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Criminal(Law(II(Midterms(

Reviewer(
Notes:(
•  How(to(use:(
•  Thick(Bo=om(Border(within(defini?ons(–(another(way(of(commiCng(the(
crime(
•  Party(underlined(in(case(–(winning(party(/(one(who(got(the(most(out(of(the(
decision(
•  Ellipsis(–(content(is(con?nued(in(the(next(cell.(
•  Cases(and(Doctrines(are(taken(from(our(digest(pool(
•  This(is(by(no(means(complete.(What(is(not(here:(
•  Ar?cles(in(between(–(those(not(in(the(syllabus(
•  Some(elements(in(special(laws(not(in(Reyes(

Good(luck!(
RMigs(
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Crimes'Against'National'Security'and'the'Law'of'Nations
Committed3by3a3
Laurel'v.'Misa3>3No3such3thing3as3 Allegiance3>3reciprocal3duty3of3
Filipino3citizen3or3
suspended3[allegiance3and3 the3citizen3to3fidelity3in3
alien3within3the3 For3conviction:3at3least3
sovereignty].3Allegiance3is3 exchange3for3protection.3
Philippines two3witnesses3to3the3
absolute.3In3occupation,3exercise3
same3overt3act. Sovereignty3resides3from3the3
Committed3 of3the3rights3of3sovereignty3is3
people3and3all3powers3of3
during3war3time suspended.3
government3emanate3from3it.
People'v.'Perez3>3Accused3
[Diff.]3Treasonous3and3not3>3
gathered3women3to3be3raped.3Not3
render3assistance3to3them3as3
treasonous3because3there3is3no3
enemies3and3not3as3
link3of3satisfaction3from3sex3and3a3
individuals
stronger3JP3empire.
People'v.'Prieto3>3Accused,3as3part3 To3be3convicted3by3treason,3
of3JP3forces,3cracked3down3on3 at3least3two3witnesses3must3
A3Filipino3citizen3who3 guerillas.3Guerillas3were3tortured3 testify3to3the3same3overt3act.
levies3war3against3the3 and/or3killed.3Alleged3and3not3 Execution,3torture,3etc.3are3
Philippines3or3adheres3 proven3is3Count343(catching3or3 not3offenses3separate3from3
Treason3
to3her3enemies,3giving3 following3an3American3aviator?) treason.
(Art.3114) 3Art3116:3Misprision3>3
them3aid3or3comfort3 Levy3war3against3 People'v.'Manayao3>3Accused,3as3
persons3owing3allegiance3
within3the3Philippines3 the3government;3
to3the3govt,3w/o3being3a3 part3of3the3Makapili,3plotted3and3 Makapili3is3not3part3of3the3JP3
or3elsewhere adheres3to3 killed3residents3of3Banaban.3 force,3it3is3an3organization3of3
foreigner,3conceals3or3
enemies3by3 Appellant3makes3the3contention3 Fil.3traitors.3Joining3Makapili3
does3not3disclose3
giving3them3aid3 that3he3lost3PH3citizenship,3thus3 did3not3equate3to3loss3of3
knowledge3of3conspiracy3
or3comfort PH3lost3jurisdiction.3Court3did3not3 citizenship.
is3an3accessory
agree.
Two3witness3rule:3(1)3at3least3
People'v.'Adriano3>3Appeal3of3
two3witnesses3must3testify3to3
conviction3for3being3charged3of3
the3SAME3overt3act.3(2)3if3
treason3for3being3a3member3of3
separable,3two3witnesses3
Makapili.3Membership3not3
each3necessary3for3the3
established3by3the3two>witness3
separate3acts.
rule.3SC3disagreed3with3lower3
Mere3membership3
court's3findings3that3the3two>
constitutes3treason.
witness3rule3can3apply3on3different3
Presenting3other3acts3=3to3
days3on3the3same3act.
increase3punishment
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines

Mere3intention3is3
Any3person3 enough.3Not3Necessary3
Without3authority,3 without3authority to3obtain3the3information
enters3a3warship,3fort,3
or3naval3or3military3 CA3616
establishment3or3 Sec31:3unlawfully3
reservation3to3obtain3 Purpose3is3to3 obtaining3or3permitting3
any3information,3 obtain3 to3be3obtained3info3
plans,3photographs,3or3 information affecting3national3
other3data3of3a3 defense
confidential3nature3 The3offender3
relative3to3the3defense3 enters3a3warship,3 Sec32:3unlawful3disclosing3
Espionage3 of3the3PH3archipelago fort,3naval3or3 info3affecting3national3
(Art.31173 military3 defense
and3CA3616) establishment

Being3in3possession,3 Public3officer3or3
by3reason3of3public3 employee
Sec36:3Harboring3or3
office3he3holds,3of3the3 Has3possession3of3 concealing3violators3of3
articles,3data,3or3 information3by3 the3law.
information3referred3 reason3of3his3
to3in3the3preceding3 office
paragraph,3discloses3
Discloses3the3
their3contents3to3a3 Sec37:3Designating3of3
contents3to3a3
representative3of3a3 prohibited3places3by3
representative3of3
foreign3nation. proclamation
a3foreign3nation
Art.3123:3Qualified3Piracy3>3People'v.'Lol?lo'and'Saraw3>3One3
Vessel3is3on3high3
(1)3seized3a3vessel3by3 Dutch3ship3arrived3at3Dutch3East3 Pirates3are3in3law3hostes&
seas3or3PH3
boarding3or3firing3upon3 Indies3and3was3surrounded3by3six3 humani&generis.3Piracy3is3
waters.3High3seas3
Any3person3who,3on3 the3same,3(2)3pirates3 vintas3manned3by3243armed3 punished3by3any3competent3
are3not3included3
Piracy3(Art.3 the3high3seas,3or3in3PH3 have3abandoned3their3 Moros.3Pirates3attacked3the3men,3 tribunal3of3any3country3where3
in3EEZ,3territorial3
122) waters3shall3attack3or3 victims3without3means3of3 raped3women3(Lol>lo3found3to3 the3offender3might3be3found.3
seas,3internal3
seize3a3vessel3or,3not3 saving3themselves,3(3)3 rape3one3woman)3and3placed3 Piracy3has3extra>territorial3
waters,3
being3a3member3of3its3 crime3is3accompanied3by3 holes3in3the3boat3so3the3boat3will3 jurisdiction.3Every3country3is3
archipelagic3
complement3nor3a3 murder,3homicide,3 sink.3Art3153>1563(Penal3Code3on3 obliged3to3prosecute3pirates.
waters.
passenger,3 physical3injuries,3or3rape. Piracy)3still3applies.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
shall3seize3the3whole3 Offenders3not3 People'v.'Siyoh3>3De3Guzmans3
or3part3of3the3cargo3of3 members3of3its3 No.3of3persons3killed3on3the3
were3on3their3way3to3Pilas3to3sell3
said3vessel,3its3 occasion3of3piracy3is3
complement3or3 goods.3They3slept3in3Kiram's3
equipment3or3 immaterial.3Qualified3piracy3is3
passengers house.3Sold3goods3with3Siyoh3and3
personal3belongings3 a3special3complex3crime3
Kiram.3De3Guzman's3boat3were3
of3its3complement3or3 punishable3by3death3
boarded3by3the3boats3of3unknown3
Piracy3(Art.3 passengers regardless3of3no.3of3victims
Attacks/seizes3 men3[coordinated3with3Siyoh]
122)3cont'd the3vessel3or3
People'v.'Rodriguez3>3Rodriguez3
seizes3the3
and3friends3conspired3to3commit3 Death3penalty3is3an3indivisible3
whole/part3of3
the3crime3of3piracy.3Targeted3a3 penalty.3Mitigating3
cargo,3equipment3
boat.3Seized3the3vessel3with3 circumstances3not3
and3belongings.
firearms.3Trial3court3imposed3the3 appreciated.
death3penalty3(PD3532).

Sec32:3imprisonment3
(15yrs)3to3death3if:3(1)3
fired3upon3the3pilot,3
member3of3the3crew3or3
passenger3of3the3aircraft,3
Aircraft3of3 (2)3exploded3or3
Any3person3 Philippines attempted3to3explode3
compelling3a3change3 any3bomb3or3explosive3to3
in3the3course3of3 destroy3the3aircraft,3(3)3
destination3of3an3 crime3is3accompanied3by3
Hijacking3
aircraft3of3Philippine3 murder,3homicide,3
(RA36235)
registry,3or3to3seize3or3 physical3injuries,3or3rape.
usurp3the3control3
thereof,3while3it3is3in3 Person3compels3 Sec33:3unlawful3to3load3or3
flight. the3change3in3the3 carry3in3any3passenger3
course3of3 aircraft3operating3as3a3
destination3or3 public3utility3within3the3
seize3or3usurp3 Philippines,3and3
the3control3 explosive,3flammable,3
thereof,3while3in3 corrosive3or3poisonous3
flight substance3or3material.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Sec33:3Commits3any3acts3
Acts3or3omissions3
punishable3under3
punishable3by3
provisions3of3the3RPC3>3
RPC3or3special3
(1)3Art31223>3Piracy,3(2)3
laws
Art31343>3Rebellion,3(3)3
Objective3is3to3 Art3134>a3>3Coup3d'Etat,3
coerce3 (4)3Art32483>3Murder,3(5)3
government3into3 Art32673>3Kidnapping3and3
giving3into3the3 Serious3Illegal3Detention,3
terrorists'3 (6)3Art33243>3Crimes3
Terrorism3 demands involving3Destruction
(RA39372)
Sec33:3under3Special3Laws3
Results3in3the3 >3(1)3PD316133>3Arson,3(2)3
creation3of3a3 RA369693>3Toxic3
condition3of3 Substances,3(3)3RA352073>3
widespread3and3 Atomic3Energy,3(4)3RA3
extraordinary3 62353>3Anti>Hijacking,3(5)3
fear3and3panic3 PD35323>3Anti>Piracy3and3
among3the3 Anti>Robbery,3(6)3PD3
populace 18663>3Illegal3Possession3
of3Firearms

Sec34.3War3Crimes3>3In3
case3of3int'l3armed3
conflict,3grave3
breaches3of3Geneva3
Crimes3
Conventions3of319493
Against3IHL3
(acts3against3persons3
(RA39851)
or3property)3or'in3case3
of3non>int'l3armed3
conflict,3serious3
violations3of3GC31949.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines

Sec35.3Genocide3>3acts3
with3intent3to3destroy,3
in3whole3or3in3part,3a3
national,3ethnic,3
racial,3religious,3social3
or3any3other3similar3
stable3and3permanent3
Crimes3
group3as3such
Against3IHL3
(RA39851)3
Sec36.3Other3Crimes3
cont'd
Against3Humanity3>3
acts3committed3as3
part3of3a3widespread3
or3systematic3attack3
directed3towards3any3
civilian3population,3
with3knowledge3of3the3
attack.
Crimes'Against'the'Fundamental'Law'of'the'State
The3commission3of3a3 Probable3cause3>3grounds3of3
Must3be3a3public3 crime,3or3violent3insanity3 Umil'v.'Ramos3>3Court3clarifies3 suspicion3are3reasonable3
officer3or3 or3any3other3ailment3 that3mere3suspicion3that3one3 when,3in3the3absence3of3actual3
employee requiring3the3compulsory3 belongs3to3the3CPP3or3NPA3is3not3a3 belief3of3the3arresting3officers,33
confinement3of3the3 valid3ground3for3arrest3without3 the3suspicion3that3the3person3
patient3in3a3hospital3shall3 warrant.3Dural3>3arrested3for3being3 to3be3arrested3is3probably3
Any3public3officer3or3 be3considered3legal3 a3member3of3NPA.3Shot3two3 guilty3of3committing3the3
Arbitrary3 Detains3a3person grounds3for3the3
employee3who,3 policemen.'Umil3>3He3was3among3 offense,3is3based3on3actual3
Detention3 facts3+3good3faith
without3legal3grounds3 detention3of3any3person. the353NPA3members3who3killed3
(Art.3124)
detains3a3person Rule31123Sec36:3Accused3 two3policemen.3Roque'and'
arrested3w/o3a3warrant3>3 Buenaobra3>3arrested3as3NPA3 Not3evidence3of3guilt,3but3
Detention3is3 When3a3person3lawfully3 couriers3and3illegally3possessing3 probable3cause3is3the3reason3
without3legal3 arrested3w/o3a3warrant3 subversive3docs3and3firearms.3 that3can3validly3compel3the3
grounds involving3an3offense3w/c3 Espiritu'>3inciting3sedition.3 peace3officers3to3conduct3an3
requires3a3preliminary3 Nazareno3>3murder. arrest3without3warrant.
investigation,3the
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
An3arrest3without3warrant3
complaint3or3information3 requires3personal3knowledge3
may3be3filed3by3a3 of3the3officer3of3an3act3
prosecutor3w/o3need3of3 committed/committing/will3
People'v.'Burgos'>3While3plowing3
such3investigation3 commit.
the3field,3Burgos3was3arrested3on3
provided3an3inquest3has3 If3an3arrest3w/o3warrant3is3
the3basis3of3the3report3of3
been3conducted3in3 unlawful3at3the3moment3it3is3
Masamlok3alleging3a3forceful3
accordance3with3existing3 made,3generally3nothing3that3
recruitment3to3the3NPA.3The3arrest3
rules.3…3person3arrested3 happened3or3is3discovered3
was3without3warrant.3After3the3
may3ask3for3a3preliminary3 afterwards3can3make3it3
arrest,3they3proceeded3to3search3
investigation3but3must3 lawful.
the3house3for3a3gun.
sign3a3waiver3of3the3 It3cannot3be3presumed3that3a3
provisions3of3Art.3125. waiver3of3rights3/3consent3
existed3by3failure3to3object.
Arbitrary3
Rule31133Sec35:3Arrest3
Detention3 The3public3officers3liable3for3
without3warrant3>3when3 Milo'v.'Salanga'>3Armando3Valdez3
(Art.3124)3 Arbitrary3Detention3must3be3
lawful3>3(a)3when,3in3his3 charged3Barrio3Capt.3Tuvera3of3
cont'd. vested3with3authority3to3
presence,3the3person3to3 Arbitrary3Detention.3CFI3Judge3
detain3or3order3the3detention3
be3arrested3has3 Salanga3granted3the3motion3to3
of3a3crime.3Such3public3
committed,3is3actually3 quash3the3information3on3the3
officers3are3the3policemen3
committing,3or3 ground3that3a3Barrio3Captain3is3not3
and3other3agents3of3law,3the3
attempting3to3commit3an3 one3who3can3be3charged3for3
judges3and3mayors.3A3barrio3
offense;3(b)3when3an3 Arbitrary3Detention.3Salanga3
captain3has3the3duty3to3
offense3has3just3been3 further3explains3that3those3who3
enforce3laws3and3ordinances3
committed3and3he3has3 can3be3arrested3are3peace3officers3
which3are3operative3within3
probable3cause3to3believe3 and3policemen3and3at3that3time,3
the3barrio.3A3Barrio3Captain3is3
based3on3personal3 PD32993was3not3in3effect3>3listing3a3
a3peace3officer3in3the3barrio3
knowledge3of3facts3or3 Barrio3Captain3as3persons3in3
and3he3may3arrest3and3detain3
circumstances;3(c)3person3 authority.
persons3within3legal3limits.
is3a3prisoner
Any3public3officer3or3
Delay3in3 employee3who3shall3 Rule31123Sec37.3now3Rule3
Delivery3of3 detain3any3person3for3 1123Sec36:3lawfully3
Public3officer3or3
Detained3 some3legal3ground3 arrested3requiring3a3
employee
Persons3 and3shall3fail3to3deliver3 preliminary3
(Art.3125) such3person3to3the3 investigation…
proper3judicial
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
authorities3within3a3
period3of3123
Detained3a3
hours[light];3183 EO32723>3now3current3
person3for3some3
hours[correctional]3 definition3of3Art.3125.
legal3ground
Delay3in3 and3363hours3
Delivery3of3 [afflictive]
Detained3
Failure3to3deliver3
Persons3 RA37438:3Rights3of3every3
such3person3to3
(Art.3125)3 person3arrested3>3right3to3
proper3judicial3
cont'd. counsel;3right3to3remain3
authorities3within3
silent,3right3to3be3assisted3
a3specified3time3
by3counsel;3extrajudicial3
according3to3kind3
confession3should3be3
of3penalty
signed3and3in3writing
Rule31263Sec313>3A3search3 Stonehill'v.'Diokno'>3Respondent3 Legality3of3seizure3can3only3
Public3officer3or3 warrant3is3an3order3in3 judges3issued3423search3warrants3 be3contested3only3by3the3
employee writing3issued3in3the3 to3Stonehill3et3al,3as3officers3of3 party3whose3rights3have3been3
name3of3the3People3of3 corporations3in3order3to3look3for3 impaired3thereby.
the3Philippines,3signed3by3 stolen3or3embezzled3proceeds3of3
a3judge3and3directed3to3a3 the3offense3of3violating3Central3
Any3public3officer3or3 peace3officer,3 Bank3Laws,3Tariff3and3Custom3 A3search3warrant3shall3not3
employee3who3shall3 Procures3a3search3 commanding3him3to3 Laws,3IRC3and3RPC.3Warrants3were3 issue3but3upon3probable3
procure3a3search3 warrant search3for3personal3 void3because3it3did3not3pertain3to3 cause3in3connection3to3one3
Search3
warrant3without3just3 property3described3 one3specific3offense.3Search3 specific3offense.
Warrants3
cause,3or,3having3 therein3and3bring3it3to3 warrants3for3residences3are3void3
Maliciously3
legally3procured3the3 the3court and3warrants3for3rooms3are3valid.
Obtained3
same,3shall3exceed3his3 Probable3cause>3such3 Ownership3is3of3no3
(Art.3129)
authority3or3use3 facts3w/c3could3lead3a3 Burgos'v.'Chief'of'Staff3>3Two3 consequence3and3it3is3
unnecessary3severity3 reasonable3discreet3and3 search3warrants3were3issued3 sufficient3that3the3person3
in3executing3the3same prudent3man3to3believe3 against3"Metropolitan3Mail"3and3 against3who3the3warrant3is3
an3offense3has3been3 "We3Forum".3Office3printing3 directed3has3control3or3
No3just3cause
committed3and3that3the3 machines,3equipment,3etc.3were3 possession3of3the3property3to3
object3sought3in3 seized.3It3was3alleged3that3they3 be3seized.
connection3with3the3 were3printing3subversive3 A3mere3conclusion3of3law3
offense3are3in3the3place3 materials. does3not3satisfy3requirement3
sought. of3probable3cause
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
People'v.'Mandoriao'>3Salvio,3an3
INC3minister,3was3expounding3on3
Acts3must3be3directed3
the3topic3that3Jesus3is3not3God3but3
against3religious3practice3
Performed3in3a3 only3man.3The3crowd3became3 Religious3meeting3>3an3
or3dogma3or3ritual3for3the3
place3devoted3to3 unruly3and3some3urged3Mandoriao3 assemblage3of3people3met3for3
purpose3of3ridicule,3as3
religious3worship3 to3go3up3the3stage3and3debate3 the3purpose3of3performing3
mocking3or3scoffing3at3or3
or3during3the3 with3Salvio.3The3place3was3a3 acts3of3adoration3to3a3
attempting3to3damage3an3
celebration3of3 meeting3in3a3public3place3as3stated3 Supreme3Being,3or3to3
object3of3religious3
any3religious3 in3the3permit.3The3rally3was3also3 perform3religious3services3in3
veneration3and3the3act3
ceremony attended3by3non>members3of3INC.3 recognition3of3God.
must3be3abusive,3
It3was3also3held3that3Mandoriao3
insulting3or3obnoxious.
did3not3ridicule3the3religious3
practice.
Anyone3who,3in3a3 People'v.'Baes'>3Baes3filed3a3
place3devoted3to3 complaint3against3three3persons3
religious3worship3or3 for3causing3the3funeral3of3a3 Whether3an3act3offends3the3
Offending3 during3the3celebration3 member3of3"Church3of3Christ"3 feelings3of3the3[religious]3
Religious3 of3any3religious3 being3held3in3accordance3with3the3 should3be3viewed3from3the3
Feelings3 ceremony,3shall3 rites3of3that3sect,3to3pass3through3 latter's3point3of3view3and3not3
(Art.3133) perform3acts3 the3churchyard3fronting3the3parish3 from3that3of3the3offender.
notoriously3offensive3 church3over3the3opposition3of3
to3the3feelings3of3the3 Baes
faithful. Offense3to3feelings3is3 People'v.'Tengson3>3Cepillo3called3
Notoriously3
judged3from3 Tengson,3a3minister3of3"Christ3is3
offensive3to3the3
complainants3point3of3 the3Answer",3to3hold3a3religious3
feelings3of3the3
view.3(But3see3Laurel3 service3for3the3funeral3of3Cepillo's3
faithful
[dissent]3on3Baes) wife.3The3funeral3cortege3was3
Laurel3[dissent]3on3Baes:3
headed3to3a3Roman3Catholic3
Offense3should3be3gauged3by3
cemetery.3The3funeral3coach3
the3nature3of3the3acts3
stopped3in3front3of3the3unfinished3
committed,3and3after3scrutiny3
chapel3and3the3coffin3was3taken3
of3all3facts3viewed3w/o3bias.
out3for3the3last3viewing3of3the3
remains.3Tengson3was3not3able3to3
perform3the3rites3of3his3sect3for3
the3repose3of3the3soul3of3the3
deceased.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
People'v.'Nanoy'>3Nanoy3entered3
into3the3Church3of3Assembly3of3
Offending3 While3the3religious3ceremony3
God3and3attempted3to3grab3
Religious3 was3interrupted,3the3acts3
Lapura,3the3song3leader.3After3the3
Feelings3 must3first3be3notoriously3
commotion,3Zafra3held3the3
(Art.3133)3 offensive3before3being3
accused3and3led3him3outside3the3
cont'd convicted3under3Art.3133.
church.3The3religious3service3was3
discontinued.
Crimes'Against'Public'Order
Enrile'v.'Salazar'>3JPE,3sps.3Panlilio3
Rebellion3>3object3of3the3 and3Honasan3were3charged3with3
Rebellion'or' There3is3no3such3thing3as3a3
movement3is3to3 rebellion3with3murder3and3
insurrection3>3rising3 complex3crime3of3rebellion.3
There3must3be3a3 overthrow3and3supersede3 multiple3frustrated3murder3
publicly3and3taking3 One3of3the3means3by3which3
public3uprising3 existing3government;3 allegedly3committed3during3the3
arms3against3the3gov't3 rebellion3may3be3committed3
and3taking3arms3 Insurrection3>3in3 Aquino3presidency.3The3info3
for3the3purpose3of3 is3engaging3in3war3against3
against3the3 reference3to3a3movement3 against3the3accused3is3that3the3
removing3from3the3 forces3of3government3and3
Government which3seeks3to3merely3 murder3were3committed3in3the3
allegiance3to3the3said3 committing3serious3violence.3
effect3some3change3of3 occasion,3and3not3in3furtherance,3
gov't3or3its3laws,3the3 (People3v.3Hernandez)
minor3importance. of3rebellion.3The3issue3is3to3revisit3
territory3of3the3RP3or3
the3Hernandez3doctrine.
Rebellion,3 any3part3thereof,3or3
People'v.'Dasig3>3Pfc.3Catamora3
Insurrec> any3body3of3land,3 Purpose3is3either3 Political3crimes3are3those3 The3crime3of3rebellion3
noticed383persons3acting3
tion,3Coup3 naval,3or3other3armed3 to3remove3the3 directly3aimed3against3 consists3of3many3acts.3It3is3a3
suspiciously.3He3heard3gunshots3
d'etat3(Art.3 forces,3or3depriving3 allegiance3to3said3 the3political3order,3as3 vast3movement3of3men3and3a3
and3saw3Pfc.3Manatad3on3the3
1343and3134> the3Chief3Executive3or3 Govt3or3its3laws:3 well3as3such3common3 complex3of3intrigues3and3
ground,3shot3by3two3men.3Two3
A) the3Legislature,3wholly3 the3territory3OR3 crimes3as3may3be3 plots.3Acts3committed3in3
teams3of3police3officers3
or3partially,3of3any3 to3deprive3the3CE3 committed3to3achieve3a3 furtherance3of3rebellion3
apprehended3Dasig3and3Nuñez.3
powers3or3 and3Cong.3of3 political3purpose.3The3 through3crimes3in3themselves3
Dasig3confessed3that3he3killed3
prerogatives. powers.3(THE3 decisive3factor3is3the3 are3deemed3absorbed3in3one3
Manatad3and3he3is3part3of3the3
OBJECTIVE) intent3or3motive.3 single3crime3of3rebellion.
NPA.
Coup'd'etat3>3a3swift3
Person33/3persons3 If3not3prosecuted3after3
attack,3accompanied3
belonging3to3the3 and3rebellion3is3
by3violence,3
military3or3police3 successful,3then3it3 Umil'v.'Ramos3(supra)
intimidation,3threat,3
or3holding3any3 becomes3a3legitimacy3
strategy3or3stealth,3
public3office question3of3government.
directed3against3duly
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
constituted3
authorities3of3the3RP,3
Enrile'v.'Amin3>3After3the3case3of3 All3crimes,3whether3
or3any3military3camp3
Committed3by3 Enrile3v.3Salazar,3Enrile3is3once3 punishable3under3a3special3
or3installation,3 RA36968:3Amending3Art.3
means3of3a3swift3 again3charged3for3violation3of3PD3 law3or3a3general3law,3which3
communications3 134,31353and3136.3Art3
attack3 18293Sec31(c),3which3provides3that3 are3mere3components3or3
networks,3public3 1343>3current3definition3
accompanied3by3 it3is3illegal3to3harbor,3conceal,3or3 ingredients,3or3committed3in3
utilities3or3other3 of3Rebellion3and3
violence,3 facilitate3the3escape3of3one3who3 furtherance3thereof,3become3
facilities3needed3for3 Insurrection3as3well3as3
intimidation,3 has3committed3an3offense3under3 absorbed3in3the3crime3of3
the3exercise3and3 adding3Art3134>A3for3the3
threat,3strategy3 existing3penal3laws.3In3the3 rebellion3and3cannot3be3
continued3possession3 crime3of3Coup3d'etat
Rebellion,3 or3stealth information,3he3harbored3and3 isolated3and3charged3as3
of3power,3single3or3
Insurrection concealed3Honasan3in3his3house. crimes3in3themselves.
,3Coup3 simultaneously3carried3
d'etat3(Art.3 out3anywhere3in3the3
1343and3134> Philippines3by3any3 Attack3is3directed3 Art3135:3Penalty3for3 People'v.'Lovedioro3>3SPO33Lucilo3 Political3crimes3are3those3
person3or3persons,3 against3duly3 rebellion3>3liable3are3(a)3 was3off3duty3and3walking3along3 directly3aimed3against3the3
A)3cont'd
belonging3to3the3 constituted3 leaders3and3(b)3 Burgos3St.3when3a3man3walked3 political3order,3as3well3as3such3
military3or3police3 authorities3of3the3 participants;3Art3136:3 beside3him3and3shot3him3dead.3 common3crimes3as3may3be3
holding3any3public3 RP,3or3any3 Conspiracy3and3proposal3 Witness3Armenta3positively3 committed3to3achieve3a3
office3or3employment,3 military3camp,3 to3commit3coup3d'etat3 identified3Lovedioro3as3the3one3 political3purpose.33In3such3
with3or3without3 etc. are3punishable who3shot3the3policeman3dead.3He3 cases,3the3burden3of3
civilian3support3or3 was3charged3of3the3crime3of3 demonstrating3political3
Purpose3of3attack3
participation,3for3the3 Murder.3Lovedioro3presented3the3 motive3falls3on3the3defense,3
is3to3seize3or3 Rebellion3:3continuing;3
purpose3of3seizing3or3 appeal3to3be3charged3of3Rebellion.3 motive3being3a3state3of3mind,3
diminish3state3 coup3d'etat3:3swift3attack.
diminishing3state3 No3proof3was3given3of3his3intent3to3 which3the3accused,3better3
power
power. promote3subversive3ends. than3the3individual,3knows.
Committed3by3 People'v.'Cabrera'>3A3policeman3
persons3who3rise3 posted3on3Calle3Real3had3an3
Following3orders3is3NOT3an3
publicly3and3 encounter3with3PC3soldiers.3A3PC3
essential3element3to3avoid3
tumultuously3in3order3 Art3140:3leader3and3other3 soldier3died.3Other3members3of3
liability3for3sedition.3Sedition3
to3attain3by3force,3 Offenders3rise3(1)3 persons3participating3in3 the3PC3wanted3to3exact3revenge3
Sedition3 also3does3not3make3a3
intimidation,3or3by3 publicly,3and3(2)3 the3sedition3are3liable against3the3police3officer.3They3
(Art.3139) distinction3between3private3
other3means3outside3 tumultuously escaped3their3barracks3and3went3
citizens3and3public3authorities
legal3methods3any3of3 ahead3to3fire3at3the3direction3of3
the3following: Calle3Real3and3Cabildo,3killing3a3
1.3To3prevent3the3 Art3141:3conspiracy3to3 policeman3and3other3innocent3 Acts3cannot3be3absorbed3in3
promulgation3or commit3punishable civilians. sedition.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
execution3of3any3law3
or3holding3of3any3
popular3election Tumultuous3>3disturbance3
Employ3force,3
2.3To3prevent3the3 or3interruption3caused3by3
intimidation3or3
National3Govt,3or3any3 three3or3more3persons3
other3means3
provincial3or3 who3are3armed3or3
outside3of3legal3
municipal3govt,3or3any3 provided3with3means3of3
methods
public3officer3thereof3 violence.
from3freely3exercising3
its3or3his3functions
3.3To3inflict3any3act3of3
hate3or3revenge3upon3
the3person3or3
Socio>political3:3those3of3
Sedition3 property3of3any3public3
power3and3authority3::3
(Art.3139)3 officer3or3employee
Political3:3government.3
cont'd. 4.3To3commit,3for3any3
Socio>political3covers3
political3or3social3end,3
formal3and3informal3
any3act3of3hate3or3 Commits3any3of3
channels3of3power.
revenge3against3 the3five3acts3and3
private3persons3or3any3 objectives3
social3class enumerated3in3
5.To3despoil,3for3any3 Art.3139.
political3or3social3end,3 Magnitude3of3Sedition3is3
any3person,3 limited.3In3absorption:3
municipality3or3 sedition3does3not3imply3
province,3or3the3 acts3over3a3long3period3of3
National3Govt.3of3all3 time.3No3expectations3of3
its3property3or3part3 several3acts.
thereof.
Can3be3committed3by:31.3 US'v.'Tolentino3>3Aurelio3Tolentino3
Any3person,3whom3
Offender3does3 inciting3others3to3the3 is3convicted3of3uttering3seditious3 The3enumeration3of3acts3in3
Inciting3to3 without3taking3any3
not3take3direct3 accomplishment3of3any3 words3against3the3US.3He3wrote3a3 Art.31423is3enunciated3in3the3
Sedition3 direct3part3in3the3
part3in3the3crime3 acts3which3constitute3 drama:3Kahapon,3Ngayon3at3 case3on3how3inciting3sedition3
(Art.3142) crime3of3sedition,3
of3sedition sedition3by3means3of3 Bukas.3The3purpose3was3to3 is3committed3(73ways)
should3incite3others3to3
speeches,3etc. inculcate3hatred3against3the3US.
the3accomplishment
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Incites3others3to3
Cannot3hide3under3the3
of3any3of3the3acts3 the3 2.3Uttering3seditious3
defense3of3intent.3What3is3
which3constitute3 accomplishment3 words3or3speeches3which3
US'v.'Tolentino3(cont'd) considered3for3literary3work3
sedition,3by3means3of3 of3any3of3the3acts3 tend3to3disturb3the3public3
is3the3time3and3place3in3which3
speeches,3 which3constitute3 peace
the3message3was3conveyed.
proclamations,3 sedition
writings,3emblems,3 Espuelas'v.'People3>3Oscar3
Sedition3is3a3limit3against3free3
cartoons,3banners,3or3 3.3Writing,3publishing,3or3 Espuelas3had3his3picture3taken3
Inciting3is3done3 speech3but3within3the3limit3is3
other3representatives3 circulating3scurrilous3 making3it3to3appear3as3if3he3had3
by3means3of3 sufficient3space3for3giving3out3
tending3to3the3same3 libels3against3the3 hanged3himself3from3a3rope3
speeches,3 valid3criticisms3of3the3
end,3or3upon3any3 Government3or3any3of3 suspended3from3the3limb3of3a3tree.3
proclamation,3 judgment3and3conduct3of3
person3or3persons3 the3duly3constituted3 He3then3sent3copies3of3the3
writings,3 authority.
who3shall3utter3 authorities3thereof,3 photograph3to3several3
emblems,3
seditious3words3or3 which3tend3to3disturb3the3 newspapers3along3with3a3suicide3 Dissent3of3Tuason:3The3
cartoons,3
speeches,3write,3 peace letter3written3by3a3fictitious3 criterion3is3a3presence3/3
banners,3or3other3
publish,3or3circulate3 suicide3named3Alberto3Reveniera.3 absence3of3real,3not3
representations3
scurrilous3libels3 The3suicide3letter3consisted3of3 imaginary,3danger3of3the3
Inciting3to3 tending3to3the3
against3the3Govt.33...3 Scurrilous3>3low,3vulgar,3 grievances3to3the3Roxas3 utterance3materializing3or3
Sedition3 same3end
or3which3tends3to3 mean3or3foul administration,3citing3it3as3the3 inciting3others3to3disloyalty3
(Art.3142)3
instigate3others3to3 cause3for3his3suicide.3 against3the3government.
cont'd
cabal3and3meet3
together3for3unlawful3
purposes,3or3which3
suggest3or3incite3
rebellious3
conspiracies3or3riots,3
or3which3lead3or3tend3 Two3rules3to3seditious3
to3stir3up3the3people3 Sedition3:3Act3::3 words:3(a)3clear3and3
against3the3lawful3 Inciting3Sedition3:3 present3danger3rule3and3
authorities3or3to3 Speech (b)3dangerous3tendency3
disturb3the3piece3of3 rule
the3community,3the3
safety3and3order3of3
the3Govt,3who3
knowingly3conceal3
such3evil3practices
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Offender3uses3
force,3
intimidation,3
threats3or3fraud
Any3person3who3shall3
Purpose3of3the3
use3force,3
offender3is3to3
intimidation,3threats3
prevent3any3
or3fraud3to3prevent3
member3from3(a)3
any3member3of3the3
Attending3the3
Congress3from3
meetings3of3
attending3meetings3of3
Congress3(b)3
Congress
expressing3his3
opinions3and3(c)3 Parliamentary3immunity3
Martinez'v.'Morfe'>3Information3is3
casting3his3vote given3because3there3is3a3full3
filed3against3Martinez3for3
Offender3can3be3 recognition3of3the3necessity3
falsification3of3a3public3document3
Violation3of3 any3person3OR to3have3members3of3
while3two3information3was3filed3
Parliamenta> Offender3is3a3 Congress,3and3likewise3
against3Bautista3for3violation3of3
ry3Immunity3 public3officer3or3 members3of3the3ConCon,3
the3Revised3Election3Code.3Both3
(Art.3145) employee entitled3to3the3utmost3
are3members3of3the3Constitutional3
Any3public3officer3or3 Arrests3or3 freedom3to3enable3them3the3
Convention3and3are3invoking3their3
employee3who3shall,3 searches3any3 discharge3of3their3vital3
parliamentary3immunity.3
while3the3Congress3is3 member3of3 responsibilities.
in3regular3or3special3 Congress
session,3arrest3or3 The3arrest3or3
search3any3member3 search3is3
thereof,3except3in3 conducted3in3
case3such3member3has3 regular3or3special3
committed3a3crime3 session
punishable3under3this3
The3member3
code3by3a3penalty3
arrested3has3NOT3
higher3than3prision3
committed3a3
mayor
crime3punishable3
higher3than3
prision3mayor
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Sec31:3if3homicide3or3 Double3jeopardy3only3
murder3is3committed3 People'v.'Quijada'>3Quijada3shot3 appreciated3when3a3person3is3
with3the3use3of3an3 Iroy.3Quijada3was3charged3with3 punished3of3the3same3
A3person3has3a3
unlicensed3firearm,3such3 two3offenses:3murder3and3 offense,3or3while3a3different3
firearm
use3shall3be3considered3 aggravated3illegal3possession3of3 offense,3is3punished3by3both3
as3an3aggravating3 firearms. law3and3an3ordinance.3
Illegal3 Any3person3who3shall3 circumstance. Additional>Element3Test.
Possession3 unlawfully3 RA382943applied3in3this3case3
of3Firearms3 manufactures,3deals3 finally3filling3the3gap3of3
People'v.'Feloteo'?'Feloteo3shot3
(RA382943 in,3acquires,3disposes,3 Quijada.3The3law3provides3
Sotto3using3a3gun3stolen3from3
amending3 or3possesses3any3 that3illegal3possession3is3now3
The3person3 SPO23Adion.
PD31866) firearm. Absorbed3by3rebellion,3 a3special3aggravating3
acquired3the3
insurrection,3sedition,3or3 circumstance3in3murder.
firearm3
attempted3coup3d'etat. People'v.'Narvasa'>3Narvasa,3et3al.3 Art.3223>3retroactivity3in3favor3
unlawfully
were3charged3with3illegal3 of3the3accused.3
possession3of3firearms3and3 Existence3of3the3firearm3must3
murder.3During3the3pendency3of3 be3established3but3need3not3
the3trial,3RA382943was3enacted. be3presented3as3evidence.
Offender3
People'v.'Beltran3>3Ernesto3
employs3force3or3
Persons3in3authority3 Alvarado3was3driving3Calixto3Urbi3
Any3person3or3persons3 intimidation
include:3Policemen,3 home.3When3they3passed,3Beltran3
who,3without3a3public3
Aim3of3the3 municipal3treasurer,3 shouted3"Oki3ni3inayo!"3(Vulva3of3
uprising,3shall3employ3
offender3is3to3 postmaster,3rural3 your3mom!)3and3reported3the3case3 Both3the3mayor3and3the3
force3or3intimidation3
attain3any3of3he3 policemen,3sheriff,3 to3the3Mayor3Quirolgico.3They3 policeman3is3a3person3in3
for3the3attainment3of3
purposes3of3the3 agents3of3the3BIR,3 decided3to3act3on3the3case3and3 authority.
any3of3the3purposes3
crime3of3rebellion3 Malacañang3confidential3 upon3arrival3to3Beltran's3house,3
Direct3 enumerated3in3
or3any3of3the3 agent,3Barangay3Chief3 they3were3shot3at.3Vicente3
Assault3(Art.3 defining3the3crimes3of3
objects3in3the3 Tanod Quirolgico3died3while3the3mayor3
148) rebellion3or3sedition3
crime3of3sedition and3patrolman3got3injured.
OR
There3is3no3public3 Teachers,3etc.3are3
People'v.'Dollantes3>3During3a3
uprising persons3in3authority3but3
social3gathering3in3a3dance3hall,3 A3barangay3captain's3duty3is3
offender3makes3 if3the3purpose3is3to3
the3brgy.3capt.3was3giving3a3speech3 to3enforce3laws3and3
Any3person3who3shall3 an3attack,3 increase3penalty3through3
when3Dollantes3interrupted3him.3 ordinances3within3the3
attack,3employ3force,3 employs3force,3 aggravating3
When3the3brgy.3capt.3asked3him3to3 barangay.
seriously3intimidate3or3 makes3serious3 circumstance,3they3are3
stop,3Dollantes,3et3al.3stabbed3him.
resist3a3person3in3… intimidation3… not3considered3as3such.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3authority3or3any3of3 …3or3makes3a3
his3agents,3while3 serious3
engaged3in3the3 resistance.
performance3of3
Victim3is3a3person3
official3duties3or3on3
in3authority3or3
occasion3of3the3
his3agent
performance3of3
Direct3 official3duties.
Agent3was3
Assault3(Art.3
engaged3in3actual3
148)3cont'd
performance3of3
official3duties,3or3
attacked3by3
reason3of3past3
performance.
There3is3no3public3
uprising
Any3person3who3shall3 There3is3a3person3
confined3in3a3jail3 Alberto'v.'dela'Cruz3>3Eligio3Orbito3
remove3from3any3jail3
or3penal3 is3prosecuted3for3Infidelity3in3the3 If3the3offender3is3a3public3
or3penal3
Custody3of3Prisoner.3He3petitioned3 officer3who3has3custody3or3
Delivering3 establishment3any3 establishment
to3include3Esmeralda3and3Cledera3 charge3of3the3prisoner,3he3is3
Prisoners3 person3confined3 The3offender3 as3co>defendants.3According3to3 liable3for3infidelity3in3the3
from3Jail3 therein3or3shall3help3 removes3 Orbito,3Clereda3wrote3a3note3 custody3of3the3prisoner3(Art.3
(Art.3156) the3escape3of3such3 therefrom3such3 asking3Esmeralda3to3get3five3men3 223)3and3cannot3be3
person,3by3means3of3 person3or3helps3 to3aid3in3construction3work,3which3 prosecuted3under3Art.3156.
violence,3intimidation3the3escape3of3 aided3in3the3escape3of3a3prisoner.
or3bribery. such3person
Offender3is3a3 One3can3escape3only3after3he3
Tanega'v.'Masakayan3>3Tanega3
Any3convict3who3shall3 convict3by3final3 Art.3158:3A3convict3 has3started3serving3his3
was3convicted3of3slander.3From3
evade3service3of3his3 judgment evaded3his3sentence3as3a3 sentence.
Evasion3of3 the3City3Court3to3the3CA,3they3
sentence3by3escaping3 Offender3is3 result3of3a3calamity3who3
Service3of3 found3Tanega3guilty.3Back3to3the3
during3the3term3of3his3 serving3his3 gives3himself3up3after3483 For3the3rule3of3prescription3to3
Sentence3 CFI,3Tanega3failed3to3show3up3to3
imprisonment3by3 sentence3which3 hours3is3entitled3to31/53 run,3the3culprit3should3escape3
(Art.3157) the3trial.3Masakayan3issued3a3
reason3of3final3 consists3in3 deduction3of3the3period3 during3the3term3of3such3
warrant3of3arrest.3Tanega3said3that3
judgment. deprivation3of3 of3his3sentence. imprisonment.
the3penalty3has3prescribed.
liberty
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
People'v.'Abilong'>3Abilong3was3
Spanish3text3of3the3law3is3
Offender3evades3 sentenced3with3destierro,3
Evasion3of3 controlling,3where3sufriendo&
the3service3of3his3 forbidding3him3to3enter3Manila3for3
Service3of3 privacion&de&libertad3means3
sentence3by3 attempted3robbery.3He3was3
Sentence3 deprivation3of3liberty.3This3
escaping3during3 charged3of3evading3service3of3
(Art.3157)3 applies3to3destierro.
the3term3of3his3 sentence3after3going3beyond3the3
cont'd
sentence limits3of3destierro3and3committed3 Dissent3of3Perfecto:3You3
vagrancy. cannot3'escape'3destierro.
Offender3was3a3 Condition3extends3to3 Torres'v.'Gonzales3>3Torres3was3
In3the3same3way3that3the3
convict special3laws. convicted3for3the3crime3of3two3
Any3convict3who,3 grant3of3pardon3is3an3
He3was3granted3a3 Under3Sec364(i)3of3the3 counts3of3estafa.3After3some3time,3
having3been3granted3 executive3prerogative,3under3
Violation3of3 conditional3 Revised3Admin.3Code,3the3 he3was3granted3conditional3
conditional3pardon3by3 Sec364(i)3of3RAC,3if3the3
Conditional3 pardon3by3the3 President3has3the3specific3 pardon.3The3Board3of3Pardons3and3
the3Chief3executive,3 President3reasonably3believes3
Pardon3(Art.3 Chief3Executive power3to3authorize3the3 Parole3recommended3to3revoke3
shall3violate3any3of3the3 that3there3was3a3breach3of3
159) arrest3and3 the3conditional3pardon3since3
conditions3of3such3 He3violated3any3 the3condition,3he3may3order3
reincarceration3of3any3 Torres3has3been3charged3with3203
pardon. of3the3conditions3 his3arrest3and3revoke3the3
convicted3person3granted3 counts3of3estafa3and313count3of3
of3such3pardon. pardon.
pardon3or3parole sedition.3President3revoked3it.
For3quasi>recidivism,3the3
Offender3was3 Second3crime3must3be3a3 People'v.'Dioso3>3Teofilo3Dioso3is3a3 maximum3penalty3is3imposed3
Any3person3who3shall3
already3convicted3 felony3and3not3that3under3 member3of3the3Batang3Mindanao3 for3the3new3penalty3
commit3a3felony3after3
by3final3judgment3 a3special3law.3The3first3 (BM)3gang3in3the3New3Bilibid3 regardless3of3the3presence3or3
having3been3convicted3
of3one3offense crime3can3be3punished3by3 Prison.3Dioso3was3serving3his3 absence3of3mitigating3or3
by3final3judgment,3
Quasi> a3special3law. sentence3for3robbery. aggravating3circumstances.
before3beginning3to3
recidivism3 As3vengeance3for3the3slaying3of3
serve3such3sentence,3 He3committed3a3
(Art.3160) Quasi>recidivism3does3 fellow3gang3member3Balerio,3the3
or3while3serving3the3 new3felony3
not3require3that3the3two3 gang3planned3and3murdered3two3 Required3votes3before3a3
same,3shall3be3 before3beginning3
offenses3are3embraced3in3 members3of3the3rival3“Happy3Go3 person3is3sentenced3of3the3
punished3by3law3for3 to3serve3such3
the3same3title3of3the3 Lucky”3gang.3Abarca3stabbed3 death3penalty.
the3new3felony. sentence3while3
Revised3Penal3Code. Gomez3and3Dioso3stabbed3Reyno.
serving3the3same
Crimes'Against'Public'Interest
Any3person3who3shall3 Forging3the3Great& People'v.'Kong'Leon3>3Kong3Leon3 Counterfeit3also3protects3
Offense3is3differentiated3
Counterfeit3 forge3the3Great3Seal3of3 Seal3of3the3 is3a3goldsmith.3Kong3Leon3was3 against3coins3not3in3regular3
from3falsification3of3
(Art.3161) the3Government3of3 Government3of3 alleged3to3have3been3 circulation3anymore.3This3is3
public3document
the3Philippine… the3Philippines counterfeiting3US3Gold3Coins.3… to3protect3collectors.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…Islands3or3the3 Forging3the3
People'v.'Kong'Leon'(cont'd)3>3
signature3or3stamp3of3 signature3of3the3
Counterfeit3 One3day,3a3police3pretended3that3
the3Chief3Executive President
(Art.3161)3 he3was3about3to3buy3the3
Forging3the3
cont'd counterfeit3coins.3Police3searched3
stamp3of3the3
his3house3and3found3the3materials.
President
Art31643>3any3person3
who3shall3mutilate3
Mutilate3coins3of3
coins3of3the3legal3 Possession3of3or3uttering3
legal3currency3
currency3of3the3PI3or3 false3coins3does3not3
with3the3intent3to3
import3or3utter3 require3that3the3
damage3or3
mutilated3current3 counterfeited3coin3is3
defraud3or3
coins,3in3connivance3 legal3tender.
Mutilation3 another3OR
with3the3mutilator3or3
of3Coins3
importer.
(Art.31643
PD32473>3any3person3
and3PD3247) Importing3or3
who3wilfully3deface,3 What3is3punishable3is3not3
uttering3such3
mutilate,3tear,3burn3or3 merely3actual3or3physical3
mutilated3coins,3
destroy,3in3any3 possession3but3also3
there3must3be3
manner3whatsoever,3 constructive3possession3
connivance3with3
currency3notes3and3 or3the3subjection3of3the3
the3mutilator3or3
coins3issued3by3the3 thing3to3one's3control.
importer
Central3Bank3of3PH.

People'v.'Galano'>3Galano3
By3giving3to3a3
admitted3having3written3the3word3 The3provision3of3Par.313of3Art.3
treasury3or3bank3
"Victory"3in3ink3at3the3back3of3a3 1693contemplates3not3only3
note3or3any3
The3forgery3referred3 one>peso3bill3which3he3gave3to3 the3situations3where3a3
instrument3
to3in3this3section3may3 Also3includes3the3acts3of3 Cruz3as3payment3for3balut3eggs.3 spurious,3false3or3fake3
payable3to3bearer3
Forgery3 be3committed3by3any3 counterfeiting3or3forging3 The3one>peso3paper3bill3is3a3 document,3but3also3the3
or3to3order3
(Art.3169) of3the3following3 said3instruments3and3the3 genuine3pre>war3treasury3 situations3involving3originally3
mentioned3
means:3(refer3to3 acts3of3falsification. certificate3"payable3to3the3bearer3 true3and3genuine3documents3
therein,3the3
elements) on3demand",3which3has3been3 which3have3been3withdrawn3
appearance3of3a3
withdrawn3from3circulation.3It3is,3 or3demonetized,3or3have3
true3and3genuine3
however,3redeemable3at3its3face3 outlived3its3usefulness.
document3OR
value3if3presented3in3the3CB
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
By3erasing,3 Del'Rosario'v.'People'>3Del3
substituting,3 Rosario3et3al3showed3Apolinario3
counterfeiting,3or3 one>peso3bills3and3two>peso3bills3
Forgery3 altering3by3any3 that3were3supposedly3
(Art.3169)3 means3the3 counterfeited3but3in3fact3they3
cont'd figures,3letters,3 were3simply3altered3and3changed.3
words,3or3sign3 Del3Rosario3et3al3contends3that3
contained3 they3cannot3be3convicted3because3
therein. what3is3in3possession3are3real3bills.

Offender3is3a3
public3officer,3 A3document3is3any3
Any3public3officer,3 employee3or3 written3instrument3by3 People'v.'Romualdez3>3Romualdez3
employee,3or3notary3 notary3public which3a3right3is3 was3charged3with3falsification3of3 Bar3exams3are3considered3as3
who,3taking3advantage3 Takes3advantage3 established3or3an3 public3documents,3with3Mabunay3 public/official3documents,3
of3his3official3position,3 of3his3official3 obligation3extinguished. as3an3accomplice.3Romualdez3 since3the3examination3of3
shall3falsify3a3 position altered3Mabunay's3grades3from3 candidates3for3admission3to3
document3committing3 Falsifies3a3 58%3to364%3in3Remedial3Law,363%3 the3bar3is3a3judicial3function.
any3of3the3ff3acts: There3must3be3a3genuine3 to373%3in3Civil3Law.
document3by3
document3that3is3
committing3the3
falsified.
acts3enumerated
Her3claims3on3the3DTR3was3
Intent3to3imitate3 Beradio'v.'CA3>3Beradio3is3an3
Falsification3 Difference3between3 NOT3absolutely3false3because3
or3an3attempt3to3 appointed3election3registrar3for3
(Art.3171) counterfeiting3and3 she3was3still3present3most3of3
imitate COMELEC.3Because3the3nature3of3her3
imitating:3in3 the3time.
job3is3field3work,3she3was3required3to3
counterfeiting,3the3two3
fill3up3and3submit3her3daily3time3
signatures3or3
records3to3the3COMELEC3main3office3
1.3Counterfeiting3or3 handwritings,3the3genuine3
Two3signatures3 in3Manila.3She3requested3to3appear3as3
imitating3any3 and3the3forged,3bear3some3 There3was3no3damage3done3
or3handwritings,3 counsel3for3her3cousins3and3in>laws3in3
handwriting,3 resemblance3to3each3 to3the3government3through3
the3genuine3and3 other;3in3imitating,3there3is3 a3case3before3the3Court3of3Agrarian3
signature,3or3rubric Reforms,3which3the3COMELEC3 the3alleged3falsification,3and3
the3forged,3bear3 no3original3signature,3
granted.3Beradio3claimed3that3she3 therefore3the3documents3
some3 handwriting3or3rubric,3but3 could3not3be3considered3
resemblance3to3 a3forgery3of3a3signature,3 appeared3before3CAR3only3a3few3
minutes3every3day3while3declaring3in3 criminally3falsified
each3other handwriting3or3rubric3that3
her3DTR3that3she3was3present3the3
does3not3exist.
entire3day.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Offender3caused3
it3to3appear3in3a3 Luague'v.'CA3>3After3Iluminado3
document3that3a3 Luague,3a3teacher3clerk3in3Samar,3
person3or3 died,3his3wife3Pilar3Luague3
2.3Causing3it3to3appear3 persons3 encashed3his3salary3warrants,3but3
that3persons3have3 participated3in3an3 because3she3signed3the3name3of3
participated3in3any3act3 act3or3a3 her3husband3as3payee3on3three3
or3proceeding3when3 proceeding treasury3warrants3for3purpose3of3
they3did3not3in3fact3so3 endorsement,3she3was3charged3
Such3person3or3
participate with3Estafa3thru3Falsification3of3
persons3did3not3
Commercial3Document.3She3
in3fact3so3
contends,3however,3that3she3acted3
participate3in3the3
on3good3faith3and3had3no3criminal3
act3or3proceeding
intent3when3she3cashed3the3
paychecks.3She3said3that3a3day3
before3her3husband3died3at3the3
A3person3or3
hospital,3he3instructed3her3to3get3
Falsification3 persons3
the3checks3from3the3District3
(Art.3171)3 participated3in3an3
Supervisor,3which3she3then3used3
cont'd act3or3proceeding
to3pay3for:3the3money3they3owed3
at3the3drugstore;3the3construction3
Such3person3or3 materials3they3bought3for3the3
3.3Attributing3to3 persons3made3 tomb3of3the3deceased;3and3the3
persons3who3have3 statements3in3 materials3used3for3the3coffin,3
participated3in3an3act3 that3act3or3 which3they3purchased3on3credit.
or3proceeding3 proceeding
statements3other3than3
those3in3fact3made3by3 Offender,3in3
them Making3a3
document,3
attributed3to3such3
person3or3persons3
statements3other3
than3those3in3fact3
made3by3such3a3
person3or3persons
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Offender3makes3
in3a3document3
Cabigas'v.'People3>3Cabigas3is3the3
statements3in3a3
Securities3Custodian3of3the3
narration3of3facts
Securities3Section3of3Land3Bank3
He3has3a3legal3 Makati3Branch.3Cabigas3and3his3
obligation3to3 assistant3discovered3the3loss3of363
disclose3the3truth3 treasury3bills3with3a3value3of3P3M.3
of3the3facts3 Reyness,3Cabigas'3assistant,3
narrated3by3him crossed3out3the3last3two3digits3823
4.3Making3untruthful3
and3added3763for3the3serial3
statements3in3a3 Facts3narrated3by3
numbers3A>0000643to3A>0000823of3
narration3of3facts the3offender3are3
the3193treasury3notes.3Cabigas3
absolutely3false
reported3the3incident3to3Pigram,3
the3branch3manager.3Following3
Perversion3of3
day,3Cabigas3prepared3his3report3
truth3in3the3
(DR3SDUC)3wherein3he3indicated3
Falsification3 narration3of3facts3
15333pieces3of3treasury3bills3
(Art.3171)3 was3made3with3
instead3of3159,3to3count3the3
cont'd the3wrongful3
missing3six3bills.
intent3of3injuring3
a3third3person
5.3Altering3true3dates Date3must3be3essential
There3be3an3 People'v.'Senaydiego'?3
alteration3 Senaydiego3and3co.3used3six3
The3change3in3the3public3
(change)3or3 forged3provincial3vouchers3to3
document3must3be3such3 A3person3who3has3in3his3
intercalation3 embezzle3from3the3road3and3
as3to3affect3the3integrity3 possession3a3falsified3
(insertion)3on3a3 bridge3fund.3The3falsity3of3the3
6.3Making3alteration3 of3the3same3or3to3change3 document3and3made3use3of3
document voucher3is3proven3by3the3non>
or3intercalation3in3a3 the3effects3which3it3 it,3taking3advantage3and3
existent3project3for3the3repair3of3
genuine3document3 would3otherwise3 profiting3thereby3raises3the3
the3bridge3in3Barrio3Libertad,3the3
which3changes3its3 produce;3for,3unless3that3 presumption3that3he3is3the3
money3was3not3received3by3the3
meaning It3was3made3on3a3 happens,3there3could3not3 material3author3of3the3
construction3company,3lumber3
genuine3 exist3the3essential3 falsification.
materials3were3never3delivered,3
document element3of3the3intention3
several3documents3and3signature3
to3commit3the3crime.
officials3were3forged,3etc.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Alteration3or3 Siquian'v.'People3>3Manuel3Siquian,3
A3conclusion3of3law3is3a3
intercalation3has3 mayor3of3Angadanan,3Isabela,3was3
proposition3arrived3at3from3
changed3the3 charged3with3the3crime3of3falsification3
of3public3documents3under3Art.3171,3
the3application3of3the3
meaning3of3the3
par.34.3The3criminal3charges3brought3 artificial3rules3of3law3to3the3
document
upon3him3draw3from3the3fact3that3he3 facts3pleaded.
Change3made3the3 appointed3Jesusa3Carreon3to3a3 Wrongful3intent3is3immaterial3
position3that3did3not3and3certifying3 when3what3is3falsified3is3a3
document3speak3
that3funds3existed3for3the3salary3Ms.3
something3false public3document.
Carreon.
People'v.'Villalon3>3Carrera3and3
7.3Issuing3in3 brother3Severo3Carrera3were3owners3
authenticated3form3a3 of3a3parcel3of3land.3Carrera3named3 Falsification3of3a3public3
Falsification3 document3purporting3 This3cannot3be3
respondent3de3Guzman3as3attorney> document3may3be3a3means3of3
(Art.3171)3 to3be3a3copy3of3an3 committed3by3a3private3
in>3fact.3De3Guzman3then3mortgaged3 committing3estafa3because3
cont'd individual3or3by3a3notary3 the3land.3The3mortgage3was3
original3document3 the3falsified3document3is3
public3or3a3public3officer3 foreclosed3and3sold.3Carrera3then3
when3no3such3original3 used3to3defraud3another.3The3
who3does3not3take3 filed3a3case3for3estafa3thru3
exists,3or3including3in3 falsification3is3thus3
advantage3of3his3official3 falsification3against3de3Guzman3
such3a3copy3a3 consummated,3damage3or3
position. because3he3allegedly3forged3and3
statement3contrary3to,3 intent3to3cause3damage3not3
falsified3the3signature3of3Carrera3in3
or3different3from,3that3 being3an3element3of3the3
the3Power3of3Attorney3he3used3to3
of3the3genuine3original crime3of3falsification.3The3
transact3the3mortgage.3De3Guzman3
8.3Intercalating3any3 claims3that3since3the3information3 damage3is3caused3by3the3
instrument3or3note3 charges3the3crime3of3estafa3thru3 commission3of3estafa.3If3so,3
relative3to3the3 falsification,3then3Article3483should3 then3it3forms3a3complex3
issuance3thereof3in3a3 apply3which3supports3the3claim3that3 crime3under3article348.
protocol,3registry,3or3 the3correctional3penalty3prescribes3in3
official3book 103years.

Four3kinds3of3document:3
(1)3Public3document3>3a3
Use3of3
Any3person3who3shall3 Offender3knew3 document3created,3
falsified3
knowingly3introduce3 that3a3document3 executed3or3issued3by3a3
documents3
in3evidence3in3any3 was3falsified3by3 public3official3in3response3
(Art.31723
judicial3proceeding another3person to3the3exigencies3of3the3
3rd3par.) public3service3or3in3
execution3of3which3a3
public3official3intervened.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
False3document3
(2)3Official3>3a3document3
is3embraced3in3
which3is3issued3by3a3 A3driver's3license3is3a3public3
Art31713or3in3any3
public3official3in3the3 document3within3the3purview3
subdivisions3of3 People'v.'Dava3>3Dava3ran3over3
exercise3of3the3functions3 of3Art.31713and3172.
no.313or323of3Art3 two3people3causing3injuries3to3the3
of3his3office.
172 latter.3His3driver's3license3was3
Introduced3said3 (3)3Private3>3a3deed3or3 confiscated3and3submitted3for3
document3in3 instrument3executed3by3a3 evidence.3One3of3the3victim's3
evidence3in3any3 private3person3without3 relative3saw3Dava3driving3a3car.3
The3blank3form3of3the3driver's3
judicial3 the3intervention3of3a3 Knowing3that3Dava's3license3was3
license3(or3other3blank3forms3
proceeding notary3public3or3other3 confiscated,3the3victim's3relative3
of3public3documents)3
person3legally3 filed.3When3asked3about3the3other3
becomes3a3public3document3
Offender3knew3 authorized,3by3which3 license,3Dava3claimed3that3a3friend3
the3moment3it3is3
that3a3document3 document3some3 secured3it3for3him.
accomplished.
was3falsified3by3 disposition3or3agreement3
Use3of3 another3person is3proved,3evidenced3or3
falsified3 set3forth.
documents3 False3document3
(Art.31723 is3embraced3in3 (4)3Commercial3>3any3
3rd3par.)3 Art31713or3in3any3 document3defined3and3
cont'd subdivisions3of3 regulated3by3the3Code3of3
3or3to3the3damage3of3
no.313or323of3Art3 Commerce
another3or3who,3with3
172
the3intent3to3cause3
Use3in3such3 When3the3offender3
such3damage,3shall3
document3(not3in3 commits3on3a3document3
use3any3of3the3false3
judicial3 any3of3the3acts3of3
documents
proceedings) falsification3(171)3as3a3
necessary3means3to3
Use3of3the3false3
commit3another3crime3
document3
(estafa,3theft3or3
caused3damage3
malversation,3the3two3
to3another3or3at3
crimes3form3a3complex3
least3it3was3used3
crime.3However,3the3
with3intent3to3
document3falsified3must3
cause3such3
be3public,3official3or3
damage
commercial.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
People'v.'Cortez'?'Cortez3entered3
the3store3of3Reyes3and3introduced3
Any3person3who3shall3
himself3as3a3BIR3agent.3Cortez3was3
knowingly3and3falsely3
asking3for3a3fee3so3that3he3would3
represent3himself3to3
not3inspect3the3books3anymore.3
be3an3officer,3agent3or3 Falsification3of3a3public3
Reyes3found3out3about3the3“real”3
representative3of3any3 document3may3be3a3means3of3
S.3Begunia3by3going3to3the3BIR3
department3or3agency3 committing3usurpation.
herself3and3verifying3his3identity.3
of3the3Philippine3
Cortez3was3eventually3caught3in3an3
Government3or3of3any3
entrapment3operation3carried3out3
foreign3government3or
by3Reyes3along3with3BIR3agents3
Usurpation3
including3Begunia3himself.
(Art.3177)
Gigantoni'v.'People3>3Gigantoni3
Who,3under3pretense3
went3to3PAL3to3verify3some3
of3official3authority3or3
information.3He3represented3
public3officer3of3the3 himself3as3a3CIS3agent3investigating3 Usurpation3committed3in3
Philippine3 a3case.3He3showed3PAL3his3PC>CIS3 either3two3distinct3acts.3
Government3or3of3any3 identification3card.3PAL3acceded3to3 Prosecution3must3choose3
foreign3government,3 his3requests3and3gave3him3the3 under3which3to3prosecute3the3
or3any3agency3thereof,3 information3he3asked3for.3PAL3 accused.
without3being3lawfully3 learned3that3Gigantoni3was3no3
entitled3to3do3so longer3a3PC>CIS3agent3since3June3
19803as3he3had3been3dismissed.3
Offender3uses3a3
A3fictitious3name3is3any3 Legamia'v.'IAC3>3Corazon3Legamia3
name3other3than3
other3name3which3a3 lived3together3with3Emilio3Reyes3for3
his3real3name
Any3person3who3shall3 person3publicly3applies3to3 193years3until3the3latter’s3death.3They3
He3uses3that3
Use3of3 publicly3use3a3 himself3without3authority3 had3a3son.3Emilio3Reyes3however,3was3
fictitious3name3 married3to3Felicisima3Reyes3during3
fictitious3 fictitious3name3for3the3 of3law.
publicly that3time.3When3Corazon3filed3a3
name3and3 purpose3of3concealing3
That3the3purpose3 letter3claim33for3the3death3benefits,3
concealing3 a3crime,3evading3the3 she3signed3it3with3“Corazon3L.3Reyes”.3
of3the3offender3is3
true3name3 execution3of3a3 She3also3signed3the3voucher3
(a)3to3conceal3the3
(Art.3178) judgment,3or3causing3 evidencing3payment3with3the3same3
crime;3(b)3to3
damage name.3Felicisima3Reyes3filed3a3
evade3the3
execution3of3a3 complaint3due3to3Corazon’s3use3of3
the3surname3“Reyes”.
judgment
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
(c)3to3cause3
damage3to3public3
interest
Use3of3
The3offender3
fictitious3
conceals3(a)3his3
name3and3
Any3person3who3 true3name3and3
concealing3
conceals3his3true3 (b)3all3other3
true3name3
name3and3other3 personal3
(Art.3178)3
personal3 circumstances
cont'd
circumstances Purpose3is3only3
to3conceal3his3
identity
Offender3makes3 Wearing3the3uniform3of3
use3of3insignia,3 an3imaginary3office3is3not3
uniform3or3dress punishable.
Any3person3who3shall3 The3insignia,3
publicly3and3 uniform3or3dress3
improperly3make3use3 pertains3to3an3
Illegal3use3of3 of3insignia,3uniforms3 office3not3held3by3
uniforms3or3 or3dress3pertaining3to3 the3offender3or3
insignia3(Art.3 an3office3not3held3by3 to3a3class3of3
179) such3person3or3to3 persons3of3which3
class3of3persons3of3 he3is3not3a3
which3he3is3not3a3 member
member Insingnia,3
uniform3or3dress3
is3used3publicly3
and3improperly
Any3person,3who3 A3material3matter3is3the3 Diaz'v.'People'?3Diaz3sought3
Accused3made3a3
knowingly3making3 main3fact3which3is3the3 appointment3in3a3school3and3filled3
statement3under3
untruthful3statements3 subject3of3the3inquiry3or3 up3the3prescribed3application3
oath3or3executed3
Perjury3(Art.3 and3not3being3 any3circumstance3which3 sheet3and3swore3to3the3truth3of3
an3affidavit3upon3
183) included3in3the3 tends3to3prove3that3fact,3 the3data.3He3alleged3that3he3
a3material3matter
provisions3of3the3next3 or3any3fact3or3 graduated3at3the3Cosmopolitan3
preceding3articles,3 Statement3or3 circumstance3which3 Colleges3and3Harvardian3Colleges3
shall3testify3under… affidavit… tends3to3… but3he3wasn't3able3to3prove3such.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3was3made3 …3corroborate3or3
before3a3 strengthen3the3testimony3
competent3 relative3to3the3subject3of3
officer,3 inquiry,3or3which3
authorized3to3 legitimately3affects3the3
receive3and3 credit3of3any3witness3who3
…3oath,3or3make3an3 administer3oath testifies.
affidavit3upon3any3 Statement3or3
material3matter3 affidavit,3the3
Perjury3(Art.3 before3a3competent3 accused3made3a3
Material3>3directed3to3
183)3cont'd person3authorized3to3 willful3and3
prove3a3fact3in3issue
administer3an3oath3in3 deliberate3
cases3in3which3the3law3 assertion3of3a3
so3requires. falsehood
Sworn3statement3
Oath3administered3by3a3
or3affidavit3
solemnizing3officer3
containing3the3
(found3in3Administrative3
falsity3is3required3
Code)
by3law
There3be3a3public3
auction
Accused3solicited3
any3gift3or3a3
Any3person3who3shall3 promise3from3any3
Ouano'v.'CA'?'There3was3a3public3
solicit3any3gift3or3 of3the3bidders
Machinatio bidding3for3a3parcel3of3land.3Ouano3
promise3as3a3
ns3in3public3 Such3gift3or3 and3Eschavez3agreed3that3the3
consideration3for3
auctions3 promise3was3the3 latter3will3bid3and3will3induce3the3
refraining3from3taking3
(Art.3185) consideration3for3 opposing3group3from3desisting3
part3in3any3public3
his3refraining3 from3bidding.
auction,
from3taking3part3
in3that3public3
auction
Accused3had3the3
intent3to3cause…
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3the3reduction3
of3the3price3of3
the3thing3
auctioned.
There3be3a3public3
auction
Accused3
attempted3to3
Any3person3who3shall3
Machinatio cause3the3bidders3
attempt3to3cause3
ns3in3public3 to3stay3away3
bidders3to3stay3away3
auctions3 from3that3public3
from3an3auction3by3
(Art.3185)3 auction
threats,3gifts,3
cont'd
promises,3or3any3other3 Done3by3threats,3
artifice3with3the3intent3 gifts,3promises3or3
to3cause3the3reduction3 any3other3artifice
of3the3price3of3the3
Accused3had3the3
thing3auctioned.
intent3to3cause3
the3reduction3of3
the3price3of3the3
thing3auctioned
Crimes'Relative'to'Opium'and'Other'Prohibited'Drugs
Importation3of3
dangerous3drugs3
and/or3controlled3
precursors3and3
Comprehen essential3chemicals
sive3 Sale,3trading,3
Dangerous3 administration,3
Drugs3Act3of3 dispensation,3delivery,3
200233(RA3 distribution3and3
9165) transportation3of3
dangerous3drugs3
and/or3controlled3
precursors3and3
essential3chemicals
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Maintenance3of3a3
dangerous3drug3den,3
dive3or3resort
Being3employees3or3
visitors3of3a3dangerous3
drug3den,3dive3or3
resort
Manufacture3of3
dangerous3drugs3
and/or3controlled3
precursors3and3
essential3chemicals

Illegal3chemical3
diversion3of3controlled3
precursors3and3
Comprehen
essential3chemicals
sive3
Manufacture3or3
Dangerous3
delivery3of3
Drugs3Act3of3
equipment,3
200233(RA3
instrument,3apparatus3
9165)3cont'd
and3other3
paraphernalia3for3
dangerous3drugs3
and/or3controlled3
precursors3and3
essential3chemicals
Possession3of3
dangerous3drugs

Possession3of3
equipment,3
instrument,3apparatus3
and3other3
paraphernalia3for3
dangerous3drugs
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Possession3of3
equipment,3
instrument,3
apparatus,3and3other3
paraphernalia3for3
dangerous3drugs3
during3parties,3social3
gatherings3or3
meetings
Use3of3dangerous3
drugs
Comprehen Cultivation3or3culture3
sive3 of3plants3classified3as3
Dangerous3 dangerous3drugs3or3
Drugs3Act3of3 are3sources3thereof
200233(RA3 Failure3to3maintain3
9165)3cont'd and3keep3original3
records3of3
transactions3on3
dangerous3drugs3
and/or3controlled3
precursors3and3
essential3chemicals
Unnecessary3
prescription3of3
dangerous3drugs
Unlawful3prescription3
of3dangerous3drugs
Crimes'Against'Public'Morals
Any3person3who,3in3
RA392873increased3the3
any3manner,3shall3
penalties3for3illegal3
Gambling3 directly3or3indirectly3
number3games,3
(PD31602) take3part3in3any3illegal3
amending3certain3
or3unauthorized3
provisions3of3PD31602
activities3or3games3of:
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
1.3Cockfighting,3
Illegal3number3games3are3
jueteng,3jai>alai3or3
any3form3of3illegal3
horse3racing3to3
gambling3activity3which3
include3bookie3
uses3numbers3or3
operations3and3game3
combinations3thereof3as3
fixing,3numbers,3bingo3
factors3in3giving3out3
and3other3forms3of3
jackpots/prizes/returns.
lotteries

2.3Cara3y3cruz,3 Lottery3is3a3scheme3for3
pompiang3and3the3like the3distribution3of3prizes3
3.37>113and3any3game3 by3chance3to3obtain3a3
using3dice prize.
4.3Black3jack,3lucky3
nine,3poker3and3its3 Elements3of3lottery:3(a)3
derivatives,3monte,3 consideration;3(b)3
baccarat,3cuajo,3 chance;3(c)3prize,3or3some3
Gambling3 pangguigue3and3other3 advantage3or3inequality3
(PD31602)3 card3games3using3 in3amount3or3value3which3
cont'd plastic3tiles3and3the3 is3in3the3nature3of3a3prize
like
5.3Paik3que,3high3and3
LOI3816:3domino,3bingo,3
low,3mahjong,3domino3
poker3when3not3played3
and3other3games3
with3five3cards3stud,3
using3plastic3tiles3and3
cuajo,3pangguingue3and3
the3like
mahjong,3provided3that3
6.3Slot3machines,3
they3are3played3as3parlor3
roulette,3pinball3and3
games3or3for3home3
other3mechanical3
entertainment;3and3
contraptions3and3
Provided3Further,3That3
devices
they3are3not3played3in3
7.3Dog3racing,3boat3
places3habitually3used3for3
racing,3car3racing3and3
gambling3and3the3betting3
other3forms3of3races
is3not3disguised3to3defeat3
8.3Basketball,3boxing,3
the3intent3of3PD31602,3
volleyball,3bowling,3
are3hereby3exempted.
pingpong3…
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3and3other3forms3of3
individual3or3team3
Raffles3for3charity:3Permit3
contests3to3include3
is3required.3Can3be3
game3fixing,3point3
acquired3from3DSWD.
shaving3and3other3
machinations.
9.3Banking3or3
percentage3game,3or3
any3other3game3or3
scheme,3whether3
upon3chance3or3skill,3
wherein3wagers3
consisting3of3money,3
articles3of3value3or3
representative3of3
value3are3at3stake3or3
made
Gambling3
That3a3gambling3
(PD31602)3
game3was3carried3
cont'd
on3in3an3
Any3person3who3shall3 inhabited3or3 Proof3that3the3game3took3
knowingly3permit3any3 uninhabited3 place3or3is3about3to3take3
form3of3gambling3 place3or3in3any3 place3is3not3necessary.
referred3to3in3the3 building,3vessel3
preceding3 or3other3means3
subparagraph3to3be3 of3transportation
carried3on3in3an3 "Maintainer"3is3the3
inhabited3or3 That3the3place,3
person3who3sets3up3and3
uninhabited3place3or3 building,3vessel3 furnishes3he3means3with3
in3any3building,3vessel3 or3other3means3 which3to3carry3on3the3
or3other3means3of3 of3transportation3 gambling3game3or3
transportation3owned3 is3owned3or3 scheme.3"Conductor"3is3
or3controlled3by3him controlled3by3the3 the3person3who3manages3
offender
or3carries3on3the3
Offender3 gambling3game3or3
permitted3the… scheme.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3carrying3on3of3
Gambling3
such3game,3
(PD31602)3
knowing3that3it3is3
cont'd
a3gambling3game.
1.3Those3who3shall3
This3offense3in3any3of3the3 Test:3Whether3or3not3the3
publicly3expound3or3
forms3mentioned3in3the3 tendency3of3the3matter3
proclaim3doctrines3
article3is3committed3only3 charged3as3obscene3is3to3
openly3contrary3to3
when3there3is3publicity. deprave3or3corrupt3those3
public3morals.
whose3minds3are3open3to3
2.3a.3The3authors3of3
People'v.'Kottinger3>3A3detective3 such3immoral3influences3and3
obscene3literature,3 The3word3"moral"3implies3
raided3Kottinger's3company3for3 into3whose3hands3a3
published3with3their3 conformity3with3the3
the3pictures3of3natives3nude3/3in3 publication3or3other3article3
knowledge3in3any3 generally3accepted3
their3native3costumes. charged3as3being3obscene3
form,3the3editors3 standards3of3goodness3or3
may3fall.3Likewise,3the3test3
publishing3such3 rightness3in3conduct3or3
for3indecency3is3whether3or3
literature;3and3the3 character,3sometimes,3
Immoral3 not3it3shocks3the3ordinary3and3
owners/operators3of3 specifically3to3sexual3
doctrines,3 common3sense3of3men3as3an3
the3establishment3 conduct.
obscene3 indecency.
selling3the3same;
publications3
2.3b.3Those3who,3in3 The3disposition3of3the3
and3
theaters,3fairs,3 literature,3films,3prints,3
indecent3
cinematographs,3or3 engravings,3sculptures,3
shows3(Art.3
any3other3place,3 paintings,3or3other3 Obscene3>3something3
201)
exhibit3indecent3or3 materials3involved3in3the3 offensive3to3chastity,3decency3
immoral3plays,3scenes,3 violation3referred3to3in3 and3delicacy
People'v.'Aparici3>3Aparici3was3in3a3
acts,3or3shows,3it3 Sec313(PD3969)3are3
theater3dancing3with3nothing3on3
being3understood3that3 governed3by3the3ff3rules:3
except3nylon3patches3over3her3
the3obscene3literature3 (a)3upon3conviction3of3
breasts3and3around3her3waste3was3
or3indecent3or3 the3offender3>3to3be3
a3furry3white3girdle.
immoral3plays,3scenes,3 forfeited3in3favor3of3the3
acts3or3shows,3 govt3to3be3destroyed3(b)3
Nudity3not3inherently3
whether3live3or3in3film3 where3the3criminal3case3
indecent3or3obscene.
which3are3proscribed3 against3the3violator3of3
by3virtue3hereof,3shall3 the3decree3results3in3an3
include... acquittal3>3...
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…33to3be3forfeited3in3favor3
…those3which:3(1)3 of3the3govt3to3be3
Fernando'v.'CA'?'The3PNP>CIDG3
glorify3criminals3or3 destroyed3after3forfeiture3
conducted3a3police3surveillance3on3 Miller&Test3>3(a)3whether3to3
condone3crimes;3(2)3 proceedings3conducted3
the3store3bearing3the3name3of3 the3average3person3applying3
serve3no3other3 by3the3Chief3of3
Gaudencio3E.3Fernando3Music3Fair.3 contemporary3standards3
purpose3but3to3satisfy3 Constabulary.3(c)3The3
A3search3warrant3was3issued3 would3find3the3work,3taken3as3
the3market3for3 person3aggrieved3by3the3
against3Fernando3and3Tingchuy3for3 a3whole,3appeals3to3prurient3
violence,3lust3or3 forfeiture3action3of3the3
the3following:3copies3of3the3ff3 interest3(b)3whether3the3work3
pornography;3(3)3 Chief3of3Constabulary3
magazines3–3New3Rave,3IOU3 depicts3or3describes,3in3a3
offend3any3race,3or3 may,3within3153days3after3
Penthouse,3Hustler3International3 patently3offensive3way,3
Immoral3 religion;3(4)3tend3to3 his3receipt3of3a3copy3of3
and3copies3of3VHS3tapes3 sexual3conduct3specifically3
doctrines,3 abet3traffic3in3and3use3 the3decision,3appeal3the3
containing3pornographic3shows.3 defined3by3the3applicable3
obscene3 of3prohibited3drugs;3 matter3to3the3Secretary3
PNP3also3served3a3warrant3on3the3 state3of3law3and3(c)3whether3
publications3 and3(5)3are3contrary3to3 of3National3Defense3for3
store3attendant,3Rudy3Estorninos.3 the3work,3taken3as3a3whole,3
and3 law,3public3order,3 Review.3The3decision3of3
The3police3confiscated3253VHS3 lacks3serious3literary,3artistic,3
indecent3 morals,3good3customs,3 the3Sec.3of3National3
tapes3and3103magazines,3which3 political3or3scientific3value.
shows3(Art.3 established3policies,3 Defense3shall3be3final3and3
they3deemed3pornographic.
201)3cont'd lawful3orders,3decrees3 unappealable.3(Sec32,3PD3
and3edicts 969)

Obscenity3>3no3redeeming3
feature.3An3offense3to3public3
3.3Those3who3shall3 People'v.'Padan'?'Padan3and3co.3 morals,3inspiring3nothing3but3
sell,3give3away,3or3 organized3and3exhibited3a3live3 lust3and3lewdness,3and3
exhibit3films,3prints,3 show. exerting3a3corrupting3
engravings,3sculpture,3 influence3especially3to3the3
or3literature3which3are3 youth3of3the3land.
offensive3to3morals.
The3following3are3 Persons3below3183yrs.3of3
vagrants: age3shall3be3except3from3
1.3Any3person3having3 prosecution3for3the3
Vagrants3
no3apparent3means3of3 crimes3of3vagrancy3and3
and3
subsistence,3who3has3 prostitution3under3Art.3
prostitutes3
the3physical3ability3to3 202,3of3PD315633
(Art.3202)
work3and3who3 (Mendicancy3law)3and3PD3
neglects3to3apply3 16193(sniffing3of3rugby)3>3
himself3or3herself… RA9344
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3to3some3lawful3
PD315633>3One3who3has3
calling;
no3visible3and3legal3
2.3Any3person3found3
means3of3support,3or3
loitering3about3public3
lawful3employment3and3
or3semi>public3
who3is3physically3able3to3
buildings3or3places,3or3
work3but3neglects3to3
tramping3or3
apply3himself3to3some3
wandering3about3the3
lawful3calling3and3instead3
country3or3the3streets3
uses3begging&as&a&means&
without3visible3means3
of&living3is3a3mendicant.
of3support;
3.3Any3idle3or3
dissolute3person3who3
lodges3in3houses3or3ill>
fame;3ruffians3or3
pimps3and3those3who3
Vagrants3 habitually3associate3
and3 with3prostitutes;
prostitutes3 4.3Any3person3who,3
(Art.3202)3 not3being3included3in3
cont'd the3provisions3of3
other3articles3of3this3
Code,3shall3be3found3
loitering3in3any3
inhabited3or3
uninhabited3place3
belonging3to3another3
without3any3lawful3or3
justifiable3purpose;
5.3Prostitutes3>3women3
who,3for3money3or3
profit,3habitually3
indulge3in3sexual3
intercourse3or3
lascivious3conduct,3are3
deemed3to3be3
prostitutes
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Sec34.3It3shall3be3
unlawful3for3any3
person:

a)3to3hire,3employ,3
use,3persuade,3induce3
or3coerce3a3child3to3
perform3in3the3
creation3or3production3
of3any3form3of3child3
pornography
b)3To3produce,3direct,3
manufacture3or3create3
any3form3of3child3
pornography
c)3To3publish,3offer,3
transmit,3sell,3
Child3 distribute,3broadcast,3
Pornograph advertise,3promote,3
y3(RA39775) export3or3import3any3
form3of3child3
pornography
d)3To3possess3any3 Three3or3more3articles3of3
form3of3child3 child3porn3of3the3same3
pornography3with3the3 form3shall3be3prima3facie3
intent3to3sell,3 evidence3of3the3intent3to3
distribute,3publish3or3 sell,3distribute,3publish,3
broadcast or3broadcast
e)3To3knowingly3and3
intentionally3provide3a3
venue3for3the3
commission3of3
prohibited3acts

f)3For3film3distributors,3
theaters3and3
telecommunication…
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3companies,3by3
themselves3or3in3
cooperation3with3
other3entities,3to3
distribute3any3form3of3
child3pornography
g)3for3a3parent,3legal3
guardian3or3person3
having3custody3or3
control3of3a3child3to3
knowingly3permit3the3
child3to3engage,3
participate3or3assist3in3
any3form3of3child3
Child3
pornography
Pornograph
y3(RA39775)3 h)3To3engage3in3
cont'd pandering3of3any3form3
of3child3pornography
i)3To3engage3in3the3
luring3and3grooming3
of3the3child
j)3To3willfully3access3
child3pornography
k)3To3conspire3to3
Conspiracy3>3Two3or3more3
commit3any3
persons3come3to3an3
prohibited3acts3stated3
agreement
in3this3section
l)3To3possess3any3form3
of3child3pornography

It3shall3be3unlawful3for3
Trafficking3
any3person,3natural3or3
of3Persons3
judicial3to3commit3any3
(RA39208)
of3the3following3acts:
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines

a)3to3recruit,3
transport,3transfer,3
harbor,3provide,3or3
receive3a3person3by3
means,3including3
those3done3under3the3
pretext3of3domestic3or3
overseas3employment3
or3training3or3
apprenticeship,3for3
the3purpose3of3
prostitution,3
pornography,3sexual3
exploitation,3forced3
labor,3slavery,3
involuntary3servitude3
Trafficking3
or3debt3bondage
of3Persons3
(RA39208)3
b)3to3introduce3or3
cont'd
match3for3money,3
profit,3or3material,3
economic3or3other3
consideration,3any3
person3or,3as3provided3
for3under3RA36955,3
any3Filipino3woman3to3
a3foreign3national,3for3
marriage3for3the3
purpose3of3acquiring,3
buying,3offering,3
selling3or3trading3
him/her3to3engage3in3
prostitution,3
pornography,3sexual3
exploitation,3forced3
labor...
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3slavery,3involuntary3
servitude,3or3debt3
bondage
c)3to3offer3or3contract3
marriage,3real3or3
simulated,3for3the3
purpose3of3acquiring,3
buying,3offering,3
selling,3or3trading3
them3to3engage3in3
prostitution,3
pornography,3sexual3
exploitation,3forced3
labor3or3slavery,3
involuntary3servitude3
or3debt3bondage
Trafficking3 d)3to3undertake3or3
of3Persons3 organize3tours3and3
(RA39208)3 travel3plans3consisting3
cont'd of3tourism3packages3
or3activities3for3the3
purpose3of3utilizing3
and3offering3persons3
for3prostitution,3
pornography,3sexual3
exploitation
e)3to3maintain3or3hire3
a3person3to3engage3in3
prostitution3and3
pornography
f)3to3adopt33or3
facilitate3the3adoption3
of3persons3for3the3
purpose3of3
prostitution,3
pornography,3…
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3sexual3exploitation,3
forced3labor,3slavery,3
involuntary3servitude3
or3debt3bondage
g)3to3recruit,3hire,3
adopt,3transport3or3
abduct3a3person,3by3
means3of3threat3or3
Trafficking3 use3of3force,3fraud,3
of3Persons3 deceit,33violence,3
(RA39208)3 coercion3or3
cont'd intimidation3for3the3
purpose3of3removal3or3
sale3of3organs3of3said3
person
h)3to3recruit,3transport3
or3adopt3a3child3to3
engage3in3armed3
activities3in3the3PH3or3
abroad
Crimes'Against'Public'Officers
Offender3is3a3
Manipon'v.'Sandiganbayan'?'
Any3public3officer3who3 public3officer3
Difference3with3Art32083>3 Manipon,3a3deputy3sheriff3was3
shall3agree3to3perform3 within3the3scope3
in3Art3210,3the3offender3 assigned3to3enforce3an3order3to3
any3act3constituting3a3 of3Art.3203
refrained3from3doing3his3 execute3the3decision3of3NLRC.3
crime,3in3connection3 Offender3accepts3
official3duty3in& When3Dominguez3asked3for3the3
with3the3performance3 an3offer3or3a3
consideration&of&a&gift& garnishment3to3be3lifted,3Manipon3
Direct3 of3his3official3duties,3in3 promise3or3
received&or&promised.& said3that3they3"can3remedy3the3
Bribery3(Art.3 consideration3of3any3 receives3a3gift3or3
This3element3is3absent3in3 withdrawal3so3they3will3have3
210) offer,3promise,3gift3or3 present3by3
Art.3208. something3for3the3New3Year."3
present3received3by3 himself3or3
Which3Dominguez3took3to3mean3
such3officer,3 through3another
that3Manipon3is3asking3for3a3
personally3or3through3 Such3offer3or3
Direct3bribery3is3a3crime3 consideration3of3money3in3
the3mediation3of3 promise3be3
involving3moral3 exchange3for3lifting3the3
another3x3x3x3if3the3gift3 accepted3or3
turpitude. garnishment.
was3accepted3by... present3…
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3the3officer3in3 PD3463>3make3it3punishable3
consideration3of3the3 for3any3public3official3or3
execution3of3an3act3 employee,3to3receive,3and3 Dacumas'v.'Sandiganbayan3>3
which3does3not3 …3received3by3the3
for3private3persons3to3give,3 Dacumas3is3a3revenue3examiner3of3
constitute3a3crime,3 public3officer3(a)3
or3offer3to3give,3any3gift3to3 the3BIR3San3Pablo.3He3offered3to3
and3the3officer3 with3the3view3to3 any3occasion,3including3
settle3the3tax3liability3of3R.3Revilla3
executed3said3act,3x3x3 committing3some3 Christmas,3when3such3gift3is3 Interior3by3procuring3a3tax3
x3if3the3object3for3 crime3or;3(b)3in3 given3by3reason3of3his3
clearance.3A3fee3of3P35,0003was3
which3the3gift3was3 consideration3of3 official3position,3regardless3
required3by3Dacumas3from3Samia,3
received3or3promised3 the3execution3of3 of3whether3or3not3the3same3 manager3of3the3firm.3The3latter3
was3to3make3the3 an3act3which3 is3for3past3favor3or3favors3or3
pretended3to3approve3of3the3plan3
public3officer3refrain3 does3not3 the3giver3hopes3or3expects3
but3reported3the3matter3to3NBI3
to3receive3a3favor3or3better3
from3doing3something3 constitute3a3 who3then3arranged3an3entrapment3
x3x3x crime3but3the3act3 treatment3in3the3future3
operation.3They3met3near3the3Rizal3
Direct3 must3be3unjust3 from3the3public3official3or3
Café3in3Makati.3The3marked3
Bribery3(Art.3 or;3(c)3to3refrain3 employee3concerned3in3the3
money3which3were3dusted3with3
210)3cont'd from3doing3 discharge3of3his3official3
functions.3Included3within3 fluorescent3powder3and3were3
something3which3
the3prohibition3is3the3 received3by3the3petitioner.3After3
it3is3his3official3
throwing3of3parties3or3 which,3he3was3accosted3by3the3NBI3
duty3to3do entertainments3in3honor3of3 Agents.
the3official3or3employees3or3
his3immediate3relatives.
The3act3which3 PD37493>3Granting3
offender3agrees3 immunity3from3
to3perform3or3 prosecution3to3givers3of3
which3he3 bribes3and3other3gifts3and3
executes3be3 to3their3accomplices3in3
connected3with3 bribery3and3other3graft3
the3performance3 cases3against3public3
of3his3duties officers
Offender3is3a3 Art32033(Public3Officers)3>3
Any3public3officer3who3 public3officer any3person3who,3by3
Indirect3
shall3accept3gifts3 He3accepts3gifts direct3provision3of3the3
Bribery3(Art.3
offered3to3him3by3 The3gifts3are3 law,3popular3election3or3
211)
reason3of3his3office offered3to3him3by3 appointment3by3
reason...3 competent3authority,3…
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3of3his3office
…3shall3take3part3in3the3
performance3of3public3
functions3in3the3
government,3or3shall3
Indirect3
perform3in3said3
Bribery3(Art.3
government3or3in3any3of3
211)
its3branches3public3duties3
as3employee,3agent,3or3
subordinate3official,3of3
any3rank3or3class

Offender3is3a3
public3officer3
entrusted3with3
law3enforcement
If3any3public3officer3is3
entrusted3with3law3 He3refrains3from3
enforcement3and3he3 arresting3or3
refrains3from3arresting3 prosecuting3an3
or3prosecuting3an3 offender3who3has3
Qualified3 offender3who3has3 committed3a3
Bribery3(Art.3 committed3a3crime3 crime3punishable3
211>A) punishable3by3 by3reclusion&
reclusion3perpetua3 perpetua&and/or&
and/or3death3in3 death
consideration3of3any3
offer,3promise,3gift3or3 Offender3refrains3
present3x3x3x from3arresting3or3
prosecuting3in3
consideration3of3
any3promise3or3
gift
Corruption3of3
Any3person3who3shall3 Offender3makes3 Bribery3usually3proved3by3
public3
offers3or3 evidence3acquired3in3
officials3(Art.3 have3made3the3offers3
212) or3promises3or3… promises3or3… entrapment.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3given3the3gifts3or3 …3gives3gifts3or3
Almeda'v.'Perez3>3Almeda3was3 The3procedure3in3RA313793is3
presents3as3described3 presents3to3a3
in3the3preceding3 public3officer charged3with3graft3under3RA313793 civil3in3nature.
articles for3unlawful3acquisition3of3
The3offers3or3
property3not3proportionate3to3his3 Proceedings3under3RA313793
promises3are3
income,3from3unexplainable3 do3not3terminate3in3the3
Corruption3 made3or3the3gifts3
sources.3Almeda3contests3the3 imposition3of3penalty,3but3
of3public3 or3presents3given3
filing3by3the3Solicitor3General3of3an3 merely3in3the3forfeiture3of3
officials3 to3a3public3
amended3petition3for3forfeiture3 properties3illegally3acquired3
(Art.3212)3 officer,3under3
after3Almeda3had3already3 in3favor3of3the3state.3The3
cont'd circumstances3
responded3to3the3original3charge3 proceeding3outlined3in3the3
that3will3make3
of3graft.3Almeda3contends3that3the3 law3leading3to3forfeiture3is3
the3public3officer3
amendments3to3the3petition3are3 provided3for3in3a3civil3action:3
liable3for3direct3
not3valid3without3a3separate3prior3 there3is3a3petition,3then3an3
or3indirect3
investigation. answer,3then3lastly3a3hearing.
bribery
(a)3Persuading,3
Cabal'v.'Kapunan3>3Col.3Jose3C.3
inducing3or3 RA313793>3Procedure3
Maristela3filed3with3the3Secretary3
influencing3another3 under3RA330193to3Declare3
of3National3Defense3a3complaint3
public3officer3to3 Forfeited3in3Favor3of3the3 Proceedings3for3forfeitures3
charging3Cabal,3then3Chief3of3Staff3
perform3an3act3 State3any3Property3Found3 are3generally3considered3to3
of3the3AFP,3with3"graft,3corrupt3
constituting3a3 to3have3been3Unlawfully3 be3civil3and3in3the3nature3of3
practices,3unexplained3wealth,3
Anti>Graft3 violation3of3rules3and3 Acquired3by3a3public3 proceedings3in3rem.3In3some3
and3other3equally3reprehensible3
and3Corrupt3 regulations3duly3 officer3or3Employee.3x3x3x3 aspects,3however,3suits3for3
acts".3The3President3created3a3
Practices3 promulgated3by3 Sec32.3Filing3of3petition3>3 penalties3and3forfeitures3are3
committee3to3investigate.3The3
Act3(RA3 competent3authority3 Whenever3any3public3 of3quasi>criminal3nature3and3
Committee3ordered3petitioner3
3019)3Sec333>3or3an3offense3in3 officer3or3employee3has3 within3the3reason3of3criminal3
herein3to3take3the3witness3stand3in3
Corrupt3 connection3with3the3 acquired3during3his3 proceedings3for3all3the3
the3administrative3proceeding3and3
Practices3of3 official3duties3of3the3 incumbency3any3amount3 purposes3of...3that3portion3of3
be3sworn3to3as
Public3 latter;3or3allowing3 of3property3which3is3 the3Fifth3Amendment3which3
witness3for3Maristela,3in3support3
Officers himself3to3be3 manifestly3out3of3 declares,3that3no3person3shall3
of3his3aforementioned3charge3of3
persuaded,3induced,3 proportion3to3his3salary3x3 be3compelled3in3any3criminal3
unexplained3wealth.3Petitioner3
or3influenced3to3 x3x,3said3property3shall3be3 case3to3be3a3witness3against3
objected3to3the3order3of3the3
commit3such3violation3 presumed3prima3facie3to3 himself.3...
Committee,3invoking3his3
or3offense have3been3unlawfully3
constitutional3right3against3self>
(b)3Directly3or3 acquired.3The3SolGen,3...
incrimination.3...
indirectly3…
Crime Definition Elements Misc Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3requesting3or3 Cabal'v.'Kapunan'(cont'd)3>33The3
...3upon3complaint3by3any3
receiving3any3gift,3 Committee3insisted3that3petitioner3
taxpayer3to3the3city3or3
present,3share,3 take3the3witness3stand3and3be3 ...3In3general,3both3at3
provincial3fiscal3who3shall3
percentage,3or3 sworn3to,3subject3to3his3right3to3 common3law3and3under3a3
conduct3a3previous3
benefit,3for3himself3or3 refuse3to3answer3such3questions3 constitution3provision3against3
inquiry3and3shall3certify3
for3any3other3person,3 as3may3be3incriminatory.3This3 compulsory3self>
to3the3SolGen3that3there3
in3connection3with3 notwithstanding,3petitioner3 incrimination,3a3person3may3
is3reasonable3ground3to3
any3contract3or3 respectfully3refused3to3be3sworn3 not3be3compelled3to3answer3
believe3that3there3has3
transaction3between3 to3as3a3witness3to3take3the3witness3 any3question3as3a3witness3
been3committed3a3
the3gov't3and3any3 stand. which3would3subject3him3to3a3
violation3of3this3Act3and3
other3party,3wherein3 penalty3or3forfeiture,3or3
respondent3is3probably3
the3public3officer3in3 testify3in3action3against3him3
guilty3thereof,3shall3file3in3
his3official3capacity3 for3a3penalty.
the3name3and3on3behalf3
has3to3intervene3
Anti>Graft3 ot3the3Republic3of3the3
under3the3law
and3Corrupt3 Philippines,3in3the3CFI3of3
Republic'v.'IAC'?'Berdon3was3
Practices3 (c)3Directly3or3 the3city3or3province3
charged3in3violation3of3RA31379.3
Act3(RA3 indirectly3requesting3 where3said3public3officer3
Berdon’s3arguments3that3the3
3019)3Sec333>3or3receiving3any3gift,3 or3employee3resides3or3
money3they3used3to3acquire3the3
Corrupt3 present3or3other3 holds3office,3a3petition3 The3law3creates3a3
properties3in3question3came3from3
Practices3of3 pecuniary3or3material3 for3a3writ3commanding3 presumption3against3the3
loans3and3donations;3that3they3
Public3 benefit,3for3himself3or3 said3officer3or3employee3 public3officer3or3employee3
also3had3other3income3for3which3
Officers3 another,3from3any3 to3show3cause3why3the3 who3acquires3property3
they3have3paid3taxes;3that3a3movie3
(cont'd) person3for3whom3the3 property3aforesaid,3or3 grossly3disproportionate3to3
house3said3to3be3theirs3actually3
public3officer3has3 any3part3thereof,3should3 his3income,3i.e.3that3the3
belonged3to3Mrs.3Berdon’s3
secured3or3obtained,3 not3be3declared3property3 property3was3unlawfully3
mother;3that3in3the3SAL3for3
or3will3secure3or3 of3the3State:3Provided,3 acquired.3However,3this3
December331,31967,3there3had3
obtain,3any3gov't3 that3no3such3petition3 presumption3is3juris&tantum,3
been3an3erroneous3disbursement3
permit3or3license,3in3 shall3be3filed3within3one3 and3as3such,3it3may3be3
of3the3P20,000.003face3value3of3
consideration3for3the3 year3before3any3general3 rebutted3by3the3public3officer3
Simplicio’s3insurance3premiums3
help3given/to3be3given election or3employee3by3showing3to3
when3only3the3semi>annual3fee3of3
the3satisfaction3of3the3court3
(d)3Accepting3or3 P427.663should’ve3been3declared3
that3his3acquisition3of3the3
having3any3member3of3 Sec35.3Hearing3>3the3court3 as3disbursed.3Both3the3TC3and3the3
property3was3lawful.
his3family3accept3 shall3set3a3date3for3a3 IAC3ruled3that3the3Berdon3spouses3
employment3in3a3 hearing,3which3may3be3 have3no3unexplained3wealth,3thus3
private3enterprise3 open3to3the3public dismissing3the3charge3against3
which3has3pending3… them.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3official3business3
with3him3during3the3 Morfe'v.'Mutuc3>3Morfe,3a3judge3 Anti>Graft3Act3is3precisely3
pendency3thereof3or3 of3a3CFI,3assailed3the3validity3of3 aimed3at3curtailing3and3
within3one3year3after3 R.A.33019,3Anti>Graft3and3Corrupt3 minimizing3opportunities3for3
his3termination. Practices3Act3of31960.3He3contends3 official3corruption3and3
Sec36.3Judgment3>3if3the3 that3the3periodical3submission3 maintaining3a3standard3of3

(e)3Causing3undue3 respondent3is3unable3to3 “within3the3month3of3January3of3 honesty3in3public3service.3


show3to3the3satisfaction3 every3other3year3thereafter”3of3 Public3office3is3a3public3trust>3
injury3to3any3party3or3 conditions3then3prevailing3
giving3any3private3party3 of3the3court3that3he3has3 their3sworn3statement3of3assets3
called3for3norms3of3such3
any3unwarranted3 lawfully3acquired3the3 and3liabilities3(SAL)3is3violative3of3
character.3Statute3was3
benefits,3advantage3or3 property3in3question,3 due3process3as3an3oppressive3
comprehensive3in3character,3
preference3in3the3 then3the3court3shall3 exercise3of3police3power3and3as3an3 sufficiently3detailed3and3
discharge3of3his3official,3 declare3such3property3 unlawful3invasion3of3the3 explicit3to3make3clear3to3all3
administrative3or3 forfeited3in3favor3of3the3 constitutional3right3to3privacy3 what3practices3were3
Anti>Graft3 judicial3functions3 state. implicit3on3the3ban3against3 prohibited.3This3statute3is3
and3Corrupt3 through3manifest3 unreasonable3search3and3seizure3 under3the3police3power3of3the3
Practices3 partiality,3evident3bad3 construed3together3with3the3 state3to3promote3morality3in3
Act3(RA3 faith3or3gross3 prohibition3against3self> public3service3limited3in3scope3
3019)3Sec333>3inexcusable3negligence. incrimination. to3officialdom.
Corrupt3
Practices3of3 (f)3Neglecting3or3
Javarata'v.'Sandiganbayan'>3Jaravata,3
Public3 refusing,3after3due3 Though3Jaravata3was3a3
assistant3principal3of3a3school,3
Officers3 demand3or3request,3 "public3officer"3as3defined3by3
informed363teachers3of3the3approval3
(cont'd) without3sufficient3 of3the3release3of3their319783salary3 Sec.23of3RA3301933and3the3
justification,3to3act3 differentials.3The3teachers3agreed3 amount3he3received3in3excess3
within3reasonable3 that3Jaravata3follow>up3the3papers3in3 of3P363from3each3of3the3
time3on3any3matter3 Manila3if3the3teachers3reimburse3him3 teachers3was3in3the3concept3
pending3before3him3 of3his3expenses.3The3teachers3 of3a3gift3or3benefit,3there3is3
for3the3purpose3of3 received3their3salary3differentials3and3 no3law3which3invests3
obtaining3from3any3 they,3except3two,3gave3petitioner3 Jaravata,3in3his3official3
person3interested3in3 varying3amounts,3which3were3more3 capacity3as3assistant3
the3matter3some3 than3the3contribution3contemplated3 principal,3with3the3power3to3
pecuniary3or3material3 and3which3led3Jaravata3to3receive3an3 intervene3in3the3payment3of3
excess3for3the3supposed3
benefit3or3advantage,3 the3salary3differentials3of3the3
reimbursement.3Baltazar,3the3school3
or3for3the3purpose3of3 teachers3or3anyone3for3that3
administrator,3did3not3approve3it,3so3
favoring3his3own3 matter.
he3ordered3Jaravata3to3return3the3
interest3or3giving3... money3to3the3teachers.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3undue3advantage3in3
favor3of3or3 As3long3as3he3does3not3do3
discriminating3against3 anything3for3the3firm3in3its3
any3other3interested3 Trieste'v.'Sandiganbayan3>3Mayor3 contract3with3the3office,3
party Trieste3was3charged3with3123 there3is3no3such3intervention3
(g)3Entering,3on3behalf3 counts3of3violating3RA330193for3 –3in3fact,3he3would3not3even3
of3the3government,3 allegedly3interfering3with3the3 need3to3dispose3of3his3shares3
into3any3contract3or3 town’s3purchase3of3construction3 of3the3corporation.
transaction3manifestly3 materials3from3Trigen3 At3any3rate,3Trigen3did3not3
and3grossly3 Corporation.3The3Mayor3 unduly3gain3from3the3
disadvantageous3to3 supposedly3still3has3interests3in3 transaction,3and3it3was3
the3same,3whether3or3 the3said3corporation3as3president3 already3a3dealer3of3the3
not3the3public3officer3 and3major3stockholder.3The3mayor3 municipality3even3before3
Anti>Graft3 profited3or3will3profit3 insists3that3(1)3he3didn’t3intervene3 Trieste’s3mayorship.
and3Corrupt3 thereby because3the3vouchers3were3signed3
Practices3 (h)3Directly3or3 after3the3purchases3were3made,3
Act3(RA3 indirectly3having3 delivered3and3paid3for3by3the3 As3to3his3signing3of3the3
3019)3Sec333>3financial3or3pecuniary3 treasurer,3(2)3there3was3no3 vouchers,3it3was3admitted3
Corrupt3 interest3in3any3 bidding3where3he3allegedly3 that3it3was3made3after3
Practices3of3 business,3contract3or3 intervened3in3the3first3place3 delivery3and3payment,3which3
Public3 transaction3in3 because3it3was3done3through3 would3not3constitute3the3
Officers3 connection3with3 direct3purchase3and3that3(3)3he3 actual3intervention3in3Sec.333
(cont'd) which3he3intervenes3 already3divested3his3interests3with3 (h).3He3did3not3influence3the3
or3takes3part3in3his3 Trigen,3selling3his3shares3to3his3 giving3of3the3transaction3to3
official3capacity,3or3in3 sister3before3he3became3mayor3on3 Trigen3nor3did3he3ask3the3
which3he3is3prohibited3 March31980. municipal3treasurer3or3
by3the3Constitution3or3 anyone3else3to3get3the3
by3any3law3from3 construction3materials.
having3any3interest
(i)3Directly3or3
indirectly3becoming3
interested,3for3
personal3gain,3or3
having3material3
interest3in3any3
transaction3or3act3…
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3which3he3is3a3
member,3and3which3
exercises3discretion3in3 Mejorada'v.'Sandiganbayan3>3
such3approval,3even3if3 Mejorada3was3employed3as3a3
he3votes3against3the3 Right3of3Way3Agent3in3the3Office3of3
same3or3does3not3 the3Highway3District3Engineer3in3
participate3in3the3 Pasig;3it3was3his3duty3to3negotiate3
action3of3the3board,3 w/3property3owners3affected3by3
committee,3panel3or3 constructions/improvements3to3
group compensate3them3for3damages3
(j)3Knowingly3 His3modus3operandi3went3this3
approving3or3granting3 way:3(1)3he3would3make3it3appear3
any3license,3permit,3 that3the3claims3were3very3much3
privilege3or3benefit3in3 higher3than3actual3(2)3then3he3
Anti>Graft3
favor3of3any3person3 would3accompany3the3claimants3
and3Corrupt3
not3qualified3for3or3 to3collect3(3)3so3that3he3can3divest3
Practices3
not3legally3entitled3to3 them3of3the3amounts3not3claimed.
Act3(RA3
such3license,3permit,3 The3average3difference3between3
3019)3Sec333>3
privilege3or3 actual3claim3and3the3bogus3claim:3
Corrupt3
advantage,3or3of3a3 P2000.383Complainants3sued3
Practices3of3
mere3representative3 Mejorada3under3Sec333(e)3of3
Public3
or3dummy3of3one3who3 RA3019.
Officers3
is3not3qualified3or3
(cont'd)
entitled

(k)3Divulging3valuable3
information3of3a3
confidential3character,3
acquired3by3his3office3
or3by3him3on3account3
of3his3official3position3
to3unauthorized3
persons,3or3releasing3
such3information3in3
advance3of3its3
authorized3release3
date
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
(a)3Unlawful3for3any3
person3having3family3or3
close3personal3relation3
with3any3public3official3
to3capitalize3or3exploit3
or3take3advantage3of3
such3family3or3close3
personal3relation3by3
directly3or3indirectly3
requesting3any3present,3
gift3or3material3or3
pecuniary3advantage3
from3any3other3person3
giving3some3business,3
transaction,3application,3
request3or3contract3with3
Anti>Graft3
the3government3in3
and3Corrupt3 which3such3public3
Practices3 official3such3intervene.3
Act3(RA3 Family3relation3shall3
3019)3Sec343>3include3the3spouse3or3
Prohibition3 relatives3by3
on3Private3 consanguinity3or3affinity3
Individuals in3the33rd3civil3degree.3
"Close3personal3
relation"3shall3include3
close3personal3
friendship,3social3and3
fraternal3connections,3
and3professional3
employment3all3giving3
rise3to3intimacy3which3
assures3free3access3to3
such3public3officer
(b)3Unlawful3for3any3
person3knowingly3
induce3or3cause3any3
public3official3to3commit3
any3offenses3in3Sec33
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Unlawful3for3the3
spouse3or3for3any3
other3relative,3by3
consanguinity3or3
affinity,3within3the33rd3
civil3degree,3of3the3
President,3VP,3Senate3
President,3Speaker3of3
HOR,3to3intervene3in3
any3business,3
transaction,3contract3
Anti>Graft3 or3application3within3
and3Corrupt3 the3govt.3Provided3
Practices3 that3this3section3shall3
Act3(RA3 not3apply3to3any3
3019)3Sec353>3person3who,3prior3to3
Prohibition3 the3assumption3of3
on3Certain3 office3of3any3of3the3
Relatives above3officials3to3
whom3he3is3related,3
has3been3already3
dealing3with3the3Govt3
along3the3same3line3of3
business,3nor3to3any3
transaction,3nor3to3
any3application3filed3
by3him3the3approval3of3
which3is3not3
discretionary3on3the3
part3of3the3officials3
concerned
Unlawful3for3any3
Member3of3Congress3
RA330193Sec3
to3acquire3or3receive3
63…
any3personal3
pecuniary3interest3…
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
…3in3any3specific3
business3enterprise3
which3will3directly3and3
particularly3favored3or3
benefited3by3any3law3
or3resolution3
authored3by3him.3x3x3x3
Anti>Graft3 also3applies3to3any3
and3Corrupt3 other3public3officer3
Practices3 who3recommended3
Act3(RA3 the3initiation3in3
3019)3Sec363>3Congress3of3the3
Prohibition3 enactment3of3any3law3
on3 x3x3x3applies3to3
Members3of3 members3of3Congress3
Congress or3public3officers,3
who,3having3such3
interest3prior3to3the3
approval3of3such3law3
authored3by3him,3
continues3for3303days3
after3such3approval3to3
retain3his3interest
Every3public3officer3
within3303days3after3
assuming3office3and3
Anti>Graft3
thereafter,3on3or3
and3Corrupt3
before3April315,3as3
Practices3
well3as3upon3
Act3(RA3
expiration3of3his3term3
3019)3Sec373>3
of3office,3or3upon3his3
Statement3
resignation3or3
of3Assets3
separation3from3
and3
office,3shall3prepare3
Liabilities
and3file3a3true3and3
detailed3and3sworn3
SAL.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Sec31(d)3>3Ill>gotten3
wealth3means3any3asset,3
property,3business3
enterprise3or3any3
material3possession3of3
any3person3with3the3
purview3of3Sec32,3
acquired3by3him3by3a3
Any3public3officer3
combination3or3series3of3
who,3by3himself3or3in3
the3ff:
connivance3with3
1)3through3
members3of3his3
misappropriation,3
family,3relatives3by3
conversion,3misuse,3or3
affinity3or3
malversation3of3public3
consanguinity,3
funds3or3raids3on3the3
business3associates,3
public3treasury
subordinates3or3other3
2)3By3receiving,3any3
persons,3amasses,3
commission,3gift3etc.,3
Plunder3(RA3 accumulates3or3
from3any3person3and/or3
7080) acquires3ill>gotten3
entity3in3connection3with3
wealth3through3a3
any3government3contract3
combination3or3series3
or3project3or3by3reason3of3
of3overt3criminal3acts3
the3office3or3position3of3
described3in3Sec31(d)3
the3public3officer3
thereof,3in3the3
concerned
aggregate3amount3or3
3)By3the3illegal3or3
total3value3of3at3least3
fraudulent3conveyance3or3
75M3pesos,3shall3be3
disposition3of3assets3
guilty3of3the3crime3of3
belonging3to3the3Nat'l3
plunder.
Govt.
4)3By3obtaining,3receiving3
or3accepting3any3shares3
of3stock,3equity3etc.3or3
participation3including3
promise3of3future3
employment3in3any3
business3enterprise
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
5)3By3establishing3
agricultural,3industrial3or3
commercial3monopolies3
or3other3combinations3
and/or3implementation3
of3decrees3and3orders3
intended3for3the3benefit3
Plunder3(RA3 of3particular3persons3or3
7080)3 special3interests
(cont'd) 6)3By3taking3undue3
advantage3of3official3
position,3authority,3
relationship,3connection3
or3influence3unjustly3
enrich3himself3at3the3
expense3and3prejudice3of3
the3Filipino3people
Offender3is3a3 Govt3funds3include3 Granting3that3the3amounts3were3
public3officer revenue3and3trust3funds Labatagos'v.'Sandiganbayan'?' really3secured3by3the3persons3
Any3public3officer3who,3 He3had3the3 Labatagos3is3a3cashier3and3 signing3them,3the3responsibility3to3
by3reason3of3the3duties3
custody3or3 collecting3officer3of3MSU.3There3 account3for3them3still3rests3in3the3
of3his3office,3is3
control3of3funds3 Under3Art3222,3private3 are3unremitted3amounts.3 accused3accountable3officer.3
accountable3for3public3
or3property3by3 individuals3are3liable3for3 Labatagos3signed3without3 Malversation3is3committed3also3
funds3or3property,3shall3
reason3of3the3 malversation. exception3both3reports3and3their3 by3knowingly3allowing3others3to3
appropriate3the3same,3
duties3of3his3 supporting3summaries. make3use3of3or3misappropriate3
Malversatio or3shall3take3or3
office them.
n3of3Public3 misappropriate3or3shall3
funds3or3 consent,3or3through3 Those3funds3or3 Estepa'v.'Sandiganbayan'?'
Different3acts3punished:31)3
Property3 abandonment3or3 property3were3 Marcelo3handed3money3to3Estepa3 Can3be3convicted3of3
appropriating3public3funds3
(Art.3217) negligence,3shall3 public3funds3or3 or3property.32)3Taking3or3 (a3paymaster).3During3the3event,3 malversation3even3if3there3is3
permit3any3other3 property3for3 misappropriating3public3 there3was3a3brownout3and3Estepa3 no3direct3evidence3of3
person3to3take3such3 which3he3was3 funds3or3property.33)3 left3the3money3on3the3side3of3the3 personal3misappropriation.
public3funds3or3 accountable Consenting3or3permitting,3 sofa.
property,3wholly3or3 The3fact3that3petitioner3did3not3
He3appropriated,3 through3abandonment3or3 Ilogon'v.'Sandiganbayan'>3Ilogon3as3the3
partially,3or3shall3 negligence,3any3other3 acting3Postmaster3is3tasked3to3accept3 personally3use3the3missing3funds3
took,3
otherwise3be3guilty3of3 person3to3take3public3funds3 payments.3He3said3he3never3used3funds3 is3not3a3valid3defense3and3will3
the3misappropriation3 misappropriated3 or3property personally3and3were3given3as3cash3 not3exculpate3him3from3his3
or3malversation or3consented3… advances3to3employees. criminal3liability.
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Azarcon'v.'Sandiganbayan'?'
Malversatio …3or,3through3
To3measure3negligence,3 Azarcon3has3in3his3possession3
n3of3Public3 abandonment3or3 Since3Azarcon3is3a3private3
the3standard3of3care3 Ancla's3truck.3Ancla3has3not3been3
Funds3or3 negligence,3 individual,3Sandiganbayan3
commensurate3with3the3 paying3taxes.3Ancla3took3the3truck3
Property3 permitted3 had3no3jurisdiction3over3his3
occasion3shall3first3be3 without3Azarcon3knowing.3Azarcon3
(Art.3217)3 another3person3 case.
determined. reported3this3to3BIR.3BIR3holds3
(cont'd) to3take3them
Azarcon3responsible.
Offender3is3a3 Leniency3or3laxity3is3not3
public3officer infidelity.3(p.34513Reyes)
He3had3in3his3 Rodillas'v.'Sandiganbayan3>3
Release3of3detention3
custody3or3 Rodillas3is3a3police3officer3in3
prisoner3who3could3not3 The3negligence3referred3to3is3
charge3a3 charge3of3escorting3de3Andres,3a3
be3delivered3to3the3 such3definite3laxity3as3all3but3
prisoner,3either3 detention3prisoner,33before3the3
judicial3authority3within3 amounts3to3a3deliberate3non>3
detention3 sala3of3a3judge3to3face3trial.3
Conniving3 the3time3fixed3by3law,3is3 performance3of3duty3on3the3
Any3public3officer3who3 prisoner3or3 Rodillas3allowed3de3Andres3to3
With3or3 not3infidelity3in3the3 part3of3the3guard.3It3is3evident3
shall3consent3to3the3 prisoner3by3final3 have3lunch3with3her3husband.3De3
Consenting3 custody3of3prisoner that3petitioner3acted3
escape3of3a3prisoner3in3 judgment Andres3needed3to3use3the3comfort3
to3Evasion3 negligently3and3beyond3the3
his3custody3or3charge Such3prisoner3 Relaxation3of3 room.3The3prisoner3took3too3long3
(Art.3223) scope3of3his3authority3when3
escaped3from3his3 imprisonment3is3 in3the3CR3so3Rodillas3grew3
he3permitted3his3charge3to3
custody considered3infidelity suspicious.3Rodillas3checked3the3
create3the3situation3which3led3
He3was3in3 CR3and3found3out3that3the3
to3her3escape.
connivance3with3 prisoner3escaped3through3the3
the3prisoner3in3 window.
the3latter's3
escape
Offender3is3a3
public3officer Not3every3negligence3or3
If3the3evasion3of3the3
He3is3charged3 distraction3of3a3guard3is3
prisoner3shall3have3
with3the3 penalized;3it3is3only3that3
Evasion3 taken3place3through3
conveyance3or3 positive&carelessness3that3
through3 the3negligence3of3the3
custody3of3a3 is3short3of3deliberate3non>
Negligence3 officer3charged3with3
prisoner,3either3 performance3of3his3duties3
(Art.3224) the3conveyance3or3
detention3 as3guard3that3is3the3
custody3of3the3
prisoner3or3 gravamen3of3the3crime3of3
escaping3prisoner3x3x3x
prisoner3by3final3 infidelity3under3Art.3224
judgment
Crime Definition Elements Misc. Cases Concepts3and3Doctrines
Evasion3
through3 Such3prisoner3
Negligence3 escapes3through3
(Art.3224)3 his3negligence
cont'd
Offender3is3a3
private3person
The3conveyance3
or3custody3of3a3
Any3private3person3to3
prisoner3or3
Escape3of3 whom3conveyance3or3
person3under3
Prisoner3 custody3of3a3prisoner3
arrest3is3confided3
under3the3 or3person3under3arrest3
to3him
Custody3of3a3 shall3have3been3
The3prisoner3or3
Person3Not3 confided,3who3shall3
person3under3
a3Public3 commit3any3of3the3
arrest3escapes
Officer3(Art3 offenses3mentioned3in3
Offender3
225) the3two3preceding3
consents3to3the3
articles
escape,3or3that3
the3escape3takes3
place3through3his3
negligence