BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE

Lesson 1 Hangul Alphabet System

Vowels : -

ㅏ "a" ㅛ "yo"
Double Vowels (모음)

ㅑ "ya" ㅜ "oo" or "u"

ㅓ "eo" ㅠ "yoo" or "yu"

ㅕ ㅗ "yeo" "o" ㅡ "eu" ㅣ "i"

ㅐ eir

ㅒ ㅔ ㅖ ㅘ ㅙ ㅝ ㅞ yeir ere yere wa where wo weo

ㅟ ㅢ weou wei
Consonants : -

ㄱ "g" or "k" ㅂ "b" or "p"

ㄴ "n" ㅅ "s"

ㄷ ㄹ "d" or "t" " r " or " l " ㅇ ㅍ " p' " ㅈ " ch " ㅎ "h"

ㅁ "m" ㅊ " ch' "

ㅋ ㅌ " g' " or " k' " " d' "

Note that " ' " means the letter is aspirated, i.e a sharp sound.

ㅎ+ ㅏ+ ㄴ= 한 h a n ㄱ+ ㅜ+ ㄱ= 국 g u k

han

guk
한국 pronounced HanGuk meaning Korea

right or beneath each other in order to form a word. In some cases. beginning with the consonant at the beginning of the word. the following are examples of their use : - 가 = ka 갸 = kya 바 = pa 뵤 = pyo 즈 = chu 머 = meo 너 = neo 디 = ti 요 = yo 드 = tu 거 = keo 기 = ki 버 = peo 지 = chi 조 = cho 무 = mo 이=i 고 = ko 오=o 두 = too 겨 = kyeo 고 = ko 부 = pu 저 = cheo 마 = ma 나 = na 야 = ya 댜 = tya 도 = to 그 = ku When constructing a word. you must add a mixture of consonants and vowels.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE Lesson 3 Use of Consonants (자음) and Vowels (모음) Vowels in the korean languages may be attached to the left. ㅇ+ ㄹ+ ㄱ+ ㄲ+ ㅇ+ ㅇ+ ㄲ+ ㅎ+ ㄱ+ ㅏ ㅡ ㅏ ㅜ ㅗ ㅓ ㅗ ㅏ ㅡ + + + + + + + + = ㅁ = ㅁ = ㅇ = ㅅ = ㅂㅅ = ㅊ = ㄴ = ㄱ = 아 름 감 꿍 옷 없 꽃 한 극 a rum kam kkoong ot eop kkot han guk More on constructing words . there is no need to use a consonant at the beginning in which case ㅇ (null character) is used.

When you are referring to someone who you know well. or "I go" or "he goes" ). The first part is the Surname ( such as Kim. the surname always comes first which is opposite of Western Names such as Doojin Pak instead of the Korean method of Pak Doojin. Verbs in the polite style can be used as statements. or am meeting for the first time.of that syllable.Grammer Korean Names In general. the final consonant. it is the followed by a twosyllable first name. called patch'im (meaning "supporting floor" in Korean) goes to the bottom -. However when youare introduced to someone to whom you are not familiar with. and consonant. For example. such as using their first name.. ha. and may be further emphasised by the tone of your voice. for example the phrase Chal Chinaessooyo literally means "Well have you been getting on?" which is the opposite from English. Lee and Pak ). Another example is the more common Annyong Haseyo. vowel. In general the structure of the Korean sentences is broken down as subject . questions. suggestions or commands. An example of this would be Doojin-ssi Making Polite Sentences With verb stems which end in vowels such a ka-.object verb "Jon the ball kicked" . or can be a question stating that you are fine. In Korean. Chal Chinaessoyo may be both expressed as a question by asking how someone is. then you may be able to refer to them directly. ㅁ+ㅏ+ㄴ=만 m + a + n = man Lesson 4 . Korean names consist of 3 syllables.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "vertical vowel" is written with the consonant on the left and the vowel on the right ㄴ+ㅏ=나 n + a = na ㅁ+ㅗ=모 m + o = mo A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "horizontal vowel" is written with the consonant on top and the vowel underneath: If a syllable has a consonant. then you would add -ssi to the end of the name. it is possible to make these into polite sentences by adding -yo to the end of the words. Lesson 5 .or floor -. such as Kayo ( which means "to go".and sa.Sentence Structure and order Korean Sentence Structure and Word order In Korean the structure of sentence differ to English sentences.

(In English) (in Korean) I I (optional) go to the shops bread buy . * The construction can only be used in verbs involving 'going' and 'coming' and cannot be used with other verbs at the end of sentences. The stem of the verb is iss. Lesson 6 . .ayo Consonant Stem .which literally means "there isnt" or "there arent". the subject of the sentences is optional like "I". and -ro which means "in order to". which is then followed by "the place you are going". for people over 35-ish. and for younger woman agassi is used for young women. it is only for the referral of a man. In some cases the verb stems may in effect end in consonants in which case -uro is utilised.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE "To Go" in order to do sentences There are a few words that you may add to the end of verb stems at the end of sentences.oyo In context the oppposite of iss. thus forming the ending -oyo. However if it were to be used in a formal way. then the "in order section" is next. The order of the sentences for an example sentence of "in order to buy bread I am goin to the shops" is restructured as "bread buy-in order-to the shops go" In Korean unlike English. such as -ayo. or "its over there" Issoyo on its own can mean "I have/he has" Opsoyo means "I dont have" or "I havent got" In a shop When addressing a shop keeper or waiters.in-order to in-order -to buy bread shops to go The Konglish for this sentence in Korean would be na-do ppang sa-ro kayo (I-do bread buy-in order-to go). and on what you are talking about. However in the case where the verb stem ends in vowel. but is used as a general word when addressing someone in a shop. these include -yo which makes sentences polite.yo if the last vowel ends with -a or -o Consonant stem .is ops. Vowel stem .Asking for things There Are / There is The Korean verb which means either "there are" and "there is" is issoyo ( 있 어요 ) They are dependent on the context in which you use them. Koreans use ajossi literally meaning uncle.with the inclusion of o and the polite particle -yo. Uses of the verbs chogi issoyo means "it exist over there". For females the word ajumma meaning aunt is used. we use -a or -o.

whereas Korean is 'me-with'. . such like SangHyun Songsaegnim. this literally means teacher. when you use the ssi. attached to chu-.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE In Korean. which means "give me please" Lesson 7 . and behaves a little differently to ordinary verbs. songsaengnim-ieyo (is teacher) soju-eyo (is soju) IMPORTANT to note that in Korean the copula is only used to describe when this "is equivalent to". but would rather say SangHyun-ssi. Addressing Korean women. If you want to say A is B(like "This is a Korean book"):A B-ieyo (or B-eyo) this Korean book-ieyo It is obvious that you would use -eyo when B ends in a vowel. For example if Mrs Han is married to Mr Kim. this is a particle so when it is to be used it must be attached to a noun. or Yoo SangHyun-ssi. when you want to address men politely.Korean Names and Topics In Korean. you cannot say Yoo-ssi. we would say 'with-me'. In Korea. then she may referred to as Kim songsaengnim-puin (Kim mr-wife). Using 'and' In Korean. we use a particle which comes after a noun that it relates to. For example. this copula is present at the end of a sentence. one would use the word songsaegnim attached to their surname or full name. or she maybe reffered to in a similar English terminology such as Misesu Han(Mrs Han). you will have to use special verbs called copula. if you want to describe A is B . The word hago becomes part of burger. For that same reason. it is the opposite. It is not possible to a Korean persons first name. when you say 'burger and chips'. The word chuseyo utilises the polite word stem -yo. in Korean it would be 'burger-hago chips. Ordering with numbers When asking for 'one' item we say 'hana' which is said after you have selected the meal you wish to order. In English. For example we would say. Doojin-hago shinae-e kayo meaning 'I am going to town with Doojin'. soju hana chuseyo meaning "soju one give me please". Using Copula to describe "this is that" In Korean. The particle hago can also mean with such as. but -ieyo when B ends on a consonant. one would say Yoo Songsaegnim or with the full name Yoo SangHyun Songsaegnim. For example. the word for and is -hago. in Korea women do not take their husbands surname when they get married. such as na-do (me-too).

we attach -i to the end of nouns which end with consonants. In Korean. containing the ending -jiman which means but. The topic particle.. On the other hand it may be used as a question Kuraeyo? meaning "is it like that?".. it makes As for Business or As for me. there is a special verb which may be used in the event where you want to ask someone if they are someone. On the other hand. and is best used in order to compare two things. and the verb ending hamnida (note this is the formal style). which is comprised of the verb stem shille ha-.e "is red". on subjects in sentences. "The man kissed the dog". For example. it is possible to give emphasis. for example.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE It cant be used to say "is located in"(is underneath". by adding -un or nun.. Ottaeyo means is how?. when a subject is mentioned for the first time. "is happy").for example "Are you Mr Han". used in attachment to place emphasis on what is being talked about. is similar to that of the english "As for". Songsaengnim-un (as for teacher). the subject in this case would be The man.) which is a abbreviation of the verb and stem shillye ha-jiman . "is near") nor can it be used to say "is a certain way" (i. "really?" or "is that so?". it is possible to add polite endings to verbs.. and simply add this to the end of a phrase.. Lesson 8 . shillye hamnida (excuse me). this is switched back to the topic particle. . but later on in a conversation.. Describing how things are Korean possess words which mean "is a certain way". songsaenim-i ( teacher ) or maekju-ga (beer) give emphasis on each of these subjects in a sentence. -nun is attached to a noun. EG soju-nun (as for soju). or attach -ga to the end of nouns which end in a vowel. We would use -iseyo. the subject particle is used. "it is". Han songsaengnim-iseyo? ( Are you Mr Han?) Hangungmal songsaengnim-iseyo? (Are you the Korean Teacher?) Subjects and topics of Korean sentences In Korean. For a sentence . shillye-jiman (I'm sorry but. "thats right".More on Grammar -hamnida and -jiman In Korean. as in: songsaengnim ottaeyo? ( How is teacher ? or What is teacher like? ) saob ottaeyo? (How is business? or What is business like?) Kuraeyo literally means "it is like that". There is also the verb and stem. Korean has a special particle. whereas -un is attached to a vowel. and may be used as a statement such as "it's like that". By doing this..

..but. you must always use issoyo as a verb such that:hakkyo-ga kogi issoyo ( the school is over there ).( go ) ka-jiman ( goes.. as for me ( na-nun ). There are lots of verbs where you may attach -jiman onto. I love shopping as for mum (ma-nun)..but" or "I'm Sorry.... For instance....( eat ) mok-jiman ( eats. have ) it-jiman ( has.) anj.. however do not mistake it to mean the same as the English word for please for all occurances.... when you are trying to say something is not something else.) iss.) sa.. hanguk hakkwa-ga anieyo ( Not the Korean department ). For instance. you would say (X-subject) odieyo? However...(sit ) anj-jiman ( sits. I do like it" or "Yes i dont" As you can see.. but .) ha.. Where is it? When asking where something is in Korean..( buy ) sa-jiman ( buys. so you will need to think carefully. We have previously seen that shillye hamnida and the equivalent shillye-jiman mean "Excuse me.( is/are. it is also possible to say (X-subject) odi issoyo? When answering a Where is question.. we would say :cho-nun songsaengnim-i anieyo ( I am not a teacher ).....) Note that for the word iss-jiman the double ss is re-written to itjiman Using polite requests In Korean.. but.. Negative Copula In Korean....but.. the word chom is used to mean "please"..) mashi.( do ) ha-jiman ( does..but... it takes on the effect of please.. but. . Answering questions with Yes and No in Korean This is a tricky aspect of the Korean language. here are a few of them:ka. but. For example: Question in English = "Do you like Korea ?" Answer in English = "Yes I do like it" or "No i dont" Answer in Korean = "No.. when you use chom in a request immediately before the verb at the end of the sentence..it can be confusing at first.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE For example.but.) mok. she hates it. it is quite different to how we would speak in English.( drink ) mashi-jiman ( drinks. we use the negative copula anieyo.. Using Korean sentences with but. When saying 'A is not B'.." .

and the other are Sino-korean which is based on the chinese numerals. or you might use it in Soju chom chuseyo ( Please give me the Soju ). Examples of these are:mashi. you would say kidariseyo (Please wait !!).becomes mashiseyo ha.becomes haseyo kidari. -seyo is used when the verb stem ends in in a vowel. the first set are known as pure Korean numbers. As you can see. ( But you are also showing special respect for him ).BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE It is most frequently using in relation to chu. kong il i sam sa o yuk ch'il p'al ku ship 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 shibil shibi shipsam shipsa shibo shimnyuk shipch'il shipp'al shibku iship 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 ishibil ishibi ishipsam ishipsa 21 22 23 24 ishipku samship 29 30 saship 40 kuship 90 paek 100 ch'on 1000 man 10. cho-nun mok-ko ship'oyo which means I want to eat. and this can be added to a verb stem. What you want to do ? Koreans use -ko ship'oyo which literally means want to.becomes kidariseyo iss. for example Han songsaengnim chom pakkwo-juseyo( Can I speak to Mr Han ). chom may be used to soften up requests by making it more polite. and -useyo is used when the verb stem ends in a consonant. . and the sino korean when used to count minutes.becomes issuseyo anj.000 Lesson 11 Using –seyo Making requests more polite The polite honorific -seyo can be used to make requests more polite. for example if you say hansongsaengnim-i hakkyo-e kaseyo . for example the pure korean numbers are used when counting hours. For example you may say. The use of -seyo means that you have a special respect for the person. The use of these numbers depends on the context in which it is used.becomes anjuseyo If you want to request someone to wait for you.you are saying Mr Han is going to school.when making requests. Lesson 10 Numbers and Counting In Korean there are two sets of numbers which are used when counting.

너. . 누가 갑니까? 예문~ .. add 이 2. it may be omitted or abbreviated into '-ㄹ' after a . and -upshida is attached to verbstems ending in a consonant. . 시계가 비쌉니다. Here are some examples:Umryosu mashipshida ( Lets have a drink ) Grammar 1 이/가 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] 주격 조사. 안경이 없습니다. and 누가. [ In spoken language. -pshida is attached onto verb stems ending in a vowel. etc.] 1. [Object particle. 저. 교과서: 교과서 + 를 --> 교과서를 참고~ 구어에서는 생략되거나 모음 뒤에서 '-ㄹ'만으로 줄여 쓰기도 한다.] 1. and 누구. 제가.. [Subject particle. the -ko is utilised by being added to the end of the verb stem. as you may have guessed. 명사 뒤에 봍어서 주어를 나타내는 조사로는 '-께서. 명사에 붙어서 동사의 '목적어'를 나타낸다. There is a pencil. 제가. The watch is expensive. add 을 2. Grammar 2 을/를 조사. -(에)서' 등이더 있다. Comes after a noun and shows the "object" of the verb. 네가. . 사과: 사과 +가 --> 사과가 참고 '나. 누구' 뒤에 붙으면 '내가. Koreans use -(u)pshida ( literally means lets do). "-가" --> 선행 명사가 모음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a vowel. "-을" --> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant. Making Suggestions When making suggestions. 너. The strawberry is delicious. There is not a pair of glasses. When 이/가 is attached at the end of '나. "-이" --> 선행 명사가 자음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a consonant. add 를 보기~ 1. 누가'로 된다.연필이 있습니다. 책: 책 + 을 --> 책을 2. "-를" --> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a vowel.' 내가 가요. Particles which come after a noun shows 'subject' are: -께서. 딸기가 맛있습니다. add 가 보기~ 1. 네가.. 네가 갔니? 제가 가겠습니다.' the words change into '내가.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE notice that when it is used. 책상: 책상 + 이 --> 책상이 2. -(에)서. 저..

. 커피를 마십니다. I drink a cup of coffee. I buy an eraser." 예문~ . . 신문을 봅니다.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE vowel. 자우개를 삽니다. I read a newspaper. . 영화를 보고 커피를 마셨어요. . 수영을 합니다. --> "영활 보고 커필 마셨어요. I swim.

they are romanized as g. Example: 다시 (again) would be dashi. -와/과도' 처럼 다른 조사 뒤에 붙 기도 한다. + 노트가 있습니다. + 수박을 먹습니다. 04. -----> 책이 있습니다. ------> 사과를 먹습니다.'] [Similar to 'also. To avoid confusion of syllables. 책이 있습니다. 03. d. When ㄱ. it should be romanized as shi. ㄹ. 05. Grammar 3 도 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] 조사. p. that is what the letter should be romanized as the final letter when found at the end of a syllable. '-에게도. Example: 밥 (rice) would be bap. Example: 후에 (after) would be hu-e. r. 수박도 먹습니다. ㅂ are found directly before a consonant. ㄷ. r. When ㅅ is followed directly by ㅣ. a hyphen can be used. too' May be attached to the end of other particles as in '-에게 도 and -과도. 사과를 먹습니다.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE Rules: 01. b. 또한. ㄹ. they should be romanized as k. t. 2. When ㄱ. too'] 보기~ 1. ㅂ are found directly before vowel. 02. [Particle with the meaning of 'also. ㄷ. . If a character has a romanization with letters separated by an "/". 역시'의 의미를 나타내는 보조사. '또. 노트도 있습니다.

] 1. 우유가 가게에 있어요. I read a newspaper. [ There is a book.이천 원입니다. The novel is interesting. [Added to the unit noun which counts numbers. "는" ----> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in vowel. [ The bus is slow. 옷은 비쌉니다. per. "은" ----> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant. 아침: 아침 + 에 ---> 아침에 [때: time] 3.여섯 개입니다. 명사나 부사. ] . '위치'나 '방향'. 다른 조사나 어미에 붙어서 문장의 주제임을 나타내거나 '대조'. 영화가 재미있습니다. [ I read a book. 지하철은 빠릅니다. [ Topic particle. 책을 읽습니다. 신문도 읽습니다. 냉장고: 냉장고 + 에 ---> 냉장고에 [위치: place] 2. I go to the bank now. 2. [ The movie is interesting. it shows the 'standard' of the counting or unit. . too] . add "는" 보기~ 1. 물: 물 + 은 ---> 물은 2. 겨울은 춥습니다. . it's cold in winter. -----> 만 원에 여섯 개입니다. ] . the subway train is fast. too] Grammar 4 은/는 조사.] [Similar to 'a.책이 있습니다. I read a book at night. other particles or endings. My family is at church. 도서관: 도서관 + 에 ---> 도서관에 [방향: direction] 예문~ . ] Grammar 5 에 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] 위치격 조사. 선생님을 만납니다.넥타이가 쌉니다. it shows the subject of the sentence or may be used to show 'contrast' or 'emphasis'. Grammar 6 에 셈을 세는 단위 명사와 결합하여 단위나 셈의 '기준'을 나타낸다. 지금 은행에 가요. though. add "은" 2.버스가 느립니다. too] . 소설책도 재미있습니다. 밤에 착을 읽어요. Used after place or time noun and shows 'location. '때'를 나타낸다. I meet a friend. [ I prepare the lessons. or by'] 보기~ 1. [ I meet a teacher. ] . There is not a dictionary. direction or time'. adverbs. the clothes are expensive. However. -----> 한 그롯을 이천 원입니다. 사전은 없습니다. However. 예습을 합니다. [Locative particle.BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE 예문~ . too] . 가족이 교회에 있어요. Attached to nouns. 복습도 합니다. Milk is in the shop. However.] [ Similar to 'in/at or to' ] 보기~ 1. '강 조'의 뜻으로 쓴다. . [ The tie is cheap. 한 그롯 -. 우유: 우유 + 는 ---> 우유는 예문~ . 만 원 -. [ It's hot in summer. I go over the lessons. 장소나 시간 명사 뒤에 쓴다. 친구도 만납니다.여름이 덥습니다. .

일 주일에 두 번 갑니다.jang mo nim Siblings . Lesson 15 .ajussi (Uncle) Elderly Woman .어머니 . I go twice a week.jang in uh reun Dad .장모님 . There are 10 students in a class.shi uh muh ni Mother in law .uh muh ni Mother in law . 한 반에 10 명입니다.nuna (If the speaker is male) Older Brother .Family Members Relative Titles .아주머니 .아저씨 .시어머니 .oppa (If the speaker is female) Older Sister . .000 won by the set.엄마 .누나 .BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE 예문~ . 옷 한 벌에 4 만원입니다.hara buh ji (Grandpa) [Less Polite] Father .umma Mother .장인어른 . 한 시간에 20 페이지를 읽습니다.할머니 .할아버지 .손위 형제 자매 Older Sister .appa [Informal] Mum .아빠 .언니 .형 .아줌마 .hal muh ni (Grandmother) [Polite] Elderly Man .hyung (If the speaker is male) . .ah buh ji Father in law . . I read 20 pages per hour.shi ah buh ji Father in law .아버지 . It costs 40.오빠 .시아버지 .unni (If the speaker is female) Older Brother .친척과 관계된 호칭 Older Woman .ajumma (auntie) [Less Polite] Older Man .ajumni (aunt) [Polite] Older Woman .

동생 .dong saeng (Regardless of speaker's gender) Lesson Created By KkOmA .BASIC KOREAN LANGUAGE Younger Sibling .