Formulas of Geometry

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Formulas of Geometry

© All Rights Reserved

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two opposite angles:

10 sides

11 sides

=

=

decagon

undecagon

RADIUS OF CIRCLES

DEVELOPMENT 12 sides = dodecagon Circle circumscribed about a triangle

FOUNDATION A= (s a)(s b)(s c)(s d) abcdcos2 15 sides = quindecagon

(Cicumcircle)

16 sides = hexadecagon

COLLEGE a b c d A circle is circumscribed about a triangle if it

Tacloban City s=

2 Sum of interior angles passes through the vertices of the triangle.

The sum of interior angles of a polygon

A C B D of n sides is:

= or =

2 2 Sum, = (n – 2) 180°

The content of this material is one Circumcenter r

Given four sides a, b, c, d, and two a

of the intellectual properties of Sum of exterior angles of the triangle c

opposite angles B and D:

Engr. Romel Tarcelo F. Verterra of The sum of exterior angles is equal to

360°. b

Asian Development Foundation Divide the area into two triangles abc

= 360° r=

College. Reproduction of this A = ½ ab sin B + ½ cd sin D

4A T

copyrighted material without

consent of the author is punishable AT = area of the triangle

by law. Circle inscribed in a triangle (Incircle)

Parallelogram Number of diagonals, D

The diagonal of a polygon is the line A circle is inscribed in a triangle if it is tangent to

Part of: B C segment joining two non-adjacent sides. the three sides of the triangle.

Plane and Solid Geometry by d1 The number of diagonals is given by: B

d2 Incenter of

RTFVerterra © October 2003 b n the triangle

D = (n 3)

2

A D AT c

a r= a

PLANE GEOMETRY Given diagonals d1 and d2 and included

angle :

Regular polygons s

s = ½(a + b + c)

r r

Polygons whose sides are equal are called r

A = ½ d1 d2 sin equilateral polygons. Polygons with equal

PLANE AREAS

interior angles are called equiangular polygons. A C

Given two sides a and b and one angle A: b

Triangle Polygons that are both equilateral and

B equiangular are called regular polygons. The Circles escribed about a triangle

A = ab sin A

area of a regular polygon can be found by

(Excircles)

Rhombus C considering one segment, which has the form of

a c D an isosceles triangle. A circle is escribed about a triangle if it is

h d1

d2 x Circumscribing tangent to one side and to the prolongation of

a circle the other two sides. A triangle has three

C A escribed circles.

90°

b x Inscribed

x

Given base b and altitude h B a A R R

circle ra

A = ½ bh Given diagonals d1 and d2:

A = ½ d1 d2 r ra

c

Given two sides a and b and included a

x Apothem x ra

angle :

A = ½ ab sin Given side a and one angle A:

x b

A = a2 sin A

Given three sides a, b, and c: (Hero’s

Trapezoid x = side ra = A T ; rc = A T ; rb = A T

Formula)

a = angle subtended by the side from the s a s c s b

A = s(s a)(s b)(s c) center

R = radius of circumscribing circle Circle circumscribed about a quadrilateral

a b c h r = radius of inscribed circle, also called the

s= a b A circle is

2 A= h apothem

n = number of sides circumscribed b

2 b

The area under this condition can also be about a r c

solved by finding one angle using cosine law quadrilateral if it

Cyclic Quadrilateral = 360° / n passes through a

and apply the formula for two sides and C

included angle. A cyclic b Area, A = ½ R2 sin n = ½ x r n the vertices of d

quadrilateral is a B c the quadrilateral.

Given three angles A, B, and C and one quadrilateral Perimeter, P = n x

side a: whose vertices d1 n 2

Interior angle = n 180° (ab cd)(ac bd)(ad bc)

a 2 sinB sinC lie on the d2 D r=

circumference of

A= 4Aquad

2 sin A Exterior angle = 360° / n

a

a circle. d Circle Aquad =

The area under this condition can also be

solved by finding one side using sine law and A + C = 180°

A (s a)(s b)(s c)(s d)

B + D = 180°

apply the formula for two sides and included Circumference = 2r = D r s = ½(a + b + c + d)

angle. Area = (s a)(s b)(s c)(s d) D

Area, A = r2 = D2

Rectangle a b c d 4 Circle incribed in a quadrilateral

s=

2 A circle is b

d Sector of a circle

a inscribed in a

Ptolemy’s theorem quadrilateral

r C r

“For any cyclic quadrilateral, the product of the Arc C = r radians =

if it is tangent

b 180 to the three

Area, A = ab diagonals equals the sum of the products of the a

2 sides of the c

opposite sides” r

Perimeter, P = 2(a + b) d1 d2 = ac + bd Area = ½ r2 radians =

r r quadrilateral.

360

Diagonal, d = a2 b2 Area = ½ C r O

Aquad d

POLYGONS

Square Note: 1 radian is the angle such that C = r. r= ; s = ½(a + b + c + d)

s

d There are two basic types of polygons, a convex Segment of a circle C

Area, A = a2 a and a concave polygon. A convex polygon is Aquad = abcd

Perimeter, P = 4a one in which no side, when extended, will pass Area = Asector – Atriangle

a inside the polygon, otherwise it called concave Area = ½ r2 r – ½ r2 sin

Diagonal, d = a 2 polygon. The following figure is a convex Area = ½ r2 (r – sin )

r

polygon.

General quadrilateral

C

4

r

O SOLID GEOMETRY

r = angle in radians

b 3 4

B Area = Asector + Atriangle POLYHEDRONS

5 Area = ½ r2 r + ½ r2 sin = 360 -

c 3 5

Area = ½ r2 (r + sin ) r r

d1 A polyhedron is a closed solid whose faces are

a polygons.

d2 2

2 Parabolic segment

6

D 2

1 6 Area = bh

A d 1

3 h

Given diagonals d1 and d2 and included Polygons are classified according to the number

angle : of sides. The following are some names of

polygons. Ellipse b

A = ½ d1 d2 sin Area = a b PRISM

3 sides = triangle

Perimeter, P b

4 sides = quadrangle or quadrilateral a a

5 sides = pentagon a2 b2 A prism is a polyhedron whose bases are equal

6 sides = hexagon P = 2 b polygons in parallel planes and whose sides are

7 sides = heptagon or septagon 2 parallelograms.

8 sides = octagon Prisms are classified according to their bases.

9 sides = nonagon Thus, a hexagonal prism is one whose base is a

Plane and Solid Geometry Formulas Prepared by: RTFVerterra

hexagon, and a regular hexagonal prism has a Like prisms, cylinders are classified according to ELLIPSOID

base of a regular hexagon. The axis of a prism their bases.

is the line joining the centroids of the bases. A Azone = 2rh Z

right prism is one whose axis is perpendicular Fixed straight line Directrix 2

h

to the base. The height “h” of a prism is the Volume = (3r h) b

distance between the bases. 3

a a

Spherical segment c X

h of two bases

r

h Y

h Ab

4

As = 2rh Volume = abc

Ab h 3

2 2 2

Volume = Ab h Volume = (3a 3b h ) b

6 Prolate spheroid

Volume = Ab h

Right circular cylinder Spherical cone or spherical sector Prolate spheroid is formed by revolving the

ellipse about its major (X) axis. Thus from the

r

Rectangular parallelepiped Volume = Ab h = r2 h figure above, c = b, then,

h 4 2

h

r Volume = ab

Lateral area, AL 3

d2 c AL = Base perimeter h

r r arcsine

AL = 2 r h As = 2b2 + 2ab

d1 e

b

1

a CONE Volume = A zone r = 2 r 2h e= a2 b2 / a

Volume = Ab h = abc 3 3

Lateral area, AL = 2(ac + bc) A cone is the surface generated by a straight Oblate spheroid

Spherical lune and wedge

point, the vertex, and moving along a fixed Prolate spheroid is formed by revolving the

Face diagonal, d1 = a 2 c 2 curve, the directrix. ellipse about its minor (Z) axis. Thus from the

figure above, c = a, then,

Space diagonal, d2 = a2 b2 c 2 Similar to pyramids, cones are classified r r

according to their bases. 4 2

Vertex Volume = a b

Cube (Regular hexahedron) 3

Volume = Ab h = a3 Ab = base area 2

Lateral area, AL = 4a2 h = altitude ln

As = 2a2 +

Total surface area Lune Wedge e 1e

Generator

AS = 6a2 d2 h

Face diagonal 2 2

a d1 A lune 4r r

d1 = a 2 Directrix = Alune = PARABOLOID OF REVOLUTION

a 360 90

Space diagonal

a Ab

d2 = a 3 Vwedge 4 3 r 3

3 r

= Vwedge =

360 270 h

Truncated prism 1

Volume = Ab h

AR = area of the right section 3 Spherical polygons

n = number of sides r

A spherical polygon is a polygon on the surface

Right circular cone of a sphere whose sides are arcs of great 1

r = base radius L circles. Volume = r2h

h = altitude h n = number of sides; r = radius of sphere 2

E = spherical excess 3/2

h4 3

4r r 2 2 r

AR B

a

h2 h3 AL = h

h1 r 3h2 2

r

A 4

b

r 2 h2

L = slant height = d

h 1 1 2 PRISMOIDAL RULE

Volume = AR Volume = Ab h = r h C

n 3 3 D

Lateral area, AL = r L c

PYRAMIDS

2

Frustum of a cone Am

A pyramid is a polyhedron with a polygonal base A1 A2

and triangular faces that meet at a common A1 = lower base area

point called the vertex. A2

A2 = upper base area r E

h = altitude Area =

Similar to prisms, pyramids are classified h 180 L/2 L/2

according to their bases. Vertex E = sum of angles – (n – 2)180°

A1 L

Ab = area of the base Spherical pyramid

h = altit ude,

h

A A A

2 1 1 A 2 Volume =

L

A 4A A

perpendicular Volume = A B 6

distance fr om h 3 1 m 2

o D

the vertex t C The prismoidal rule gives precise values of

r

the base Frustum of right circular cone r volume for regular solid such as pyramids,

Ab R = lower base radius cones, frustums of pyramids or cones, spheres,

and prismoids.

1 r E = spherical excess of the polygon

Volume = A h

3 E = sum of angles – (n – 2)180° SIMILAR SOLIDS

L r 3E

Frustum of pyramid h Volume = Two solids are similar if any two corresponding

540

A frustum of a pyramid is the volume included cubes are similar.

between the base and a cutting plane parallel to SOLID OF REVOLUTION

the base. R

x1 x2 x1 x2

A1 = lower base area

A2 = upper base area L = slant height = h2 (R r)2 Axis of

h = altitude rotation

Volume =

h 2 2

R r Rr cg

3

A2 Lateral area = (R + r) L x1 x2

x1 x2

h SPHERE R

For all similar solids:

A1 4 3 First proposition of Pappus

Volume = r 2 3

r The surface area generated by a surface of As1 x

= 1 and 1 1

=

x x

x

V

h A A A 1A 2 3 A = 4r2 revolution equals the product of the length of the V2

Volume = 1 2 Surface area, s generating arc and the distance traveled by its As2

2 2

3 centroid.

As = L 2 R Where As is the surface, total area, or any

CYLINDERS Spherical segment of one base Second proposition of Pappus corresponding area. The dimension x may be

the height, base diameter, diagonal, or any

A cylinder is the surface generated by a straight The volume area generated by a solid of corresponding dimension.

line intersecting and moving along a closed h revolution equals the product of the generating

plane curve, the directrix, while remaining h area and the distance traveled by its centroid.

parallel to a fixed straight line that is not on or r r

parallel to the plane of the directrix. r r Volume = A 2 R

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