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You are on page 1of 25

Introduction

CEE451 is really

important course

1

Introduction

• Instructor:

– Mohammad Malakoutian

– Email: malakout@uw.edu

– Office: More Hall 214C

– Office Hours: 11:30am - 12:20pm Friday, More 220 →Teaching Session

– Skype: Mohammad.Malakoutian

• TA :

– Ryan Ballard

– Email: ballar@uw.edu

– Office: More Hall 233E

– Office Hours: 10am -11 am Thursday and Friday, More 229

– Skype: balla066

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

a great tool for teaching.

Save so much class time

Paying attention to me not writing from the

W and V

board (distracted)

Pictures and equations helps a lot for

illustrating material

You have the original handouts for exam

and life

Tree

Boring (hope not)

Examples will be explained faster

slides

Find my mistake (25 cent per mistake)

2

Introduction

• Class Hours:

– Monday: 2:30 - 4:20

– Wednesday/ Friday : 2:30 - 3:20

• Location:

– More Hall (MOR) 220

• Required Text:

– Manual of Steel Construction 14th Edition.

• Optional Text:

• William T. Segui, "Steel Design," 5th Edition, Thomson. Discount

• Jack C.McCormac, “Structural Steel Design,” 5th Edition, Pearson.

• Salmon, Johnson and Malhas, "Steel Structures: Design and

Behavior," 5th Edition, Pearson.

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Introduction

• Procedure to Purchase the AISC

Manual of Steel Construction.

– Step1 : Go to webpage

http://www.aiscstudentmanuals.org

– Step 2 : Enter your code “4SXR3B”

– 14th Edition Steel Construction Manual

Steel Construction. Pay your money and AISC

will mail your book.

3

Introduction

• Grading: Approximately

– Quiz: 10% Each Monday

– Project: 15% Mini project and Final project

– Midterm: 25% Mon, Nov 18 (class time & location)

– Final : 30% Thu, Dec 10, 6:30-8:20, MOR 220 ????

learn the material. Promise , You NEED it.

Introduction

4

Introduction

• Sources:

– AISC Manual

– Handouts

– Class Examples

– Teaching session Examples

– Video Examples

– TA office Hours

– Optional Text Books

– HW

– Quiz

– Projects

– Discussion Board

– Field Trip

– Skype

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

5

General Course Content

• Introduction

• Tension member design

• Compression member design (including basic

built-up members)

• Bending members (including basic composite)

• Members under Combined loading (include

basic frame concepts)

• Connections

– Bolted Connections

– Welded Connections

Constraints of Class

• Steel Design is often taught as a 2 semester course.

Here one quarter

process but everything will be done quickly and very

briefly

• Composite members

• Built-up members

• Combined Load Design

• Connections

covered.

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

6

AISC Manual of Steel Construction

documents used in steel design AISC Manual of Steel Construction

•Part16 contains the design specification and commentary

•Part16 also contains specifications such as single angles,

hollow sections, and high strength bolts

a separate manual.

YOU AS A DESIGNER

• Your Responsibilities:

– Safety and Serviceability

• Support the loads (STRENGTH)/Deflection/Vibration

– Cost (use standard-size members, simple connections)

– Constructability ( If I sent my design out, can be built?)

• Lightest section IS NOT the cheapest one

• Labor costs (fabrication and erection) 60 %

• Material costs 25%

– Communication between designer/fabricators/erectors

– Rolled section/ simple connections

– Not many-sized members / smooth out the size

7

Computer and Design Software

– Amazing !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

– Reduce time required to perform calculations

BUT

– Reduce the engineers feel for structures

– Computer are useless without a fundamental

understanding of how engineering system works

Why Steel????

8

Why Steel????

• High Strength

– High strength per unit of weight

– Long-span Bridges & tall buildings

• Uniformity

– Constant properties with time

( Oppose to concrete)

• Elasticity/ Predictable

Behavior

– Follows Hooke’s law up to fairly high

stresses

– Clear yield behavior

– Moment of inertia can be calculated

accurately

• Permanence

– Proper maintained last forever

• Ductility

• The property of a material by which it can be

withstand extensive deformation without failure under

high tensile stress.

9

• Toughness

– High Strength and ductility Absorb energy

• Stiffness

– E= 29,000 Ksi (lot more than timber or concrete)

• Ability to be bolted and welded

– Steel can be welded without cracking

• Standard section (rolled into a wide variety of sizes and shapes)

• Rapid Assembly and Erection

• Pre Fabricated, Reusable and Recyclable

• Additions to Existing Structures

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Steel problems

• Corrosion

– When exposed to air and water Painting

• Fireproofing Costs

– Strength reduced /Heat conductor

• Steel more subject to buckling

– High strength to weight ratio smaller sections buckling

• Fatigue

– Large number of cycles of stress reversal

• Strength reduction

• Brittle Fracture

– Low temperature or Fatigue-type

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

10

History of engineered construction using metals

• Iron

– Chief component of steel

– Wrought iron first used for tools around 4000 BC

• Produced by heating ore in a charcoal fire

– Cast and wrought iron used in the late 18C and early 19C in

bridges

• Steel

– An alloy of primarily iron and carbon

– Fewer impurities and less carbon than cast iron

– Began to replace iron in construction in the mid 1800s

• First steel railroad bridge in 1874

• First steel framed building in 1884

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Stress : Strain :

11

Review of Steel Material Properties

Mechanical

Properties of

Steel

Determined

From

Stress-Strain

Curve

12

Types of Structural Steel

• Materials Information for Steel Design

– Defined in ASTM Standards but summarized

in Part 2 (see pp 2-48 to 2-50)

• Carbon Steels

– ASTM 36 available for most rolled shapes Fy=36 ksi

– Add Alloying elements other than carbon to increase

strength but maintain adequate ductility and weldability

– ASTM A572 Gr 50 and ASTM A992 Fy=50 ksi

Wrought Iron Steel Cast Iron

less 0.2 % Carbon 0.2 - 2 % Carbon More 2% Carbon

Soft & Malleable + Hard & Brittle

Controlled amounts of:

Manganese, Phosphorous

Structural Silicon, Sulfur, Oxygen

Steel Mild Steel

Combinations of:

0.2 - 0.25 % Carbon

Chromium, Cobalt, Copper,

Medium Steel Carbon Steel + Molybdenum, Nickel,

0.25 - 0.45 % Carbon Tungsten, Vanadium

Hard Steel

0.45 - 0.85 % Carbon Alloy Steel

Spring Steel Stainless Steel

0.85 - 1.85 % Carbon Weathering Steel

13

Common Structural Steels

A36 W, M, S, HP, C, MC, L, Plates, Bars

A572 W, M, S, HP, C, MC, L, Plates, Bars

A500 HSS

A588 (Weathering Steel) – Same as A572

A992 W

14

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Steel Sections

• Angle Iron was the First Structural shapes 1819

• Ι-shaped steel sections were first rolled in US 1884

• The most desirable members are those with large Ι in

proportion to their A. Ι, Τ and C .

W27X114

W section

approx 27 in deep

weighing 114 Lb/ft

HSS14X10X5/8

Rectangular Hollow

Structural Section

14 in deep

10 in wide

5/8 in wall thickness

15

A

d

tw

bf

tf

Ι

S

Z

ASCE-7:

Basic Load Combinations

16

Symbols and Notation

• D = dead load;

• Di = weight of ice;

• E = earthquake load;

• F = load due to fluids with well-defined pressures and maximum heights;

• Fa = flood load;

• H = load due to lateral earth pressure, ground water pressure, or pressure of bulk materials;

• L = live load;

• Lr = roof live load;

• R = rain load;

• S = snow load;

• T = self-straining force;

• W = wind load;

• W i = wind-on-ice determined in accordance with

1. 1.4(D + F)

2. 1.2(D + F + T ) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

3. 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + 0.5(L or W)

4. 1.2D + 1.0W + 0.5L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

5. 1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L + 0.2S

6. 0.9D + 1.0W + 1.6H

7. 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

• Exceptions:

• 1. The load factor on L in combinations (3), (4), and (5) is permitted to equal 0.5 for all

occupancies in which Lo in Table 4.1 is less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of

garages or areas occupied as places of public assembly.

• 2. The load factor on H shall be set equal to zero in combinations (6) and (7) if the structural

action due to H counteracts that due to W or E. Where lateral earth pressure provides resistance

to structural actions from other forces, it shall not be included in H but shall be included in the

design resistance.

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

17

Loads Factors

combinations pp 2-10 to 2.11 of Section

2 of Manual. Defined by ASCE 7.

Steel Design in

LFRD vs. ASD

What’s the DIFFERENCE?????

18

L oad and

R esistance

F actor

D esign

A llowable

S tress

D esign

ASD LRFD

1st Edition – 1923

8th Edition - 1978

9th Edition - 1989 1st Edition – 1986

2nd Edition – 1993

3rd Edition – 2001

1st Edition

“Unified” Specification 13th Edition– 2005

14th Edition – 2011

19

• Basic Design Equation:

LOAD RESISTANCE

EFFECTS TO LOAD

( forces, EFFECTS

stresses,

deflections, etc.) ≤ ( strength,

stiffness,

ductility , etc.)

[Q]

[R]

• Uncertainty

– Magnitude of loads acting on structure

– Ability of structure to carry those loads

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

– Uncertainties in loads

(depends on type of load:

dead, live, wind, EQ, etc)

– Uncertainties in load combinations

– Uncertainties in modeling and analysis

• Uncertainties in Resistance

– Uncertainties in member properties

( yield stress, dimensions, geometric,

imperfections, residual stresses, etc.)

– Uncertainties predicting structural

behavior

( depends on type of behavior, e.g.,

column buckling, lateral torsional

buckling, block shear rupture, etc.)

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

20

OLD ASD ( Allowable Stress Design)

fcalc ≤ Fallow

under service loads

Fn stress at failure

Fallow = =

Ω factor of safety (1.67-2)

• Use service loads used to calculate stress,

f, by mechanics methods

• Predict a failure or yield stress for the

given behavior, Fy or Fcr

• Divide by factor of Safety, F.S., to get Fall

• Then f < Fall

• Appears to be precise, but is very

approximate

21

LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design)

Σ λi Qi ≤ Φ Rn

Qi = calculated load effect (M, V, P, etc) under

service load i, where i = D, L, W, etc.

(accounts for uncertainties in load effects)

(accounts for uncertainties in resistance)

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Taking estimated loads, Q, by methods of CEE 380

• Computing resistance , R, based upon methods of engineering

mechanics CEE 220, 379, 363, and 380

• Resistance factor, Φ , is based upon based upon the standard

deviation or variation of resistance and the proximity of our

estimated resistance to the mean

• Load factor, λ, is based upon the standard deviation or variation of

loads and the proximity of our design loads to the mean

22

ASD versus LRFD

Load

Factors

Factor of (λ

λ)

Safety

(Ω) Resistance

Factors

(Φ

Φ)

In LRFD, basic design check is done in terms of forces rather than stresses.

Nowdays:

• Rn : Nominal Strength (LRFD & ASD )

– Calculated theoretical strength

LRFD ASD

Allowable Rn Nominal strength

• Φ Rn : Design strength strength : =

(Nominal strength) X (resistance factor) Safety factor

Ω

RU : required strength using LRFD load Ra: required strength using ASD laod

Rn

Φ Rn ≥ Ru ≥ Ra

Ω

23

ASD is Really LRFD in Disguise

LRFD ASD

N

Rn N

ΦRn ≥ ∑ λi Qi ≥ ∑ Qi

i=1 Ω i=1

λi = load factor associated with loads in LRFD

Rn = nominal structural strength

Φ = resistance factor;

LRFD Design

but it is the most rational method and

method of the future.

24

LFRD Vocabulary

• Limit State = a limit of structural usefulness

= a failure mode

= a condition at which a structure (part of it)

cease to perform its intended function

• Limit States

– Strength Limit States

• Excessive yielding

• Fracture

• Buckling

• Fatigue

– Serviceability Limit States

• Deflection

• Cracking

• Slipping

• Vibration

• Deterioration

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

25

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