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EXISTING HIGH RISE BUILDING

Abhijeet Chavan1, Prof. P. R. Barbude2

1Student, Dept. of Civil Engineering, DMCE, Maharashtra, India

2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, DMCE, Maharashtra, India

---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract -The basic concept of performance based earthquake resistant design. For special moment

seismic design is to provide engineers with the capability resisting RC frame structures (SMRF) R value is given as

to design buildings that have a predictable and reliable 5. While designing the RC structure R value is taken as 5

performance in earthquakes. The performance based in all situations and with expectation of very high

seismic design is a process that permits design of new ductility. Code does not explain all necessary

buildings or upgrade of existing buildings with a realistic circumstances of SMRF. Thus it is essential to study the

understanding of risk of life, occupancy and economic real behaviors of RC buildings in through non-linear

loss that may occur as a result of future earthquake. analysis and suggest the circumstance which affects the

Pushover analysis is a simplest method for performance response of the structure.

based seismic analysis. This paper represents, the

performance point of the RCC structure, a non linear This factor is unique and different for different type of

static pushover analysis has been conducted by using structures and materials used. Hence classification of

SAP2000v 19. To achieve this objective two existing Response modification factor for various structural

high-rise buildings of 21, 30 storey existing buildings are systems is extremely important in order to do evaluation

analyzed with zone factor of 0.16 i.e. zone III as per IS based on demand (earthquake ground motion) and

1893-2002 and also found the Capacity curve and capacity of the structure.

Response reduction factor.

1.2 RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR:

Key Words: Pushover analysis; Non linear static

analysis; Performance point; Response reduction factor; Response reduction is used to scale down the elastic

SAP2000 v19. response of the structure. This factor is unique and

different for different type of structures and materials

1 INTRODUCTION used. The structure is allowed to be damaged in case of

severe shaking. Hence, structure is designed for seismic

Earthquake in the simplest terms can be defined as force much less than what is expected under strong

Shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth shaking if the structure were to remain linearly elastic.

resulting from underground movement along a fault

plane. The vibrations produced by the earthquakes are As stated earlier, Response reduction factor is the most

due to seismic waves. Of all the factors accounted for, in important factor for seismic design of structure.

any building design, seismic waves are the most Response reduction factor takes into account the

disastrous one. Conventional seismic design in codes of nonlinearity of structure and reduces the elastic

practice is entirely force-based, with a final check on response of structure. As per global standard codes such

structural displacements. Seismic design follows the as ATC-40, FEMA 273 this factor has been defined as

same procedure, except for the fact that inelastic function of ductility factor, Strength factor, redundancy

deformations may be utilized to absorb certain levels of factor and damping factor.

energy leading to reduction in the forces for which

structures are designed. This leads to the creation of the R = Rs * Rμ * R ξ * RR ………….. (1.1)

Response Reduction Factor (R factor); the important

Where,

parameter that accounts for over-strength, energy

absorption and dissipation as well as structural capacity Rs is strength factor,

to redistribute forces from inelastic highly stressed

regions to other less stressed locations in the structure. R μ is ductility factor,

1.1 NEED FOR STUDY Rξ is damping factor and

IS 1893 (Part 1):2002 gives the value of Response RR is Redundancy Factor.

Reduction Factor (R), for lateral load resisting system. IS

13920-1993 gives the ductility requirement for

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 650

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 08 | Aug 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

1.2.1 STRENGTH FACTOR (RS): on the structural system adopted. It is obvious that a less

redundant structural system is to be designed for a

The maximum lateral strength of building (Vu) will higher seismic force demand. ASCE 7 recommends a

generally exceed the design lateral strength (Vd) of redundancy factor RR= 1.0 for systems with parallel

building because the members or elements are designed frames and the same is adopted for this work as the case

with capacities substantially greater than design actions study structures fall in this category.

and material strength also exceed specified nominal

strengths. Thus the strength factor or over-strength

factor is defined as ratio of ultimate base shear to design

base shear.

Rs = ……………………(1.2)

(whole structure) response of framing system and not

the component of that system. It is measured as ratio of

ultimate or maximum base shear to base shear

corresponding to yield (Ve). Ductility factor shows

response of structure in terms of its plastic deformation

capacity. It depends upon ductility level (μ) and time

Fig -1: Concept of Response Reduction Factor

period of system. In this study, the formulation proposed

by T. Paulay and M. J. N. Priestley is used that divides the 1.2.5 RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ACCORDING TO

time period of the structure for calculating ductility DIFFERENT SEISMIC CODE:

reduction factor.

Table -1: Values of R for RC framed structures as per IS

Rμ = 1.0 for zero-period structures 1893 part 2002

Rμ = 2μ – 1 for short-period structure (1.3)

Structural systems R

Rμ = μ for long period structure Ordinary moment resisting frame (OMRF) 3.0

Rμ = 1+ (μ-1) T/0.70 (0.70 s < T < 0.3) Special moment resisting frames ( SMRF) 5.0

Where, ‘μ’ is given by μ = Δu / Δy, where Δu is Ductility shear wall with SMRF 5.0

ultimate deformation and Δy is yield deformation.

Table -2: Values of R for RC framed structures, as per

1.2.3 DAMPING FACTOR (Rξ): ASCE7 (2005)

The damping factor (Rξ) accounts for the effect of ‘added’ Structural Response System over

viscous damping and is primarily applicable for systems modification strength

structures provided with supplemental energy coefficient, (R) factor (0 )

dissipating devices. Without such devices, the damping

factor is generally assigned a value equal to 1.0 and is Ordinary moment 3.0 3.0

excluded from the explicit components of response resisting frame

reduction factor used in force-based design procedures.

Intermediate 5.0 3.0

1.2.4 REDUNDANCY FACTOR (RR): moment frame

Special moment 8.0 3.0

The redundancy factor RR is measure of redundancy in a frame

lateral load resisting system. In RC structures, the

moment resisting frames, shear walls or their

combinations are the most preferred lateral load

resisting systems. Sometimes, the central frames are

only designed for gravity loads and the perimeter frames

are designed as the lateral load resisting systems. Thus

the redundancy in lateral load resisting systems depends

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 651

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 08 | Aug 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Table -3: Values of behaviour factor for RC framed Table -7: Values of R for RC framed structures, as per

structures as per EC 8 (1998) Egypt code (1988)

Medium ductile class( DCM) 3.90 Structural system Ductility R

RC moment resisting frame Sufficient 7

High ductile class (DCH) 5.85

Not sufficient 5

1.3 PUSH OVER ANALYSIS:

(2001) and Mexico code (2003)

A Pushover analysis is non-linear static analysis

Response Modification Factor Comparison procedure in which a lateral load profile is applied to

Structural system Period Japan Mexico structure and then incrementally increased by scaling

factor until the displacement at the same point on

RC moment resisting T = 0.1 sec 3.3 2.5 structure reaches a specified target displacement.

frame Pushover analysis monitors the progressive stiffness

T = 1.0 4 4

degradation of structure as it is loaded into post elastic

sec

range of behavior.

Table -5: Values of R for RC framed structures, as per Pushover analysis can be performed as either force-

Australian and Newzealand code (2007) controlled or displacement controlled depending on the

physical nature of the load and the behavior expected

Structural system R from the structure. Force-controlled option is useful

when the load is known (such as gravity loading) and the

Ordinary moment resisting frame (OMRF) 2.6 structure is expected to be able to support the load.

Intermediate moment resisting frames (IMRF) 4.5 Displacement controlled procedure should be used when

specified drifts are sought, where the magnitude of the

Special moment resisting frame (SMRF) 6.0 applied load is not known in advance, or where the

structure can be expected to lose strength or become

Table -6: Values of R for RC framed structures, as per unstable.

Korean code (2009)

2. PROBLEM DEFINATION:

Structural system Response System

In the present study, seismic performance of (G+21) and

modification over-

(G+30) storeys existing high rise buildings designed with

coefficient, (R) strength

different plan as shown in figures are considered. Details

factor (0 )

of building geometry, material properties and load

Special reinforced 8.0 3.0 configurations are shown. Salient features of buildings

concrete moment considered for paper work given in table below.

frame

Table -8: Loads applied on buildings

Intermediate 5.0 3.0

reinforced Salient features

concrete moment

frame Description Building no Building no

1 2

Ordinary 3.0 3.0

reinforced

concrete moment Floor G+21 G+30

frame

Typical floor 21 30

Dead load(KN/M2)

Self Weight

Floor finish 1.5 1.5

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 652

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 08 | Aug 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

3 3 GIVEN BELOW:

thick

External wall 230mm Table -9: Salient features of buildings

4 4

thick

(G+21) BUILDING

Live load(KN/M2)

TOP BOTTOM

Residential floor 3 3 MATERIALS SECTION

RNFT RNFT

Seismic load data Beam

3-12Ф 3-12Ф

300x500

Seismic Zone III III

Beam 2-Ф+1- 2-12Ф+1-

Zone factor (Z) 0.16 0.16 300x500 10Ф 10Ф

From the above details SAP 2000 auto calculated 4-16Ф+6-12Ф

M30 $ Fe500 350x450

earthquake load and assign in to the model.

Column

4-16Ф+6-12Ф

350x400

Column

4-16Ф+6-10Ф

350x400

(G+30) BUILDING

Beam

5-16Ф 5-16Ф

550x650

Beam

5-16Ф 5-16Ф

500x600

4-12Ф 4-16Ф

M30 $ Fe500 400x550

Column

18-16Ф

550x750

16-16Ф

50x650

above mentioned loads applied. After performing non-

linear pushover analysis, results obtained are given

below

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 653

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 08 | Aug 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

3.1.1 DRIFT:

Performance Level in Y

G+21 8000

24

7000

22

20 6000

18

16 5000 A TO B

Base Shear

14

Storey

12

10

4000 B to IO

Drift in X

8

6 Drift in Y 3000 IO to LS

4

2

2000 C

0

0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025

Drift 1000

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Displacement

Chart -1: Storey drift

Chart -3: Capacity Curve in Y direction

Above graph shows the comparison for the variation of

interstorey drift for G+21 floor building with respect to Above graph shows the capacity curve or pushover curve

storey number for earthquake case in X and Y direction i.e. variation of displacement of building with respect to

respectively. In both direction interstorey drift is less base shear. Result shows four stages of performance i.e.

than 0.4% of building height. Operational, Immediate Occupancy, Life Safety and

Collapse Stage.

3.1.2 CAPACITY CURVE:

3.1.3 PERFORMANECE POINT:

Performance Level in X

ATC 40 ( X- direction)

8000

0.18

7000

0.16

Demand

6000 0.14

Capacity

Spectral acceleration

0.12

5000

Base Shear

A to B 0.1

4000

B TO IO 0.08

IO to LS 0.06

3000

C 0.04

2000

0.02

1000 0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Spectral displacement

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Displacement

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 654

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 08 | Aug 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

ATC 40 ( Y- direction) than 0.4% of building height.

0.18

3.2.2 CAPACITY CURVE:

0.16

Demand

0.14

Spectral acceleration

0.12

0.1

16000

0.08

0.06 14000

0.04

12000

0.02

Base Shear

0 10000 A to B

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

8000 B to IO

Spectral displacement

IO to LS

6000

C

Chart -5: Performance Point in Y direction 4000

showing the performance point i.e. intersection of 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

demand curve and capacity curve. Performance point is Displacement

(0.125, 0.236) in X-direction and (0.0883, 0.219) in Y-

direction.

Chart -7: Capacity Curve in X direction

3.2 G+30 BUILDING:

above mentioned loads applied. After performing non-

linear pushover analysis, results obtained are given 16000

below.

14000

3.2.1 DRIFT:

12000

10000 A to B

G+30

Base Shear

32 8000 B to IO

30

28 IO to LS

6000

26

24 C

22 4000

20

Storey

18 2000

16

14 Drift in X

12 0

10 Drift in y 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

8 Displacement

6

4

2

0

0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 Chart -8: Capacity Curve in Y direction

Drift

Above graph shows the capacity curve or pushover curve

i.e. variation of displacement of building with respect to

Chart -6: Storey drift base shear. Result shows four stages of performance i.e.

Operational, Immediate Occupancy, Life Safety and

Above graph shows the comparison for the variation of Collapse Stage.

interstorey drift for G+30 floor building with respect to

storey number for earthquake case in X and Y direction

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 655

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 08 | Aug 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

FACTOR & ITS COMPONENTS:

Time period (T) sec 1.182 1.5588

0.18

0.14

Spectral acceleration

0.12

0.1

Rs 1.655412 1.266612

Demand

0.08

Capacity

0.06

R 3.298429 5.96.265

0.04

0.02

RR 1 1

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Spectral displacement R 1 1

ATC 40 ( Y- direction)

4. CONCLUSIONS:

0.16

Followings are the conclusion made in this study of TWO

0.14

existing high-rise buildings

0.12

First two modes are not in z-direction; i.e. first two

Spectral acceleration

high-rise buildings.

0.08

Demand

Modal mass participation factor in X direction and in Y

0.06 Capacity

direction is greater than 90% in all four existing building,

0.04 hence IS1893 part 1- 2002 clause no.7.8.4.2 is satisfied in

respect of all four existing high-rise buildings.

0.02

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 analysis, but pushover analysis is a simple way to

Spectral displacement explore the non linear behavior of building.

After performing the analysis the base shear at

Chart -10: Performance Point in Y direction performance point is found to be greater than design

base shear in respect of all four existing high-rise

Above graph shows the variation of spectral buildings. Since at the performance point base shear is

displacement with respect to spectral acceleration, also greater than the design base shear hence the building

showing the performance point i.e. intersection of structure is safe under the earthquake loading.

demand curve and capacity curve. Performance point is

(0.0963, 0.215) in X-direction and (0.0949, 0.283). After performing the pushover analysis, performance

stages are obtained in all four existing high-rise

buildings. i.e. immediate occupancy (IO), life safety (LS),

collapse (C) performance stages are obtained.

If performance of building is not safe under

earthquake loading then retrofitting to the beam and

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 656

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 08 | Aug 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

column is necessary between life safety and collapse [7] Bholebhavi Rahul D.1, Inamdar V.M (2016)-An

stages of performance. Evaluation Of Seismic Response Reductionfactor For

Irregular Structures Using Non Linear Static Analysis

Performance of the building decreases when the

sectional sizes of the beams and columns are reduced [8] Dr.Rehan A. Khan (2014) “Performance Based

while keeping same reinforcement. Seismic Design Of Reinforced Concrete Building”

After performing pushover analysis if performance

point is not obtained then there are three way to get that [9] Dr. S. N. Tande ,R. V. Ambekar(2013) “An

Investigation Of Seismic Response Reduction Factor

Increase strength or stiffness of the structure or For Earthquake Resistant Design”

combination theory.

[10] Dr. S.K. Dubey , P.D. Sangamnerkar (2011) –“ Seismic

Increase ductility of the structure. Behaviour Of Asymetric RC Buildings”

Reduce seismic demand by using damping or isolation.

[11] FayaiqueBaig, Syed Ahamed Raza(2016)- “Structural

There is no mathematical basis for the response Performance Of Rigid And Semi Rigid Rc And

reduction factor tabulated in Indian standard design Lightweight Floor System For Multi-Storeyed

code. Buildings”

The values for the roof displacement and base shear

[12] KrutiTamboli, J. A. Amin(2015)- “ Evaluation Of

capacity of the structure at the yield and ultimate levels

Response Reduction Factor And Ductility Factor Of

are obtained and the various components of the ‘R’ factor

Rc Braced Frame”

calculated.

The response reduction factor is different for all this [13] M J N Priestley(2000) “Performance Based Seismic

four existing high-rise buildings because of variation in Design”

geometry of the plan and elevation of buildings, different

[14] M.K. Rahman, M. Ajmal& M. H. Baluch, Z. Celep

material properties, variation in strength and ductility of

(2012)-“ Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis Of An

the building etc.

Eight Story Rc Frame-Shear Wall Building In Saudi

REFERENCES: Arabia”

[1] Sergio Lagomarsino, Andrea Penna, Alessandro [15] Milind V. Mohod (2015) “Effect Of Shape And Plan

Galasco, Serena Cattari (Aug 2013): “TREMURI Configuration On Seismic Response Of Structure”

program: An equivalent frame model for the

nonlinear seismic analysis of masonry buildings.” [16] Mohamed S. Issa, Heba M. Issa (2015)-“ Application

Of Pushover Analysis For The Calculation Of

[2] Barbara Borz, Rui Pinho, Helen Crowley (July2007): Behavior Factor For Reinforced Concrete Moment-

“Simplified pushover-based vulnerability analysis Resisting Frames”

for large-scale assessment of RC buildings.”

[17] Neha P. Modakwar, Sangita S. Meshram, Dinesh W.

[3] Anand Raj.1, Mr. Saravanan M.E.(2016)”Non-Linear Gawatre (2014)-“ Seismic Analysis Of Structures

Analysis Of Reinforced Concrete Framed Structure With Irregularities”

Using SAP”

[18] P.B.Prajapati, Mayur G. Vanza(2014)- “Influence Of

[4] Ashish R. Akhare, Abhijeet A. Maske (2015) Plan Iregularity On Sesimic Response Of Buildings”

“Performance Based Seismic Design Of R.C.C.

Buildings With Plan Irregularity” [19] R.K.L. Su, N.T.K. Lam, H.H. Tsang(2008)- “Seismic

Drift Demand And Capacity Of Non-Seismically

[5] Ana Simões, Rita Bento, Serena Cattari, Sergio Designed Concrete Buildings In Hong Kong”

Lagomarsino (Sept 2014): “Seismic performance-

based assessment of ‘‘Gaioleiro’’ buildings.” [20] Rahul Rana, LiminJin, AtilaZekioglu (2004)

“Pushover Analysis Of A 19 Story Concrete Shear

[6] B.G.NareshKumar, vinashGornale ,Abdullah Wall Building”

Mubashir(2012)-“ Seismic Performance Evaluation

Of R C-Framed Buildings - An Approach To [21] Rakesh Sakale, R K Arora, JitendraChouhan(2016)-

Torsionally Asymmetric Buildings” “Seismic Behavior Of Buildings Having Horizontal

Irregularities”

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 657

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