speeds
speed of light is maximum for red and
1) always same 2) always different minimum for violet in a medium.
3)sometimes different 4)none of these Note : Light of single wavelength is called
monochromatic light.
10.An egg is free-falling from a neston a
tree. Neglect air resistance.Draw FBD a Reflection:
free-body diagram for the egg, falling The return of light into the same medium after
freely from a nest. striking a surface is called reflection.
Reflection of light is the process which
enables us to see different objects around
us. Luminous bodies are directly seen,
but non luminous objects are seen only
because they reflect the light incident on
them which on entering into our eyes,
make them visible.

A B
Normal

11. A free diagram is a


In

y
ci

Ra
de

ed

1) Diagrammatic representation of a
nt

ct
R

le
ay

single body or a sub-system of bodies


Re

i r
showing all the forces acting on it.
M O M1
2) Diagrammatic representation of a Reflection at a plain surface
single body or a sub-system of bodies
without showing all the forces acting on Note:
it. Reflection is possible in case of plane
mirror. A plane mirror is a plane glass
3) Both (1)&(2) 4) Neither (1)nor(2)
NARAYANA GROUP OF SCHOOLS 61