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Plane and Solid Geometry Formulas Prepared by: RTFVerterra

ASIAN Given four sides a, b, c, d, and sum of


two opposite angles:
10 sides
11 sides
=
=
decagon
undecagon
RADIUS OF CIRCLES
DEVELOPMENT 12 sides = dodecagon Circle circumscribed about a triangle
FOUNDATION A= (s a)(s b)(s c)(s d) abcdcos2  15 sides = quindecagon
(Cicumcircle)
16 sides = hexadecagon
COLLEGE a b c d A circle is circumscribed about a triangle if it
Tacloban City s=
2 Sum of interior angles passes through the vertices of the triangle.
The sum of interior angles of a polygon
A C B D of n sides is:
= or =
2 2 Sum, = (n – 2) 180°
The content of this material is one Circumcenter r
Given four sides a, b, c, d, and two a
of the intellectual properties of Sum of exterior angles of the triangle c
opposite angles B and D:
Engr. Romel Tarcelo F. Verterra of The sum of exterior angles  is equal to
360°. b
Asian Development Foundation Divide the area into two triangles abc
= 360° r=
College. Reproduction of this A = ½ ab sin B + ½ cd sin D
4A T
copyrighted material without
consent of the author is punishable AT = area of the triangle
by law. Circle inscribed in a triangle (Incircle)
Parallelogram Number of diagonals, D
The diagonal of a polygon is the line A circle is inscribed in a triangle if it is tangent to
Part of: B C segment joining two non-adjacent sides. the three sides of the triangle.
Plane and Solid Geometry by d1 The number of diagonals is given by: B
d2 Incenter of
RTFVerterra © October 2003  b n the triangle
D = (n 3)
2
A D AT c
a r= a
PLANE GEOMETRY Given diagonals d1 and d2 and included
angle :
Regular polygons s
s = ½(a + b + c)
r r
Polygons whose sides are equal are called r
A = ½ d1 d2 sin  equilateral polygons. Polygons with equal
PLANE AREAS
 interior angles are called equiangular polygons. A C
Given two sides a and b and one angle A: b
Triangle Polygons that are both equilateral and
B equiangular are called regular polygons. The Circles escribed about a triangle
A = ab sin A
area of a regular polygon can be found by
(Excircles)
Rhombus C considering one segment, which has the form of
a c D an isosceles triangle. A circle is escribed about a triangle if it is
h d1
d2 x Circumscribing tangent to one side and to the prolongation of
 a circle the other two sides. A triangle has three
C A escribed circles.
90°
b x Inscribed
x
Given base b and altitude h B a A R R
   circle ra
A = ½ bh Given diagonals d1 and d2:
A = ½ d1 d2 r   ra
c
Given two sides a and b and included a
x Apothem x ra
angle :
A = ½ ab sin  Given side a and one angle A:
 x b
A = a2 sin A
Given three sides a, b, and c: (Hero’s
Trapezoid x = side ra = A T ; rc = A T ; rb = A T
Formula)
a = angle subtended by the side from the s a s c s b
A = s(s a)(s b)(s c) center
R = radius of circumscribing circle Circle circumscribed about a quadrilateral
a b c h r = radius of inscribed circle, also called the
s= a b A circle is
2 A= h apothem
n = number of sides circumscribed b
2 b
The area under this condition can also be about a r c
solved by finding one angle using cosine law quadrilateral if it
Cyclic Quadrilateral = 360° / n passes through a
and apply the formula for two sides and C
included angle. A cyclic b Area, A = ½ R2 sin n = ½ x r n the vertices of d
quadrilateral is a B c the quadrilateral.
Given three angles A, B, and C and one quadrilateral Perimeter, P = n x
side a: whose vertices d1 n 2
Interior angle = n 180° (ab cd)(ac bd)(ad bc)
a 2 sinB sinC lie on the d2 D r=
circumference of
A= 4Aquad
2 sin A Exterior angle = 360° / n
a
a circle. d Circle Aquad =
The area under this condition can also be
solved by finding one side using sine law and A + C = 180°
A (s a)(s b)(s c)(s d)
B + D = 180°
apply the formula for two sides and included Circumference = 2r = D r s = ½(a + b + c + d)
angle. Area = (s a)(s b)(s c)(s d) D
Area, A = r2 =  D2
Rectangle a b c d 4 Circle incribed in a quadrilateral
s=
2 A circle is b
d Sector of a circle
a inscribed in a
Ptolemy’s theorem quadrilateral
r C r
“For any cyclic quadrilateral, the product of the Arc C = r radians = 
if it is tangent
b 180 to the three
Area, A = ab diagonals equals the sum of the products of the a
2 sides of the c
opposite sides” r 
Perimeter, P = 2(a + b) d1 d2 = ac + bd Area = ½ r2 radians = 

r  r quadrilateral.
360
Diagonal, d = a2 b2 Area = ½ C r O
Aquad d
POLYGONS
Square Note: 1 radian is the angle  such that C = r. r= ; s = ½(a + b + c + d)
s
d There are two basic types of polygons, a convex Segment of a circle C
Area, A = a2 a and a concave polygon. A convex polygon is Aquad = abcd
Perimeter, P = 4a one in which no side, when extended, will pass Area = Asector – Atriangle
a inside the polygon, otherwise it called concave Area = ½ r2 r – ½ r2 sin 
Diagonal, d = a 2 polygon. The following figure is a convex Area = ½ r2 (r – sin ) 
r
polygon.
General quadrilateral
C
4
r
O SOLID GEOMETRY
r = angle in radians
b 3 4
B Area = Asector + Atriangle POLYHEDRONS
5 Area = ½ r2 r + ½ r2 sin  = 360 - 
c 3 5
 Area = ½ r2 (r + sin ) r  r
d1 A polyhedron is a closed solid whose faces are
a polygons.
d2 2
2 Parabolic segment
6
D 2
1 6 Area = bh
A d 1
3 h
Given diagonals d1 and d2 and included Polygons are classified according to the number
angle : of sides. The following are some names of
polygons. Ellipse b
A = ½ d1 d2 sin  Area = a b PRISM
3 sides = triangle
Perimeter, P b
4 sides = quadrangle or quadrilateral a a
5 sides = pentagon a2 b2 A prism is a polyhedron whose bases are equal
6 sides = hexagon P = 2 b polygons in parallel planes and whose sides are
7 sides = heptagon or septagon 2 parallelograms.
8 sides = octagon Prisms are classified according to their bases.
9 sides = nonagon Thus, a hexagonal prism is one whose base is a
Plane and Solid Geometry Formulas Prepared by: RTFVerterra
hexagon, and a regular hexagonal prism has a Like prisms, cylinders are classified according to ELLIPSOID
base of a regular hexagon. The axis of a prism their bases.
is the line joining the centroids of the bases. A Azone = 2rh Z
right prism is one whose axis is perpendicular Fixed straight line Directrix 2
h
to the base. The height “h” of a prism is the Volume = (3r h) b
distance between the bases. 3
a a
Spherical segment c X
h of two bases
r
h Y
h Ab
4
As = 2rh Volume = abc
Ab h 3
2 2 2
Volume = Ab h Volume = (3a 3b h ) b
6 Prolate spheroid
Volume = Ab h
Right circular cylinder Spherical cone or spherical sector Prolate spheroid is formed by revolving the
ellipse about its major (X) axis. Thus from the
r
Rectangular parallelepiped Volume = Ab h = r2 h figure above, c = b, then,
h 4 2
h
r Volume =  ab
Lateral area, AL 3
d2 c AL = Base perimeter h
r r arcsine
AL = 2 r h As = 2b2 + 2ab
d1 e
b
1
a CONE Volume = A zone r = 2 r 2h e= a2 b2 / a
Volume = Ab h = abc 3 3
Lateral area, AL = 2(ac + bc) A cone is the surface generated by a straight Oblate spheroid
Spherical lune and wedge
point, the vertex, and moving along a fixed Prolate spheroid is formed by revolving the
Face diagonal, d1 = a 2 c 2 curve, the directrix. ellipse about its minor (Z) axis. Thus from the
figure above, c = a, then,
Space diagonal, d2 = a2 b2 c 2 Similar to pyramids, cones are classified r r
according to their bases.  4 2
Vertex  Volume = a b
Cube (Regular hexahedron) 3
Volume = Ab h = a3 Ab = base area 2
Lateral area, AL = 4a2 h = altitude ln
As = 2a2 +
Total surface area Lune Wedge e 1e
Generator
AS = 6a2 d2 h
Face diagonal 2 2
a d1 A lune 4r r 
d1 = a 2 Directrix = Alune = PARABOLOID OF REVOLUTION
a  360 90
Space diagonal
a Ab  
d2 = a 3 Vwedge 4 3 r 3 
3 r
= Vwedge =
 360 270 h
Truncated prism 1
Volume = Ab h
AR = area of the right section 3 Spherical polygons 
n = number of sides  r
A spherical polygon is a polygon on the surface 
Right circular cone of a sphere whose sides are arcs of great 1 
r = base radius L circles. Volume = r2h 
h = altitude h n = number of sides; r = radius of sphere 2 
E = spherical excess  3/2
h4 3 

4r  r 2 2 r  

AR B 
a
h2 h3 AL = h 
h1 r 3h2   2  
r
A 4
b     
 r 2 h2
L = slant height = d
h 1 1 2 PRISMOIDAL RULE
Volume = AR Volume = Ab h = r h C
n 3 3 D
Lateral area, AL = r L c
PYRAMIDS 
2
Frustum of a cone Am
A pyramid is a polyhedron with a polygonal base A1 A2
and triangular faces that meet at a common A1 = lower base area
point called the vertex. A2
A2 = upper base area r E
h = altitude Area =
Similar to prisms, pyramids are classified h 180 L/2 L/2
according to their bases. Vertex  E = sum of angles – (n – 2)180°
A1 L
Ab = area of the base Spherical pyramid
h = altit ude,
h
A A A
2  1 1 A 2 Volume =
L
A 4A  A 
perpendicular Volume = A B 6
distance fr om h 3 1 m 2
o  D
the vertex t C The prismoidal rule gives precise values of
r
the base Frustum of right circular cone r volume for regular solid such as pyramids,
Ab R = lower base radius cones, frustums of pyramids or cones, spheres,
and prismoids.
1 r E = spherical excess of the polygon
Volume = A h
3 E = sum of angles – (n – 2)180° SIMILAR SOLIDS
L r 3E
Frustum of pyramid h Volume = Two solids are similar if any two corresponding
540
A frustum of a pyramid is the volume included cubes are similar.
between the base and a cutting plane parallel to SOLID OF REVOLUTION
the base. R
x1 x2 x1 x2
A1 = lower base area
A2 = upper base area L = slant height = h2 (R r)2 Axis of
h = altitude rotation
Volume =
h 2 2

R r Rr  cg
3
A2 Lateral area = (R + r) L x1 x2

x1 x2
h SPHERE R
For all similar solids:
A1 4 3 First proposition of Pappus 
Volume = r 2 3

r The surface area generated by a surface of As1 x 
=  1  and 1  1 
= 
 x  x 
x
 V 
h A A A 1A 2 3 A = 4r2 revolution equals the product of the length of the  V2
Volume =  1 2 Surface area, s generating arc and the distance traveled by its As2
 2  2 
  
3 centroid.
As = L 2 R Where As is the surface, total area, or any

CYLINDERS Spherical segment of one base Second proposition of Pappus corresponding area. The dimension x may be
the height, base diameter, diagonal, or any
A cylinder is the surface generated by a straight The volume area generated by a solid of corresponding dimension.
line intersecting and moving along a closed h revolution equals the product of the generating
plane curve, the directrix, while remaining h area and the distance traveled by its centroid.
parallel to a fixed straight line that is not on or r r
parallel to the plane of the directrix. r r Volume = A 2 R