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POLYTECHNIC LAB MANUAL

ENGINEERING
SCIENCE STUDENTS COPY

SEKSYEN PEMBANGUNAN DAN PENILAIAN KURIKULUM


JABATAN PENGAJIAN POLITEKNIK
KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA
CONTENTS

EXPERIMENT 1 Physical Quantities and Measurement 1

EXPERIMENT 2 Linear Motion 3

EXPERIMENT 3 Forces in Equilibrium 6

EXPERIMENT 4 Conservation of Energy 9

EXPERIMENT 5 Archimedes Principle 12

EXPERIMENT 6 Energy in Thermal System 14

REFERENCES 16

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MALAYSIAN POLYTECHNIC
MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE AND COMPUTER DEPARTMENT
LAB WORK RUBRIC
DBS1012 – ENGINEERING SCIENCE

A. COGNITIVE DOMAIN
Needs
Excellent Good Satisfactory Unsatisfactory
No Criteria Improvement
(4 marks) (3 marks) (2 marks) (0 mark)
(1 mark)
Procedures are Procedures are
Procedures are
clearly described clearly described Procedures are
1 partially stated Procedures are
Procedures in complete and in complete and stated but difficult to
and difficult to not stated.
passive active follow.
follow.
sentences. sentences.
Clear, accurate
diagrams are
Diagrams are Diagrams are Diagrams are
2 Drawings included. Needed diagrams
included and are included and included but are
/Diagrams Diagrams are are missing.
labeled. partially labeled. not labeled.
labeled neatly and
accurately.
Accurate
Accurate presentation of
Accurate
presentation of the the data in tables
presentation of the Data are shown
data in tables or or graphs.
Data data in written form, but inaccurate. Data are not shown.
3 graphs. Graphs Graphs and/or
but no graphs or
and/or tables are tables are not
tables is presented.
labeled and titled. labeled and
titled.
All calculations
All calculations are are shown and
All calculations
shown and the the results are All calculations are
are shown but
Calculations results are correct correct but shown but not all the No calculations
4 all the results
with appropriate without results are correct. are shown.
are incorrect.
units. appropriate
units.
Explain the
Explain very
findings in the
Explain the briefly about the
experiment. Able Explain very briefly
findings in the findings in
to explain about the findings in
5 experiment. Able experiment Or No analyses are
Analysis experimental experiment.
to explain only shown.
errors, their Experimental errors
experimental experimental
possible effects, are mentioned.
errors and their errors are
and ways to
possible effects. mentioned.
reduce errors.

The given
The given
questions are
questions are
answered
answered correctly, All questions All the questions
correctly, clearly Not all the questions
clearly identified are answered are not
6 Questions identified, but are answered.
and stated incorrectly. answered.
not stated
according to the
according to the
theory.
theory.

Conclusion
Conclusion included the
Conclusion included
included the finding finding from the Conclusion
the finding from the No conclusion
from the experiment but included but not
experiment but not was included in
7 Conclusion experiment and supported with related to the
supported the the report.
supported the incorrect experiment.
hypothesis / theory.
hypothesis / theory. hypothesis /
theory.

1 to 3 days late More than 3 days


8 Submission On the specified date. late after the due
after the due date.
date date.

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B. PSYCOMOTOR DOMAIN

Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs Improvement Unsatisfactory


No Criteria (4 marks) (3 marks) (2 marks) (1 mark) (0 mark)

Understand
Understand and Moderately Did not
and followed
able to follow Understand but understand and understand
1 Ability to follow procedures
directions as moderately followed moderately and did not
procedures but not in
stated in the lab procedures. followed the follow
sequence.
sheet. procedures. directions.

Group
members are
able to Group members are
Group members identify and able to identify but
know and able to Group members are Group members
Demonstrated explain unable explain
2 identify and to unable to identify or are not able to
knowledge of necessary necessary tools to
explain necessary use tools without both identify and
tools tools to complete the
tools to complete major assistance. use tools.
of the experiment. complete the experiment with
experiment some assistance.
with some
assistance.

Group was
Group was able to Student was
able to Group was able to
Level of complete the Group was able to unable to
3 complete the complete the task
needed experiment without complete the task complete task
experiment with little
assistance assistance and able with assistance. even with
to help other group. without assistance.
assistance.
assistance.

Able to
distribute the
Unable to
Able to distribute the task between Able to distribute Able to distribute the
distribute task
task between group group the task between task between group
between group
4 Ability to members, cooperate members, group members, members, unable to
members, unable
work in group well and able to partially unable to cooperate cooperate and
to cooperate and
achieve correct cooperate but but able to achieve unable achieve
result. unable to get the
able to correct result. correct result.
correct result.
achieve
correct result.

Able to finish
the Able to finish the Able to finish the Unable to finish
5 Able to finish the
Time experiment experiment experiment partially experiment
experiment correctly
Management partially correctly but out of correct and out of correctly in the
in time given.
correct in time time given. time given. time given.
given.

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MALAYSIAN POLYTECHNIC
MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE AND COMPUTER DEPARTMENT

DBS1012 - ENGINEERING SCIENCE LAB WORK REPORT


EXPERIMENT: ____________________________________
NAME MATRIX NO

GROUP
MEMBERS

LECTURER’S
NAME
(TO BE FILLED UP BY LECTURER)
DATE OF SUBMISSION
LECTURER’S
COMMENTS

RUBRICS
MARKS
NO ITEM
4 3 2 1 0
COGNITIVE
1. Procedures
2. Diagrams/Drawings
3. Data
4. Calculations
5. Analysis
6. Questions
7. Conclusion
8. Submission Date
PSYCHOMOTOR
1. Ability To Follow
Procedures
2. Demonstrated Knowledge
Of Tools
3. Level Of Needed
Assistance
4. Ability To Work In Group

5. Time Management

TOTAL MARKS / 50
EXPERIMENT 1: PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND MEASUREMENT

OBJECTIVES
1. To expose students to use measurement equipment and right measurement techniques
2. To obtain derived quantities from base quantities.

INFERENCES
1. Base quantities are the quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other quantities.
2. Derived quantities are physical quantities derived from the base quantities through
multiplication, division or both.

HYPOTHESIS
1. Measuring physical quantities precisely.
2. Differentiate between base and derived quantities.

EXPERIMENT 1a

APPARATUS
1. Wooden Block -1
2. Ruler -1
3. Vernier Caliper -1
4. Beam Balance / Electronic Balance -1

PROCEDURES
1. Measure the dimension of the wooden block by using ruler and Vernier Caliper.
2. Weigh the mass of the wooden block by using Beam Balance / Electronic Balance.
3. Record all the data in the Table 1a.
4. Calculate density by using formula;

mass m  kg 
   3
volume V  m 

DATA
Table 1a

DIMENSION READING

Ruler Vernier Caliper

ZERO ERROR

Height, h 4.8 cm 48 mm 5.13cm 51.3 mm


0.048 m 0.0513 m
46 mm 48.2 mm
Width, w 4.6cm 4.82cm
0.046 m 0.0482 m
Length, l 48 mm 5.13cm 51.3 mm
4.8cm
0.048 m 0.0513 m
Mass, m 80 g
0.08 kg
14400 mm
3
126850 mmg3
Volume, V 14.4cm 3 126.85cm kg3
1.44x10 m 1.2685x10 m

5690 650
Density,

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EXPERIMENT 1b

APPARATUS
1. Coin 20 cent -1
2. Micrometer Screw Gauge -1

PROCEDURES

1. Measure the dimension of the coin 20 cent by using Micrometer Screw Gauge.
2. Record all the data in Table 1b.
*Note: Use the formula below to get the volume of the glass rod

d 2l
V
4

DATA
Table 1b

MICROMETER SCREW GAUGE

ZERO ERROR : mm

READINGS Average Actual value = average–zero error

1 2 3

Diameter, d mm
23.96mm 23.96mm 23.52mm 23.81mm
m

Thickness, l mm
1.51mm 1.90mm 1.66mm 23.97mm
m

Volume , d 2 l mm 3
V
4 m3

ANALYSIS

QUESTION

1. State the precautionary steps to avoid errors in the experiment.


2. From the experiment 1(a), is there any difference between using ruler and Vernier caliper? Give your
reason.

3. What do you understand with consistency and accuracy from experiment 1(b)?

CONCLUSION

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EXPERIMENT 2: LINEAR MOTION
OBJECTIVES
1. To determine displacement, velocity and acceleration of a linear motion.
2. To analyze linear motion of a moving object.

INFERENCE
1. Linear motion is a motion along a straight line.
2. Displacement is the distance between two locations measured along the shortest path
connecting them in a specified direction
3. Velocity is the rate of change of displacement.
4. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity

HYPOTHESIS
1. Displacement is the shortest distance in a given direction.
2. Velocity is speed in a given direction.
3. Acceleration is the increase of velocity over a period of time.
4. Deceleration is the decrease of velocity over a period of time.

APPARATUS
1. Ticker timer 50Hz -1 6. Jumper wire -2
2. Carbonized ticker tape -1 7. Ruler -1
3. Runway -1 8. Lab jack/clamp -1
4. Power supply -1 9. Cellophane tape
5. Trolley -1 10. Graph paper and glue

PROCEDURES
1. Set up apparatus as in Figure 2a.
2. The runway is inclined about 1m – 2m, so that the trolley will roll down freely from rest
without any applied force.
3. Attach the ticker tape to the trolley using cellophane tape.
4. Switch on the ticker timer and release the trolley freely.

Figure 2a

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Figure 2b

5. Mark and number every 10th dot as Figure 2b.


6. Cut and paste ticker tape into 10-dot strips on the graph paper as Figure 2c.
(Ignore the last ticker tape if it does not have complete 10 dots)

Note:
1. Frequency of ticker-timer is 50Hz. Therefore, 1 dot or 1 unit time represents 1/50
second or 0.02 second.
2. Time for 10 dots = 10 dots x 0.02 seconds = 0.2 seconds

Figure 2c

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DATA

1 Number of 10-dot strips

2 Total time, t total = number of strips x 0.2 s

3 Total displacement of the trolley m


Average velocity of the trolley
4 m/s
v = total displacement
total time
5 Acceleration of the trolley
a. Initial velocity
length of first strip m/s
u=
time for 10 dots
b. Final velocity
length of last strip m/s
v=
time for 10 dots
c. Time for acceleration, t s
(number of strips – 1) x (time for 10 dots)
d. Acceleration
v-u m/s2
a=
t
Average velocity
6 v+u m/s
v ave rage =
2

ANALYSIS

QUESTIONS

1. Is there any difference in the value of average velocity between Result 4 and 6?
Explain your answer.

2. Sketch the dots recorded on a ticker tape that shows:


a. Uniform Speed
b. Increasing Speed (acceleration)
c. Decreasing Speed (deceleration)

3. From your result, state the motion of the trolley

CONCLUSION

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EXPERIMENT 3: MOMENT OF FORCES

OBJECTIVE
To check the moment of forces in equilibrium.

INFERENCES
1. Moment of force is measure of its tendency to rotate an object about some point.
2. It can be calculated using the following equation:

Moment = Force x Perpendicular distance


M =Fxd

4. Moment in equilibrium is sum of moment rotating clockwise equals sum of moment rotating
anticlockwise

HYPOTHESIS
1. Sum of moment rotating anticlockwise equal to sum of moment rotating clockwise.
2. Sum of force acting upward equal to sum of force acting downward.
3. The moment of force is equal to the magnitude of the force multiplied by the
perpendicular distance between its line of action and the axis of rotation.

APPARATUS
1. Spring Balance (10 N) -2
2. Stainless Steel ruler -2
3. Wooden Meter Ruler/Ruler with Binder Holes -1
4. Retort Stand -2
5. Masses (10 gm) - 30
6. Hanger (10 gm) -3
7. String -1
8. Scissor -1

PROCEDURES

1. Set up the apparatus as Figure 3.


2. Ensure that the beam is in the horizontal position and at the same height.
3. Record the earlier reading of the spring.
4. Place three weights which are not of the same weight on the beam with conditions:
a) The distance of weight 1 (should not exceed spring balance A).
b) The distance of weight 2 (between spring balance A and B).
c) The distance of weight 3 (should exceed spring balance B).
5. Record the reading of x1, x2, x3, x4 and x5.
6. Record the reading of spring balances and the value of weights into the table.
7. Repeat the above procedures by using different weights.

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Figure 3

DATA

Earlier Reading

1. Spring balance A = ___ N

2. Spring balance B = ___ N

Weight (N)
Addition Value Addition Value
W1 W2 W3 of Spring of Spring
Balance A (N) Balance B (N)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

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Distance (meter)

x1 x2 x3 x4 x5

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Moment (Nm)

W 1x 1 W 2x2 W 3x3 Ax4 Bx5

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Total of moment (Nm)


%
Error
W 1x 1 + W 2x2 + W 3x3 = Ax4 + Bx5

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

ANALYSIS

QUESTIONS

1. Is W 1x 1 + W 2x2 + W 3x3 = Ax4 + Bx5 ? If not, gives 2 reasons.

2. Is W 1 + W 2 + W 3 = A + B? Why?

CONCLUSION

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EXPERIMENT 4: PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

OBJECTIVE
To show the principle of conservation of energy

INFERENCES:
1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be changed from one form to another. The total of
energy in the universe is constant.
2. Gravitational potential energy,
3. Kinetic energy,

HYPOTHESIS
The gravitational potential energy, will be transform to kinetic energy and the magnitude of the
gravitational potential energy will be equal to the magnitude of kinetic energy, .

APPARATUS
1. Friction compensated runway -1
2. Trolley -1
3. Ticker timer 50Hz -1
4. 12V AC Power supply -1
5. Slotted mass -1
6. Pulley -1
7. Ruler (1m) -1
8. Carbonized ticker tape -1
9. Cellophane tape -1
10. Polystyrene sheet / Soft board -1
11. Inextensible string -1
12. Electronic balance -1
13. Wooden block -1

PROCEDURES

1. Measure the mass of the trolley, and slotted mass, by using electronic balance.
2. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 4.
3. Attach one end of the ticker tape to the back of the trolley and the other end is passed through the
ticker timer.
4. Tie one end of the string to the trolley and the other end to the slotted mass. (The string must pass
through the pulley).
5. Measure the height, of the slotted mass from the soft board / polystyrene sheet by using a ruler.
6. Switch on the ticker timer and release the trolley, so the slotted mass falls and the trolley is pulled
along the runway.
7. Measure the length, of the last 10 dots strip of the ticker tape. Calculate the final velocity, of the
slotted mass and trolley.
8. Calculate potential energy, and kinetic energy, and record in Table 4.

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Figure 4

DATA

Table 4

Mass of the trolley, m kg


1

Mass of the slotted mass, m kg


2

Height of slotted weight before released m

Gravitational potential energy of the slotted weight, = m 2gh J

Length of the last 10 dots strip, cm


m

Time of a 10 dots strip, s

-1
Final velocity of trolley and weight, ms

Kinetic energy of the trolley and the slotted weight, ( ) J

Loss of energy , J

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ANALYSIS

QUESTIONS

1. State the law of conservation of energy.


2. State the energy changes that involved in the experiment.
3. Is the value of gravitational potential energy, is the same value as kinetic energy, ?
Explain why?

CONCLUSION

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EXPERIMENT 5: ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE
OBJECTIVE
To determine the buoyant force from Archimedes’ Principle.

INFERENCE
1. Archimedes` Principle states that “When an object is immersed in a fluid (liquid or gas), the
buoyant force (up thrust force) on the object is equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the
object”.
2. Gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 ms-2

HYPOTHESIS
The buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the water displaced.

APPARATUS
1. Retort stand -1
2. Spring balance / Electronic balance -1
3. 3 Set of Block (Wood, Metal, Plastic) -1
4. Beaker -2
5. Eureka beaker -1
6. Scissor -1
7. String

PROCEDURES
1. Weigh the mass of empty beaker.
2. Hang the spring balance at the arm of retort stand.
3. Tie the wooden block and hang to the spring balance.
4. Record the weight of the block in the air as Figure 5a.
5. Fill the Eureka beaker with water.
6. Set the apparatus as Figure 5b.
7. Then, lower the arm of the retort stand tied with the block gently.
8. Let the block arise/sink in water.
9. Record the weight of the block.
10. Water will be displaced from eureka beaker into the other beaker.
11. Record the mass of the displaced water in the beaker.
12. Repeat the above procedures by using the plastic and metal blocks.

Figure 5a Figure 5b 12
DATA

a. Mass of empty beaker =_______________g

Weight of block (N)

Mass of Significant
beaker Weight of loss of
In the air T1 (N) In the water T2 water
Type of with block
Blocks (N) displaced displaced weight % Error
(N) F B = T1
water (g)
–T2

Trial 1 Trial 2 Average Trial 1 Trial 2 Average


Wood

Plastic

Metal

ANALYSIS

QUESTION

1. Why do some objects:


a. float when placed in water
b. sink when placed in water

2. From the experiment, which block has a greater buoyant force for it to float?

CONCLUSION

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EXPERIMENT 6: ENERGY IN THERMAL SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES
1. To gain thermal equilibrium.
2. To determine final temperature.

INFERENCE
Thermal equilibrium is achieved when two substances reach the same temperature and
exchange to heat energy.

HYPOTHESIS
The final temperature obtained from experiment will be the state in which the temperature of
two substances reached the equal temperature at a certain time.

APPARATUS
1. Mercury thermometer -1
2. Beaker (50ml and 250ml) -2
3. Styrofoam -1
4. Bunsen burner or electric kettle -1
5. Balance or electronic balance -1
6. Hot hand protector -1
7. Tripod stand and wire gauze -1
8. Lighter gun -1

PROCEDURES
1. Weight the mass of an empty beaker / styrofoam and
record as m1.
2. Fill 100ml tap water into the beaker / styrofoam. Measure
mass of the beaker with tap water and record as m 2.
3. Read the initial temperature of tap water and
record as T1.
4. Fill another empty beaker with 100ml water.
5. Boil the tap water by using electric kettle or Bunsen burner
about 10 minutes.
6. Read the temperature of the hot water and record as T2 as
Figure 6.

If using styrofoam Figure 6

7. Pour 100ml hot water into the styrofoam containing 100ml


tap water gently. Weight the mass of the Styrofoam and
record as m3

If using beaker

7. Pour 100ml tap water into the beaker containing 100ml


hot water gently. Weight the mass of the beaker and
record as m3

8. Stir the mixture slowly about 10 seconds. Record the final


temperature as Tfinal

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DATA

Mass, m gram Temperature, T ºC


Empty beaker / Styrofoam, m 1
Tap water, T1
Beaker / Styrofoam with 100ml tap
water, m 2 Hot water, T2
Beaker / Styrofoam with 200ml
mixture water (100ml tap water with The mixture, Tfinal
100ml hot water), m 3

Table 6a Table 6b

Use the values from the Table 6a and 6b above to answer the following question:

Mass of tap water = mcold = m2 – m1 g


Mass of hot water = mhot = m3 – m2 g
Mass of water mixture = mcold + m hot g

CALCULATION

Calculate Tfinal by using the following equation:-

Tfinal = [ (mhot x Thot) + (mcold x Tcold ) ]


( mhot + mcold )

Tfinal (from experiment)

Tfinal (from calculation)

% Error = ( | theoretical - actual | / theoretical) x 100


(same as 100 - % yield)

ANALYSIS

QUESTION

1. Does the final temperature in this experiment is equal with the final temperature in calculation?

2. If both of the final temperatures are not the same, explain why and relate to thermal equilibrium
principle?

CONCLUSION

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REFERENCES

Main:

Zainal Abidin Sulaiman, Azizan Ismail, Nor Sabirin Mohamed, Ri Hanum Yahaya Subban, Hashlina
Rusdi, Izlina Supa’at, Norazlin Zainal, Ungku Ferwani Salwa Ungku Ibrahim (2010). College
Matriculation Physics Semester I & II. IPTA Publications. (ISBN: 978983399338)

Additional:

Poh , L. Y (2010). Pre-U Text STPM Text Physics Term 1, Kuala Lumpur : Pelangi Sdn. Bhd. (ISBN: 978-
9-8300-5965-5)

David Sang, Graham Jones, Richard Woodside, Gurinder Chadha (2010). Cambridge International As
and A level : Physics Coursebook. Cambridge University Publisher. (ISBN: 9780521183086)

Lin Poh Tin (2011). Akses@Cerdik Tingkatan 4 Physics (Bilingual). Cerdik Publications. (ISBN:
9789837033818)

Yeoh Ti Pheng, KK Chuan, S. Nagappan, Ooi Boon Thai (2010). Spotlight SPM Physics. Pan Asia
Publications Sdn. Bhd. (ISBN: 9789673350520)

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