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Operator’s Manual

TBird® Series
Ventilators

L1580 Revision D Copyright Bird Products 2002


2 Operators Manual

L1580 Revision D March 2003


Revision History
Date Revision Pages Changes
May 2001 B All Initial Release
December 2002 C Cover, 2, 4, 5, 20, 26, 65 - 67, Update, copy write, CE mark,
98, 100 sensitivity range, and parts list
March 2003 D 5 Tracking Notice

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Warranty
TBird ventilation systems are warranted to be free from defects in material and workmanship and to
meet the published specifications for two (2) years or 8,000 hours, whichever occurs first.
The liability of Bird Products under this warranty is limited to replacing, repairing or issuing credit, at the
discretion of Bird Products, for parts that become defective or fail to meet published specifications
during the warranty period; Bird Products will not be liable under this warranty unless (A) Bird Products
is promptly notified in writing by Buyer upon discovery of defects or failure to meet published
specifications; (B) the defective unit or part is returned to Bird Products, transportation charges prepaid
by Buyer; (C) the defective unit or part is received by Bird Products for adjustment no later than four
weeks following the last day of the warranty period; and (D) Bird Product's examination of such unit or
part shall disclose, to its satisfaction, that such defects or failures have not been caused by misuse,
neglect, improper installation, unauthorized repair, alteration or accident.
Any authorization of Bird Products for repair or alteration by the Buyer must be in writing to prevent
voiding the warranty. In no event shall Bird Products be liable to the Buyer for loss of profits, loss of
use, consequential damage or damages of any kind based upon a claim for breach of warranty, other
than the purchase price of any defective product covered hereunder.
Bird Products warranties as herein and above set forth shall not be enlarged, diminished or affected by,
and no obligation or liability shall arise or grow out of the rendering of technical advice or service by
Bird Products or its agents in connection with the Buyer's order of the products furnished hereunder.

Limitations of Liabilities
This warranty does not cover normal maintenance such as cleaning, adjustment or lubrication and
updating of equipment parts. This warranty shall be void and shall not apply if the equipment is used
with accessories or parts not manufactured by Bird Products or authorized for use in writing by Bird
Products or if the equipment is not maintained in accordance with the prescribed schedule of
maintenance.
The warranty stated above shall extend for a period of two (2) years from date of shipment or 8,000
hours of use, whichever occurs first, with the following exceptions:
1. Components for monitoring of physical variables such as temperature, pressure, or flow are
warranted for ninety (90) days from date of receipt.
2. Elastomeric components and other parts or components subject to deterioration, over which Bird
Products has no control, are warranted for sixty (60) days from date of receipt.
3. Internal and optional external batteries are warranted for ninety (90) days from the date of
receipt.
The foregoing is in lieu of any warranty, expressed or implied, including, without limitation, any warranty
of merchantability, except as to title, and can be amended only in writing by a duly authorized
representative of Bird Products.

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TBird Series Ventilators 5

Notices

Copyright Notice
Copyright © 2002 Bird Products Corporation, a subsidiary of VIASYS Healthcare, Palm Springs,
California.
This work is protected under Title 17 of the U.S. Code and is the sole property of Bird Products
Corporation. No part of this document may be copied or otherwise reproduced, or stored in any
electronic information retrieval system, except as specifically permitted under U.S. Copyright law,
without the prior written consent of Bird Products Corporation. For more information, contact:

World Headquarters European Office


Bird Products Corporation Bird Products Corporation
1100 Bird Center Drive Rembrandtlaan 1b
Palm Springs, CA 92262-8099 3723 BG Bilthoven
U.S.A. P.O. Box 299, 3720 AG Bilthoven
Phone: (760) 778-7200 The Netherlands
(800) 328-4139 Phone: (31) 30 2289 711
Fax: (760) 778-7274 Fax: (31) 30 2286 244
www.viasyshealthcare.com or www.birdprod.com

Trademark Notices
TBird is a registered trademark of Bird Products Corporation, a subsidiary of VIASYS Healthcare, in
the United States and some other countries. All other brand names and product names mentioned in
this manual are trademarks, registered trademarks, or trade names of their respective holders.

EMC Notice
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy. If not installed and used in
accordance with the instructions in this manual, electromagnetic interference may result. The
equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits set forth in EN60601-1-2 for Medical
Products. These limits provide reasonable protection against electromagnetic interference when
operated in the intended use environments described in this manual.

MRI Notice
This equipment contains electromagnetic components whose operation can be affected by intense
electromagnetic fields.
Do not operate the ventilator in an MRI environment or in the vicinity of high-frequency surgical
diathermy equipment, defibrillators, or short wave therapy equipment. Electromagnetic interference
could disrupt the operation of the ventilator.

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Intended Use Notice


The TBird Ventilator Series of ventilators are intended to provide continuous or intermittent ventilatory
support for the care of individuals who require mechanical ventilation. The ventilator is a restricted
medical device intended for use by qualified, trained personnel under the direction of a physician.
Specifically, the ventilator is applicable for adult and pediatric patients weighing at least 10 kg (22 lbs.),
who require the following general types of ventilatory support, as prescribed by an attending physician:
Positive pressure ventilation
Assist/Control, SIMV, or CPAP modes of ventilation
The TBird AVS Series, VSO2 and VS ventilators are intended for institutional use.
The TBird Legacy Series is suitable for use in both institutional and home settings.

Regulatory Notice
Federal law restricts the sale of this device except by or on order of a physician.

Important Notice (Legacy only)


The US Food and Drug Administration has issued Tracking Orders for the TBird Legacy Ventilator in
accordance to 21CFR821. Distributors are required to have a tracking system in place to track the
transfer of the TBird Legacy Ventilator device to the person for whom the device is indicated.
Distributors are required by Federal Law to make available upon request tracking records. Bird
Products Corporation will conduct an audit utilizing statistical sampling every six months for the first
three years and once each year thereafter as required by FDA regulations. The audit may be in the
form a formal audit survey or through an onsite visit. If the distributor ceases distributions of the tracked
device, that person continues to be responsible for compliance to FDA tracking regulation unless
another person affirmatively and in writing, assumes responsibility for continuing the tracking of devices
previously distributed. Failure of compliance of the above warning constitutes misbranding by persons
distributing the device.

Declaration of Conformity Notice


This medical equipment complies with the Medical Device Directive, 93/42/EEC, and the following
Technical Standards, to which Conformity is declared:
EN60601-1
EN60601-1-2
ISO 9001, EN 46001
MDD-Annex II
EU Notified Body: 0086
BSI (Reg. No. 0086)
Type of Equipment: Medical Equipment, Lung Ventilator
Trade names: TBird AVS, TBird AVS II, TBird AVS III, TBird VS, TBird VSO2, TBird Legacy
If you have a question regarding the Declaration of Conformity for this product, please contact Bird
Products.

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TBird Series Ventilators 7
IEC Classification
• The AVS, VSO2 and VS ventilators are suitable for use in institutional and transport
environments. The Legacy is suitable for home and institutional environments.
• Ordinary equipment not protected against the ingress of liquids.
• Not protected/Not suitable for use in the presence of flammable anesthetic gases.
• Class I / Internally Powered, Type BF

Safety Information
Please review the following safety information prior to operating the ventilator. It lists warnings,
cautions, and notes pertinent to the safe operation of the ventilator. Attempting to operate the ventilator
without fully understanding its features and functions may result in unsafe operating conditions.
If you have a question regarding the installation, set up, operation, or maintenance of the ventilator,
contact Bird Products Technical Support as shown in Appendix A Contact & Ordering Information.

Terms
WARNINGS identify conditions or practices that could result in serious adverse reactions or
potential safety hazards.
CAUTIONS identify conditions or practices that could result in damage to the ventilator or other
equipment.
NOTES identify supplemental information to help you better understand how the ventilator
works.

Warnings
The following warnings apply any time you work with the ventilator.
• To avoid explosion, do not operate the ventilator in the presence of flammable anesthetics or
in an atmosphere of explosive gases. Operating the ventilator in flammable or explosive
atmospheres may result in fire or explosion.
• To avoid personal injury and the risk of electric shock, as well as damage to the ventilator, do
not operate the ventilator with its covers or panels removed. Refer all servicing to a Bird
Certified Service Technician.
• All electromechanical systems are subject to malfunction or failure from both internal and
external causes. Although the ventilator has been designed to detect and notify you of various
conditions by means of alarms, and to shut down in case of possible unsafe operating
conditions, anyone operating the ventilator should be trained to respond with a well-rehearsed
procedure to provide emergency ventilation in case the ventilator ceases to operate.
• Care should be taken to ensure that the patient does not disconnect from the patient breathing
circuit. Such disconnections could be hazardous to the patient.
• Use an accurate oxygen analyzer having high and low alarms to monitor oxygen
concentrations. This is required to ensure the desired fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) is

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being delivered to the patient. Consult a physician to determine the desired concentration of
inspired oxygen to be delivered.
• Do not attach a one-way check valve to the outlet of the exhalation valve. Doing so may
adversely affect the operation of the ventilator and may be harmful to the patient.
• Do not operate the ventilator without setting the adjustable alarms. All adjustable alarms must
be set to ensure safe operation. Ensure that all critical alarms, such as the Low Pressure
alarm, have been set.
• Operating an improperly functioning ventilator may be harmful to the patient or operator. If the
ventilator does not start up properly, or fails to pass the User Verification Tests (described in
Chapter 7), remove it from service and contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
• Do not operate the ventilator unless you are trained to do so. The ventilator is a restricted
medical device intended for use by qualified, trained personnel under the direction of a
physician. Operation by untrained personnel may result in unsafe operating conditions.
• Do not operate the ventilator unless qualified personnel are in attendance to promptly respond
to alarms, inoperative conditions, or sudden malfunctions. Patients on life-support equipment
should be visually monitored at all times. Qualified personnel should be prepared to provide an
alternate form of ventilation, if needed.
• Lower air density at higher altitudes will effect tidal volume delivery and exhaled tidal volume
measurements. Please refer to Chapter 6, Special Functions, for details on how to
compensate for higher altitudes.
• Do not ignore audible alarms occurring at the ventilator. Alarms indicate conditions that require
your immediate attention.
• Do not try to service or repair an improperly functioning ventilator yourself. Contact your Bird
Certified Service Technician for all repairs and service.
• Do not use parts, accessories, or options that have not been authorized for use with the
ventilator. Using unauthorized parts, accessories, or options may be harmful to the patient or
damage the ventilator.
• Do not connect the ventilator to a patient without first pressure testing the patient breathing
circuit (see Chapter 7, User Verification Tests). Failing to pressure test the patient breathing
circuit may result in injury or inadequate therapy. If using a heated humidifier be sure to
include it in the circuit when pressure testing.
• Check the exhalation valve diaphragm daily. A worn or damaged exhalation valve diaphragm
may result in improper patient ventilation. Replace the diaphragm as necessary.
• Check all audible and visual alarms daily to make sure they are operating properly. If an alarm
fails to activate, contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
• Although the system will continue to ventilate with a XDCR FAULT alert, the accuracy of the
tidal volume, minute volume, and pressure measurements may be reduced. Remove the
ventilator from service and contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
• Make sure the High Pressure alarm limit is not set above the Over Pressure Relief setting.
Otherwise, a HIGH PRES alarm will not occur and the patient may be subjected to sustained
high pressures.
• Although the system continues to ventilate when a NO CAL DATA alert is present, the
accuracy of the volume and pressures may be reduced. The system may generate pressures
and volumes that are inconsistent with the front panel settings. Remove the ventilator from
service and contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.

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TBird Series Ventilators 9
• Disconnect the patient prior to accessing the UVTs. The ventilator does not deliver gas during
the UVTs.
• Delivered percentage oxygen may be higher than set at elevations above 5000 feet.

Cautions
The following cautions apply any time you work with the ventilator.
• A protective ground connection by way of the grounding conductor in the power cord is
essential for safe operation. Upon loss of protective ground, all conductive parts, including
knobs and controls, which may appear to be insulated, can render an electric shock. To avoid
electrical shock, plug the power cord into a properly wired receptacle, use only the power cord
supplied with the ventilator, and make sure the power cord is in good condition.
• To avoid fire hazard, use only the fuse specified in the ventilator’s parts list and is identical in
type, voltage rating, and current rating to the existing fuse. (See the TBird Ventilator Series
Service Manual, P/N L1314, for more information). Fuses should only be changed by a Bird
Certified Service Technician.
• To minimize the potential for electrostatic shock, do not use anti-static or electrically
conductive hoses and tubing with the ventilator.
• Run the User Verification Tests (described in Chapter 7) prior to clinical application, at least
once a month (or as specified by your department guidelines), and any time you suspect the
ventilator is not operating properly.
• Do not store the ventilator in hot areas for prolonged periods of time. Temperatures above
80°F (27 °C) can shorten battery life. Failing to charge the ventilator while in storage may also
shorten battery life.
• When the integrity of the external power earth conductor arrangement is in doubt, operate the
ventilator from its internal battery or the optional external battery.
• The maximum voltage that can be applied to the Patient Assist Call modular connector is 25
volts rms or 31 VDC.
The following cautions apply when cleaning the ventilator or sterilizing ventilator accessories.
For more information, see Chapter 9, Cleaning And Sterilization.
• Do not clean or dry the ventilator with a high-pressure air gun. Applying high-pressure air to
the ventilator may damage the internal components of the pneumatic circuit and render the
ventilator inoperable.
• Do not over clean the ventilator. Repeated use of a cleaning agent can cause residue build-up
on critical components. Excessive residue build up can affect ventilator performance.
• Do not wash, rinse, soak, pasteurize, ethylene-oxide sterilize, or immerse the Bird Products
main flow bacteria filter in liquid sterilizing agents. Use a steam autoclave to sterilize the main
flow bacteria filter.
• Do not sterilize the ventilator. Standard sterilization techniques may damage the ventilator.
• Do not use cleaning agents that contain phenols, ammonium chloride, chloride compounds, or
more than 2% glutaraldehyde. These agents may damage the ventilator’s plastic components
and front panel overlay.
• When cleaning the ventilator:

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o Do not use harsh abrasives.


o Do not immerse the ventilator in liquid sterilizing agents or liquids of any kind.
o Do not spray cleaning solution into the exhalation valve or directly onto the front panel.
o Do not allow cleaning solution to pool on the front panel.
• The exhalation valve assembly is a delicate precision assembly. Exercise care when
removing, replacing, or cleaning the assembly:
• Do not insert cleaning instruments (cloth, brush, pipe cleaner, and so on) into the exhalation
valve body.
• Do not use a high-pressure gas nozzle to dry the exhalation valve body. High-pressure gas
may damage the differential pressure ports in the exhalation valve body.
• Using a low flow gas source (less than 10 lpm) ensures the differential pressure ports are free
of moisture and debris.
• To avoid possible damage to elastometric components, the peak temperature for Bird
Products accessories should not exceed 131°F (55°C) for gas (ETO) and 275°F (135°C) for
steam autoclave.
• Be sure to check with the manufacturer of these chemicals and sterilizing equipment to ensure
safe handling procedures are followed.
• It is not necessary to remove the four screws to remove the fan inlet filter. To do so will cause
mounting hardware to become loose within the ventilator, which may result in electrical
damage.

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TBird Series Ventilators 11

Symbols
The following symbols may be used on the instrument or in accompanying documentation.
Symbol Compliance Meaning

Symbol #03-02 IEC 60878 Indicates ATTENTION, consult ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS

Symbol #5016 IEC 60417 This symbol indicates a FUSE.

Symbol #5034 IEC 60417


This symbol indicates INPUT.
Symbol #01-36 IEC 60878

Symbol #5035 IEC 60417


This symbol indicates OUTPUT
Symbol #01-37 IEC 60878

Symbol #5019 IEC 60417


This symbol indicates protective EARTH (ground).
Symbol #01-20 IEC 60878

This symbol indicates the EQUIPOTENTIAL connection used to


Symbol #5021 IEC 60417 connect various parts of the equipment or of a system to the same
Symbol # 01-24 IEC 60878 potential, not necessarily being the earth (ground) potential (e.g., for
local bonding).
This symbol indicates TYPE BF equipment, which indicates equipment
Symbol # 5333 IEC 60417 that provides a particular degree of protection against electric shock,
Symbol #02-03 IEC 60878 particularly with regards to allowable leakage current and reliability of
the protective earth connection.

Symbol #5032 IEC 60417 This symbol is located on the rating plate. It indicates the equipment is
Symbol #01-14 IEC 30878 suitable for alternating current.

This Symbol indicates the ON condition for a part of the


Symbol# 5049 IEC 60417
equipment. When pressed the ventilator will operate from the
MAINS voltage (if connected) or internal or external batteries if
the battery charge is within operating specifications.

Symbol #5007 IEC 60417


Symbol #01-01 IEC 60878
Indicates ON (Power)

Symbol #5008 IEC 60417


Symbol #01-02 IEC 60878
Indicates OFF (Power)

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Table of Contents
Revision History ................................................................................................................................... 3
Warranty ................................................................................................................................................ 4
Notices................................................................................................................................................... 5
Copyright Notice.............................................................................................................................................................. 5
Trademark Notices .......................................................................................................................................................... 5
EMC Notice ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5
MRI Notice....................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Intended Use Notice........................................................................................................................................................ 6
Regulatory Notice............................................................................................................................................................ 6
Declaration of Conformity Notice..................................................................................................................................... 6
Safety Information ................................................................................................................................ 7
Terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Warnings ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Cautions .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Symbols......................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Table of Contents ................................................................................................................................12
Chapter 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................15
TBird Series Models, Options & Configurations ............................................................................................................ 15
Requirements to Operate a TBird Ventilator ................................................................................................................. 16
What to Do if the Ventilator Fails................................................................................................................................... 16
Operator Replaceable Components.............................................................................................................................. 17
Chapter 2 Controls and Displays ......................................................................................................19
How To Set a Control .................................................................................................................................................... 19
Front Panel - Monitor Section........................................................................................................................................ 22
Front Panel - Alarm Section .......................................................................................................................................... 22
Front Panel - Control Section ........................................................................................................................................ 24
Front Panel - Power Section ......................................................................................................................................... 28
Front Panel - Special Control Section ........................................................................................................................... 30
Front Panel - Patient Connectors .................................................................................................................................. 33
Rear Panel .................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Chapter 3 Monitored Parameters .......................................................................................................37
Chapter 4 Alarms and Alerts ..............................................................................................................39

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TBird Series Ventilators 13
Definitions...................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Alarms ........................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Alerts ............................................................................................................................................................................. 49
Chapter 5 Unpacking, Setup and Operation .................................................................................... 55
Unpacking the Ventilator ............................................................................................................................................... 55
How to Attach a Patient Breathing Circuit ..................................................................................................................... 55
Adjusting Alarm Volume ................................................................................................................................................ 56
Attaching Oxygen Lines................................................................................................................................................. 57
Attaching to a Patient Assist Call System...................................................................................................................... 59
To Turn the Ventilator ON ............................................................................................................................................. 59
To Turn the Ventilator OFF............................................................................................................................................ 60
Performance Checks ..................................................................................................................................................... 60
TBird Series Ventilator Performance Checklist ........................................................................................................... 63
Setting a Mode .............................................................................................................................................................. 65
Chapter 6 Special Functions ............................................................................................................. 69
How to Access the Special Functions ........................................................................................................................... 71
Ventilator Setup Group.................................................................................................................................................. 71
Alarm Setup Group........................................................................................................................................................ 77
Transducer Data Group................................................................................................................................................. 79
Transducer Test Group ................................................................................................................................................. 79
Event Codes Group ....................................................................................................................................................... 80
Chapter 7 User Verification Tests..................................................................................................... 81
Accessing the UVTs ...................................................................................................................................................... 81
Running the UVTs ......................................................................................................................................................... 82
Chapter 8 Basic Troubleshooting..................................................................................................... 85
If the Ventilator Does Not Turn ON................................................................................................................................ 85
If a Vent Inop Occurs..................................................................................................................................................... 86
If a UVT Fails................................................................................................................................................................. 86
If a Malfunction Occurs.................................................................................................................................................. 87
Chapter 9 Cleaning and Sterilization................................................................................................ 89
How to Clean the Ventilator........................................................................................................................................... 89
To Clean, Sterilize, or Disinfect the Exhalation Valve Assembly................................................................................... 90
To Clean, Sterilize or Disinfect the Patient Breathing Circuit ........................................................................................ 91
Cleaning & Sterilization Compatibility Recommendations, Exhalation Valve and Patient Circuit.................................. 93
To Clean, Sterilize, or Disinfect Ventilator Accessories................................................................................................. 93
To Clean, Sterilize, or Disinfect the Air Intake Filter ...................................................................................................... 94

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How to Clean and Replace the Fan Filter ..................................................................................................................... 95


Appendix A – Contact & Ordering Information .................................................................................97
How to Call for Service.................................................................................................................................................. 97
Ordering Information ..................................................................................................................................................... 97
Approved Accessories and Part Numbers..................................................................................................................... 98
Part Number .................................................................................................................................................................. 98
Appendix B Ventilator Specifications ...............................................................................................99
Physical Specifications.................................................................................................................................................. 99
Performance Specifications and Tolerances............................................................................................................... 100
Electrical Specifications............................................................................................................................................... 102
Environmental Specifications ...................................................................................................................................... 103
Appendix C Ventilator Illustrations .................................................................................................105
Illustrations .................................................................................................................................................................. 105

Appendix D Oxygen Computer Chart (VS & Legacy) ................................................................107


To Find O2 Input Flow................................................................................................................................................. 107
To Find O2 Concentration ........................................................................................................................................... 107
Appendix E Operator Instruction Checklist....................................................................................109
Appendix F Event Codes .................................................................................................................111
Glossary .............................................................................................................................................115
Index ...................................................................................................................................................121

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Chapter 1 Introduction
This chapter covers the following material:
• TBird series ventilators models, options & configurations
• What you will need to operate the ventilator.
• What to do in case the ventilator ceases to operate properly.
• Which components are operator-replaceable.

TBird Series Models, Options & Configurations

Table 1.1 TBird Series Ventilator Models & Options

OPTION LEGACY VS VSO2 AVS AVS II AVS III


% O2 X X X X
100% O2 X X X X
Assist/Control X X X X X X
Breath Rate X X X X X X
CPAP X X X X X X
Expiratory Hold X X
Flow Cal X X X X X X
High Breath Rate X X X X X
High Pressure X X X X X X
Inspiratory Hold X X X X X X
Inspiratory Pause X X X
Inspiratory Time X X X
Low Pressure X X X X X X
Manual Breath X X X X X X
MIP/NIF X X
Peak Flow X X X X X X
PEEP X X X X X X
Pressure Control X X X
Pressure Support X X X X X X
Sensitivity X X X X X X
Sigh X X X X X X
SIMV X X X X X X
Square Waveform X X X
Tidal Volume X X X X X X
VAPS X
The TBird Ventilator systems are easy to use, self-contained systems that combine an advanced
pneumatic system with microprocessor-based technology. The result is a ventilation system providing
excellent ventilation and patient monitoring.

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The AVS Series Ventilator is available in three configurations: AVS, AVS II and AVS III. The AVS and
AVS II can easily be upgraded in the field using Configuration Memory Cards. The VS and VSO2
ventilators are excellent for critical care and sub-acute care environments. The TBird Legacy ventilator
completes the family as a homecare capable version. Packaged in a compact, lightweight unit, the
TBird Ventilators provide all the features you would expect in larger ventilators.

• Compressor-less technology, allowing uninterrupted ventilation.


• A broad range of operating modes including Control, Assist/Control, SIMV, and CPAP.
• Volume Control, Pressure Control, Pressure Support, and VAPS ventilation.
• Automatic Apnea Backup ventilation.
• Adjustable and lockable front panel controls with integrated displays.
• A comprehensive monitoring package, including PIP, MAP, Breath Rate, I:E Ratio, Tidal
Volume (Vte), Minute Ventilation (VE), Inspiratory Time (Ti), and PEEP.
• Integrated real-time digital airway pressure manometer with adjustable high and low-pressure
alarms.
• Special Functions for viewing and setting parameters.
• Self-testing at power-up and background testing during normal operation.
• Internal and optional external battery.
For ordering information on upgrades, see Appendix A or contact your Bird Products representative.

Requirements to Operate a TBird Ventilator


• Power Source. The ventilator operates from a standard 100, 110, 220, or 240 VAC power
source, the internal battery or an optional external battery. The factory equipped internal
battery is capable of providing power during short-term patient transports or AC power
interruptions. The optional external battery can be used for longer periods of support.
• Pressurized Oxygen (for AVS models or VSO2). The oxygen source must provide clean,
dry, medical grade oxygen at a line pressure of 40 to 60 PSIG (2.8 to 4.2 bar).
• Low Flow Oxygen (for VS or Legacy). The low flow oxygen source must provide clean,
medical grade oxygen not to exceed 80 lpm at 0.5 PSIG (0.035 bar).

What to Do if the Ventilator Fails


If a TBird ventilator detects a condition that could possibly prevent it from continuing to operate safely, it
stops delivering gas and opens all valves so the patient can breathe spontaneously from room air. It
also generates a “vent inop” alarm. (For more information, see Chapter 4, Alarms and Alerts.)
If a vent inop occurs, provide an alternate means of ventilating the patient, take the ventilator out of
service and contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.

WARNING
Do not operate the ventilator unless qualified personnel are in attendance to promptly respond to alarms,
inoperative conditions, or sudden malfunctions. Patients on life support equipment should be visually monitored at
all times. Qualified personnel should be prepared to provide an alternate form of ventilation, if needed.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 1 Introduction 17
Operator Replaceable Components
The following components are operator replaceable:
• Air intake filter
• Patient breathing circuit
• Exhalation valve body
• Exhalation valve diaphragm
• External battery
• Main flow bacteria filter
• Fan filter
Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician to replace all other parts, including the internal
battery. See Appendix A, Contact & Ordering Information for information on how to order replaceable
components and request a service call.

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Chapter 2 Controls and Displays
This chapter describes the function and operation of your TBird ventilator’s controls and displays. It
covers the following points:
• How each control operates.
• Why some controls may flash when you attempt to set them.
• Why some controls are dimmed in certain modes.
For more information on where controls are located, see Appendix C, Ventilator Illustrations.

Table 2-1 List of Controls and Displays

%O2 Control External Battery Power Indicator ON Indicator


100% O2 3-Minute Button Flow Cal Button Over Pressure Relief Valve
AC Power Indicator High Breath Rate Alarm Control Peak Flow Control
Airway Pressure Manometer High Pressure Limit Alarm Control PEEP/CPAP Control
Alarm Silence Button Inspiratory Hold Button Power Switch
Alarm Window Inspiratory Pause Control Pressure Control, Control
Altitude Compensation Inspiratory Time Control Pressure Support, Control
APNEA Interval Setting Internal Battery Charge Status Remote Alarm Button
Indicator
Assist/Control Mode Selection Internal Battery Power Indicator Sensitivity Control
Button
Bias Flow Setting Low Minute Volume Alarm Sigh Button
Breath Rate Control Low Pressure Alarm Control SIMV Mode Selection Button
Control Knob/Lock Manual Breath Button Square Waveform Button
CPAP Mode Selection Button MIP/NIF Button Tidal Volume Control
Effort Indicator Monitor Select Button VAPS Button
Expiratory Hold Button Monitor Window Vent Inop Indicator
External Battery Charge Status

How To Set a Control


The front panel contains several types of controls, including variable controls, mode select buttons, and
pushbuttons.

Variable Controls
These controls are used to set ventilation parameters and alarms. Set the control by pressing the
button located below its display. While the control is selected, all other control displays are dimmed.
Turn the front panel control knob until the desired setting appears in the control’s display. The new
setting takes effect upon the next breath. The other controls will illuminate again when the operator
either:
• Presses the button again, or
• Presses a button for another variable control, or

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• Allows five (5) seconds to elapse.


Table 2-2 shows you the controls available in each mode and the non-limited range of settings allowed
in that mode.
Table 2-3 shows the available controls by breath type.

Table 2-2 Ranges of Variable Controls by Mode

Control & Assist


Function SIMV Mode CPAP Mode
Control Modes

Breath Rate 2 - 80 bpm 2 - 80 bpm Dimmed


High Breath Rate OFF, 3 – 150 bpm OFF, 3 – 150 bpm Dimmed
High Pressure 5 - 120 cmH2O 5 - 120 cmH2O 5-120 cmH2O
Limit
Inspiratory Pause OFF, 0.1 – 2.0 sec OFF, 0.1 – 2.0 sec Dimmed
Inspiratory Time 0.3 – 10.0 sec 0.3 – 10.0 sec Dimmed
Low Min Volume 0.1 – 99.9 L 0.1 – 99.9 L Dimmed
Low Pressure OFF, 2 - 60 cmH2O OFF, 2 - 60 cmH2O Dimmed
O2% 21-100% 21-100% 21-100%
Peak Flow 10 - 140 L/min 10 - 140 L/min Dimmed
PEEP/CPAP 0 - 30 L/min 0 - 30 L/min 0 - 30 lpm
Pressure Control OFF, 1 - 100 cmH2O OFF, 1 - 100 cmH2O Dimmed
Pressure Support Dimmed OFF, 1-60 cmH2O OFF, 1-60 cmH2O
Sensitivity OFF, 1 – 20 L/min OFF, 1 – 20 L/min OFF, 1 – 20 L/min
Tidal Volume 50 - 2000 ml 50 - 2000 ml Dimmed

Table 2-3 Availability of Variable Controls by Breath Type

Function Volume Control1 Pressure VAPS


3

Control2

Breath Rate Active Active Active


High Pressure Active Active Active
Limit
Inspiratory Pause Active Dimmed Active
Inspiratory Time Dimmed Active Dimmed
Low Min Volume Active Active Active
Low Pressure Active Active Active
O2% Active Active Active
Peak Flow Active Dimmed Active
PEEP/CPAP Active Active Active
Pressure Control Dimmed Active Active
Pressure Support Active Active Active
Sensitivity Active Active Active
Tidal Volume Active Dimmed Active

1 Volume Control Breath = Pressure Control OFF, VAPS OFF


2 Pressure Control Breath = Pressure Control ON, VAPS OFF
3 VAPS Brea h = Pressure Control ON, VAPS ON

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 2 Controls & Displays 21
Mode Select Buttons
These buttons allow you to select a mode of ventilation1. The buttons are mutually exclusive. Selecting
one mode automatically deselects the others. To select a mode, press the button once: the
integrated LED begins to flash. This flashing lasts for five seconds, indicating the system is ready to
make the transition from one mode to another. Press the button again while the LED is flashing to
enable the mode. If you do not press the button while the LED is flashing, the mode select operation is
canceled and the ventilator continues to operate in the previous mode.

Pushbuttons
These buttons allow you to perform a front panel action, such as delivering a manual breath, or turning
a feature, such as the sigh breath feature, on or off. When the button is on, the integrated LED
illuminates. To toggle the button on or off, just press and release the button.

Dimmed Controls
A control dims when it is not available in the currently selected mode. Although dimmed, the control
retains its setting so you can switch modes without having to reset the control. You can also set a
dimmed control prior to switching to a mode in which the control will be active.

Flashing Controls
A control may flash for several reasons:
1. There is a pre-set limit on the range of possible settings for the control, and you have reached
that limit. The ventilator monitors all control settings and will automatically limit the range of
certain controls to prevent incompatible settings. This is to ensure the following:
• A minimum exhalation time of 250 msec for all breaths.
• A minimum inhalation time of 30 msec for all breaths.
• A minimum high pressure alarm setting of at least 5 cmH2O above PEEP for all modes.
• A maximum inverse I:E ratio of 4:1.
• A peak flow > bias flow.
2. A required control has not been set. If a control is required in a particular mode, the ventilator
flashes the control until you set it. When you set the Low Peak Pressure alarm limit to OFF, for
example, the setting flashes to remind you to set the alarm before leaving the machine.
3. An alarm is active. When an alarm occurs, the associated display will flash. This enables you to
identify the cause of the alarm at a glance.
4. An alternate exhalation criteria has been met for a Pressure Support or Pressure Control breath.
In Pressure Support, ordinarily a Termination Flow (TERMSENS) ends the inspiratory phase. If
the Time Limit (VARITIME) has been reached first, the Pressure Support control will flash. In
Pressure Control, ordinarily the Inspiratory Time control ends the inspiratory phase. If Flow
Termination (FLOWTERM) is set and is reached first, the Pressure Control display will flash.

1 The Assist/Control button selects both the Control and Assist Control modes of ventilation. To select the Control mode, set the Sensitivity to OFF.

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Front Panel - Monitor Section

Effort Indicator
Display only. Illuminates briefly when the patient’s inspiratory effort meets or exceeds the Sensitivity
setting and the breath is patient initiated.

Airway Pressure Manometer


Display only. Shows the patient’s real-time, airway pressure. Ranges from - 20 cmH2O (- 2 kPa) to
120 cmH2O (12 kPa) in increments of 2.
The two amber LEDs indicate the currently set high and low pressure alarm limits.

Monitor Window (AVS models only)


Display only. Displays alerts, monitored parameters, Special Functions and User Verification Tests
(UVTs).

Alarm Window (AVS models only)


Display only. Alarm messages appear in the alarm window. When the alarm is cleared, the alarm
message disappears.

Alarm/Monitor Window (VS, VSO2 & Legacy)


Display only. Displays alarms, alerts, monitored parameters, special functions, and User Verification
Tests (UVTs).
Alarm messages temporarily overwrite any parameters, special functions, or UVTs displayed in the
alarm/monitor window. When the alarm is cleared, the alarm message disappears and the previously
displayed item is redisplayed.

Front Panel - Alarm Section

Low Pressure Alarm Control


Sets the alarm threshold for low circuit pressure during the inspiratory phase of machine and assist
breaths.
Press the button and turn the control knob to set the alarm to any value between 2 and 60 cmH2O or
OFF. The setting is indicated on the manometer by an amber LED. If set to OFF, the display will flash,
indicating the alarm is disabled. The new setting takes effect on the next machine or assist inspiration.
Once set, the ventilator generates a LOW PRES alarm if the circuit pressure fails to exceed the set
value.

Note
The alarm is disabled in the CPAP mode and during spontaneous and Pressure Support breaths. The alarm is enabled in
CPAP mode when a manual or sigh breath is delivered.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 2 Controls & Displays 23
High Pressure Alarm Control
This sets the maximum allowable pressure in the patient breathing circuit to any value between 5 and
120 cmH2O . The limit cannot be set less than 5 cmH2O above PEEP. The setting is indicated on the
manometer by an amber LED. New settings take effect immediately. A HIGH PRES alarm is
generated if the patient breathing circuit pressure (measured by the exhalation valve pressure
transducer) reaches the set value.
If a HIGH PRES alarm occurs, the ventilator immediately terminates inspiration and cycles into the
exhalation phase so pressure can return to PEEP. If the circuit pressure does not fall back to PEEP +5
cmH2O within three seconds, the ventilator terminates all flow. Once the patient breathing circuit
pressure falls to within PEEP +5 cmH2O, the ventilator clears the audible alarm, restarts the flow, and
attempts to deliver another breath.
During a sigh breath, the alarm limit is automatically increased by 50% to a maximum of 120 cmH2O.
This temporary increase does not appear on the High Pressure display.

Low Minute Volume Alarm Control


Sets the minimum threshold for the exhaled minute volume alarm. The volume is calculated by
averaging the previous eight exhaled Tidal Volumes, multiplying the resulting average by the total
breath rate, and then dividing by 1,000 to convert from milliliters to liters.
New settings take effect immediately. To accommodate different institutions policy, two ranges are
available: OFF to 99.9 liters and 0.1 to 99.9 liters. These ranges are accessed in the Special
Functions, Alarm Setup Group (see Chapter 6).
If the exhaled minute volume falls below the set value, the LOW VOLUME alarm occurs.

High Breath Rate Alarm Control (AVS models, VSO2, Legacy)


This sets the maximum threshold for total breath rate alarm between 3 and 150 breaths per minute or
OFF. New settings take effect immediately.
If the total breath rate exceeds the alarm setting, a HIGH BREATH RATE alarm occurs.

Alarm Silence/Reset Button


Silences and resets any active alarms.
• If the audible alarm is sounding, press the button once to silence the alarm for 60 seconds.
If you correct the condition causing the alarm within the silence period, press the button again
to clear the alarm message.
• If the audible alarm is not sounding, but there is an alarm message displayed in the alarm
window and the red silence-period indicator is turned off, press the button once to clear the
display.
• If no alarm is sounding or displayed, press the button once to silence any alarms that might
occur in the next 60 seconds. To cancel the preemptive silence period, press the button again.
When silenced, the red LED above the button illuminates for 60 seconds. At the end of the silence
period, the LED turns off and the audible alarm sounds again unless the condition causing the alarm
has been corrected.
If a vent inop occurs, turn the ventilator off before pressing Alarm Silence/Reset.

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Vent Inop Indicator


Display only. Illuminates when a Ventilator Inoperative (Vent Inop) condition is detected.
A Vent Inop occurs whenever a condition develops that could affect the continued safe operation of the
ventilator. Because safe operation cannot be guaranteed in the presence of these conditions, the
ventilator ceases to operate and activates the Vent Inop alarm. The ventilator will default to a safe
operating condition, opening all valves, so the patient can breath spontaneously from room air.
If a Vent Inop occurs, remove the ventilator from service, provide an alternate means of ventilation and
have it evaluated by your Bird Certified Service Technician.

Front Panel - Control Section

Monitor Select Button


Selects monitored parameters, Special Functions, and User Verification Tests (UVTs). This button is
also used to clear some alerts. To operate, press and release the button.
For information on how to use the Monitor Select button when working with monitored parameters, see
Chapter 3, Monitored Parameters. For information on clearing alerts, see Chapter 4, Alarms and Alerts.
For information on how to use this button with the Special Functions, see chapter 6, Special Functions.
For information on how to use this button with the UVTs, see Chapter 7, User Verification Tests.

Mode Select Button


Selects desired mode. Modes available are Assist/Control, Control, SIMV and CPAP. Press the button
once to select the mode. The built-in LED will flash to indicate a transitional state. To activate the mode,
press the button again within five seconds, otherwise the mode remains unchanged.
All modes are mutually exclusive. Selecting one mode automatically disables the others. Controls that
are not active in this mode are dimmed.
Control: To operate the ventilator in a pure Control mode, set the Sensitivity setting to OFF. If
Sensitivity is not set to OFF, the breath rate timing is reset whenever a breath is delivered in response
to patient effort to avoid breath stacking.

Control Knob/Lock
Used to set variable controls (e.g., Breath Rate, Tidal Volume), select Special Functions, and run User
Verification Tests (UVTs), this control allows you to dial through a range of values or a sequence of
selections. Also allows you to lock and unlock the front panel.
To set a variable control, press the control’s button and turn the Control Knob clockwise to increase the
setting or counter-clockwise to decrease the setting. The faster you turn the knob the faster the setting
will change.
To lock or unlock the front panel controls, press the Control Knob. When locked, the green LED next to
the lock icon illuminates. Locking or unlocking the front panel has no effect on the actual setting of the
controls. Locking the front panel’s controls prevents unauthorized personnel from changing the
ventilator’s settings. All controls except the Monitor Select, Manual Breath, 100% O2 3 Min (VSO2,
AVS, II, III) and Alarm Silence/Reset button are secured when locked.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 2 Controls & Displays 25
To access the Special Functions, press and hold the Control Knob until VENT SETUP appears in the
monitor window (approximately two seconds). Release the control Knob. When working with the
Special Functions, you can back out of the functions by pressing the Control Knob.
The control lock itself can only be disabled using the Control Lock Enable function in the Ventilator
Setup Group Special Functions (see Chapter 6). When disabled, pressing the control lock has no affect
on the front panel controls: they remain unlocked.

Note
When operating in CPAP mode, certain controls must be set to clinically appropriate levels even though they are dimmed and
inactive. Should the patient become apneic, the ventilator uses these settings when providing Apnea Backup ventilation. The
TBird Ventilator Series can provide Apnea Backup ventilation in Volume Control, Pressure Control or Volume Assured
Pressure Support (VAPS), depending on the current settings. Refer to Chapter 5, for more information.

Tidal Volume Control


Sets the total volume of gas delivered to the patient during a Volume Control breath. During a VAPS
breath this control sets the minimum volume gas delivered to the patient. The Tidal Volume can be set
to any value between 50 and 2,000 ml. New settings take effect on the next Volume Control or VAPS
breath.
For Volume Control Breaths, the Tidal Volume is delivered in a decelerating waveform (except AVS
models offering a choice of square or decelerating).

WARNING
Lower air density at higher altitudes will effect tidal volume delivery and exhaled tidal volume measurements.
Please refer to Chapter 6, Special Functions, for details on how to compensate for higher altitudes.

Breath Rate Control


This control sets the minimum number of machine breaths delivered to the patient each minute
between 2 and 80 bpm. New rate settings take effect immediately.
This control is active in Control, Assist/Control mode, SIMV mode, and Apnea Backup ventilation. The
system uses the Breath Rate setting to compute the breath period.

Note
When operating in CPAP mode, certain controls must be set to clinically appropriate levels, even though they are dimmed and
inactive. If the patient becomes apneic, the ventilator will use these settings to provide Apnea Backup ventilation. The TBird
Ventilator Series can provide Apnea Backup ventilation in Volume Control, Pressure Control or Volume Assured Pressure
Support (VAPS), depending on the current settings. Refer to Chapter 5, Unpacking, Setup and Operating Procedures, for more
information.

Peak Flow Control


In a Volume Controlled breath, the Peak Flow control sets the maximum inspiratory flow rate in Control,
Assist/Control, and SIMV mode.

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In a VAPS breath, the Peak Flow Control sets the minimum flow generated and determines the
exhalation criteria. It also sets the flow at which VAPS breaths guarantee the set minimum Tidal
Volume.
The flow rate can be set between 10 and 140 L/min. The new flow rate takes effect on the next machine
or assist inspiration.
The inspiratory flow is delivered in either a square or decelerating waveform and is measured in liters
per minute (L/min) delivered at Body Temperature Pressure Dry (BTPD).

Note
The ventilator can deliver up to 180 lpm for patient breaths (spontaneous and pressure support).

Sensitivity Control
Sets the threshold below baseline flow at which the patient can flow trigger a breath between 1 and 20
lpm or OFF. New settings take effect immediately.
Breaths can be flow triggered any time during the exhalation phase following the minimum exhalation
time. When the patient begins to inhale, flow is diverted from the bias flow into the patient’s lungs. If the
rate of this ‘patient flow’ exceeds the Sensitivity setting, the ventilator triggers a breath. The lower the
Sensitivity level, the lower the patient effort required to trigger the breath.
If Sensitivity is set to a value, the patient is allowed to flow trigger breaths. If Sensitivity is turned OFF,
the ventilator provides a pure Control Mode Ventilation (CMV), prohibiting the patient from triggering
breaths.

WARNING
Make sure the Sensitivity is set to an appropriate value (1- 20 L/min). If set to OFF, the patient will be unable to
trigger breaths.

Figure 2.1 Sensitivity & Breath triggering

PEEP/CPAP Control
Sets the PEEP/CPAP pressure level between 0 and 30 cmH2O. New settings take effect immediately.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 2 Controls & Displays 27
Pressure Support Control
Sets the Pressure Support level above PEEP for all Pressure Support breaths between 1 and 60
cmH2O or OFF. This control is only active in SIMV and CPAP modes. New settings take effect on the
next pressure support inspiration.
The total Peak Inspiratory Pressure (PIP) will equal the sum of the PEEP/CPAP and Pressure Support
settings.

Figure 2.2 Pressure Support Waveforms


When the patient initiates a breath, the ventilator raises the inspiratory flow to meet the patient’s
demands until the target pressure level is reached. The ventilator then maintains the patient breathing
circuit pressure at the target pressure, allowing flow to decrease as pressure equalizes between the
circuit and the patient’s lungs. When flow drops to the set percentage of that breath’s peak inspiratory
flow, the ventilator cycles into the exhalation phase. The clinician determines this value and sets it in
the Special Functions (see Chapter 6), Vent Setup, Termination Sensitivity (TERMSENS).
If the inspiratory flow is unable to drop to the established percentage of peak flow (e.g., as a result of a
leak), within the set inspiratory time (Variable Time Termination) or two breath periods, whichever
occurs first, the ventilator terminates inspiration. When a breath is terminated because of time rather
than flow, the Pressure Support control flashes.

% O2 Control (AVS models & VSO2)


Sets the percentage of oxygen in the inspiratory flow from 21% to 100% in increments of 1%. The time
required for the oxygen level in the gas flow to reach the %O2 setting depends on the bias flow and
patient’s minute volume demands. The set percentage is typically reached before the first two liters of
gas are delivered.

WARNING
Delivered percentage oxygen may be higher than set at elevations above 5,000 feet.

Pressure Control Control (AVS III, VSO2 & Legacy Only)


Sets the inspiratory pressure above the baseline (PEEP) when setting up a Pressure Control or VAPS (AVS
III only) breath to any value between 1 and 100 cmH2O or OFF. New settings take effect on the next
Pressure Control or VAPS inspiration. When setting up a Volume Control breath, set this control to OFF.
The total Peak Inspiratory Pressure (PIP) will equal the sum of the PEEP/CPAP and Pressure Control
settings.
For Pressure Control breaths, the ventilator raises the inspiratory flow to meet the patient’s demands
until the target pressure level is reached. The ventilator then maintains the patient breathing circuit
pressure for the time specified by the Inspiratory Time control setting. The clinician may also choose to

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28 Operators Manual

set a Flow Termination threshold for Pressure Control. The clinician determines this value and sets it in
the Special Functions (see Chapter 6), Vent Setup, Flow Termination (FLOWTERM). If this value is
set, the breath will terminate when either the set Inspiratory Time or the set FLOWTERM is reached,
whichever occurs first. When a breath is terminated because of flow rather than time, the Pressure
Control setting flashes.
For VAPS breaths, this control sets the inspiratory pressure above baseline (PEEP) for the pressure
supported portion of the breath.

Inspiratory Time Control ( AVS III, VSO2 & Legacy only)


Sets the inspiratory time for Pressure Control breaths between 0.3 and 10.0 seconds. The inspiratory
time determines the length of the inspiratory phase of the breath unless flow termination is reached first.
New inspiratory time settings take effect on the next Pressure Control inspiration.

Inspiratory Pause Control (AVS models only)


This control sets the inspiratory pause time for Volume Controlled and VAPS breaths to any value
between 0.1 and 2.0 seconds (in 0.1 second increments), or OFF. New settings take effect on the next
Volume Control or VAPS breath.
This control is only available for Volume Control or VAPS breaths. At the end of the inspiration, the
circuit pressure will be maintained for the set inspiratory pause period. At the end of this interval,
exhalation will begin.

Front Panel - Power Section


On Indicator
Display only. Indicates the ventilator is turned ON and has power.
This indicator is normally green. If it is yellow or red, a problem has developed with the internal power
supplies or software. Discontinue using the ventilator and contact your Bird Certified Service
Technician.

Power Source Indicators


Display only. Indicates the power source the ventilator is using.

AC Indicator
This indicator remains on as long as sufficient AC power is present. It turns off if AC power fails or falls
below acceptable limits. If this occurs, the ventilator automatically switches to battery power and
generates a BATTERY ON alert.

Internal Battery Indicator


Illuminates when the ventilator is operating on internal battery power. Color of the LED indicates the
power level of the internal battery when in use. See below for color code.
As the battery level drops from full to medium power, the ventilator generates an audible LOW
BATTERY alarm (a chirp every three seconds) which can be cleared by pressing the Alarm
Silence/Reset button twice. When the battery drops from medium to low power, a non-silencable
audible alarm will occur (continuous tone).

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 2 Controls & Displays 29
The time remaining on the battery depends on the current front panel settings and the patient’s
demands. Table 2-4 shows typical times expected for normal and heavy demands.

Table 2-4 Internal & External Battery Typical Operating Times

Internal Battery - When Indicator Is: Normal Load Heavy Load


Green 40 mins 7 mins
Yellow 14 mins 5 mins
Red 10 mins 4 mins

External Battery - When Indicator Is: Normal Load Heavy Load


Green 3.5 hours 55 mins
Yellow 1.5 hours 20 mins

Settings Normal Load Heavy Load


Tidal Volume 500 ml 1500 ml
Breath rate 12 bpm 30 bpm
Peak Flow 40 lpm 140 lpm
Sensitivity 2 lpm 2 lpm
PEEP 5 cmH2o 30 cmH2O
Lung Compliance 50 ml/cmH2O 17.5 ml/cmH2O
Lung Resistance 6 cmH2O/l/sec 3 cmH2O/L/sec

External Battery Indicator


Illuminates when the ventilator is operating on external battery power. Color of the LED indicates the
power level of the external battery when in use. See below for color code.
As the external battery gets low, the indicator changes from green to yellow. If the battery becomes fully
discharged, the ventilator automatically switches to internal battery power and activates the EXT
BATTERY alarm.
The time remaining on the battery depends on the current front panel settings, battery condition and the
patient’s demands. Table 2-4 shows typical times expected for typical normal and heavy demands from
a fully charged battery.
Color code for battery power source indicators:
• If green, the battery is at full power.
• If yellow, the battery is at medium power.
• If red, the battery is at low power.
• If off, the ventilator is either running on AC or the other battery source.

Battery Charge Status Indicators


Display only. Shows the status of the internal and external batteries while being charged.
When the ventilator is plugged into an AC source, it automatically charges both batteries (if present).
The color of the indicator indicates the battery’s charge status:
• If off, the battery is not present or properly connected.
• If green, the battery is between 90 and 100% fully charged.

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30 Operators Manual

• If yellow, the battery is being charged.


• If red, a battery fault exists. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
The typical amount of time required to recharge the batteries is as follows:
Internal battery:
• If the external battery is fully charged or not present and the internal battery is depleted, the
charge time for the internal battery is approximately six (6) hours.
• If both the internal and external batteries are depleted, the charge time for the internal battery
is approximately seven (7) hours.
External battery:
• If the internal battery is fully charged and the external battery is depleted, the charge time for
the external battery is approximately seventeen (17) hours.
• If both the internal and external batteries are depleted, the charge time for the external battery
is approximately twenty-four (24) hours.

Front Panel - Special Control Section

Sigh Button
Turns sigh breath feature ON or OFF. To operate, press the button. When ON, the green LED
illuminates.
A sigh breath is a Volume Control breath in which the Tidal Volume is equal to 1.5 times the Tidal
Volume setting. When you press this button, the ventilator delivers a sigh breath on the next assist or
machine breath regardless of how that breath is initiated. The ventilator then delivers a sigh breath
once every seven (7) minutes or 100 breaths, which ever occurs first.
When a sigh breath is delivered:
• The Tidal Volume is increased by 50%.
• The effective breath period is increased by 50%.
• The inspiratory time is increased by 50% (not to exceed a maximum of 5.5 seconds). If the
Tidal Volume cannot be delivered in 5.5 seconds, the maximum possible Tidal Volume is
delivered for the current flow setting.
• The preset high pressure alarm limit is increased by 50% (not to exceed a maximum of 120
cmH2O).
Sigh breaths are not available in Pressure Control

Manual Breath Button


This control delivers a single machine breath to the patient. Press and release the button. When breath
delivery begins, the integrated LED turns on and stays on while the breath is being delivered.
When this control is activated, the ventilator delivers a breath according to the current ventilator settings
(Tidal Volume and Peak Flow or Pressure Control and Inspiratory Time). If you press this button during
the inspiratory phase or before the minimum exhalation time has elapsed, the ventilator ignores your
request.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 2 Controls & Displays 31
Remote Alarm Button
Future option.

Square Waveform Button (AVS models only)


Changes the waveform from decelerating to square when setting up a Volume Control breath. Press
the button to toggle between a square and decelerating waveform. The LED illuminates when you
select a Square Wave.
This waveform controls how gas flow is delivered to the patient for Volume Control breaths.

VAPS Button (AVS III only)


This control activates Volume Assured Pressure Support (VAPS). Press the button to enable VAPS, the
LED illuminates. Be sure to set the Pressure Control, Tidal Volume and Peak Flow controls to
appropriate settings.
When turned ON, the ventilator delivers a VAPS breath using the Pressure Control setting for the target
pressure. The Pressure Control setting determines the circuit pressure above baseline to be delivered.
The Tidal Volume setting determines the minimum guaranteed Tidal Volume to be delivered. The Peak
Flow setting determines the minimum delivered flow until the minimum volume is reached.

Inspiratory Hold Button (AVS models, VSO2 & Legacy only)


Performs an inspiratory hold maneuver to measure static compliance.
Press and hold this button prior to the delivery of a mechanical breath. The LED illuminates and the first
parameter Paw xxx cmH2O appears in the monitor window, where xxx is the real-time airway pressure.
At the end of inspiration, Paw xxx will change to Pplat xxx cmH2O, where xxx represents the plateau
pressure. The Inspiratory Hold maneuver will end when the button is released or after six (6) seconds.
At this time,
Palvd xxx cmH2O Cst xxx ml/cmH2O

is displayed where Palvd is the alveolar distending pressure and Cst is static compliance.
The green LED now turns off and normal ventilator operation is resumed. The maneuver fails if the
Inspiratory Hold button is released too soon or a stable plateau could not be obtained. To clear the
display from the monitor window, press the Monitor Select Button.

Note
The HIGH PRES alarm will automatically cancel the Inspiratory Hold maneuver.

Expiratory Hold Button (AVS II & AVS III only)


Performs an expiratory hold to measure AutoPEEP. To activate, press and hold this button to initiate
the Expiratory Hold maneuver. When the next machine breath would occur, the ventilator occludes
inspiratory and expiratory flow, the built-in LED turns on and the following parameters will appear in the
monitor window:
Paw nn Pex mm AUTOPEEP pp cmH2O

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where nn is the real time airway pressure, mm is the ending exhalation pressure and pp is the
measured AutoPEEP.
AutoPEEP characterizes the patient’s end expiratory alveolar pressure. This value is continuously
updated until six (6) seconds has elapsed or the button is released. At the end of the maneuver,
AutoPEEP is calculated as the difference between Pex and Paw.
Normal ventilation resumes at the end of the maneuver.

Note
The HIGH PRES alarm will automatically cancel the Expiratory Hold maneuver.

MIP / NIF Button (AVS II & AVS III only)


Performs a MIP/NIF maneuver to measure the patient’s inspiratory effort. To operate, press and hold.
The built-in LED turns on and the following parameters are displayed:
Starting pressure (Pstart), airway pressure (Paw), and maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP). They are
displayed as follows:
Pstart --- Paw --- MIP --- cmH2O
Continue to hold the button until the dashes are replaced by values.
The ventilator computes MIP by measuring the difference between the airway circuit pressure at the
start of the maneuver and the maximum negative pressure achieved during the maneuver. When you
press and hold the button, the ventilator locks out all front panel controls, displays the labels, and waits
for the exhalation flow to end. Once this occurs, the inspiratory and exhalation flows are blocked and
the circuit pressure is displayed next to Pstart. The ventilator then displays the current airway pressure
next to Paw Each time a new maximum negative pressure is detected, the MIP value is updated with
the computed difference between Paw and Pstart. This value is continuously updated until you release
the button, or 30 seconds have elapsed. Once the MIP period ends, the highest value is retained as the
MIP and ventilator returns to normal operation.

Note
The HIGH PRES alarm will automatically cancel the MIP/NIF maneuver.

100% O2 3 Min Button (AVS models & VSO2 only)


Delivers 100% oxygen to the patient for a maximum of three minutes without having to change the %
O2 setting.
Press the button to turn 100% oxygenation ON or OFF. The LED illuminates and the % O2 display
flashes 100 while 100% oxygen is being delivered.
The percentage of oxygen increases to 100% for three minutes or until you turn 100% O2 OFF. The
length of time required to actually reach the 100% oxygen level depends on the currently set bias flow
and the patient’s minute volume demands. The 100% level is typically reached before the first two liters
of gas are delivered.
After three minutes the unit returns to the previous Oxygen setting.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 2 Controls & Displays 33
Flow Cal.
This button allows you to override the automatic flow cal program and perform a manual flow
calibration. It will turn on the automatic flow cal program after a manual flow calibration has been
performed.
When the ventilator is turned ON, the Flow Cal. LED will flash while the software is establishing the flow
calibration. Once this is reached the LED will be illuminated continuously. Flow calibration determines
the bias flow exiting the Exhalation Valve Flow transducer which may differ from the set bias flow. If the
LED continues to flash, the ventilator is unable to establish the calibration and the clinician can perform
a manual flow calibration.
To perform a manual flow calibration, press and hold the Flow Cal button during the exhalation phase of
a breath. The following message appears:
FC nn.n
Where nn.n is the current volume of gases moving through the exhalation valve sensor. Continue to
hold the button until the flow calibration value nn.n stabilizes within 3 L/min of the set bias flow. The
display will appear as:
FC nn.n OK

Note
Although the system continues to ventilate without an established flow cal value, indicated by the flashing LED, the accuracy of
the exhaled tidal volume and minute volume measurements and the sensitivity may be reduced.

Front Panel - Patient Connectors

Patient Outlet.
22mm OD outlet for patient circuit.

Exhalation valve
Connector for exhalation valve body and tubing from patient.

Over Pressure Relief Valve


Sets the maximum pressure allowed in the system. Provides a safety backup for the high-pressure
alarm.
To set the Over Pressure Relief Valve, do the following:
1. Attach a Bird test lung (P/N 04845 or equivalent) to the patient breathing circuit
2. Set the High Pressure Limit Control to 120 cmH2O.
3. Set the Tidal Volume and Peak Flow to achieve at least 100 cmH2O as displayed on the
manometer
4. Monitor PIP
5. Adjust the valve until the pressure shown on the manometer reaches the desired pressure.

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6. Lower the High Pressure Limit Control to 5-15 cmH2O (or to the value dictated by hospital
protocol) below the Over Pressure Relief setting.
This control must be set 5-15 cmH2O above the high-pressure limit

WARNING
Make sure the high-pressure alarm limit is not set above the Over Pressure Relief setting. Otherwise, a HIGH
PRES alarm will not occur and the patient may be subjected to sustained high pressures.

Figure 2.3 Over Pressure Relief

Rear Panel

Power Switch
Switches the ventilator between STANDBY and ON. Press the upper half of the switch to turn the
ventilator ON. Press the lower half of the switch to return the ventilator to STANDBY.
When ON, the ventilator will operate on AC, internal battery, or optional external battery power,
depending on the power source available.
When in STANDBY position and plugged into an AC power source, the ventilator charges the internal
battery and optional external batteries.

Fan Intake Filter


Filters air drawn into the ventilator.

Alarm Volume Control


Enables you to set the sound level of the audible alarm. Typically would be set to far clockwise
position.

Fiberoptic Interface Port


Allows attachment of the optional Bird Graphics Monitor.

Patient Assist Call Connector


Allows connection to an existing Patient Assist Call system in an institution.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 2 Controls & Displays 35
Fuses

Oxygen Inlet Port, Low Flow (Legacy, VS)


Allows entrainment of oxygen into the gas flow. Low flow oxygen (up to 80 lpm) can be attached from
an oxygen concentrator or regulated oxygen source.
Two (2) DISS high pressure connectors for oxygen. High pressure oxygen (40 to 60 psi) sources can
be attached.

Air Inlet Filter


Filters air drawn into the turbine.

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36 Operators Manual

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Chapter 3 Monitored Parameters
The ventilator features a comprehensive package that continually monitors breath parameters. These
parameters include:
• Total Breath Rate (f)
• I:E Ratio (I:E)
• Minute Volume (VE)
• Spontaneous Minute Volume (sVE)
• Machine Minute Volume (mVE)
• Peak Inspiratory Pressure (PIP)
• Mean Airway Pressure (MAP)
• Inspiratory Time (Ti)
• Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP)
• Exhaled Tidal Volume (Vte)
These parameters are displayed singularly on the TBird VS, VSO2 and Legacy models and in sets of
two or three on the TBird AVS models. As each set of parameters is monitored, the values appear in
the monitor window. If autoscanning is turned on, the system automatically advances through the
parameters, displaying each set for approximately four seconds. You can hold the scan at a particular
set of parameters by pressing the Monitor Select button.
If autoscanning is turned off, you can manually advance through the list by pressing the Monitor Select
button. The selected parameters will be displayed until you press the Monitor Select button again to
advance to the next parameter.
To enable or disable autoscanning, use the Autoscan function described in Chapter 6, Special
Functions.
When autoscan is enabled, a ‘rising arrow’ ( ^ ) appears in the far right of the monitor window.
Table 3-1 describes each of the monitored parameters and shows the range of values displayed.
Table 3-1 Monitored Parameters

Monitored Parameter Display Range Description


Breath rate f 0 to 250 bpm Shows the total number of breaths per minute including
both spontaneous and machine breaths. The displayed
value is based on an eight breath moving average and
is updated at the beginning of each inspiration.
I:E Ratio I:E 99:1 to 1:99 Shows the ratio of inspiratory to expiratory time for all
breaths including spontaneous breaths and is updated
at the end of every breath. Inverse I:E ratios are
displayed as well as regular I:E ratios
Minute Volume VE 0 to 99.9 L/min Shows the average volume delivered to the patient
each minute, it is updated at the end of each exhalation.
The minute volume is a moving average calculated by
multiplying the breath rate by the average of the
previous eight tidal volumes. Spontaneous breaths are
included.
Spontaneous Minute Volume sVE 0 to 99.9 L/min The average volume delivered to the patient during a

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Monitored Parameter Display Range Description


minute for spontaneous breaths only.
Machine Minute Volume mVE 0 to 99.9 L/min The average volume delivered to the patient during a
minute for machine breaths
Peak Inspiratory Pressure PIP 0 to 140 cmH2O Shows the highest circuit pressure to occur during
inspiration as measured at the exhalation valve. The
display is updated at the end of inspiration. PIP is not
updated for spontaneous breaths.
Mean Airway Pressure MAP 0 to 99 cmH2O Shows the MAP over the last minute and is based on a
one minute moving average. The display is updated
every 10 seconds
Inspiratory time Ti 0.01 – 99.99 sec Displays the Inspiratory Time for all breath types and is
updated at the end of every breath.
Positive End Expiratory PEEP 0 to 99 cmH2O Shows the measured end expiratory pressure. The
Pressure display is updated at the end of the exhalation phase.
Machine exhaled Tidal Volume mVte 0 - 4,000 ml Shows the average exhaled volume for machine type
breaths as measured by the exhalation flow transducer.
The default average is for the previous 8 breaths and is
updated at the end of each exhalation.
Spontaneous exhaled Tidal sVte 0 - 4,000 ml Exhaled Tidal Volume of the previous spontaneous
Volume breath

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Chapter 4 Alarms and Alerts
This chapter describes the various alarms and alerts that can occur while operating the ventilator. The
following topics are covered:
• How alarms and alerts are generated.
• How to respond to each alarm or alert.

Definitions

Alarms
When the ventilator detects an operating condition that requires your immediate attention, it activates
the audible alarm, flashes a message in the alarm window, and flashes any dedicated indicators or
controls associated with the alarm. The audible and visual components of the alarm remain active for
as long as the condition causing the alarm exists. Once the condition no longer exists, the audible
component automatically clears itself. The visual component may or may not be automatically cleared,
depending on the nature of the alarm. If the visual component is not automatically reset, press the
Alarm Silence/Reset button. To clear the audible portion of an alarm, press the Alarm Silence/Reset
button.
The volume of the audible alarm can be physically adjusted using the alarm volume control on the back
panel.

Alerts
When the ventilator detects an operating condition that needs to be addressed, it flashes an alert
message in the monitor window to signal you to the condition. After addressing an alert, press the
Alarm Silence/Reset button to clear the alert.

Alarms

APNEA Alarm

Cause
The elapsed time between inspiratory starts has exceeded the current apnea interval. The elapsed time
is measured from the start of one inspiration to the start of the next, regardless of breath type (machine,
assist, or patient).

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Switches to Apnea Backup ventilation, which is delivered in the Assist/Control mode.
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays APNEA xx BPM in the alarm window, where xx is the apnea ventilation breath rate.

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40 Operators Manual

• Resets the breath rate to 12 bpm if the set rate is less than 12 bpm.
• Highlights the controls used for breaths given during Apnea Backup ventilation.

Note
You cannot switch modes when the ventilator is providing Apnea Backup ventilation.

Corrective Action
The audible portion of this alarm clears itself automatically whenever two successive breaths are
initiated by the patient. To clear the visual portion, press the Alarm Silence/Reset button.
To manually silence and reset the alarm, and cancel Apnea Backup ventilation, press the Alarm
Silence/Reset button twice.

AC Power Lost Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the ventilator is operating on AC power and the AC power either fails or AC
power is removed.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Immediately switches to battery backup (without interrupting ventilation).
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Turns the AC indicator OFF.
• Illuminates the Ext. Bat power indicator, if the optional external battery is present.
• Illuminates the Int Bat power indicator, if the optional external battery is not present.
• Displays BATTERY ON in the alarm window.

Corrective Action
To clear the alarm, press the Alarm Silence/Reset button twice.
When the ventilator is operating on battery power, the front panel lamps are turned OFF to conserve
power. They will illuminate whenever front panel activity is detected. If an alarm message is displayed
in the alarm window, the window will stay illuminated. The Airway Pressure Manometer remains
illuminated at all times.

Internal Operations Check Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the ventilator’s on-going self-tests detect an anomaly. The ventilator
reinitializes itself to invoke the more sophisticated Power-On Self Tests (POST).

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 4 Alarms & Alerts 41
Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Records the events in EEPROM.
• Performs a self-start.
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays CHECK EVENTS in the alarm window.
During the self-start, the ventilator runs the Power-On Self Tests (POST). If the POST detects a
problem that could interfere with the continued safe operation of the ventilator, it generates a vent inop
condition. Otherwise, the ventilator resumes operation at the previous settings.

Corrective Action
Press the Alarm Silence/Reset button twice to clear the audible and visual alarm.

Note
Although the ventilator continues to operate normally when this alarm is present, contact your Bird Certified Service
Technician.

Circuit Fault Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the patient breathing circuit becomes kinked, occluded, or disconnected. It also
occurs if a problem is detected with one of the internal transducers used to measure the patient
breathing circuit pressure.
The ventilator checks the patient breathing circuit in all modes, except during the inspiratory phase of
pressure support breaths.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays CIRC FAULT in the alarm window.
• Cycles into the exhalation phase.
When this condition occurs, the ventilator stops flow and opens the exhalation valve.

Corrective Action
The audible alarm automatically clears itself when the problem is corrected. The visual portion of the
alarm remains in effect until you press the Alarm Silence/Reset button.

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Default Settings Alarm

Cause
The ventilator is shipped from the factory with built-in default settings for all operational parameters.
Once you set a front panel control, the corresponding default value for that control is overridden by the
new setting. The new setting is then stored in EEPROM so that it can be retained even when the
ventilator is turned off. When you turn the ventilator on, the retained settings are automatically restored
If something happens that prevents the ventilator from retrieving the retained settings from EEPROM,
the ventilator restores the original factory default settings, allowing the ventilator to continue to operate
safely. This alarm notifies you that the ventilator is operating on the default settings.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays DEFAULTS in the alarm window.

Table 4-1 Default Settings

Control Default Control Default


Altitude Compensation 500 ft PEEP/CPAP 0 cmH2O
APNEA Interval 20 sec Pressure Control OFF
Assist Control ON Pressure Support OFF
Bias Flow 10 L/min Remote Alarm OFF
Breath Rate 12 bpm Sensitivity 2 lpm
Control Lock Enabled Sigh OFF
CPAP OFF SIMV OFF
High Pressure 30 cmH2O Square Waveform OFF
Inspiratory Pause OFF Termination Sensitivity 25%
Inspiratory Time 0.3 Tidal Volume 500 ml
Language English VAPS OFF
Low Minute Volume Alarm 0.1 Variable Time Termination 3.0 sec
Peak Flow 35 L/min Flow Termination OFF

Corrective Action
To clear the alarm, press the Alarm Silence/Reset button twice and set the front panel controls to the
desired settings.

Note
If this alarm occurs frequently, contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 4 Alarms & Alerts 43
Low External Battery Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the ventilator switches from external battery power to internal battery power.
Ventilation is continued without interruption.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays EXT BATTERY message in the alarm window.

Corrective Action
To clear the alarm, press the Alarm Silence/Reset button twice.
The audible alarm automatically clears itself when you plug the ventilator into an AC source. The visual
portion of the alarm remains in effect until you press the Alarm Silence/Reset button.

Fan Fault Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the speed of the cooling fan drops below acceptable limits.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays FAN FAULT in the alarm window.

Corrective Action
Press the Alarm/Silence Reset button twice to clear the audible and visual alarm
Remove the ventilator from service as soon as possible and contact your Bird Certified Service
Technician.

High Breath Alarm (AVS models, VSO2 & Legacy only)

Cause
This alarm occurs when the total breath rate meets or exceeds the High Breath Rate alarm setting.

Ventilator Response
When total breath rate exceeds the alarm setting the ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Flashes the High Breath Rate control.
• Displays the HIGH BREATH in the alarm window.

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Corrective Action
This alarm stays in effect until the total breath rate falls below the High Breath Rate alarm setting.
The audible alarm automatically clears itself when the total breath rate falls below the High Breath
Rate alarm setting. The visual portion of the alarm remains in effect until you press the Alarm
Silence/Reset Button.

High Oxygen Inlet Pressure Alarm (AVS models & VSO2)

Cause
This alarm occurs when the % O2 is set to a value greater than 21 and inlet pressure at the oxygen
inlet exceeds 65 PSIG (4.3 bar).

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays HIGH O2 in the alarm window.

Corrective Action
The audible alarm resets itself when the inlet pressure falls back into range.
To manually clear the alarm:
• Reconnect the ventilator to a known good oxygen source.
• Adjust the oxygen inlet pressure to between 40 – 60 PSIG (2.8 – 4.2 bar).
• Press the Alarm Silence/Reset button.

High PEEP Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the patient breathing circuit pressure fails to return to the set PEEP +15
cmH2O during exhalation.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays HIGH PEEP in the alarm window.

Corrective Action
To clear the alarm, correct the condition causing the alarm and press the Alarm Silence/Reset button
twice.
The audible alarm automatically clears itself when the PEEP returns to within 15 cmH2O of PEEP. The
visual portion of the alarm remains in effect until you press the Alarm Silence/Reset button.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 4 Alarms & Alerts 45
High Pressure Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the patient breathing circuit pressure exceeds the High Pressure Limit alarm
setting by at least 1 cmH2O during any portion of a breath.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Flashes the High Pressure Limit control.
• Displays HIGH PRES in the alarm window.
• Immediately terminates inspiration and cycles into the exhalation phase.
By immediately cycling into the expiratory phase, the ventilator allows the pressure in the patient
breathing circuit to return to the baseline pressure. It also allows the exhalation valve to regulate the
pressure at the currently set PEEP level.

Corrective Action
The audible alarm automatically clears itself if patient breathing circuit pressure falls to within 5 cmH2O
of PEEP. The visual portion of the alarm remains in effect until you press the Alarm Silence/Reset
button.
If the patient breathing circuit pressure does not fall back to PEEP + 5 cmH2O within three (3) seconds
after entering the exhalation phase, the ventilator stops the flow, and the exhalation valve opens. Flow
restarts when PEEP + 5 cmH2O is reached.

Hardware Fault Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the ventilator’s on-going self-tests have detected a problem with the ventilator
hardware, or the internal temperature of the ventilator has exceeded acceptable limits.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays HW FAULT message.

Corrective Action
To clear the alarm, press the Alarm Silence/Reset button twice.
Ensure that the fan filter is free from obstruction. If the alarm reoccurs, this indicates that there is an
internal hardware fault. Remove the ventilator from service and contact your Bird Certified Service
Technician.

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Low Internal Battery Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the ventilator is being powered from the internal battery and the battery’s
remaining power drops to the medium or low power level.

Ventilator Response
This alarm occurs when battery power drops to medium power. The ventilator:
• Chirps the audible alarm every three seconds
• Turns the Int Bat Power Source indicator from green to yellow.
• Displays the LOW BATTERY message.
The alarm can be cleared by pressing the Alarm Silence/Reset button twice.
This alarm occurs again when battery power drops to low power. The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm continuously.
• Turns the Int Bat Power Source indicator from yellow to red.
• Displays the LOW BATTERY message.
This alarm cannot be cleared unless you plug the ventilator into an AC source or connect the external
battery.

Corrective Action
Find another power source.
The audible alarm automatically clears itself when you attach an external battery or plug the ventilator
into an AC source. The visual portion of the alarm remains in effect until you press the Alarm
Silence/Reset button.

Low Oxygen Inlet Pressure Alarm (AVS models & VSO2)

Cause
This alarm occurs when the % O2 control is set to a value greater than 21 and the pressure at the
oxygen inlet falls below 35 PSIG (2.4 bar).

Ventilator Response
If the pressure becomes too low, the ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays the LOW O2 message.

Corrective Action
The audible portion of the alarm resets itself when the inlet pressure comes back into range.
Reconnect the ventilator to a known good oxygen source.
Adjust the oxygen inlet pressure to 40 – 60 PSIG (2.8 – 4.2 bar).

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 4 Alarms & Alerts 47
Press the Alarm Silence/Reset button.

Low Pressure Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the patient breathing circuit pressure fails to exceed the Low Pressure Alarm
setting during the inspiratory phase of a machine or assist breath.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Flashes the Low Pressure Alarm control display.
• Displays the LOW PRES message.

Corrective Action
The audible alarm automatically clears itself when a subsequent machine or assist breath exceeds the
currently set Low Pressure Limit. The visual portion of the alarm remains in effect until you press the
Alarm Silence/Reset button.

Note
This alarm is disabled in CPAP mode and during spontaneous and Pressure Support breaths. The alarm is enabled in CPAP
mode when a manual or sigh breath is delivered.

Low Minute Volume Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when the patient’s exhaled minute volume fails to exceed the Low Minute Volume
alarm setting. The ventilator calculates the exhaled minute volume based on information received from
the exhalation valve flow transducer.

Ventilator Response
When the calculated value falls below the front panel setting, the ventilator:
• Sounds audible alarm.
• Flashes the Low Minute Volume display.
• Displays the LOW VOLUME message.

Corrective Action
Check the humidifier assembly and patient circuit for leaks.
The alarm stays in effect until the patient’s exhaled minute volume exceeds the Low Minute Volume
alarm setting.

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The audible alarm automatically clears itself when the patient’s exhaled minute volume exceeds the
Low Minute Volume alarm setting. The visual portion of the alarm remains in effect until you press the
Alarm Silence/Reset button.
If the alarm activates continuously, consult the ordering physician to evaluate the alarm and ventilator
settings.

Transducer Fault Alarm

Cause
This alarm occurs when a transducer’s zero point has drifted out of range.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Displays the XDCR FAULT message.

Corrective Action
To clear the alarm, press the Alarm Silence/Reset button twice.
If this does not clear alarm, replace the exhalation valve body and reseat the diaphragm. Perform a
manual flow cal and press the Alarm Silence/Reset to clear the alarm.

WARNING
Although the system will continue to ventilate with a XDCR FAULT alarm, the accuracy of the tidal volume, minute
volume and pressure measurements may be reduced. Remove the ventilator from service and contact your Bird
Certified Service Technician.

Vent Inop Alarm

Cause
A condition has developed that could affect the continued safe operation of the ventilator.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Illuminates the Vent Inop indicator.
• Ceases operation.
• Returns to a safe state so the patient can breathe spontaneously from room air.

Corrective Action
Provide an alternate means of ventilation for the patient. Turn the power switch to the STANDBY
position and press the Alarm Silence/Reset button to silence the audible alarm. Then remove the
ventilator from service and contact your Bird Certified Service technician.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 4 Alarms & Alerts 49
Note
A Vent Inop alarm occurs normally when the ventilator is placed in the STANDBY position.

Alerts

APNEA Alert

Cause
This alert occurs immediately following the POST and informs the user as to the current Apnea Interval
setting. To adjust the Apnea Interval, see Apnea Setting in Chapter 6, Special Functions.

Ventilator Response
Informational only. This is normal in the power-up procedure.

Corrective Action
To clear the alert, press the Monitor Select button.

BIAS Alert

Cause
This alert occurs following the Power On Self Tests (POST) and informs the user of the current Bias
Flow setting. To adjust the Bias flow, see Bias Flow in Chapter 6, Special Functions.

Ventilator Response
Informational only. This is normal in the power-up procedure.

Corrective Action
To clear the alert, press the Monitor Select button.

Check Apnea Backup Settings Alert

Cause
This alert occurs when the ventilator powers up in CPAP mode or when CPAP mode is selected. This is
a reminder to check ventilator settings that will be used during Apnea Backup ventilation.

Ventilator Response
Informational only

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Corrective Action
When operating in CPAP mode, certain controls must be set to clinically appropriate level even though
they are dimmed and inactive. Should the patient become apneic, the ventilator uses these settings
when providing Apnea Backup ventilation. A CHECK BKUP alert will be displayed as a reminder to
verify that Apnea Backup ventilation parameters are appropriately set.
Check the following settings to ensure that they are clinically appropriate:
• Tidal Volume • Inspiratory Time
• Peak Flow • Inspiratory Pause
• Breath Rate • VAPS
• Pressure Support • Square Waveform
• Pressure Control • Apnea Interval
To clear the alert, press the Monitor Select button.

Check Filter Alert

Cause
This alert occurs every 500 hours to remind you to check the air intake filter on the back panel to see if
it needs to be cleaned or replaced.

Ventilator Response
When this alert occurs, the FILTER message appears in the monitor window.

Corrective Action
Remove and clean or replace the air intake filter (refer to Chapter 9, Cleaning and Sterilization)
Press the Monitor Select button to clear the alert.

Controls Locked Alert

Cause
This alert occurs when you attempt to change a control setting while the front panel controls are locked.

Ventilator Response
• The ventilator displays the LOCKED message in the monitor window.

Corrective Action
To clear the alert, press the Monitor Select button or unlock the controls.

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Control Setting Limits Alert

Cause
This alert occurs when you attempt to set a control to a value that is incompatible with other control
settings.
This alert will occur:
• If Tidal Volume, Breath Rate, Peak Flow, Inspiratory Pause, and Inspiratory Time are set to
values which would cause the minimum inspiratory time to be less than 300 ms or minimum
exhalation time to be less than 250 ms, regardless if they are active or inactive.
• If Tidal Volume, Breath Rate, Peak Flow, Inspiratory Pause, and Inspiratory Time are set to
values which would cause an inverse I:E ratio of greater than 4:1.
• If High Pressure is decreased to within 5 cmH2O of PEEP, or PEEP is increased to within 5
cmH2O of the High Pressure setting.
• If Peak Flow is set to a value which is below Bias Flow.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator will not allow these parameters to be exceeded and will flash the affected controls. The
ventilator displays LIMITED in the monitor window.

Corrective Action
To clear the alert, deselect the control or set the affected controls to compatible settings. If a limited
alert occurs during a ventilator parameter change, carefully review all of the new parameter settings.

Flow Sensor Alert (AVS models only)

Cause
This alert occurs when the ventilator cannot detect the presence of an AVS exhalation valve body.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Displays FLOW SENSOR in place of Vte and VE in the monitor window.

Corrective Action
This alert remains in effect until the ventilator detects an AVS exhalation valve body.
To clear the alert, ensure that an AVS exhalation valve body is installed:
• Reseat the exhalation valve body, or
• Replace the exhalation valve body with a new one.

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Invalid Calibration Values Alert

Cause
This alert occurs when the Power On Self Tests (POST) detect a problem with the transducer
calibration data stored in the EEPROM.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Replaces the current calibration data with the default values.
• Displays the NO CAL DATA message.
The message cannot be cleared and remains in the window until the problem is corrected by a Bird
Certified Service Technician. Any alert or special function messages that occur while this message is
active temporarily overwrite the message. Monitored parameters do not overwrite the message.

Corrective Action
Although the system continues to operate, remove the ventilator from service and contact your Bird
Certified Service Technician.

WARNING
Although the system continues to ventilate when a NO CAL DATA alert is present, the accuracy of the volume and
pressures may be reduced. The system may generate pressures and volumes that are inconsistent with the front
panel settings. Remove the ventilator from service and contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.

New Sensor Alert (AVS Models Only)

Cause
This alert occurs while the ventilator is processing data from a newly installed AVS exhalation valve
body.

Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Displays NEW SENSOR in place of Vte and VE in the monitor window.

Corrective Action
None is required. This is a temporary event that occurs when a new valve body is installed. The alert
will clear automatically.

Invalid Calibration Values Alert

Cause
This alert occurs when the Power On Self Tests (POST) detect a problem with the transducer
calibration data stored in the EEPROM.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 4 Alarms & Alerts 53
Ventilator Response
The ventilator:
• Replaces the current calibration data with the default values.
• Displays the NO CAL DATA message.
The message cannot be cleared and remains in the window until the problem is corrected by a Bird
Certified Service Technician. Any alert or special function messages that occur while this message is
active temporarily overwrite the message. Monitored parameters do not overwrite the message.

Corrective Action
Although the system continues to operate, remove the ventilator from service and contact your Bird
Certified Service Technician.

WARNING
Although the system continues to ventilate when a NO CAL DATA alert is present, the accuracy of the volume and
pressures may be reduced. The system may generate pressures and volumes that are inconsistent with the front
panel settings. Remove the ventilator from service and contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.

TermSens

Cause
This alert occurs during the course of power up. It alerts the clinician to the existing setting in Special
Functions for the Termination Sensitivity, as a % of Peak Flow, for a Pressure Supported breath.

Ventilator Response
Informational only. This is normal in the power-up procedure.

Corrective Action
Press the Monitor select button to clear.

Varitime

Cause
This alert occurs during the course of power up. It alerts the clinician to the existing value in Special
Functions for the Variable Time termination, maximum inspiratory phase for a Pressure Supported
breath.

Ventilator Response
Informational only. This is normal in the power-up procedure.

Corrective Action
Press the Monitor select button to clear.

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Chapter 5 Unpacking, Setup and Operation
This chapter shows you how to unpack, set up, and check out the ventilator prior to putting it into
clinical use. It also covers basic operating procedures. Instructions are included demonstrating how to:
• Unpack the ventilator. • Check the ventilator
• Attach a patient breathing circuit. performance.

• Set the audible alarm. • Set up Control Mode

• Connect oxygen lines (optional). • Set up Assist/Control Mode

• Connect to a Patient Assist Call • Set up SIMV Mode


System (optional). • Set up CPAP Mode
• Turn the ventilator ON • Set up Pressure Control Breaths
• Turn the ventilator OFF • Set up Volume Assured Pressure
Support (VAPS) Breaths

Unpacking the Ventilator


Prior to unpacking the ventilator, check the outside of the shipping carton for physical damage or water
stains. If you find damage or water stains, contact the freight carrier and your local Bird Products
Customer Care representative.
To unpack the ventilator, do the following:
1. Remove the ventilator from its box and remove all packing materials.
2. Inspect the ventilator for damage. Check the covers, connectors, power cord, and front panel. If
you find any damage, do not operate the ventilator. Contact the freight carrier and your local Bird
Products Customer Care representative.
3. Check the contents of the carton against the packing slip. If any parts are missing, contact the
freight carrier and your local Bird Products Customer Care representative.
4. Save the shipping container and packing materials for future storage or shipment.

How to Attach a Patient Breathing Circuit


The TBird Series ventilators are compatible with reusable and disposable patient breathing circuits
meeting the ISO 22 mm standard taper connections regulation. Patient breathing circuit compliance
varies widely. Contact the original equipment manufacturer for circuit compliance information to
calculate distensible volume loss. The clinician will use this information to determine potential clinical
impact. Patient breathing circuit compliance for the Bird Products reusable circuit is available in
Appendix B of this manual.
How you attach the patient breathing circuit depends on what devices are to be used in the circuit. This
procedure assumes you are using a heated humidifier. The TBird Series ventilators are compatible with
Heated Humidification systems meeting or exceeding the ANSI Z-79.10 standard or its locally
mandated equivalent. See Appendix A of this manual for a partial list of approved optional Heated
Humidification devices and accessories. Heated Humidification devices provide for a full compliment of
reusable and disposable accessories, including chambers, circuits, probes, and adapters. A complete

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list of Heated Humidification devices and accessories is located in the Bird Products Hospital Price List.
L1332.
If you are not using a heated humidifier, ignore the steps that reference it. If using optional components,
refer to the installation instructions provided with those components.
To attach the patient breathing circuit, refer to Figure 5.1 and do the following:
1. Install the exhalation valve diaphragm and exhalation valve body into the ventilator. The
exhalation valve body is properly installed when the safety release latch engages: you will hear it
click into place.
2. Attach one end of the short circuit tubing to the patient outlet port.
3. Attach the other end of the circuit to the main bacteria filter and connect the outflow end of the
bacteria filter to the humidifier’s inlet port. Make sure the airflow through the bacteria filter is in
the proper direction. The humidifier can be attached to either side rail of the ventilator, or if you
are using a Bird Products ventilator stand, to the dovetail bracket on the stand.
4. Connect the inspiratory leg of the patient airway circuit tubing to the outlet of the heated
humidifier.
5. Connect the exhalation leg of the patient breathing circuit to the exhalation valve body.
6. Connect the two water traps, the patient wye, and the remaining circuit components
7. Relieve stress on the patient connections by using the Bird Products Circuit Support Arm.

Before using the ventilator, check the ventilator’s performance as described later in this chapter.

Figure 5.1 Attaching the Patient Breathing Circuit.

Adjusting Alarm Volume


The alarm volume control is located on the back panel. It allows you to adjust the loudness of the
audible alarm upwards from a minimum of 70 dBa ± 5dBa (measured at one meter.)
To adjust the volume of the audible alarm, refer to Figure 5.2 and do the following:

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 5 Unpacking, Set-up & Operation 57
1. Turn the control clockwise to increase the volume.
2. Turn the control counterclockwise to decrease the volume.

Figure 5.2 Adjusting the Audible Alarm Volume

Attaching Oxygen Lines

WARNING
Introduction of oxygen into the TBird Legacy and VS ventilator may increase delivered tidal volumes. Tidal
volumes should be monitored to ensure the desired volume is delivered.

Legacy and VS Systems


The TBird Legacy and VS series ventilators have a barbed fitting that allows for the introduction of
oxygen. The oxygen source should not exceed 80 lpm or 0.5 PSI. To attach a low flow oxygen source,
refer to Figure 5.3 and do the following:
1. Attach one end of standard ¼” I.D. oxygen tubing to the barbed fitting on the back of the
ventilator.
2. Attach the other end of the tubing to the flow meter.

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Figure 5.3 Attaching a Low Flow Oxygen Source (Legacy and VS).

AVS and VSO2 systems


The TBird AVS and VSO2 have two threaded connectors to supply the unit with oxygen. Each
connector has an internal check valve that allows you to change oxygen sources without interrupting
the gas supply to the ventilator. The oxygen inlet pressure must be between 40 and 60 PSIG (2.8 to 4.2
bar). To attach oxygen lines to the connectors, refer to Figure 5.4 and do the following:
1. Screw one end of an appropriate oxygen hose to the connector on the back of the ventilator.
2. Attach the other end of the oxygen hose to a pressurized oxygen source.
3. A second connector is provided to facilitate switching from piped O2 to bottled O2 when
preparing to move the patient. Leaving both ports connected to oxygen sources continuously is
not recommended.

Figure 5.4 Attaching oxygen AVS and VSO2

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 5 Unpacking, Set-up & Operation 59
Attaching to a Patient Assist Call System
The ventilator can be connected to a Patient Assist Call System through the Patient Assist Call modular
jack located on the back panel. Before connecting to the system, however, you must determine whether
your patient call system is configured as Normally Open (NO) or Normally Closed (NC). For NO
systems you need cable part # 15619. For NC systems you need cable part # 15620.

CAUTION
The maximum voltage that can be applied to the Patient Assist Call modular connector is 25 volts rms or 31 volts
DC.
Connect the ventilator to the Patient Assist Call System by plugging into the Patient Assist Call jack
shown in Figure 5.5.

Patient Assist
Connection

Figure 5.5 Connecting to the Patient Assist Call System.

To Turn the Ventilator ON


Prior to placing a patient on the ventilator, plug the power cord into a live AC power source for 24 hours
to fully charge the batteries. A ventilator check must be performed using a breathing circuit and a test
lung.
To turn the ventilator ON, do the following:
1. Connect the ventilator to a valid power source (AC line or optional external battery). If you do not
connect the ventilator to an external power source it will operate on the internal battery when
turned on.
2. Move the AC power switch to the ON position.
The ventilator responds as follows:
• The power source LED illuminates.
• The ON LED illuminates green.
• The Power ON Self-Tests (POST) run. During these tests, the alarm sounds and the front
panel lamps illuminate briefly.

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• Upon successfully completing the POST, the ventilator begins operating using retained
settings or defaults.
• The Flow Cal LED flashes. The LED will continue to flash until the Auto Flow Cal software
obtains a valid value or until a manual Flow Cal maneuver is performed.
• The ventilator exhibits a flashing Apnea Interval setting.
3. Press the Monitor Select button to clear the display. The current Bias Flow setting is displayed.
4. Press the Monitor Select to clear the display. The current Termination Sensitivity setting is
displayed.
5. Press the Monitor Select to clear the display. The current Variable Time Termination setting is
displayed.
6. Press the Monitor Select button to clear the display. The system begins to display the
monitored parameters.

To Turn the Ventilator OFF


1. Disconnect the patient from the ventilator.
2. Move the power switch to the STANDBY position. The audible alarm sounds and the Vent Inop
indicator begins to flash.
3. Press the Alarm Silence/Reset button to silence the audible alarm. The Vent Inop indicator
continues to flash for several minutes. This flashing operates from an internal capacitor, not from
the battery and has no effect on battery life.
4. While plugged into an AC source, the AC and charge indicators will remain illuminated.
When turned OFF, the ventilator is on STANDBY as long as it is plugged into an AC source. While on
STANDBY the ventilator charges the internal battery and the optional external battery, if present.

Performance Checks

Note
If any portion of the following performance check fails and you are unable to correct the problem, contact your Bird Certified
Service Technician.

After setting up the ventilator, check its performance as follows:


1. Plug the ventilator’s power cord into a properly grounded electrical outlet.
2. Perform the User Verification Tests (UVTs). See Chapter 7.
3. Exit the UVTs and attach a Test Lung to the patient breathing circuit.
4. Press the Assist/Control mode button to operate the ventilator in Assist/Control mode.
5. Set the ventilation controls as follows:

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 5 Unpacking, Set-up & Operation 61

Control Setting
Tidal Volume 500 ml
Peak Flow 60 L/min
Breath Rate 12 bpm
PEEP/CPAP 5 cmH2O
Sensitivity OFF
Pressure Support OFF
% O2 21
Pressure Control OFF
Inspiratory Time 0.3 sec
Inspiratory Pause OFF
Sigh OFF
Square Waveform OFF
Bias Flow 10
Autoscan ON
Altitude 500 ft.
Low Minute Volume DIS LMV OFF
Alarm Range
Termination Sensitivity 25%
Variable Time 3.0 sec
Termination
Flow Termination OFF

6. Set the alarm controls as follows:


Alarm Control Setting
High Pressure 5 cmH2O above peak pressure reading on the
manometer
Low Pressure 10 cmH2O below peak pressure reading on the
manometer.
Low Minute Volume 4L
High Breath Rate 15 bpm
Apnea Interval 20 sec

Note
Refer to Chapter 6, Special Functions, for instructions on setting these controls.

7. Check monitor performance as follows:

Note
Approximate numbers and values depend on test set-up.

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Allow the ventilator to operate for two minutes. View the monitored parameters. The values
should appear as follows:

Parameter Value
Minute volume 6 L + 1.2 L
Tidal Volume 500 ml + 100 ml
I:E Ratio 1:6.1 + 10%
Breath Rate 12 bpm + 2 bpm
PIP Should equal manometer display + 5 cmH2O
MAP N/A
PEEP 5 cmH2O + 2 cmH2O
Inspiratory Time 0.68 seconds + .05 seconds

Note
The values presented in the table above are reasonable approximates. Your values may differ slightly due to variances in
testing set-up and equipment.

8. Check the alarms as follows:


Power Fail Check:
Remove the power cord from the wall. The ventilator should do the following:
Switch to battery power.
Sound the audible alarm.
Turn the AC Power Source indicator OFF.
Display the BATTERY ON message in the alarm window.
LED for internal or external battery will light.
Press the Alarm Silence/Reset button twice to clear the alarm.
Plug the AC power cord back into the wall socket.
High Pressure Limit Check
Lower the High Pressure Alarm setting to 5 cmH2O below the Peak Inspiratory
Pressure (PIP). When the ventilator cycles to inspiration and the high pressure limit
is violated, the high pressure alarm should occur. When this happens the ventilator
should:
Immediately cycle into the expiratory phase.
Sound the audible alarm.
Display the HIGH PRES message in the alarm window.
Flash the High Pressure control display.
Return the High Pressure Alarm setting to 5 cmH2O above PIP, and press the
Alarm Silence/Reset button twice to clear the alarm.
This completes the performance check. The following Ventilator Performance Checklist may be used to
document each Performance Check for your records.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 5 Unpacking, Set-up & Operation 63

TBird Series Ventilator Performance Checklist

This checklist is for use during the TBird Operational Verification Procedure.
Model: VS VSO2 AVS AVSII AVSIII Legacy
Serial Number_______________ Hours______________ Date_____________
Verification Steps

Verification Step Check & Initial


1. Inspect the ventilator and components for appearance and cleanliness.
Confirm the Exhalation valve, diaphragm, and air intake filter are correctly
installed. Wipe the ventilator clean if needed using a cloth moistened with an
approved cleaning solution.
2. Enter the User Verification Test (UVT). Depress the Monitor Select button to
clear the "REMOVE PT" message. (For detailed information on conducting
the UVT see Chapter 7 in the Operator's Manual)"
3. Test the alarm volume. Adjust as required.
4. Confirm the proper functioning of the front panel lamps.
5. Confirm the proper functioning of the front switches.
6. Complete the internal filter performance check.
7. Attach the patient breathing circuit to the ventilator and conduct a leak test.
Make sure all needed components are firmly attached in the circuit.
8. Exit the UVT and begin conducting a brief performance test. Set the variable
controls to the following recommended settings:

Mode A/C Inspiratory Pause OFF


Tidal Volume 500ml Sigh OFF
Peak Flow 60 L/min Square Waveform OFF
Breath Rate 12 bpm Bias Flow 10
PEEP/CPAP 5 cmH2O Autoscan ON
Sensitivity OFF Altitude 500 ft.
Pressure Support OFF Low Minute Volume Alarm Range DIS LMV OFF
% O2 21 Termination Sensitivity 25%
Pressure Control OFF Variable Time Termination 3.0 sec
Inspiratory Time 0.3 sec Flow Termination OFF

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64 Operators Manual

Verification Step Check & Initial

9. Set the variable alarm controls as follows:

Alarm Control Setting

High Pressure PIP plus 5 cmH2O


Low Pressure PIP minus 10 cmH2O
Low Minute Volume 4L
High Breath Rate 15 bpm
Apnea Interval 20 sec

10. After at least two minutes of operation compare the displayed readings
to the following:

Display Reading

Minute Volume 6L +/- 1.2L


Tidal Volume 500ml +/-100ml
I:E Ratio 1:6.1 +/-10%
Breath Rate 12 bpm +/-2 bpm
PIP Equal to Manometer
+/- 5
MAP NA
PEEP 5 cmH2O +/-2 cmH20
Inspiratory Time 0.68 sec +/-0.5 sec

11. Check alarms


A. Power Fail Check
B. High Pressure Limit Check

Signature: _____________________________________________________
Procedure Complete

WARNING
Do not release the ventilator for use if it does not pass all of the verification procedures specified in this checklist.
For detailed information on performing a User Verification Test, see the appropriate Operator's Manual. Contact a
Bird Products Corporation Certified Service Technician to perform all needed service or calibration.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 5 Unpacking, Set-up & Operation 65
Setting a Mode
Before selecting a mode, do the following:
1. Perform the User Verification Tests (UVTs) described in Chapter 7.
2. Perform a performance check as described in this section.
3. Set the Apnea Interval using the Special Functions described in Chapter 6.
4. Set the Bias Flow using the Special Functions described in Chapter 6.
5. Set the Over Pressure Relief valve.
6. Set the mode characteristics as described in the rest of this chapter.
7. Set the volume of the audible alarm (see the back panel).
8. Connect the Patient Assist Call System, if desired.

Control Mode
To set up the ventilator to operate in Control mode with Volume Control Breaths, do the following:
1. Press the Assist/Control button twice.
2. Set the Tidal Volume, Breath Rate and Peak Flow to the desired settings.
3. Set the Sensitivity to OFF.
4. Set the PEEP/CPAP, if desired.
5. Set Pressure Support to OFF.
6. Set desired % O2 (AVS models & VSO2).
7. Set Pressure Control to OFF.
8. Set the Inspiratory Pause, if desired (AVS models).
9. Set the alarm limits for High Pressure, Low Pressure, Low Min Volume and High Breath
Rate (Legacy, VSO2, AVS models) alarms
10. Set Sigh, if desired.
11. Set the Square Waveform, if desired (AVS III).

SIMV Mode
To set up the ventilator to operate in SIMV mode with Volume Control Breaths, do the following:
1. Press the SIMV button twice.
2. Set the Tidal Volume, Breath Rate and Peak Flow to the desired settings.
3. Set the Sensitivity to an appropriate value from 1 to 20 lpm.
4. Set the PEEP/CPAP, if desired.
5. Set Pressure Support to OFF.
6. Set desired % O2 (AVS models & VSO2).
7. Set Pressure Control to OFF.
8. Set the Inspiratory Pause, if desired (AVS models).
9. Set the alarm limits for High Pressure, Low Pressure, Low Min Volume and High Breath
Rate (Legacy, VSO2, AVS models) alarms.

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10. Set Sigh, if desired.


11. Set the Square Waveform, if desired (AVS III).

CPAP Mode
To set up the ventilator to operate in CPAP mode, do the following:
1. Press the CPAP button twice.
2. Set the Tidal Volume, Breath Rate and Peak Flow for apnea ventilation.
3. Set the Sensitivity to an appropriate value from 1 to 20 lpm.
4. Set the PEEP/CPAP, to the desired level.
5. Set Pressure Support, if desired.
6. Set desired % O2 (AVS models & VSO2).
7. Set Pressure Control to OFF.
8. Set the Inspiratory Pause for apnea ventilation, if desired (AVS models).
9. Set the alarm limits for High Pressure, Low Pressure, Low Min Volume and High Breath
Rate (Legacy, VSO2, AVS models) alarms.
10. Set Sigh, if desired.
11. Set the Square Waveform for apnea ventilation, if desired (AVS III).

NOTE
In CPAP, Tidal Volume, Peak Flow, Inspiratory Pause, Breath Rate and the Low Pressure Alarm are dimmed. These controls
should be set to clinically appropriate values should Apnea occur and Volume Control Apnea Backup Ventilation is desired.
The ventilator will use these settings when delivering Apnea Backup Ventilation.

Pressure Control Ventilation (AVS III, VSO2 & Legacy only)


To set up the ventilator to operate in Pressure Control, do the following:
1. Press the desired mode of ventilation button (Assist/Control or SIMV ) twice..
2. Set the Breath Rate.
3. Set the Sensitivity to an appropriate value from 1 to 20 lpm (if Control Mode is desired, set to
OFF).
4. Set the PEEP/CPAP, if desired.
5. Set Pressure Support, desired (not available in Control or Assist/Control).
6. Set % O2.
7. Set Pressure Control.
8. Set the Inspiratory Time.
9. Set the alarm limits for High Pressure, Low Pressure, Low Min Volume and High Breath
Rate (Legacy, VSO2, AVS models) alarms.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 5 Unpacking, Set-up & Operation 67
VAPS Ventilation (AVS III only)
To set up the ventilator to operate in VAPS, do the following:
1. Press the desired mode of ventilation button (Assist/Control or SIMV) twice.
2. Set the Tidal Volume, Breath Rate and Peak Flow to desired settings.
3. Set the Sensitivity to an appropriate value from 1 to 20 lpm (if control Mode is desired, set to
OFF).
4. Set PEEP/CPAP, if desired.
5. Set Pressure Support, if desired (not available in Control or Assist/Control).
6. Set desired % O2.
7. Set Pressure Control.
8. Set the Inspiratory Pause, if desired.
9. Set the VAPS button.
10. Set Sigh, if desired..
11. Set the alarm limits for High Pressure, Low Pressure, Low Min Volume and High Breath
Rate (Legacy, VSO2, AVS models) alarms.

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Chapter 6 Special Functions
This chapter describes the software functions available through the ventilator’s Special Functions.:
• Ventilator setup functions
• Alarm setup functions
• Transducer test functions
• Transducer data functions
• Event codes listing
• User Verification Tests (UVT)
• Service Verification Tests (SVT)
Tables 6-1 through 6-7 give a brief overview of each group of Special Functions.

Table 6-1 Special Functions –Ventilator Setup Group

Function Description
Control Lock Enable Enables/disables the control lock.
Autoscan Enables or disables automatic scanning of monitored parameters.
BGM Interface Switches ventilator interface with Bird Graphics Monitor.
Bias Flow Sets the bias flow from 10 to 20 L/min.
Termination Sensitivity Sets the inspiratory termination point in a Pressure Support breath from 5 to 30
percent of peak flow.
Variable Time Termination Sets the maximum duration for the inspiratory phase of a Pressure Support breath
from 0.3 to 3.0 seconds.
Flow Termination Sets the inspiratory flow termination point in a Pressure Control breath from OFF,
5 to 30 percent of peak flow.
Display Language Selects the display language.
Selector
Software Versions Shows the software version numbers.
Hour Meter Shows the total hours of operation.
Turbine Shows the turbine serial number.
Altitude Sets the current elevation from –1,000 feet (-305m) to 10,000 feet (3,048m).

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Table 6-2 Special Functions – Alarm Setup Group

Function Description
Apnea Interval Sets the apnea interval from 10 to 60 sec.
Low Minute Volume Alarm Range Enables/Disables the Low Minute Volume Alarm from accepting a range of
OFF to 99.0L.
Remote Alarm Status Displays the remote alarm ID.

Table 6-3 Special Functions – Transducer Data Group

Function Description
XP Exhalation Gauge Pressure Shows the real-time pressure at exhalation valve.
TD Turbine Differential Pressure Shows the real-time differential pressure across the turbine.
XD Exhalation Differential Shows the real-time differential pressure across the exhalation flow
Pressure transducer.
XF Exhalation Flow Shows the real-time exhalation flow across the exhalation flow transducer.
TF Turbine Flow Shows the real-time inspiratory flow.
TS Turbine Speed Shows the real-time turbine speed.
TT Turbine Case Temperature Shows the turbine case temperature.
OP Oxygen Shows the oxygen inlet pressure.
IB Internal Battery Shows Internal Battery Voltage.
XB External Battery Shows External Battery Voltage.
FC Flow Cal Shows the current Flow Cal valve.

Table 6-4 Special Functions – Transducer Tests Group

Function Description
XP Exhalation Gauge Pressure Autozeroes the exhalation pressure transducer. (N/A on Legacy)
TD Turbine Differential Pressure Autozeroes the turbine differential pressure transducer.
Autozero
XD Exhalation Differential Autozeroes the exhalation differential pressure transducer.
Pressure Autozero

Table 6-5 Special Functions – Event Codes Group

Function Description
Events Codes Group Lists the most recent 256 event codes.

Table 6-6 Special Functions – User Verification Tests

Function Description
User Verification Tests Cannot be accessed through the Special Functions. See Chapter 7, User
Verification Tests.

Table 6-7 Special Functions – Service Verification Tests

Function Description
Service Verification Tests Cannot be accessed through the Special Functions. See the TBird
Ventilator Series Service Manual (L1314).

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 6 Special Functions 71

How to Access the Special Functions


Accessing the Special Functions does not interfere with ventilation. You can access the Special
Functions at any time except when an alarm is displayed. If an alarm occurs while you are in Special
Functions, the alarm will be displayed. After you clear the alarm, the display returns to the currently
active special function.
To access the Special Functions, do the following:
1. Press and hold the control knob until VENT SETUP appears in the monitor window
(approximately two seconds).
2. Release the control knob. Turning the control knob clockwise will display the Special Functions
in the following order:
• VENT SETUP
• ALARM SET UP
• TRANSDUCER DATA
• TRANSDUCER TESTS
• EVENT CODES
• UVT OFF
• SVT OFF

Note
The User Verification Tests (UVT) and Service Verification Tests (SVT) appear after Event Codes but are set to OFF because
they cannot be selected while the ventilator is being used in treatment. See Chapter 7, User Verification Tests, for more
information on the UVTs. The SVTs are reserved for use by Bird Certified Service Technicians.

When working with the Special Functions, you can back out of the functions by pressing the control
knob. (The control knob acts like the escape key on a computer.)

Ventilator Setup Group


See table 6-1.

Control Lock Enable


Turns the front panel control lock feature ON or OFF.
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. Since LOCKS is the first function in this group, the current lock
setting appears:
LOCKS: ON
or
LOCKS: OFF

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3. Press the Monitor Select button to toggle the setting ON or OFF.


4. Press the control knob to accept this setting and to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Autoscan
Turns the monitored parameters autoscan feature ON (enabled) or OFF (disabled).
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until the AUTOSCAN setting appears:
AUTOSCAN ON
or
AUTOSCAN OFF
4. Press the Monitor Select button to toggle the setting ON or OFF.
5. Press the control knob to accept this setting and to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Bird Graphics Monitor Interface


Changes the ventilator interface status within the Bird Graphics Monitor (BGM) to either standard (OFF)
or enhanced (ON).
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until the BGM MECH setting appears:
BGM MECH ON (Enhanced Bird Graphics Monitor)
or
BGM MECH OFF (Standard Bird Graphics Monitor)
4. Press the Monitor Select button to toggle the setting On or OFF.
5. Press the control knob to accept these setting and to exit the function and return to VENT
SETUP.

Bias Flow Control


Sets the bias flow level in the patient breathing circuit to any value between 10 and 20 lpm.

Note
Because the ventilator retains setting between applications, always check the Bias Flow before applying the ventilator to a new
patient to make sure the Bias Flow is set appropriately.

After accessing the Special Functions:


1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until BIAS appears.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 6 Special Functions 73
4. Press the Monitor Select button. The current bias flow setting appears:
BIAS xx LPM
Where xx is the current bias flow setting.
5. Turn the control knob to display the desired setting (10 to 20 L/min).
6. Press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. BIAS reappears in the window, without
showing the new setting.

Note
Be sure to press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. Otherwise the bias setting reverts to the previous setting.

7. Press the control knob to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Termination Sensitivity
Sets the inspiratory termination point in a Pressure Support breath from 5 to 30 percent of the peak
flow.

Note
Because the ventilator retains setting between applications, always check the Termination Sensitivity before applying the
ventilator to a new patient to make sure the Termination Sensitivity is appropriate.

After Accessing the Special Functions:


1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until TERMSENS appears.
4. Press the Monitor Select button. The current value for the termination point as a percent of
peak flow appears:
TERMSENS XX %
Where XX % is the current termination point as a percent of peak flow
5. Turn the control knob to display the desired setting (5% to 30%, in increments of 5%).
6. Press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. TERMSENS reappears in the window,
without the new setting.

Note
Be sure to press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. Otherwise the Termination Sensitivity reverts to the previous
setting.

7. Press the control knob to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Variable Time Termination


Sets the maximum duration for the inspiratory phase of a Pressure Support breath from 0.3 to 3.0
seconds.

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Note
Because the ventilator retains setting between applications, always check the Variable Time Termination before applying the
ventilator to a new patient to make sure the Variable Time Termination setting is appropriate.

1. After Accessing the Special Functions:


2. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
3. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
4. Turn the control knob until VARITIME appears.
5. Press the Monitor Select button. The displayed value represents the maximum duration of the
Inspiratory Phase.
VARITIME XX
Where XX is the maximum duration of the Inspiratory Phase.
6. Turn the control knob to display the desired setting (0.3 to 3.0 seconds, in increments of 0.1).
7. Press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. VARITIME reappears in the window,
without the new setting.

Note
Be sure to press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. Otherwise the Variable Time Termination reverts to the
previous setting.

8. Press the control knob to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Flow Termination
Sets the inspiratory termination point in a Pressure Control breath from OFF to 5 to 30 percent of the
peak flow.

Note
Because the ventilator retains setting between applications, always check the Flow Termination before applying the ventilator
to a new patient to make sure the Flow Termination is appropriate.

After Accessing the Special Functions:


1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until FLOWTERM appears.
4. Press the Monitor Select button. The current value for the termination point as a percent of
peak flow appears:
FLOWTERM XX %
Where XX % is the current termination point as a percent of peak flow
5. Turn the control knob to display the desired setting (OFF, 5% to 30%, in increments of 5%).
6. Press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. FLOWTERM reappears in the window,
without the new setting.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 6 Special Functions 75
Note
Be sure to press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. Otherwise the Flow Termination reverts to the previous
setting.

7. Press the control knob to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Display Language Selector


Sets the display language to English, French, German, Italian or Spanish.
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until LANGUAGE appears.
4. Press Select. The currently selected language appears.
5. Turn the control knob to display the desired language:
DEUTSCH
ENGLISH
ESPANOL
FRANCAIS
ITALIAN
6. Press the Monitor Select button to accept the displayed language
LANGUAGE reappears in the window, without showing the new setting.

Note
Be sure to press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. Otherwise the language reverts to the previous setting.

7. Press the control knob to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Software Version
Allows you to view the version number of the following installed software and firmware:
• MSP - Main Ventilator Software
• IOP - Input/Output Processor Software
• RMT - Remote Alarm Transmitter Software
• WDG - Hardware Watchdog Timer Firmware
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until VERSION appears.
4. Press the Monitor Select button. The MSP version number appears:

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76 Operators Manual

MSP x.xx
where x.xx is the installed software version number.
5. Turn the control knob to display the remaining software version numbers.
6. Press the control knob twice to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Hour Meter
Allows you to view the number of hours the ventilator has been in operation (has been turned on).
Standby hours are not counted.
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until the hour meter reading appears.
HOURS xxx
Where xxx represents the number of hours the ventilator has been in operation.
4. Press the control knob to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Turbine
Shows the turbine serial number. This number is used in servicing the ventilator.
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until the TURBINE appears.
4. Press the Monitor Select button to display the turbine serial number.
5. Press the control knob twice to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.

Altitude Compensation
For proper functioning of the TBird volume monitoring system, it is necessary to set the correct
elevation. The default setting is 500 feet and should be changed to the operating elevation. The altitude
should be set when the ventilator is initially set up and when there is a change in altitude. The
operating elevation for the ventilator can be set between –1,000 and 10,000 feet or –305 to 3,048
meters.

WARNING
Lower air density at higher altitudes will effect tidal volume delivery and exhaled tidal volume measurements.
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until VENT SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The LOCKS setting appears.
3. Turn the control knob until ALTITUDE appears.
4. Press the Monitor Select button. FEET is displayed.
5. Turn the control knob to select FEET or METERS.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 6 Special Functions 77
6. Press the Monitor Select button. The current altitude is displayed.
7. Turn the control knob to display the desired setting (-1,000 to 10,000 ft or –305 m to 3,048 m).
8. Press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting.

Note
Be sure to press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. Otherwise the altitude reverts to the previous setting.

9. Press the control knob two times to exit the function and return to VENT SETUP.
This table defines the variances that may occur in delivered and monitored Tidal Volumes, when the
system is operating in a high altitude environment and the altitude compensation has not been set.
Percentage adjustments in the following table are approximate values.
Ventilators are calibrated at 500 ft. above sea level (Palm Springs, California).

Table F-1 Tidal Volume Altitudes Variables

Altitude Set Vt to Delivered Vt to Set Vt to


Delivered Vt Monitored Exhaled Vt Monitored Exhaled Vt
500 ft. 0 0 0
1,550 ft. -3.0% -2.5% -5.5%
2,500 ft. -6.0% -5.0% -11.0%
3,500 ft. -9.0% -7.5% -16.5%
4,500 ft. -12.0% -10.0% -22.0%
5,500 ft. -15.0% -12.5% -27.5%
Example:
Home @ 3,500 ft. above sea level, Vt set @ 800 ml:
Delivered Vt = 800 ml –9.0% = 728ml
Measured Exhaled Vt = 728ml – 7.5% = 673ml

Alarm Setup Group


See table 6-2.

Apnea Interval
Sets the Apnea Interval – the length of time between two consecutive inspirations that, when elapsed,
triggers an Apnea alarm. Setting the Apnea Interval tells the ventilator how much time to allow between
successive breaths before generating an Apnea alarm. The interval is measured from the start of one
breath to the start of the next. If an inspiration is not initiated during this interval, the ventilator
automatically switches to Apnea Backup Ventilation.
The ventilator continues to provide Apnea Backup Ventilation until the patient initiates two successive
breaths. Apnea Backup Ventilation is then terminated and the ventilator reverts to its previous mode of

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ventilation. Apnea Backup Ventilation can also be canceled by pressing the Alarm Silence/Reset
button twice.

Note
Because the ventilator retains settings between applications, always check the Apnea Interval before applying the ventilator to
a new patient to make sure the Apnea Interval is set appropriately.

After accessing the Special Functions:


1. Turn the control knob until ALARM SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. “APNEA” appears.
3. Press the Monitor Select button again. The current apnea setting appears.
xx sec APNEA
where xx is the currently set Apnea Interval.
4. Turn the control knob to display the desired setting (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60 seconds.
5. Press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. APNEA reappears in the window without
showing the new setting.

Note
Be sure to press the Monitor Select button to accept the setting. Otherwise the Apnea Interval reverts to the previous setting.

6. Press the control knob to return to ALARM SETUP.

Low Minute Volume Alarm Range


Enables or disables the Low Minute Volume Alarm to range from OFF to 99.9 L.
After accessing the Special Features Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until ALARM SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. “APNEA” appears.
3. Turn the control knob until ENAB LMV OFF or DIS LMV OFF appears.
4. Press the Monitor Select button to cycle between settings.
ENAB LMV OFF (Low Minute Volume Alarm range OFF to 99.9 L)
or
DIS LMV OFF (Low Minute Volume Alarm range 0.1 to 99.9L)
5. Press the control knob twice to return to ALARM SETUP.

Remote Alarm Status


This function allows you to display the identification number of the optional remote alarm.
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until ALARM SETUP appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. “APNEA” appears.
3. Turn the control knob until REMOTE ALARM appears.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 6 Special Functions 79
4. Press the Monitor Select button. The current remote alarm ID and status (ON/OFF) appears.
RA xx N OFF
or
RA xx N ON
Where xx is the remote alarm’s station ID, N is the ventilator address and OFF or ON tells you
whether the ventilator is transmitting or not.
This message appears even if the optional remote alarm transmitter is not installed.
5. Press the control knob twice to return to ALARM SETUP.

Transducer Data Group


Shows the real-time readings generated by various transducers in the gas flow delivery system. This
group is typically used by technical personnel. See table 6-3.
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until XDCR DATA appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The first transducer reading appears:
XP xx.x
where XP identifies the transducer and xx.x is the reading.
3. Turn the control knob to view the real-time readings of the other transducers in the group. The
transducer readings appear in the following order:
XP cmH2O Exhalation Gauge Pressure
TD cmH2O Turbine Differential Pressure
XD cmH2O Exhalation Differential Pressure
XF L/min Exhalation Flow
TF L/min Turbine Flow
TS rpm Turbine Speed
TT °C Turbine Case Temperature
OP PSIG Oxygen Inlet Pressure
IB volts Internal Battery Voltage
XB volts External Battery Voltage
FC L/min External Battery Voltage
4. Press the control knob to return to XDCR DATA

Transducer Test Group


This Special Functions group allows you to autozero the exhalation pressure transducer, exhalation
flow transducer and turbine differential pressure transducer. These functions are typically used by
technical personnel. See table 6-4.
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until XDCR TESTS appears.

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2. Press the Monitor Select button. The exhalation pressure test appears:
XP xxx PASS
or
XP xxx FAIL
3. Where XP identifies the test and xxx is a reference number used by the service technician, and
PASS or FAIL shows the results of the previous test.
4. Press the Monitor Select button, if desired, to perform a manual autozero function. The autozero
will be performed on the next breath. The status of the test (pass or fail) is cleared until the test
ends. If the test fails, remove the ventilator from service and contact your Bird Certified Service
Technician.
5. Turn the control knob to view the exhalation differential pressure transducer and turbine
differential pressure transducer tests.

6. Press the Monitor Select button, if desired, to perform the test.


7. Press the control knob to exit the test and return to XDCR TESTS.

Event Codes Group


Shows the previous 256 event codes. See Appendix F, Event Codes, for a description of each code.
After accessing the Special Functions:
1. Turn the control knob until EVENTS appears.
2. Press the Monitor Select button. The most recent event code appears:
nnn: xxx
where nnn is the sequential order in which the event occurred and xxx is the event code.
3. Press the Monitor Select button again to display the hour meter reading when the event
occurred:
nnn: xxxxxh
where xxxxh is the hour meter reading.

4. Press the Monitor Select button to return to the event code.


5. Turn the control knob counterclockwise to view earlier event codes or clockwise to view later
events.
6. Press the control knob to return to EVENTS.

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Chapter 7 User Verification Tests
This chapter shows you how to run the User Verification Tests (UVTs) to ensure the ventilator is
working properly. The following points are covered:
• Accessing and running the UVTs.
• Audible alarm test.
• Lamp test.
• Switch test.
• Filter test.
• Leak test.
Table 7-1 shows the tests included in the UVTs and the order in which they are run. Each test is
described in detail in the remaining sections of this chapter. If any test fails, refer to Chapter 8, Basic
Troubleshooting. To rerun a test, use the control knob to dial to the test and run the test as described in
this chapter. To exit the UVT, select EXIT. When you exit the UVTs, the system begins normal
operation.

Table 7-1

UVT Description
Audible alarm Test Allows you to check the audible alarm
Lamp Test Allows you to check the front panel LEDs to make sure they are working properly
Switch Test Allows you to check the front panel controls to make sure they are working properly.
Displays the name of each control as it is activated.
Filter Test Allow you to check the differential pressure across the turbine’s inlet filter. PASS or
FAIL result shown.
Leak Test Allows you to test the patient breathing circuit for leakage.
Exit Exits UVTs.

Accessing the UVTs

WARNING
Disconnect the patient prior to accessing the UVTs. The ventilator does not deliver gas during the UVTs.
To access the User Verification Tests (UVTs), do the following
1. After disconnecting the patient, turn the ventilator OFF (i.e., STANDBY).
2. Press and hold the Monitor Select button.
3. While holding the Monitor Select button, turn the ventilator ON. Continue to hold the button until
the ventilator completes the Power On Self Tests (POST).
4. Release the Monitor Select button when the following message appears in the monitor window:
UVT ON

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The Audible Alarm sounds. Press Alarm/Silence Reset to clear.1


5. Press the Monitor Select button again. The following message appears:
REMOVE PT
This is a reminder to remove the patient from the ventilator prior to accessing the UVTs if you
have not already done so.
6. Press the Monitor Select button again to clear the message and display the UVTs.

Running the UVTs


The UVTs appear in the following order as you turn the control knob:
ALARM
LAMP
SWITCH
FILTER
LEAK
EXIT

Alarm
Run this test to check the audible alarm.
1. Press the Monitor Select button to start the test. The audible alarm sounds.
2. Press the Monitor Select button again to silence the audible alarm, exit the test, and advance to
the next test.

Lamp
Run this test to check the front lamps to make sure they are functioning properly.
1. Press the Monitor Select button to start the test. The ventilator illuminates all displays,
windows, and green LEDs.
2. Press the Monitor Select button again to illuminate the displays, windows, and red LEDs.
3. Press the Monitor Select button again to exit the test and advance to the next test.
4. The AC, ON, Ext Bat Charge Status, Int. Bat Charge Status, and Vent Inop LEDs are not
affected by this test.

Switch
Run this test to check the front panel controls to make sure they are working properly.
1. Press the Monitor Select button. The word SELECT appears in the monitor window.

1If you would like to access the Special Functions described in Chapter 6, you may do so at this point. Just turn the control knob until VENT SETUP
appears, then refer to Chapter 6, Special Functions.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 7 User Verification Tests 83
2. Activate any front panel control. Watch for the name of the control to appear in the monitor
window. Table 7-2 lists, in alphabetical order, the label displayed when you activate the
corresponding control.
3. Press the Monitor Select button to exit the test and advance to the next test.

Table 7-2 Switch Test Response Labels

Switch Label Switch Label


Alarm Silence/Reset button SILENCE MIP/NIF button MIP NIF
Assist/Control Mode Select button ASSIST/CTRL Monitor Select button SELECT
Breath Rate control BREATH RATE Peak Flow control PEAK FLOW
Control Knob (Clockwise) DIAL RIGHT PEEP/CPAP control PEEP
Control Knob (Counterclockwise) DIAL LEFT Pressure Control PRES CONTROL
Control Lock CONTROL LOCK Pressure Support PRES SUPPORT
CPAP Mode Select button CPAP Remote Alarm button * REMOTE ALARM
Expiratory Hold button EXP HOLD Sensitivity control SENSITIVITY
Flow Cal button FLOW CAL Sigh Breath button SIGH
High Breath Rate Alarm control HIGH BREATH SIMV Mode Select button SIMV
High Pressure Alarm control HIGH PRES Spare button or control SPARE
Inspiratory Hold button INSP HOLD Square Waveform button SQUARE WAVE
Inspiratory Pause control IPAUSE Tidal Volume control TIDAL VOLUME
Inspiratory Time control INSP TIME VAPS button VAPS
Low Minute Volume Alarm LOW MIN VOL 100% O2 3 Min button 100% O2
Low Pressure Alarm LOW PRES % O2 control FIO2
Manual Breath button MANUAL BRTH

* If the Remote Alarm option is not installed, pressing this button will display SPARE

Note
Be sure to press the Monitor Select button; otherwise the test will not start.

Filter
Run this test to check the differential pressure across the turbine inlet filter. A high differential pressure
may indicate a dirty or occluded filter. This test cannot be run until the ventilator has been ON for 60
seconds.
1. Press the Monitor Select button. The turbine accelerates flow to 140 lpm and checks the
differential pressure to make sure it is within range. At the end of the test, the ventilator displays
a pass or fail message. If the test passes, the following message appears:
FILTER x.x P
where x.x is the average turbine differential pressure and P indicates the test passed.
If the test fails, the following message appears:
FILTER x.x F
where x.x is the average turbine differential pressure and F indicates the test failed:

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84 Operators Manual

2. If the test fails, clean or replace the air filter (see Chapter 9, Cleaning and Sterilization) and run
the test again. If the test fails again, contact a Bird Certified Service Technician.
3. Press the Monitor Select button to exit the test and advance to the next test.

Leak

Note
This test should be performed with all circuit accessories installed (e.g., humidifier, water traps, and so on.) Make sure al
connections are secure and all openings occluded before beginning the test.

Run this test to make sure the patient breathing circuit is not leaking.
1. Attach a test lung to the breathing circuit wye.
2. Press the Monitor Select button to run the test. The test begins by increasing the pressure in
the patient breathing circuit to 60 cmH2O. The ventilator then measures the pressure and
displays it as follows:
XP xx.x
where xx.x is the internal airway pressure.
3. The ventilator then waits eight seconds and measures the circuit pressure again. If the
difference between the starting and ending measurements is less than or equal to 6 cmH2O, the
test passes and the ventilator displays the following message:
XP xx.x PASS
where xx.x is the ending measurement.
4. Otherwise, if the difference is more than 6 cmH2O, the test fails and the ventilator displays the
following message:
XP xx.x FAIL
5.. If the test fails, refer to Chapter 8, Basic Troubleshooting.
6. Press the Monitor Select button to exit the test and advance to the EXIT selection.

Exit
To exit the UVTs and begin normal ventilator operation, press the Monitor Select button until EXIT
appears in the monitor window, otherwise turn the control knob to rerun any of the UVTs.

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Chapter 8 Basic Troubleshooting
This chapter shows you how to troubleshoot the ventilator. The following points are covered:
• The ventilator does not power up properly.
• A vent inop occurs.
• A User Verification Test fails.
• A malfunction occurs.

If the Ventilator Does Not Turn ON


If you turn the power switch ON and the ON indicator does not illuminate, perform the troubleshooting
procedures given in Table 8-1.

Table 8-1 Troubleshooting Power Up Problems

Problem Possible Cause Action


Ventilator plugged into an AC source, No power at AC outlet and discharged Try connecting to a known good AC source. If the
but it does not power up. internal battery ventilator still does not power up, try operating from
an optional external battery, if available. If the
ventilator still does not power up, contact your Bird
Certified Service Technician.
Ventilator is connected to an external Discharged internal and external battery Try plugging the ventilator in. If the ventilator starts,
battery but will not power up. the internal and external batteries are discharged.
Plug the ventilator into an AC source for twenty-four
(24) hours to charge both batteries. The ventilator
can be used while the batteries are being charged.
Unplug the ventilator and attempt to power it up
again. If the ventilator does not power up, contact
your Bird Certified Service Technician.
Ventilator is not connected to an Discharged internal battery Try plugging the ventilator into an AC source. If the
external battery or AC power source ventilator starts, the battery is discharged. Plug the
and will not power up. ventilator into an AC source for seven (7) hours to
charge the battery. Unplug the ventilator and attempt
to power it up again. If the ventilator does not power
up, contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
Ventilator powers up but does not Vent inop condition Make sure the power source is good. If it is, contact
ventilate. your Bird Certified Service Technician.

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86 Operators Manual

If a Vent Inop Occurs


When you turn the ventilator ON, the Power On Self Test (POST) run. These tests check the internal
circuitry to make sure everything is functioning properly. As each test executes, a message appears in
the alarm window to identify the internal component being tested. Since the entire POST only takes five
(5) seconds, the messages appear rapidly.
If any test fails, the ventilator terminates the power up procedure and generates a Vent Inop condition.
The ventilator:
• Sounds the audible alarm.
• Illuminates the Vent Inop indicator.
• Retains the last message in the monitor window so you can identify the test that failed.
• Records both the Vent Inop and the hour meter reading for later reference.
If a Vent Inop occurs, turn the ventilator OFF, unplug it, and contact your Bird Certified Service
Technician.

If a UVT Fails
Table 8-2 lists suggested corrective actions if a User Verification Test fails.

Table 8-2 UVT Troubleshooting

UVT Problem Corrective Action


ALARM 1. Audible alarm too loud or too low. 1. Adjust the alarm Volume Control located on the
2. No alarm back panel.
2. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
LAMP 1. A Lamp, LED, or display does not illuminate. 2. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
SWITCH 1. The correct label does not appear when you 1. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
activate a front panel switch.
FILTER 1. The test fails. 1. Clean or replace the air intake filter (see Chapter
9, Cleaning and Sterilization).
2. Run the test again.
3. If the test still fails, contact your Bird Certified
Service Technician.
LEAK 1. The test fails. 1. Check the patient breathing circuit connections.
Make sure all inline circuit components are
connected properly.
2. Make sure the over pressure relief valve is set to
the maximum setting.
3. Check the exhalation valve diaphragm to make
sure it is seated properly and free from excessive
wear.

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TBird Series Ventilators Chapter 8 Troubleshooting 87
If a Malfunction Occurs
Table 8-3 lists suggested corrective actions for various malfunctions that might occur. In all cases,
make sure the ventilator is set up properly and the exhalation valve body, exhalation valve diaphragm,
and patient breathing circuit are properly assembled and undamaged.

Table 8-3 Basic Troubleshooting

Problem Corrective Action


Monitored exhaled 1. Check the patient breathing circuit connections. Make sure all inline circuit components are securely connected,
tidal volumes are
2. Check the passages in the exhalation valve body to make sure they are not occluded.
low.
3. Ensure that the altitude compensation value corresponds with the current elevation. See Special Functions,
Chapter 6.
4. Perform a Manual Flow Cal maneuver described under the Flow Cal control in Chapter 2, Controls and Displays.
Allow the monitored exhaled volumes to stabilize. Compare the monitored volumes using each Flow Cal method.
Leave the ventilator in the Manual Flow Cal mode only if a substantive improvement in monitored exhaled volume
is produced. Otherwise, return the ventilator to the Automatic Flow Cal mode by depressing the Flow Cal button.
5. Replace the exhalation valve body with a known good one.
6. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
Monitored exhaled 1. Check the patient breathing circuit connections. Make sure all inline circuit components are securely connected,
tidal volumes are
2. Check the passages in the exhalation valve body to make sure they are not occluded.
high.
3. Ensure that the altitude compensation value corresponds with the current elevation. Refer to Special Functions,
Chapter 6.
4. Perform a Manual Flow Cal maneuver described under the Flow Cal control in Chapter 2, Controls and Displays.
Allow the monitored exhaled volumes to stabilize. Compare the monitored volumes using each Flow Cal method.
Leave the ventilator in the Manual Flow Cal mode only if a substantive improvement in monitored exhaled volume
is produced. Otherwise, return the ventilator to the Automatic Flow Cal mode depressing the Flow Cal button.
5. Replace the exhalation valve body with a known good one.
6. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
Delivered tidal 1. Check the patient breathing circuit for leaks. Be sure to check the connections of all components installed in the
volumes are low. circuit.
2. Check the setting of the Over Pressure Relief valve.
3. Check the exhalation valve body, diaphragm, and housing to make sure they are not damaged.
4. Ensure that the altitude compensation corresponds with the current elevation. Refer to Special Functions,
Chapter 6.
5. Contact your Bird Service Technician.
Delivered tidal 1. Ensure that the altitude compensation corresponds with the current elevation. Refer to Special Functions,
volumes are high. Chapter 6.
2. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
Sensitivity appears 1. Check the patient breathing circuit connections. Make sure all inline circuit components are connected properly.
to be inaccurate or 2. Check the exhalation valve diaphragm to make sure it is installed properly and free from damage.
erratic.
3. Replace the exhalation valve body with a known good one.
4. Perform a Manual Flow Cal maneuver described under the Flow Cal control in Chapter 2, Controls and Displays.
Carefully assess the patient’s effort. Compare the patient effort produced by each Flow Cal method. Leave the
ventilator in the Manual Flow Cal mode only if a substantive improvement in sensitivity is produced. Otherwise,
return the ventilator to the Automatic Flow Cal mode by depressing the Flow Cal Button.
5. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
Ventilator is auto- 1. Check the patient breathing circuit connections. Make sure all inline circuit components are connected properly.
triggering with 2. Check the exhalation valve diaphragm to make sure it is installed properly and free from damage.
PEEP applied.
3. Reevaluate the current Sensitivity setting.

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88 Operators Manual

Problem Corrective Action


4. Perform a Manual Flow Cal maneuver described under the Flow Cal control in Chapter 2, Controls and Displays.
Leave the ventilator in the Manual Flow Cal mode only if auto-triggering is eliminated. Otherwise, return the
ventilator to the Automatic Flow Cal mode by depressing the Flow Cal Button.
5. Replace the exhalation valve body with a known good one.
6. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician..
High and low 1. Check the setting of the Over Pressure Relief Valve.
pressure alarms do
2. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
not appear to be
accurate.
Peak flow does not 1. Ensure that the altitude compensation corresponds with the current elevation. Refer to Special Functions,
appear to be Chapter 6.
accurate.
2. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
The ventilator is 1. Turn the ventilator ON.
inoperative and
2. Check the AC power source.
there are no audible
or visual indications 3. Check the power cord.
4. Replace or reseat the external battery, if present.
5. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
FLOW SENSOR in 1. Ensure that an AVS Flow Sensor is installed.
monitored window
2. Reseat the Exhalation Valve Body.
parameters for VE
and Vte 3. Replace Exhalation Valve Body.
(AVS Models) 4. Contact your Bird Certified Service Technician.
NEW SENSOR in 1. This is a temporary event that occurs when a new flow sensor is installed. This message will automatically clear
monitored window when the processing of flow sensor data is completed. If this persists more than one (1) minute, perform steps 1
parameters for VE and 2 from the FLOW SENSOR corrective action above.
and Vte

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Chapter 9 Cleaning and Sterilization
This chapter contains the recommended cleaning, sterilization, and disinfection techniques to be used
with the TBird series. It describes how to clean the ventilator and how to clean, sterilize, or disinfect the
exhalation valve, exhalation valve diaphragm, air intake filters, and patient breathing circuit
components.

CAUTION
Do not sterilize the ventilator. Standard sterilization techniques may damage the ventilator.

Note
The disinfecting method described below results in a high-level of disinfection, as defined by a 1:1,000,000 reduction in
bacteria infection during laboratory testing.

How to Clean the Ventilator


To clean the ventilator, use a clean cloth dampened with an appropriate bactericidal or germicidal
agent.

CAUTION
Do not use cleaning agents that contain phenols, ammonium chloride, chloride compounds, or more than 2%
glutarealdehyde. These agents may damage the ventilator’s plastic components and front panel overlay.
Clean all external panels and surfaces before and after each patient use and as often as necessary to
keep it clean. Use only those cleaning materials that have been approved by your department.

CAUTION
When cleaning the ventilator:
• Do not use harsh abrasives.
• Do not immerse the ventilator in liquid sterilizing agents or liquids of any kind.
• Do not spray cleaning solution into the exhalation valve or directly onto the front panel.
• Do not allow cleaning solution to pool on the front panel.
After cleaning the ventilator, be sure to wipe off all cleaning agents to prevent residue buildup.
The exhalation valve assembly is a delicate precision assembly. Exercise care when removing, replacing, or
cleaning the assembly:
Do not insert cleaning instruments (cloth, brush, pipe cleaner, and so on) into the exhalation valve body.
Do not use a high-pressure gas nozzle to dry the exhalation valve body. High-pressure gas may damage the
differential pressure ports in the exhalation valve body.

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90 Operators Manual

To Clean, Sterilize, or Disinfect the Exhalation Valve Assembly

To Remove the Exhalation Valve Assembly for Cleaning


Refer to Figure 9-1 and do the following:
1. Press and hold the release latch on the lower left of the exhalation valve housing.
2. Grasp the exhalation valve body, rotate it counter-clockwise until the alignment slots line up, and
then gently pull it free from the housing.
3. Grasp the exhalation valve diaphragm by the center and remove it from the exhalation valve
body.
4. Using a clean soft cloth and an evaporative solution (e.g., alcohol), wipe all exposed surfaces
around the exhalation valve housing. Do not allow cleaning fluid to spill into the opening in the
exhalation valve housing.

To Disinfect the Exhalation Valve Assembly:


1. Clean the external surfaces only with a soft bristle brush using Ultra Ivory ® or an equivalent
detergent. Do not insert cleaning instruments (cloth, brush, pipe cleaner, and so on ) into the
exhalation valve body. Pay particular attention to crevices and hard to clean areas. Dry with a
soft cloth. After cleaning the surfaces, make sure all excess cleaning solution is completely
removed to prevent reside buildup.
2. To disinfect, immerse in boiling water for 15 minutes.

To Sterilize the Exhalation Valve Body and Diaphragm:


1. After cleaning the surfaces, make sure all excess cleaning solution is completely removed to
prevent reside buildup.
2. Sterilize the exhalation valve body and diaphragm using steam autoclaving or a liquid agent.

Figure 9.1 Exhalation Valve Assembly

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TBird Series Ventilators Contact & Ordering Information 91
Note
In Homecare ventilator applications it is recommended to have at least two (2) complete circuits and exhalation valve
assemblies and clean every other day. If a pulmonary infection is present, then clean and disinfect daily.

CAUTION
The exhalation valve assembly is a delicate precision assembly. Exercise care when removing, replacing, or
cleaning the assembly:
Do not insert cleaning instruments (cloth, brush, pipe cleaner, and so on) into the exhalation valve body.
Do not use a high-pressure gas nozzle to dry the exhalation valve body. High-pressure gas may damage the
differential pressure ports in the exhalation valve body.
3. Using a low flow gas source (less than 10 lpm) ensure the differential pressure ports are free of
moisture and debris.
4. To avoid possible damage to elastomeric components, the peak temperature for Bird Products
accessories should not exceed 275°F (135°C) for steam autoclave.
5. Ultrasonic cleaning is not recommended. Liquid sterilizing agents containing more than 2%
glutaraldehyde are also not recommended. If such agents must be used, be sure to thoroughly
rinse and dry the assembly to prevent residue buildup. Residue buildup in the differential
pressure ports can cause inaccurate pressures and volume readings.
6. Prior to replacing the exhalation valve diaphragm, inspect it for excessive wear. If signs of
damage are found, obtain a new diaphragm.
7. Insert the diaphragm. Hold it by the center and set it into the exhalation valve-housing
receptacle. Gently tap around the perimeter until the diaphragm is firmly seated.
8. Line up the tabs of the exhalation valve body with the alignment slots on the exhalation valve
housing. Gently push the exhalation valve body into place and rotate it clockwise until he release
latch pops out. You will hear the exhalation valve body ‘click’ into place.
9. Gently pull on the exhalation valve body to make sure it is securely attached to the ventilator.

CAUTION
Be sure to check with the manufacturer of these chemicals and sterilizing equipment to ensure safe handling
procedures are followed.

Note
Bird recommends no more than 50 cycles cleaning/sterilization.

To Clean, Sterilize or Disinfect the Patient Breathing Circuit


If you are using a Bird Products reusable patient breathing circuit, use the instructions below. When
using other reusable patient breathing circuit refer to the original equipment manufacturer’s cleaning
instructions. If Single Patient Use (disposable) circuits are in use follow your infection control policy to
determine usable cycle or life.

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Removing the Bird Patient Circuit for Cleaning


1. Disconnect the circuit from the ventilator and exhalation valve housing.
2. Disconnect the circuit tubing from all inline components such as a heated humidifier or bacteria
filters.

Note
If using a heated humidifier, Bird Products recommends that the heated humidifier meets ANSI Z-79.10 or equivalent standard.

CAUTION
Do not submerge bacteria filters in liquids of any kind. Instead, use a steam autoclave to sterilize the filters.
To avoid possible damage to elastomeric components, the peak temperature for Bird Products accessories should
not exceed 275°F (135°C) for steam autoclave.

Disinfecting the Bird Patient Circuit


1. First clean with a soft bristle brush using Ultra Ivory ® or an equivalent detergent. Pay particular
attention to crevices and hard to clean areas. Dry with a soft cloth. After cleaning the patient
breathing circuit, make sure all excess cleaning solution is completely removed to prevent
residue buildup.
2. To disinfect, immerse in boiling water for 15 minutes.
3. Prior to reinstalling the patient breathing circuit, inspect it for excessive wear. If signs of damage
are found, obtain a new patient breathing circuit. To order a replacement for a worn or defective
patient breathing circuit, refer to Appendix A, Contact Information.

Note
In Homecare applications It is recommended to have two (2) complete circuits and exhalation valve assemblies and clean
every other day. If pulmonary infection exists, then clean and disinfect daily.

Figure 9-2 Circuit Disassembly.

Part No. Quantity Description


00423 1 22mm I.D. Cuff Adapter
04124 1 Tapered Plug, 7.5mm Male

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TBird Series Ventilators Contact & Ordering Information 93
04709 2 90 Degree Elbow Adapter
20225 1 Wye Connector
09413 2 Water Trap, Natural, Autoclavable
09531 4 Circuit Tubing, 30” Smooth Bore
09532 1 Circuit Tubing, 18” Smooth Bore
09534 1 Main Flow Bacteria Filter
15571 1 Exhalation Valve Body (AVS models)
15465 1 Exhalation Valve Body (Legacy, VS & VSO2 models)
10384D 1 Exhalation Valve Diaphragm and Poppet (Pk. of 10)

Cleaning & Sterilization Compatibility Recommendations,


Exhalation Valve and Patient Circuit
Clean with an Enzymatic Cleaner such as KlenZyme™ (part # 33775) in a warm bath (over 95°F
[35°C], under 150°F [65.5°C]) for 10 minutes. Gently rinse 1 to 2 minutes. Dry with a gently air flow to
clear all passages of water. Then sterilize by any of the following methods:
Autoclave at 20 psig, 275°F [135°C], moist heat for 7 minutes or 0 PSIG [gravity] 135°C moist heat, for
15 min. at 135°C.
Or
Bathe in a Glutaraldehyde such as Cidex™ [2%] for 30 minutes or according to the manufacturer’s
specifications. Then gently rinse completely and allow to dry.
Or
Clean with a soft bristle brush using Ultra Ivory® or an equivalent detergent per manufacturer’s
recommendations. Pay particular attention to crevices or hard to clean areas. Dry with a soft cloth.
Immerse in boiling water for 15 minutes to disinfect.

Note
The main flow Bacteria Filter, P/N 09534, is compatible with steam autoclave ONLY.

To Clean, Sterilize, or Disinfect Ventilator Accessories


When cleaning ventilator accessories such as Heated Humidifiers, Nebulizers, Gas Sampling
components and so on, follow the original equipment manufacturer’s instructions or superseding
institutional policies.

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To Clean, Sterilize, or Disinfect the Air Intake Filter


To clean the air intake filter, refer to Figure 9-3 and do the following:
1. Gently pinch the filter and remove it from the ventilator.
2. Hand-wash the filter using warm water and a mild, liquid detergent.
3. Thoroughly rinse the filter in warm water to remove all traces of the cleaning solution.
4. Dry the filter thoroughly.
5. Inspect the filter for damage and replace it if necessary.

Figure 9.3 Removing the Air Intake Filter

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TBird Series Ventilators Contact & Ordering Information 95

How to Clean and Replace the Fan Filter


To clean the fan filter, refer to Figure 9-4 and do the following:
1. Use a small screwdriver or similar tool to snap out the grill from the fan inlet and remove the fan
filter.
2. Gently pinch the fan filter and remove it from the ventilator.
3. Hand-wash the filter using warm water and a mild, liquid detergent.
4. Thoroughly rinse the filter in warm water to remove all traces of the cleaning solution.
5. Inspect the filter for damage and replace it if necessary.
6. Dry the filter thoroughly before replacing it in the ventilator.
7. Snap grill back into place.
8. Some dusty environments may require this procedure be performed on a weekly basis with daily
inspection.

CAUTION
It is not necessary to remove the four screws to remove the fan inlet filter. To do so will cause mounting hardware
to become loose within the ventilator, which may result in electrical damage.

Figure 9.4 Fan Filter

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Appendix A – Contact & Ordering Information
How to Call for Service
To get help on performing any of the preventive maintenance routines, or to request service on your
ventilator, contact Bird Products Technical Service department:

Technical Service
Hours: 7:00 AM to 3:30 PM (PST) Monday through Friday
Phone: (760) 778-7200
Fax: (760) 778-7377

Bird Products Helpline


Hours: 24 hours, seven days a week
Phone: (800) 934-BIRD (Not available in some international locations)
Fax: (760) 778-7377
Bird Products
1100 Bird Center Drive
Palm Springs, CA 92262-8099
U.S.A.
Phone: (760) 778-7200
(800) 328-4139 (Not available in some international locations)
Fax: (760) 778-7274

Ordering Information
This appendix contains part numbers and ordering information. For additional information or to place an
order, contact your local dealer, Bird Products representative or Bird Products Customer Service
Department.
Customer Service
Hours: 7:00 AM to 3:30 PM (PST) Monday through Friday
Phone: (800) 328-4139 (Not available in some international locations)
(760) 778-7200
Fax: (760) 778-7274

Bird Products Corp.


1100 Bird Center Drive
Palm Springs, CA 92262-8099
U.S.A.
Phone: (760) 778-7200
(800) 328-4139 (Not available in some international locations)
Fax: (760) 778-7274

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Approved Accessories and Part Numbers


Component Part Number
Oxygen Regulator (Two stage pressure reducing) 00010
Air Inlet Filter / Watertrap 07426
Air Inlet Replacement Filter 10122
Patient Breathing Circuit Support Arm 10128
Patient Breathing Circuit (VSO2, VS, Legacy) [Reusable] 10378
Exhalation Valve Diaphragm (10 pack) 10384D
TBird AVS II Upgrade Kit 10409
TBird AVS III Upgrade Kit 10410
Pediatric Breathing Circuit (VSO2, VS, Legacy) [Reusable] 10417
Adult Patient Breathing Circuit Set (AVS) [Reusable] 10447
Pediatric Patient Breathing Circuit Set (AVS) [Reusable] 10448
Oxygen Hose (DISS Fittings) 10472
Re-chargeable External Battery 15435
Exhalation Valve Body Assembly (VSO2, VS, Legacy) 15465
Exhalation Valve Body Assembly (AVS) 15571
Air Intake Filter 20819
Pediatric/Adult Test Lung 33754
Cooling Fan Filter 33801
Stand, Two (2) wheels with Brake, integral brackets 04820
Heated Humidifier Base (F&P 410) 15897
Heated Humidifier Base (F&P 730) 15905
Airway Temperature Probe (Single Use) 69033
Humidifier Mounting Bracket 69301
Temperature Probe 72” Circuit (Reuasable) 69308
Humidifier Chamber (Neonatal / Pediatric w/ 100 Absorbent 69340
Papers)
Humidifier Chamber (Adult w/ 100 Absorbent Papers) 69370
TBird Series Operator’s Manual L1580
TBird Ventilator Series Service Manual L1314

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Appendix B Ventilator Specifications
This Appendix lists physical, electrical, and environmental specifications for the TBird ventilators.
US and international standards that the ventilator complies with are also listed.

Physical Specifications

Dimensions
System AVS, VSO2, VS & Legacy
Width: 13.0 in (33.02 cm)
Depth: 14.5 in (36.83 cm)
Height: 11.0 in (27.94 cm)

Docking Bay
Width: 12.0 in (30.48 cm)
Depth: 13.5 in (34.29 cm)
Height: 3.0 in (7.55 cm)

Ext Battery
Width: 12.0 in (30.48 cm)
Depth: 11 in (27.94 cm)
Height: 1.0 in (2.54 cm)

Weight (approximate)
System AVS, VSO2, VS & Legacy
Unpacked <33 lbs (15 kg)
Shipping <45 lbs (20.5 kg)

Docking Bay
Unpacked 2.5 lbs (1.1 kg)

Ext Battery
Unpacked 10 lbs (4.5 kg)

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Construction
Internal impact resistant frame, durable rubber exoskeleton.

Orientation
The ventilator can be oriented horizontally (feet parallel to floor) or vertically (feet perpendicular to
floor.)

Placement
The ventilator must be positioned so airflow into the back panel air intake is unobstructed. Minimum
suggested clearance for air circulation is 12 inches (30.48 cm).

Storage Requirements
The ventilator can be stored for long periods of time (more than 200 days) without any special
preparations. Prior to storing the ventilator, clean and dry it thoroughly and then enclose it in a plastic
bag to prevent dust from accumulating in the air intake or exhalation valve openings. The internal
battery does not need to be removed.
The batteries should be charged at least every two months while the ventilator is in storage

Performance Specifications and Tolerances


Ventilator Parameters Ranges Tolerances
Controls
Power On/Standby
Modes
Control
Assist/Control
SIMV
CPAP
Tidal Volume 50-2000 ml Greater of : ± 10 ml or 10%
Breath Rate 2-80 bpm Lesser of: ± 1 breath or 10% of breath
period
Peak Flow 10 - 140 L/min Greater of: ± 2 lpm or 10%
Spontaneous 180 L/min max.
Sensitivity OFF, 1- 20 L/min ± 0.5 lpm at a setting of 1 lpm;
± 1 lpm at settings of 2 – 20 L/min
PEEP/CPAP 0 - 30 cmH2O Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 10%
Pressure Support OFF, 1-60 cmH2O Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 8%
Oxygen Percent 21-100% ± 3% from 21 – 50%
± 5% from 51 – 100%
Bias Flow 10 - 20 lpm ± 1 lpm
Sigh ON/OFF, 1 Sigh every 100 breaths ± 1 breath period
or 7 minutes, which ever occurs first
Manual Breath X1 N/A
Remote Alarm (Optional) ON/OFF N/A

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TBird Series Ventilators Specifications 101
Ventilator Parameters Ranges Tolerances
Inspiratory Hold 6 second max. Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 10%
100% O2 3min. ON/OFF, 3 minute max. + 0%; -5%
Over Pressure Relief 20-130 cmH2O ± 10 cmH2O
AVS, AVS II & AVS III
Inspiratory Pause OFF, 0.1 – 2.0 sec + 0.05 seconds
Square Waveform ON/OFF N/A
AVS II & AVS III
Expiratory Hold 6 second max. Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 10%
MIP/NIF 30 second max. Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 5%
AVS III, VSO2 & Legacy
Pressure Control OFF, 1-100 cmH2O Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 8%
Inspiratory Time 0.3 – 10.0 sec. ± 0.05 seconds
VAPS (AVS III only) ON/OFF N/A
Alarms
High Pressure Alarm Limit 5-120 cmH2O Setting of 5-20 cmH2O: ± 2 cmH2O
Setting of 21-120 cmH2O: ± 4 cmH2O
Low Pressure Alarm Limit OFF, 2-60 cmH2O Setting of 2-20 cmH2O: ± 2 cmH2O
Setting of 21-60 cmH2O: ± 4 cmH2O
Low Minute Volume Alarm OFF-99.9 L Greater of: ± 15% or 30 ml (VSO2, VS,
Legacy)
0.1-99.9 L Greater of: ± 10% or 20 ml(AVS)
High Breath Rate (Legacy, VSO2, AVS) OFF, 3-150 bpm Greater of: ±1 bpm or 5% of breath
period
Apnea Interval 10-60 sec. ± 0.5 seconds
Backup Breath Rate Greater of: 12 bpm or set breath rate Greater of: ± 1 breath of 10% of Breath
period
Low O2 35 psig ± 2 psig

High O2 65 psig ± 2 psig

Ventilator Inoperative Red Indicator N/A

Alarm Silence 60 sec. max. ± 1 second

Alarm Volume 65 - 85 dba at 1 meter ± 5 dBa

Indicators
Patient Effort Green Indicator N/A
Power Indicators
On Green Indicator N/A
AC Green Indicator N/A
Internal Battery Power Green Yellow, Red Indicator N/A
Internal Battery Charge Status Green, Yellow, Red Indicator N/A
External Battery Power Green, Yellow Indicator N/A
External Battery Charge Status Green, Yellow, Red Indicator N/A
Monitors:

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Ventilator Parameters Ranges Tolerances


Airway Pressure Manometer -20 – 120 cmH2O Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 5%
Total Breath Rate (ƒ) 0-250 bpm Greater of: ± 1 bpm or 5% of breath
period
I:E Ratio (I:E) 99:1 – 1.99 Greater of: ± 50 ms or 5%
Exhaled Minute Volume (VE) 0-99.9 L Greater of: ± 10% or the measured
breath rate x 10 ml
On VSO2, VS and Legacy – Greater of
±15% or ƒ *15ml
Peak Inspiratory Pressure (PIP) 0-140 cmH2O Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 5%
Mean Airway Pressure (MAP) 0-99 cmH2O Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 10%
Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) 0-99 cmH2O Greater of: ± 2 cmH2O or 10%
Exhaled Tidal Volume (Vte) 0-4,000 ml Greater of: ± 10% or 10ml (AVS)
± 15% or 15ml (VSO2, VS,
Legacy)
Inspiratory Time (Ti) 0.01 – 99.99 sec. ± 0.05 seconds
Breathing Circuit Characteristics:
Adult Pediatric
Inspiratory Resistance, cmH2O/L/min 0.27 @ 60 lpm 0.29 @ 30 lpm
Expiratory Resistance, cmH2O/L/min 0.06 @ 60 lpm 0.06 @ 30 lpm
Compliance, ml/cmH2O 1.81 1.35
Internal Volume, ml 1,843 1,374

Note
All testing and calculations were based on BTPD (Body Temperature Pressure Dry) conditions.

Electrical Specifications

Input voltage Requirements

AC
Voltage: 100-240 VAC
Frequency: 47-63 Hz
Power: 200 Watts
Power Factor: 0.97

Battery
Voltage: 48 VDC Supply (4x12 VDC batteries)

Input Fuse Specification Information


Quantity: 2

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TBird Series Ventilators Specifications 103
Current Rating: 3.15 Amperes
Voltage Rating: 250 Volts
Type: 5 x 20 mm, IEC 127 Sheet I
(Type F, fast acting, high-interrupting capacity)

Note
Fuse should only be changed by Bird Certified Service Technicians.

Environmental Specifications

Environmental Temperature
Operating: +5 to 40 °C
Storage/Shipping: -20 to 60 °C

Relative Humidity
Operating: 15 to 95% relative, non-condensing
Storage/Shipping: 10 to 95% relative, non-condensing

Sound Level
<50 dBa (rms) at one meter

Shock and Vibration


Complies with the following standards:
Shock: IEC 68-2-27 (MIL-STD-810E)
Vibration: IEC 68-2-6, 68-2-34 (MIL-STD-810E)

Pneumatic Specifications

Oxygen Inlet
Oxygen Bleed-in: Max 80 lpm or 0.5 PSI (.035 bar) (Legacy, VS)
Pressurized Oxygen: 40-60 PSIG (2.8 to 4.2 bar) (VSO2, Legacy O2, AVS)

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Appendix C Ventilator Illustrations

Illustrations

• Figure 1. Detailed Front View of the TBird AVS


• Figure 2. Detailed Front View of the TBird VS/VSO2
• Figure 3. Detailed Front View of the TBird Legacy
• Figure 4. Detailed Back View of the TBird AVS
• Figure 5. Detailed Back View of the TBird VS/VSO2
• Figure 6. Detailed Back View of the TBird Legacy

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Appendix D Oxygen Computer Chart (VS & Legacy)

Figure D-1. Oxygen Computer Chart

To Find O2 Input Flow


1. Select desired FiO2 on horizontal axis.
2. Project up to current minute volume (VE from monitor display).
3. Project horizontally to left vertical axis and read oxygen flow.

To Find O2 Concentration
1. Select current O2 input flow on vertical axis.
2. Project horizontally right to current minute volume (VE from monitor display).
3. Project vertically down to horizontal axis and read oxygen concentration

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Appendix E Operator Instruction Checklist

Date _________________ Therapist _______________________________________


Patient _______________________________________________________________
Caregivers ____________________________________________________________
Physician’s Orders ______________________________________________________

Therapy Goal:
At the completion of training, the caregiver should understand and demonstrate the proper use, safety
procedures, maintenance and cleaning of the TBird Series of Ventilation Systems.

Objectives:
• Understands the purpose and therapeutic significance of the physician’s orders.
• Demonstrates proper setup and usage of the TBird Series of Ventilators.
• Understands how to turn the ventilator on and off.
• Understands how to assemble the patient breathing circuit.
• Understands the operation of the potential power sources.
• Understands how to connect the patient to the ventilator via the patient breathing circuit.
• Understands possible alarms, causes and prevention techniques to properly avoid
or correct problem situations.
• Understands cleaning and proper maintenance for ventilator and breathing circuit.
• Understands the use of a back-up ventilation device, how to identify potentially
hazardous patient situations and how to contact the correct support personnel.

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Appendix F Event Codes
This appendix defines the event codes that can be viewed using the Event Code special function
described in Chapter 6, Special Functions.

Table G-1 Event Codes

Code Description
1 Information that the MSP received from the IOP is not recognized.
2 The IOP did not remove the data that the MSP sent to it for processing.
3 The MSP has waited a maximum of 50 ms for a response from the IOP.
4 A non-fatal error was found in MSP/IOP high-priority (servo-related) communication and the event is logged. Previous
data used to continue operation.
5 A non-fatal error was found in MSP/IOP low-priority communication and the event is logged. Previous data used to
continue operation.
6 The MSP has detected a breath phase which is not defined. This generates an event and defaults to exhalation.
7 The MSP has detected a mode that is not defined and generates an event.
8 The MSP has detected a undefined breath type that is not defined and generates an event.
9 A low priority, background task has failed to execute. This causes the MSP to log the event and prepare for a reset
sequence.
10 An IOP task has reported or is requesting information that is not defined.
11 An undefined breath type has been requested. After the event is logged, the MSP will default to Bias Flow.
12 After POST, the turbine EEPROM is run through a checksum test every 5 minutes. If this fails this event code is
generated. If this is a recurrent problem it would indicate a problem with the Turbine EEPROM or the parameters
memory on the Main PCB. This problem should also occur during POST if there is a hardware failure involved.
13 The area of memory used for communication between software tasks did not get accessed as expected.
14 The "Task Active" message expected from a task was not found in the communication memory area. The task may
have run, but the message was not correctly processed.
15 The wrong task responded to the "Tasks Active" message.
16 The queue containing messages to be sent to the IOP was full.
17 Turbine exceeds set flow parameter.
18 Turbine exceeds set speed parameter.
19 Turbine exceeds set exhalation pressure parameter.
20 Turbine exceeds set internal pressure parameter.
21 Turbine encoder speed exceeds set encoder parameter.
40 The MSP has accessed an area of memory that it should not use. The code in that area causes this event to be
logged.
41 The microprocessor used for the MSP has defined hardware requirements for communication to memory devices. This
event is generated when these requirements are not met.
42 The microprocessor used for the MSP has an internal WatchDog timer that is used for high priority interrupts and
event scheduling. It also is used to insure that the IOP is running. If the IOP has quit, this event is generated.
43 Of the 256 interrupts that are contained within the MSP microprocessor, TBird Legacy uses five. There are also five
that are defined by the processor hardware and are used to generate events.
44 See event code 43.
45 See event code 43.
46 See event code 43.
47 See event code 43.
48 Not used.

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Code Description
49 After POST, this event may be triggered by a failure of the test performed at 5 minute intervals on the MSP WatchDog.
50 After POST, this event may be triggered by a failure of the checksum performed at 5 minute intervals on MSP ROM.
51 See event code 43.
52 See event code 43.
53 See event code 43.
54 See event code 43.
55 One of the task's message queue is full. It could not accept a new message.
56 The configuration key is not present (does not apply to Legacy and Legacy O2). Install configuration memory card
used for configuration. Insure that the correct configuration card is installed.
60 Parameters EEPROM has lost calibration data.
61 One of the pressure transducers on the Main PCBA has failed the autozero test. Check transducer tests in UVT to
determine which one. Contact a Bird Certified Service Technician for proper calibration.
62 User has been unsuccessful in performing a transducer calibration. Contact a Bird Certified Service Technician for
proper calibration.
63 Unit could not use settings stored in RAM and has gone to Default Settings. A Configuration or Software change has
been installed. Enter desired settings.
64 Vent powered-up. This is an expected code generated when the unit is turned on.
65 The ventilator has forced a self reset of microprocessor activity. This should be proceeded by the event codes
identifying the cause of the reset. Check events will be displayed in the alarm/monitor window the next time that the
unit is powered up.
66 This would indicate that the Turbine EEPROM may have been replaced without updating the Parameters data or that
the Turbine or Parameters EEPROM has been damaged. Perform the Turbine serial number entry procedure as
described in Chapter 6, Special Functions. Ensure that the serial number on the Turbine EEPROM matches the serial
number on the Turbine label.
67 The unit has switched from AC Power to either the External Battery or the internal battery. Check to see if wall AC has
been interrupted or has fallen below acceptable levels.
68 External Battery alert occurred. Allow external battery to charge.
69 Internal Battery alert occurred. Allow Internal Battery to charge.
200 CPU command failure. This is an IOP POST failure.
201 CPU timer failure. This is an IOP Post failure.
202 Internal RAM failure. This is an IOP POST failure.
203 External RAM failure. This is an IOP POST failure.
204 Program Memory Checksum calculation failure. This is an IOP POST failure.
205 The IOP has accessed an area of memory that it should not use. The code in that area causes this event to be logged.
206 The microprocessor used for the IOP has defined hardware requirements for communication to memory devices. this
event is generated when these requirements are not met.
210 There are two A to D converters associated with translating exhalation pressure When a comparison of these shows
significant difference this event code is generated.
211 There are two A to D converters associated with translating exhalation flow. When a comparison of these shows
significant difference this event code is generated.
212 There are two A to D converters associated with translating turbine pressure. When a comparison of these shows
significant difference this event code is generated.
213 There are two A to D converters associated with translating internal battery voltage. When a comparison of these
shows significant difference this event code is generated.
214 There are two A to D converters associated with translating external battery voltage. When a comparison of these
shows significant difference this event code is generated.
215 There are two A to D converters associated with translating Oxygen Pressure. When a comparison of these shows
significant difference this event code is generated.
216 There are two A to D converters associated with translating cooling gas temperature exiting the ventilator. When a
comparison of these shows significant difference this event code is generated.

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TBird Series Ventilators Appendix F Event Codes 113
Code Description
217 The DAC used with the exhalation transducer has differed significantly with a redundant A to D comparison.
218 The DAC used with the turbine transducer has differed significantly with a redundant A to D comparison.
219 There are two A to D converters associated with translating the 48 VDC supply level. When a comparison of these
shows significant difference this event code is generated.
220 This code is left for a future option to check an additional A to D conversion channel.
221 Two consecutive internal reference voltage mismatches. This is a reference voltage internal to the A/D.
230 The IOP generates this event when it does not receive information from the MSP.
231 The IOP generates this event when it finds that the MSP did not remove data sent to it in the data packet memory.
232 The IOP has detected a checksum error in a low priority data packet.
233 The IOP does not recognize a command sent to it from the MSP.
234 The IOP has detected that the length of the data received from the MSP does not match the content described by the
MSP.
235 The IOP has passed a command to a software module that does not know how to process it.
236 The IOP cannot perform a command because it is outside of ventilator capabilities.
237 The IOP did not receive an MSP communication packet for over 100 ms.
238 After going through their individual POST routines, the IOP and MSP have 2 seconds to go into operation. This event
is generated if this does not happen.
248 Fan Fault -- indicating that the fan is not rotating.
249 Fan OK -- indicating that the fan has recovered from a 248 event.
250 When the output of the IOP DAC was routed to its input for testing purposes, a difference was found. This event code
is logged and the message HW FAULT is displayed in the Monitor Window.
251 The IOP has detected an over temperature condition on the power supply. This event code is logged and the message
HW FAULT is displayed in the monitor window. Check fan filter for occlusion. Check fan for operation.
252 The IOP has determined that the DAC is functioning normally.
253 The IOP has determined that the power supply has returned to normal operating temperature.

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Glossary
TERM DEFINITION
AC Alternating Current

Airway Pressure A real-time digital bar graph that displays the current patient breathing circuit pressure as
Manometer it rises and falls during a ventilatory cycle. Amber LEDs mark high and low pressure
alarm limits.
Alarm A combined audible and visual notification. When the ventilator detects an operating
condition that requires your immediate attention, it generates an alarm. The audible
component is typically an oscillating tone. The visual component is a message that
appears in the alarm window. A flashing control or an illuminated indicator sometimes
accompanies this message.
Alert An alert is a notification that the ventilator requires your attention. When the ventilator
detects an operating condition that may prevent the ventilator from performing to its
published specifications, but which will not adversely affect the patient, the ventilator
generates an alert. Alerts do not have an audible component; no tone sounds. But they
do have a visual component: a message appears in the monitor window.
Apnea Apnea occurs when the patient fails to receive a breath during the period of time
specified by the user-defined apnea interval.
Apnea Backup Ventilation that automatically starts when the patient apnea is detected.
Ventilation
Apnea Interval A period of time between 10 and 60 seconds, which is set using the Apnea, function in
the Special Functions. Lets you define how long the ventilator should wait between
breaths before initiating Apnea Backup Ventilation. The apnea alarm occurs when Apnea
Backup Ventilation is initiated.
Assist Breath Any positive pressure breath that is initiated by the patient, and controlled and terminated
by the ventilator. Assist breaths are only permitted in Assist/Control and SIMV modes.
Assist/Control A mode of ventilation in which the patient receives a fixed number of mandatory breaths.
Mode The patient may trigger some or all of the breaths.
Autozero The process of adjusting transducers to read a zero reference at ambient pressure.
AutoPEEP A measure of the end expiratory alveolar pressure calculated during an expiratory hold
(Intrinsic PEEP) maneuver.
Alveolar Calculated by subtracting PEEP from Plateau Pressure (Pplat) during an Inspiratory Hold
Distending maneuver. Used to calculate Static Compliance.
Pressure
Baseline The pressure at which the patient is maintained between breaths. The baseline is
established by the PEEP/CPAP setting.

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TERM DEFINITION
Bias Flow A continuous flow through the patient breathing circuit. The level of Bias Flow can be set
from 10 to 20 lpm by using the Bias Flow function in the Special Functions
Bpm Breaths per minute.

Breath Period The length of time between machine initiated breaths. Depends on the Breath Rate
setting and is computed by dividing 60 seconds by the Breath Rate setting. When the
Breath Rate setting is 15 bpm, for example, the breath period is four seconds (i.e., 60 /
15). In this example, the ventilator initiates a breath every four seconds.
Breath Rate The number of breaths delivered in a minute.
BTPD Body Temperature, Pressure Dry
Button A push button switch used to toggle a function on or off.
Checksum A technique for detecting data errors.
Circuit See Patient Breathing Circuit.
Circuit Pressure The pressure in the patient breathing circuit as measured at the exhalation valve
transducer.
cmH2O Centimeters of water pressure.
Control Mode A mode of ventilation in which the patient receives a fixed number of breaths per minute.
The patient is not permitted to trigger breaths.
Controls Any button, switch, or knob that allows you to modify the ventilator’s behavior.
CPAP See continuous Positive Airway Pressure.
Continuous A positive pressure continually applied throughout the breath cycle.
Positive Airway
Pressure (CPAP)
CPAP Mode A mode of ventilation in which the patient is allowed to breathe spontaneously, initiating
al breaths. A continuous positive pressure is applied throughout the breath cycle.
Cst See Static Compliance.
Displays Show the current settings of variable controls.
EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. A type of programmable
memory that can retain data even when power is not present.
Event An anomalous condition that occurs during ventilator operation.
Event Code A numeric message produced and stored by the TBird software that records a ventilator
state. This can be the result of some normal operation or the result of some detected
malfunction. These codes assist in establishing a background for troubleshooting
processes.
Exhalation Phase The part of the breath cycle in which the patient exhales.
Exhalation Time The time required to complete an exhalation.
Exhaled Tidal The exhaled volume measured at the exhalation valve for all breath types.

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TBird Series Ventilators Glossary 117

TERM DEFINITION
Volume
Flow The rate at which gas is delivered. Measured in liters per minute (lpm).

Flow Trigger A way if initiating breaths in response to patient effort. When the patient attempts to
inhale, flow is diverted into the patient’s lungs. If the patient demand exceeds the
currently set sensitivity level, the ventilator triggers an assist breath.
Indicators An LED showing operational status.
I:E Ratio (I:E) Shows the ratio of the inspiratory to exhalation time for all breaths including spontaneous
breaths. The smaller number is normalized to one. The I:E ratio is updated at the end of
every breath. Inverse I:E ratios are displayed as well as regular I:E ratios.
Inspiratory Time The length of the inspiratory period measured from the start of inspiration to the start of
(Ti) exhalation.
Inspiratory Phase The phase of a breath in which the patient inhales or inspiratory flow is delivered into the
lungs under positive pressure.
L Liters. A unit of volume.
LED Light Emitting Diode
lpm Liters per minute. A unit of flow.
Machine Breath A ventilator delivered breath that is initiated, controlled, and terminated by the ventilator.
Machine breaths are only permitted in Control, Assist/Control and SIMV modes.
Manometer See Airway Pressure Manometer.
Manual Breath An operator-initiated machine breath that is delivered when you press the front panel
Manual Breath button. The ventilator delivers the type of breath currently set up in the
system.
MAP See Mean Airway Pressure.
Mean Airway Shows the MAP for the last minute and is based on a one minute moving average. The
Pressure (MAP) display is updated every 10 seconds.
Milliseconds A unit of time of 300 msec required to allow the patient to inhale.
Minimum A minimum time of 250 msec required to allow the patient to exhale before an inspiration
Exhalation Time can be initiated.
Minimum A minimum time of 300 msec required to allow the patient to inhale.
Inspiratory Time
Minute Volume Shows the average volume delivered to the patient each minute and is updated at the
(VE) end of each exhalation. The minute volume is calculated by multiplying the breath rate by
the average of the previous eight tidal volumes. Spontaneous breaths are included.
MIP/NIF Maximum Inspiratory Pressure/Negative Inspiratory Force. A measure of patient’s
inspiratory effort.
ML Milliliter. A unit of volume equal one-thousandth (10-3) of a liter.
Mode An operating state of the ventilator that determines the allowable breath types.

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TERM DEFINITION
Monitored A measured value displayed in the monitor window.
Parameter
O2 Oxygen
Patient Breathing The tubing that provides the ventilatory interface between the patient and ventilator.
Circuit
Patient Breath Any ventilator-delivered breath that is initiated and terminated by the patient. Patient
breaths are only permitted in SIMV and CPAP modes.
Patient Circuit See Patient Breathing Circuit.
Patient Effort Any inspiratory effort initiated by the patient.
Palvd See Alveolar Distending Pressure.
Paw Airway Pressure. Measured in cmH2O at the exhalation valve.
Peak Inspiratory Shows the highest circuit pressure to occur during inspiration as measured at the
Pressure (PIP) exhalation valve. The display is updated at the end of inspiration. PIP is not updated for
spontaneous breaths.
PEEP See Positive End Expiratory Pressure.
Pex End Exhalation Pressure. Measured during an Expiratory Hold maneuver, and used to
measure Auto/PEEP.
PIP See Peak Inspiratory Pressure.
Positive End Shows the measured Positive End Expiratory Pressure. The display is updated at the
Expiratory end of the exhalation phase.
Pressure (PEEP)
POST See Power On Self Tests
Power On Self A group of built-in verification tests that run on power up and that check the internal
Tests (POST) electronic circuits to make sure everything is working properly.
Pplat Plateau Pressure. Measured during an Inspiratory Hold maneuver. Used to calculate
Static Compliance. (Cst).
Pressure Control A Machine or Assist breath in which the ventilator elevates the inspiratory pressure
Breath above the baseline (i.e., PEEP) for a set inspiratory time. Set using the front panel
Pressure Control.
Pressure Support A patient breath in which the ventilator elevates the inspiratory pressure above the
Breath baseline (i.e., PEEP) by an amount set using the front panel Pressure Support setting.
Pstart The Starting Pressure measured during a MIP/NIF maneuver. Used to calculate patient’s
inspiratory effort.
PSIG Pounds per square inch gauge. 1 PSIG = .07bar
rpm Revolutions per minute. A unit used to measure
Sigh Breath A Volume Controlled machine breath having a tidal volume equal to one-and-a-half times
(150% of) the current tidal volume setting.

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TERM DEFINITION
SIMV Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation
SIMV Mode A mode of ventilation in which all breath types (machine, assist, and patient) are allowed.
The first time the patient attempts to initiate a breath following the machine breath, the
ventilator delivers an assist breath. Further attempts in the same breath period result in
patient breaths.
Special Functions A group of software functions that you can access and use to set operating parameters
(such as the apnea interval and bias flow), set alarm conditions, view transducer
readings, and so on.
Spontaneous A breath that is initiated, controlled, and terminated by the patient.
Breath
Static Compliance Measurement of respiratory system compliance. Calculated by dividing set Tidal Volume
(Cst) by Palvd.
SVT See Service Verification Tests.
Service A group of built-in self-tests that are only available to Bird Certified Service Technicians.
Verification Tests
(SVT)
Terminated The transition from the inspiratory phase to the exhalation phase of a breath
Tidal Volume The amount of volume delivered in a breath
Ti See Inspiratory time.
Total Breath Rate Shows the total number of breaths per minute, including both spontaneous and machine
breaths. The displayed value is based on an eight-breath moving average and is updated
at the beginning of each inspiration.
Transducer An electromechanical device used to measure pressure and flow.
User Verification A group of tests you can run to check ventilator performance prior to connecting the
Tests (UVT) ventilator to a patient.
Ventilator When all internal systems are immediately forced into a safe condition and a vent inop is
Inoperative sounded. This is due to an internal failure or operating condition that could interfered with
Condition the continued safe operation of the ventilator.
VAPS See Volume Assured Pressure Support.
VE See Minute Volume.
Vent Inop A combined audible and visual notification to the user that a ventilator inoperative
condition ahs occurred.
Vte See Tidal Volume.
Volume Assured A Machine or Assist breath in which the ventilator elevates the inspiratory pressure
Pressure Support above the baseline by an amount set using the front panel Pressure Control setting. If
(VAPS) necessary, VAPS breaths will deliver additional flow determined by the Peak Flow setting
to achieve a guaranteed minimum Tidal Volume as specified by the front panel Tidal
Volume setting.

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TERM DEFINITION
Window The alphanumeric display used to show alarms, alerts, monitored parameters, and
overall ventilator status.

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TBird Series Ventilators Index 121

Index

A C

AC Power · 19, 40, 62 cautions · 9


air intake filter · 94 cleaning the ventilator · 89
airway pressure · 16, 22, 31, 32, 84 CMV · 26
alarm setup · 77 configurations
Alarm Silence · 19, 23, 24, 28, 39, 40, 41, 42, TBird ventilators · 15
43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 60, 62, 78, 83, 101 Control · 6, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
Alarm Volume · 56, 57, 101 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 39, 42, 50, 51, 55,
alarm window · 22, 23, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 60, 61, 65, 66, 67, 69, 71, 72, 74, 83, 86,
45, 62, 86, 115 100, 101, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119
alarms check · 62 control lock · 24, 71
alternate ventilation · 16, 24 controls and displays · 19
Altitude Compensation · 19, 42, 76 Copyright · 5
altitude variables · 77 CPAP · 6, 16, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 42,
· 16, 39, 66, 70, 78, 115, 119 47, 49, 50, 55, 61, 65, 66, 67, 83, 100, 115,
Apnea Backup · 77 116, 118
Apnea Interval · 49, 61, 65, 70, 77, 78, 101,
115
D
Assist/Control · 16, 25, 60, 66, 67, 117
audible alarm · 23
dimmed control · 21
· 24, 37, 72
display · 19, 21, 22, 23, 31, 32, 33, 38, 47, 60,
AVS · 6, 7, 15, 16, 22, 27, 28, 31, 32, 43, 44,
62, 69, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 83,
46, 51, 52, 58, 66, 67, 88, 98, 99, 101, 102,
86, 107, 117, 118, 120
103, 105
AVS II · 6, 16
AVS III · 6, 16, 31, 32 E

Effort · 19, 22, 101, 118


B
electromagnetic interference · 5
electrostatic shock · 9
battery · 16
Enzymatic Cleaner · 93
external · 16
Event Codes · 80
internal · 16
exhalation criteria · 21, 26
Bias Flow · 19, 42, 49, 60, 61, 65, 69, 72, 100,
exhalation valve · 8, 10, 23, 33, 38, 41, 45, 47,
116
48, 51, 52, 56, 70, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92,
Body Temperature Pressure Dry · 26
100, 116, 118
Breath Rate · 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 37, 42,
Expiratory Hold · 15, 19, 31, 32, 83, 101, 118
43, 44, 50, 51, 61, 62, 66, 83, 100, 101, 102,
external battery · 9, 16, 29, 30, 34, 40, 43, 46,
116, 119
59, 60, 62, 85, 88
breathing circuit · 7, 8, 17, 23, 27, 33, 41, 44,
External Battery · 19, 29, 43, 70, 79, 101
45, 47, 55, 56, 59, 60, 72, 81, 84, 86, 87, 89,
91, 92, 109, 115, 116
F

fan filter · 95

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122 Operators Manual

filter check · 83 M
FiO2 · 7, 107
flashing control · 21 machine breaths · 25, 37, 119
flashing LED · 21 malfunctions · 87
Flow Cal · 15, 19, 33, 60, 70, 83, 87 manometer · 16, 22, 23, 33, 61, 62
flow termination · 74 Manual Breath · 15, 19, 24, 30, 83, 100, 117
flow triggered · 26 MAP · 37, 38, 62, 102, 117
maximum inspiratory flow rate · 25
Mean Airway Pressure · 37, 38, 102, 117
G
Medical Device Directive · 6
Graphics Monitor · 72 Minute Ventilation · 16
· 19, 23, 37, 42, 47, 48, 61, 70, 78, 83, 101,
102, 117, 119
H mode select button · 24
· 19, 24, 31, 37, 49, 50, 60, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75,
high pressure · 8, 9, 10, 21, 30, 62 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84
high pressure alarm · 22 monitored parameters · 22, 24, 37, 60, 62, 69,
High Pressure alarm · 67 72, 120
high pressure alarm control · 23 MRI · 5
High Pressure Limit · 19, 20, 33, 34, 45, 62
hour meter · 76
O

I ON Indicator · 19
operator replaceable components · 17
incompatible settings · 21 ordering information · 97
inspiratory flow · 25, 26, 27, 70, 117 Over Pressure Relief Valve · 19, 33, 88
Inspiratory Hold · 15, 19, 31, 83, 101, 115, oxygen · 107
118 Oxygen · 16, 44, 46, 57, 58, 70, 79, 98, 100,
Inspiratory Pause · 15, 19, 20, 28, 42, 50, 51, 103, 107, 118
61, 65, 66, 67, 83
inspiratory termination point · 73
Inspiratory Time · 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 27, 28, P
30, 37, 38, 42, 50, 51, 61, 62, 66, 83, 101,
102, 117 Peak Flow · 15, 19, 20, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 33,
intended use · 6 42, 50, 51, 61, 66, 83, 100, 119
internal battery · 9, 16, 17, 28, 29, 30, 34, 43, Peak Inspiratory Pressure · 27, 37, 38, 62, 102,
46, 59, 60, 85, 100 118
Internal Battery · 101 PEEP · 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29,
37, 38, 42, 44, 45, 51, 61, 62, 65, 66, 67, 83,
87, 100, 102, 115, 118
L percentage of oxygen · 27
performance check · 65
Lamp Test · 81 PIP · 16, 27, 33, 37, 38, 62, 102, 118
language · 75 Power Fail Check · 62
leak test · 84 power source · 16
Legacy · 6, 7, 16, 22, 27, 28, 31, 43, 57, 58, Power Switch · 19, 34, 35
66, 70, 98, 101, 102, 105 Pressure Control · 16, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 28,
limitation of liability · 4 31
low minute volume · 23 Pressure Support · 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24,
low pressure alarm · 22, 115 25, 27, 31, 42, 47, 55, 61, 65, 66, 67, 69, 73,
83, 100, 118, 119

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TBird Series Ventilators Index 123
pushbutton · 21 trademark · 5
transducer data · 79
transducer test · 79
R
troubleshooting · 85
turbine · 76
Remote Alarm · 19, 31, 42, 70, 75, 78, 83, 100
required control · 21
U
S
User Verification Tests · 8, 9, 22, 24, 60, 65,
69, 70, 71, 81, 119
·7
UVT failure · 86
Sensitivity · 15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 29,
42, 60, 61, 65, 66, 67, 69, 73, 83, 87, 100
setting a control · 19 V
setting a mode · 65
sigh breath · 21, 23, 30, 47 VAPS · 15, 16, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28,
Sigh Button · 19, 30 31, 42, 50, 55, 67, 83, 119
SIMV · 6, 16, 19, 20, 24, 25, 27, 42, 55, 65, variable controls · 19, 24, 116
66, 67, 83, 100, 115, 117, 118, 119 variable time termination · 73
software version · 75 vent inop · 16, 23, 41, 85, 119
Special Functions · 8, 16, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, Vent Inop · 19, 24, 48, 49, 60, 82, 86, 119
28, 37, 49, 61, 65, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, ventilator failure · 16
76, 78, 79, 80, 82, 87, 88, 115, 116, 119 ventilator setup · 71
specifications · 99 Volume Control · 27, 65
Square Waveform · 15, 19, 31, 42, 50, 61, 65, volume of gas delivered · 25
66, 83 VS · 6, 7, 15, 16, 22, 57, 58, 98, 99, 101, 102,
sterilizing equipment · 91 103, 105
switch check · 82 VSO2 · 6, 7, 15, 16, 22, 27, 28, 31, 32, 43, 44,
46, 58, 66, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 105
T
W
Tidal Volume · 15, 16, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 29,
30, 31, 33, 37, 38, 42, 50, 51, 61, 62, 65, 66, warnings · 7
67, 77, 83, 100, 102, 116, 119 warranty · 4
total breath rate · 23 waveform · 25, 26, 31

L1580 Revision D March 2003