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3 Study Guide
Correction for points
Terms – one point per definition or

People – one point per description
Leif Eriksson
Middle Ages
Marco Polo
Prince Henry
Mansa Musa
Feudal system
Bartholommeu Dias
Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus
Queen Isabella
King Ferdinand
Amerigo Vespucci
Age of Exploration
Enslaved person
Ferdinand Magellan
John Cabot
Giobanni da Verranzano
Jacques Cartier
16 points possible
Columbian Exchange
Northwest Passage
19 points
Overhead notes

Exploration Notes
5 points
Why explore?
Trade (the want and need for goods)
Fame (drive to be known - $)
Conquest (rule over others – slave markets)
Gold (money makes people do things they normally would never
God (to spread religious beliefs or to save souls)
Safety (to avoid being punished at home)

10 points
The first Europeans to impact the North American People:

The Vikings 1000 A.D.: Raiders of North Europe, who would
rush in on their unsuspecting victims: they would kill women and
children as well as men. What they couldn’t steal, or take with
them, they would burn. (Berserk-most fear Viking warrior.)

Knarrs - Their ships allowed them easy escape and silent attacks.
The ships were the best of the times; they had keels that prevented
rolling and increased speed and mobility. A warship was equipped
with 15 to 30 pairs of oars and had a long-up curving prow that
ended with a wood carving prow that ended with a carving of a
dragon or snake.

Leif Erikson: Leif, Tornvald, Thornstein, Freudis (children of
Erick by Thjodild)

Erik the Red- Was kicked out of Iceland because of murder.
He and his kinsman sailed for Greenland and settled. About 1000
A.D. Erik’s son Leif led an expedition west to find new territory.
Leif landed on the east coast of North America (Newfoundland)
and called it “Vinland” because of the grapes they found. Leif
returned to Greenland and reported his findings. According to
legend, natives pushed the Vikings out of North America, but
archeological finds prove the Vikings landed.
In 1960 – Viking ruins were found proving the sagas
were true – Vikings were the first Europeans to settle on North

10 points

Marco Polo – Venetian, Italian, merchant who went to Cathay,
or China, to trade. He spent 17 years with Kubla Kahn and
returned; his adventures were recorded in a book called The
Description of the World. It described theThe wealthy read the
book and wanted the items found in Asia: spices, gems, silk,
medicines, iron, porcelain, and the ideas of gunpowder, steel,
fire departments, paper money, and printing presses.

Mansa Musa (Mali)– wealthy Muslim who traveled most of
Africa to the Alexandria and the Mediterranean and to
Constantinople. He took gold to trade for salt to cure and
preserve food. He controlled Timbuktu and western Africa
and established universities to spread knowledge and record
histories later conquered by Songhai. European contact with
African groups expanded trade and navigational knowledge.

• East meets West - Holy Land – Palestine and Jerusalem, the
location of the monotheistic religions: Judaism, Islam,
• All three believe in one god and the basic ideals to live a
selfless life and serve others and god through prayer and
• When Muslims take Jerusalem, the Christians call out for a
holy war to reclaim the Holy Land that lasted for 200+ years
• Exposure to new products and ideas – Desire to trade and
improve life in Europe occurs.
1350 – Black Death or the Plague – ¼ of Europe’s population dies.
Feudal system ends, merchant class or middle class begins.

1400’s- Exploration (background):

Europeans wanted a trade route between Europe and Asia
because Muslim traders were charging very high prices for Far
Eastern goods. Portugal searched for a sea route east. Spain
searched for a sea route west.

Christopher Columbus 1492

Real names: Cristofo Colombo (Italy), Cristo’bal Colon (Spain)

Myths: -C.C. was not the first man to discover America;
-C.C. was not trying to prove the earth was round;
-C.C. died not knowing he dad discovered a new world.
-C.C. sailed to the “new world” in 1492, 1493, 1498, and
- We don’t know what C.C. looks like.

Why he went: - read about Marco Polo’s adventures in China, and
thought he could sail 2,500 miles west and reach the eastern shore
of Orient. (It was really 10,000 miles.)
-father-in-law had many charts and maps he used.
-Queen Isabella of Spain told him that she would make
him viceroy (governor) of any new lands he might acquire
for Spain.

They first Voyage: C.C. left Spain Aug.3, 1492, with three
ships and 90 crew members. He kept two logs (diaries) of the
ship’s journey. In one he Kept the “true” distance traveled,
and in the one the crew saw he put shorter distances covered.
(Thought they would be less frightened if they didn’t know
how far away from home they were.) The crew threatened
Land was sighted on October 12, 1492, and he landed on the
present day island of San Salvador. He thought he had found
the East Indies, so he called the island natives “Indians.”
From San Salvador he sailed to Cuba and Hispaniola
(Haiti and Dominican Rep.) The Santa Maria went aground
and was smashed; the crew of the Santa Maria were put to
shore to build a fort (they were killed off by the time CC
returned to help them.) CC returned to Spain with gold,
parrots, plants, and Indians. The entire voyage had lasted
224 days. CC was named viceroy of the “islands and
mainland of Asia and the Indies belonging to Spain.”

The Importance: CC set out not knowing where he was going;
when he arrived he didn’t know where he was; when he got home,
he didn’t know where he had been. But he opened a new continent
for trade, increased the knowledge of the world’s geography, and
started more voyages of exploration.

5 points
John Cabot – 1497
An Italian who believed Columbus had found the
correct route to China, but felt he could shorten the distance by
sailing farther north. Cabot left May 1497 on the ship the Mathew
with a crew of 18 – land was sighted June 24, 1497. Cabot
returned to England and reported he had reached northern Asia and
the fish so plentiful that all you had to do was lower a basket into
the sea to fill it. (The Grande Banks) Henry VII rewarded Cabot
for his finding of Asia and named him “The Great Admiral.”
1498 – Cabot returned to explore south of his first voyage,
but died during a storm. (shipwreck) Like Columbus, Cabot
thought he had reached China and died not knowing it was the
“new world…”
Importance: Cabot’s voyages gave England claim to North
America and led to the founding of English colonies in America.
*1508 – Sabastian Cabot (John’s son) sailed for England in search
of the Northwest Passage.
*1526 – sailed for Spain looking for Indonesia, but explored the
eastern shore of South America and returned

5 points
Exploration – Hey, this can’t be Asia….

Amerigo Vespucci – 1497-1503 made four voyages to the
New World as an Italian explorer for whom America was named
1497 reached the Continental land or mainland and called it a
“New World”

AV was one of the first to realize that the “new lands to the
west were not Asia, but a different land. Mapmakers named the
new land AMERICA in honor of the Italian explorer.
1499-1504-explored the coastlines of Venezuela and Brazil.
*Very little evidence proves his reports and scholars question
his importance as an explorer.

5 points
Balboa – 1513 he left Spain to seek his fortune in America; lived
on Hispaniola and became deeply in debt and ran away. As a
stowaway, he was able to overthrow the commander and take
control of the men and explored to find gold. The natives told him
that farther south he would find mountain people that ate from
golden plates and drank from golden cups near the great sea. The
overthrown commander returned to Spain and demanded Balboa’s
death. Balboa knew his only defense was to find gold and on
September 25, 1513, he went in search of the legend. He reached
the highest point in Panama and saw the Pacific Ocean. He called
it the “South Sea” and claimed it and all the land it touched for the
King of Spain. In 1517, Balboa was captured and executed for

5 points

Ferdinand Magellan- Portuguese navigator
1509-sailed east as far as Singapore
1510-helped conquer Goa, India
1510-18- wanted to get involved in Spice trade and felt that there
was a southern passage around South America. He also thought the
“South Sea” was a small body.

September 20, 1519- Magellan sailed for Spain toward South
America with 5 ships and 240 men. Sailed along the eastern coast
of South America, found the strait of “Magellan” and sailed into
the Pacific Ocean (Peaceful) *The huge ocean caused the men to
run short of food and water and to suffer from scurvy. Landed in
the Philippines and was killed April 1521. Cano took command of
the one remaining ship and a crew of 18 men, found Singapore,
sailed to Spain (Sept. 6, 1522) to complete the first voyage around
the world (3 years).

5 points

The Line of Demarcation – 1493
The voyages west brought the vision of larger empires to
exploring countries of Portugal and Spain. When CC returned to
Spain in 1493, the news of new lands stirred greed; in order to
prevent disputes and to find a way to control Christian missionary
work, Pope Alexander VI drew an imaginary north-south-line on a
map called the “Papal Line of Demarction.” It said that Spain was
permitted to have all of the land west of the line and Portugal was
given everything to the east of the line.
Portugal was not happy! In 1494 the line was moved farther west
and provided Portugal claim to Brazil.

Line of Demarcation or misguided find of Pedro Alavares
Cabral (1500 was enroute to India and was blown off course by the
prevailing winds and landed on the coast of Brazil.) Portuguese
claim to Brazil…

5 points for Verranzano notes