You are on page 1of 10

Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res.

eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8

Research Article

Seasonal Diversity and Status of Butterfly Fauna in Sakoli Taluka of


Bhandara District, Maharashtra, India
1* 2
Dharmik R. Ganvir , Kanchan P. Khaparde

1
Guest Professor, P. G. Department of Zoology, Manoharbhai Patel College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Sakoli-
441802, India
2
Assistant Professor, P. G. Department of Zoology, Manoharbhai Patel College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Sakoli-
441802, India

*Address for Correspondence: Dr. Dharmik R. Ganvir, Guest Professor, P. G. Department of Zoology, M. B. Patel
College, Sakoli- 441802, India
Received: 14 Feb 2018/ Revised: 27 April 2018/ Accepted: 21 June 2018

ABSTRACT
Sakoli taluka lies in the basin of Chulbandh river and covered with dense forest and comprises agricultural fields and it is less
highlighted for butterflies so the main aim of this study to show how these fields serve butterflies and prepare a checklist of that
butterflies which use these fields in their various activities. Total 69 species of butterflies were recorded belonging to 47 genera
and 5 families. Nymphalidae family was dominant and consisting 25 species (36.24%); Lycaenidae 19 species (27.53%); Pieridae 13
species (18.84%); Hesperiidae 8 species (11.59%) and only 4 species (5.80%) recorded from family Papilionidae respectively.
Maximum species richness reported from Monsoon and post- Monsoon season.

Key-words: Agricultural field, Species, River Seasonal diversity, Butterfly fauna

INTRODUCTION
Agricultural fields are unique ecosystems that provide Their larvae release feces while feeding on the agrestals
some butterflies to complete their life span. Butterflies and provide required nutrients to the crops [6]. Certain
are one of the most colourful, popular and easily butterfly species are believed to be necessary to
recognized groups of insects belong to order pollination of various wild plants and crops on which
Lepidoptera. They are potentially useful ecological human beings depend on for their livelihoods [7]. The
indicators of urbanization because sensitive to changes influence of butterflies on agroecosystem is better
in microclimate, temperature [1] and extremely important studied in Europe than in Indian subcontinent [8]. In
components of the bioindicators of the world [2,3]. Vidarbha region, it was compiled and records of 167
Butterflies serve as important plant pollinators in the species of butterflies belonging to 90 genera
local environment and help to pollinate more than 50 representing 5 families [9]. In the agricultural field of
economically important plant crops [4]. Butterflies serve Gondia district was recorded 24 species of butterflies
the ecosystem especially by recycling nutrients (N, P, and belonging to 20 genera and 5 families during winter and
K) essential for crops [5]. pre-monsoon season and 44 species 32 genera during
monsoon and post-monsoon season respectively [10,11].
How to cite this article
But little work did in the district Bhandara, Maharashtra.
Ganvir DR, Khaparde KP. Seasonal Diversity and Status of Butterfly
Fauna in Sakoli Taluka of Bhandara District, Maharashtra, India. So, it is necessary to study about seasonal diversity and
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res., 2018; 4(4): 1905-1914. status of butterflies of this district especially agricultural
field.
Access this article online
www.ijlssr.com

Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1905
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res. eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8

MATERIALS AND METHODS once a week for each month. In monsoon and post-
Study site- The present study has been carried out for a monsoon season, the agricultural crops grow regularly
period of Jan 2016 to Dec 2017 and conducted in the day by day. Regularly at least one visit in four trackway
sites from agricultural field of Sakoli, Bhandara district during a week.
Maharashtra, India during the four different season i.e. Sakoli city of Bhandara district located at North latitude
month of winter (December to February), pre-monsoon 21˚09˚30˚ and East latitude 79˚40˚00˚and having 233
(March to May), monsoon (June to August) and meters elevation above sea level. District comprises was
post-monsoon season (September to November). 185164.H.R agricultural area and main crop was paddy in
Butterfly watching and data recording have been done kharip crop and cereals in rabbi crop (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1: Google map of Sakoli taluka of Bhandara district, Maharashtra, India


taluka and tabulated (Table 1). Total 69 species of
Observation were made through 4 line transects [10,11] of
butterflies were recorded belonging to 47 genera (Tables
0.5 km to 0.7 km length with 2 m to 5 m on either side
2, Fig. 2). The family Papilionidae comprises only 3
along with agricultural field. The site was visited in
genera (6.38%) and 4 species (5.80%). Family
morning and evening hours to note maximum species of
Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae
butterflies. The observations were made with the help of
consisted of 14 genera (29.79%) and 25 species (36.24%);
binocular (Olympus 8-16X40) and capture photo by using
9 genera (19.15%) and13 species (18.84%); 15 genera
digital cameras (Sony cyber- shot 16.2 megapixels, 16x
(31.91%) and 19 species (27.53%); and 6 genera (12.77%)
optical zoom with 24mm wide-angle Sony lens). The
and 8 species (11.59%) respectively (Table 2, Fig. 3).
recorded species are identified with the help of
In the present study out of total 69 butterfly species the
photographs by using reference books and available
population of Brush-footed butterflies like Tigers
publications and article as well as with the help of
butterfly, Pansys and Tawny coster was higher followed
experts.
by, white and yellow as well as Blues and Skippers (Fig.
RESULTS 4). The diversity and its status of butterfly contributed
Seasonal diversity and status of butterfly’s fauna were population of Swallowtails was recorded very low in and
recorded and prepare a checklist during four different around agro-ecosystem during pre-monsoon season and
seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon, winter, and post- maximum species richness were observed during winter
monsoon) in and around agricultural sites of Sakoli and post-monsoon season in morning hours (Table 1).

Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1906
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res. eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8

Table 1: Checklist of butterflies recorded together with Status and period of occurrence from Sakoli taluka of
Bhandara district, Maharashtra, India

S. Photography
Common Name Zoological Name Status Seasons
No. Time
Papilionidae (Swallowtails ) (04)
1 Papilio polytes
Common mormon M C PRM
Linnaeus
2 Pachliopta
Common rose M C PRM
aristolachiae Cramer
3 Papilio demoleus
Lime butterfly M VC MN, POM
Linnaeus
4 Graphium chironides
Tailed joy M R WR
(Honrath)
Nymphalidae (Brush-footed ) (25)
5 Danaus chrysippus WR, PRM, MN,
Plain tiger M VC
Linnaeus POM
6 Danaus genutia
Stripped tiger M C MN, POM
Cramer
7 Euthalia aconthea MN, POM
Common baron M C
Cramer
8 Euploea core Cramer WR, PRM, MN,
Common crow M VC
POM
9 Hypolimnas WR, PRM, MN,
Danaid eggfly M VC
misippus Linnaeus POM
10 Hypolimnas bolina WR, PRM, MN,
Great eggfly M VC
Linnaeus POM
11 Tirumala limniace WR, PRM, MN,
Blue tiger M C
Cramer POM
12 Parantica aglea
Glassy tiger M NR POM
(Stoll)
13 Phalanta phalanta WR, PRM, MN,
Common leopard M VC
POM
14 Acraea violae WR, PRM, MN,
Tawny coster M VC
Fabricius POM
15 Baronet Euthalia nais Forster M C WR, PRM, MN
16 Junonia orithiya WR, PRM, MN,
Blue pansy M VC
Linnaeus POM
17 Junonia almanac WR, PRM, MN,
Peacock pansy M VC
Linnaeus POM
18 Junonia lemonias WR, PRM, MN,
Lemon pansy M VC
Linnaeus POM
19 Junonia atlites
Grey pansy M C POM
Linnaeus
20 Junonia hierta WR, PRM, MN,
Yellow pansy M C
Fabricius POM

Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1907
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res. eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8

21 Junonia WR, PRM, MN,


Chocolate pancy M C
iphita(Cramer) POM
22 Long brand Mycalesis visala WR, PRM, MN,
M C
bushbrown Moore POM
23 Mycalesis perseus WR, PRM, MN,
Common Bushbrown M VC
Fabricius POM
24 Common evening Melanitis leda WR, PRM, MN,
M,E VC
brown Linnaeus POM
25 Melanitis zitenius
Great Evening Brown M C MN, POM
Herbst
26 Polyura athamas
Common nawab M R MN
Drury
27 Moduza procris
Commander M C MN, POM
Cramer
28 Cethosia cyane
Leopard lacewing M R POM
Drury
29 Phaedyma(Neptis)
Short-banded Sailer columella Cramer M NR POM

Pieridae (Yellow and blues) (13)


30 Appeas libythea
Striped albatross M C MN, POM
Fabricius
31 Appeas albina
Common Albatross M C MN, POM
Boisduval
32 Catopsila Pomona
Common emigrant M VC MN, POM
Fabricius
33 Catopsilia pyranthe WR, PRM, MN,
Mottled Emigrant M VC
Linnaeus POM
34 Cepora nerissa
Common gull M VC MN, POM
Fabricius
35 Delias eucharis WR, PRM, MN,
Common jezebel M C
Drury POM
36 Prioneris sita Felder
Painted Sawtooth M R WR
& Felder
37 Common grass Eurema hecabe WR, PRM,
M VC
yellow Linnaeus MN,POM
38 Eurema laeta WR, PRM, MN,
Spotless Grass Yellow M VC
(Boisduval POM
39 One-Spot Grass Eurema andersoni WR, PRM, MN,
M C
Yellow Moore POM
40 Indian Cabbage Pieris canidia WR, PRM, MN,
M C
White Linnaeus POM
41 Anaphaeis aurota WR, PRM, MN,
Pioneer M C
Fabricius POM
42 Pareronia valeria
Common Wanderer M NR WR
Cramer
Lycaenidae (Blues) (19)

Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1908
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res. eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8

43 Abisara bifasciata
Two-spot Plum Judy M R POM
Moore
44 Dark pierrot Tarucus ananda M NR POM
45 Castalius rosimon WR, PRM, MN,
Common pierrot M,E VC
Fabricius POM
46 Tarucus extricatus WR, PRM, MN,
Striped pierrot M C
POM
47 Rounded pierrot Tarucus nara Kollar M C WR, PRM, POM
48 Tarucus
Striped pierrot M, E C POM, WR
theophrastus indica
49 Dark Cerulean Jamides bochus Stoll M R POM
50 Jamides celeno
Common Cerulean M C WR, PRM, POM
Cramer
51 Spindasis vulcanus
Common Silverline M C WR, PRM, POM
Fabricius
52 Amblypodia anita WR, PRM, MN,
Purple Leaf Blue M,E C
Hewitson POM
53 Euchrysops cnejus
Gram Blue M,E C WR, POM
Fabricius
54 Lampides boeticus
Pea Blue M VC WR
Linnaeus
55 Zizula hylax
Tiny Grass Blue M, E VC WR
Fabricius
56 Lesser grass blue Zizina otis Kollar M, E VC WR
57 Zizeeria karsandra
Dark Grass Blue M, E VC WR
Moore
58 Pseudozizeeria
Pale Grass Blue M, E C POM, WR
maha Kollar
59 Catochrysops strabo
Forget-Me-Not M VC POM, WR
Fabricius
60 Catachrysops
Silver Forget-Me-Not M VC POM, WR
panormus C. Felder
61 Everes lacturnus
Indian Cupid M C WR, POM
Godart
Hesperiidae (Skippers) (08)
62 Spialia galba
Indian skipper M C POM
Fabricius
63 Barbo cinnarai WR, PRM, MN,
Rice Swift M C
POM
64 Pelopidas mathias WR, PRM, MN,
Small Branded Swift M VC
Fabricius POM
65 Blank Swift Caltoris kumara M C POM
66 Pelopidas
Large Branded Swift M C POM
subochracea
67 Udaspes folus
Grass Demon M NR WR, PRM, MN,
Cramer
Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1909
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res. eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8

68 Pelopidas conjuncta WR, PRM, MN,


Conjoined Swift M VC
Herrich-Schäffer POM
69 Badamia
Brown Awl exclamationis M C WR, PRM, MN,
Fabricius
Photography time- M: Morning hour; E: Evening hour
Status- VC - very common (seen > 50 visits); C - common (seen 25-50 visit); NTR - not rare (seen 10-25 visits); R - rare (1-5 visit); NR- not
recorded.
Seasons: WR: Winter season: PRM: Pre-Monsoon season; MN: Monsoon season and POM: Post-Monsoon season

Table 2: Family wise Distribution of genera and species of butterflies during pre-monsoon, monsoon, winter and
post-monsoon season

Identified Genera & species (Numbers) Percentage (%)


S. No.
Family Genera Species Genera Species
1 Papilionidae 03 04 6.38 5.80
2 Nymphalidae 14 25 29.79 36.24
3 Pieridae 09 13 19.15 18.84
4 Lycaenidae 15 19 31.91 27.53
5 Hesperiidae 06 08 12.77 11.59
Total 05 47 69 100 100

DISCUSSION
In the present study, total 69 species of butterflies were
recorded belonging to 47 genera and 5 families. Family
Nymphalideae was the largest family comprised of
maximum number of species 22 (36.24%). The ability to
quantify diversity in this way is an important tool for
biologists trying to understand community structure [12].
Earlier was documented the most dominant family was
Nymphalideae followed by Lycanideae, Pierideae,
Hespiriideae and Papillionidae [11,13-19] . The 29 butterfly
Fig. 2: Family wise distribution of genus of butterfly species from agricultural field of Howrah, West Bengal
recorded in 5 families [13] and most dominant family is
Nymphalidae (11) followed by Lycaenidae (9), Pieridae
(4), Hespiriidae (3) and Papilionidae (2) and only in rice
field recorded 8 species from 4 families.
Total 145 species of butterflies were recorded in and
around Nagpur City including agricultural land [14]. The
highest number of butterflies was recorded belonging to
the Nymphalidae (51 species) and least number of
butterflies belong to family Papilionidae (9 species).

Fig. 3: Family wise distribution of butterfly Species

Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1910
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res. eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8
[10,11]
The study revealed that most butterfly species were Earlier was recorded least population of butterflies
observed from the monsoon to early winter and during winter and pre-monsoon season it was total 24
contribute Nymphalideae was most dominating family species of butterflies belonging to 20 genera and
comparised highest number of species but thereafter increases species population during monsoon and post-
declined in early summer [15]. monsoon season. In Jnandweepa, VPM campus, Thane,
Total of 50 species of butterflies belonging to 5 families Maharashtra was recorded 52 butterfly’s species [18].
was recorded in Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve of Family Nymphalideae showed 22 species which was
Eastern Ghats Andhra Pradesh, India [16]. The family maximum species diversity dominance followed by
Nymphalidae (20 species) was found dominant followed family Pierideae and Lycanideae represents 10 species
by Lycaenidae (12 species), Pieridae (11 species), each and family Papillionideae and Hespirideae having
Papilionidae (5 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). least number of species diversity it was 7 and 3 species
In eastern part of Western Ghats [17], survey 103 respectively.
individual butterfly species. Family belonging Total 92 species of butterflies was expressed belong to
Nymphalidae contributed highest number of butterflies 59 genera and 5 families from Gorewada International
(32 species) followed by family Pierideae (23 species), Bio-Park Nagpur, Central India [19]. High incidence of
which revealed that Nymphalidae and Pieridae was rich butterfly population with wide distribution was observed
dominant families, while Hesperiidae (15 species) and during the month of March-April and monsoon season
Papilionidae (14 species) were less dominant; similar to (September-November) which diminish during
the present observations. December-January. All the observation is similar with the
present observation.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1911
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res. eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8

Fig. 4: Common butterflies from Sakoli, Bhandara study area

Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1912
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res. eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8

CONCLUSIONS pond in Midnapore town, West Bengal, India. J.


The butterfly diversity and status of Agro ecosystem of Environmental Biology, 2009; 30: 283-287.
Sakoli, Bhandara district is mostly high. The present work [4] Borges RM, Gowda V and Zacharias M. Butterfly
has concluded that systematically studied butterfly pollination and high contrast visual signals in a low
diversity first time in and around the agricultural field density distylous plant. Oceologia, 2003; 136:
and prepared a checklist in the study site. 571-573.
Family-Nymphalidae carries the maximum number of [5] Schmidt BC and Roland J. Moth diversity in a
species 25 (36.24%) than remaining families. This study fragmented habitat: importance of functional groups
would be useful to conserve the seasonal diversity of and landscape scale in the boreal forest. Annals of
indigenous butterfly species in the study area. the Entomological Society of America, 2006; 99 (6):
Butterflies play an important role during ripening stage 1110–1120.
of paddy crop for better pollination and other crop also [6] Marchiori MO and Romanowski HP. Species
for harvest quantity and quantity crop, therefore it need composition and diel variation of a butterfly
to conserve food plant of butterfly larvae in target area. taxocene (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and
Hersperioidea) in a resting forest at Itapua State
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Revista Brasileira de
The authors would want to convey their gratitude to the
Zoologia, 2006; 23(2): 443–454.
Dr. H. R. Trivedi, Principal, M. B. Patel College, Sakoli for
[7] Boriani L, Burgio G, Marini M and Genghini M.
providing facilities during survey. We are also thankful to
Faunistic study on butterflies collected in Northern
the Dr. C. J. Khune Associate Professor and Head, P. G.
Italy rural landscape. Bulletin of Insectology, 2005;
Department of Zoology, M. B. Patel College, Sakoli, for
58 (1):49–56.
providing needable aids to carry out the survey and
[8] Tumuhimbise GM, Okwakol JN and Kangwagye TN.
valuable guidance.
Species diversity of swallowtail butterflies
CONTRIBUTION OF AUTHORS (Papilionidae: Lepidoptera) in North Maramagambo
Authors have planned the valuable work on survey of Forest. African Journal of Ecology, 2001; 39 (1):
butterflies in an around agricultural field with respect to 113–115.
seasonal diversity and its status of Sakoli taluka of [9] Tiple AD. Butterflies of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra
Bhandara district were ampule number of butterfly State, central India. J Threatened Taxa, 2011; 3(1):
species found in different season. Data were collected 1469-1477.
from different sites and different season of target area, [10]Ganvir DR and Khune CJ., (2016) Butterfly diversity of
analyzed data and finally prepare a checklist. Butterflies paddy growing area in winter and pre-monsoon
are identified with the help of available literature and season (Rabi crop) at Silezari site of Gondia district,
experts. After the completion of all findings we decided Maharashtra, India. IRA-International J Applied
to publish this work for a future references. Sciences, 2016; 3(1): 62-73.
[11]Ganvir DR., Khune CJ and Khaparde KP. Butterfly
REFERENCES Diversity in Agroecosystem of Arjuni/Morgaon
[1] Thomas JA, Simcox DJ, Wardlaw JC, Elmes, WG,
Taluka, Gondia, Maharashtra, India. Int. J. Life. Sci.
Hochberg, ME and Clark, RT. Effects of latitude,
Scienti, 2017 Res, 3(1): 848-855.
altitude and climate on the habitat and conservation
[12]Beals M, Gross L and Harrell S. Diversity Indices:
of the endangered butterfly Maculinea arion and its
Simpson’s D and E. 1999;
Myrmica ant host. J Sect conserve, 1998; 2: 39-46.
[Online]:http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/bioed/bea
[2] Chakravarthy AK, Rajagopal D. and Jagannatha R.
lsmodules/simpsonDI.html.
Insects as bioindicators of conservation in the
[13]Dwari S and Mondal AK. Butterflies diversity of
tropics. Zoo’s print J, 1997; 12: 21-25.
agricultural fields of Howrah District, West Bengal,
[3] Jana S, Pahari PR, Dutta TK and Bhattacharya T.
India with special reference to their host plants in
Diversity and community structure of aquatic insects
agroecosystem. I. J. S. N, 2015; 6 (3): 389–396.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1913
Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res. eISSN: 2455-1716
Ganvir and Khaparde, 2018
DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.4.8

[14]Tiple AD, Khurad AM. Butterfly Species Diversity, [17]Murugesan S and Muthusamy M. Patterns of
Habitats and Seasonal Distribution in and Around butterfly biodiversity in three tropical habitats of the
Nagpur City, Central India. World J of Zoology, 2009; eastern part of Western Ghats. J of Research in
4(3): 153-162. Biology, 2011; 1(3): 217-222.
[15]Kunte KJ. Seasonal patterns in butterfly abundance [18]Patil KG and Shende VA. Butterfly diversity of
and species diversity in four tropical habitats in Gorewada International Bio-Park Nagpur, Central
northern Western Ghats. J Biosciences, 1997; 22 (5): India. Arthropods, 2014; 3(2): 111-119.
593-603. [19]Kurve P, Shenai D, Joshi A and Pejaver M. Recent
[16]Guptha MB, Chalapathi RP and Srinivas RD. A study on butterfly diversity at Jnandweep, V.P.M.
preliminary observation on butterflies of campus, Thane, Maharashtra. National Conference
Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Ghats on Biodiversity:Status and Challenges in
Andhra Pradesh, India. World J of Zoology, 2012; Conservation-‘FAVEO’2013; 116-120.
7(1): 83-89.

Open Access Policy:


Authors/Contributors are responsible for originality, contents, correct references, and ethical issues. IJLSSR publishes all articles under Creative
Commons Attribution- Non-Commercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode

Copyright © 2015 - 2018| IJLSSR by Society for Scientific Research under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International License Volume 04 | Issue 04 | Page 1914