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Design of Metal Structures

Fall Quarter 2013

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures


CEE451 is really
important course

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Instructor:
– Mohammad Malakoutian
– Email:
– Office: More Hall 214C
– Office Hours: 11:30am - 12:20pm Friday, More 220 →Teaching Session
– Skype: Mohammad.Malakoutian

• TA :
– Ryan Ballard
– Email:
– Office: More Hall 233E
– Office Hours: 10am -11 am Thursday and Friday, More 229
– Skype: balla066

 Emergency: Skype service is just allowed twice per person!!!!

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Power Point (Good slides) is Accent

a great tool for teaching.

 Not dealing with my hand writing Three

 Save so much class time
 Paying attention to me not writing from the
W and V
board (distracted)
 Pictures and equations helps a lot for
illustrating material
 You have the original handouts for exam
and life

 Boring (hope not)
 Examples will be explained faster

 Teaching slides is different by presentation

 Find my mistake (25 cent per mistake)

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Class Hours:
– Monday: 2:30 - 4:20
– Wednesday/ Friday : 2:30 - 3:20
• Location:
– More Hall (MOR) 220
• Required Text:
– Manual of Steel Construction 14th Edition.
• Optional Text:
• William T. Segui, "Steel Design," 5th Edition, Thomson. Discount
• Jack C.McCormac, “Structural Steel Design,” 5th Edition, Pearson.
• Salmon, Johnson and Malhas, "Steel Structures: Design and
Behavior," 5th Edition, Pearson.
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Procedure to Purchase the AISC
Manual of Steel Construction.

– Step1 : Go to webpage
– Step 2 : Enter your code “4SXR3B”
– 14th Edition Steel Construction Manual

– Step 3: Be sure you select the Manual of

Steel Construction. Pay your money and AISC
will mail your book.

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures


• Grading: Approximately

– Homework: 20% (weekly- 6 problems- Engineering paper-Stapled) Monday in Class

– Quiz: 10% Each Monday
– Project: 15% Mini project and Final project
– Midterm: 25% Mon, Nov 18 (class time & location)
– Final : 30% Thu, Dec 10, 6:30-8:20, MOR 220 ????

– Do not concern about the grade. Just do your best to

learn the material. Promise , You NEED it.

– Class website:

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures


CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Sources:
– AISC Manual
– Handouts
– Class Examples
– Teaching session Examples
– Video Examples
– TA office Hours
– Optional Text Books
– HW
– Quiz
– Projects
– Discussion Board
– Field Trip
– Skype
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Six Secrets to Success

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

General Course Content
• Introduction
• Tension member design
• Compression member design (including basic
built-up members)
• Bending members (including basic composite)
• Members under Combined loading (include
basic frame concepts)
• Connections
– Bolted Connections
– Welded Connections

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Constraints of Class
• Steel Design is often taught as a 2 semester course.
Here one quarter

• We get a good overview of the complete steel design

process but everything will be done quickly and very
• Composite members
• Built-up members
• Combined Load Design
• Connections

• Fatigue, Fracture and Plate girders will not be

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

AISC Manual of Steel Construction

One of goals of class must be to find our way around the

documents used in steel design AISC Manual of Steel Construction

•Part 1 provides information on standard sections

•Part16 contains the design specification and commentary
•Part16 also contains specifications such as single angles,
hollow sections, and high strength bolts

•Many design aids in other sections

•Seismic provisions are often more severe and are provided in

a separate manual.

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Your Responsibilities:
– Safety and Serviceability
• Support the loads (STRENGTH)/Deflection/Vibration
– Cost (use standard-size members, simple connections)
– Constructability ( If I sent my design out, can be built?)

• Economical Design of Steel Members

• Lightest section IS NOT the cheapest one
• Labor costs (fabrication and erection) 60 %
• Material costs 25%
– Communication between designer/fabricators/erectors
– Rolled section/ simple connections
– Not many-sized members / smooth out the size

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Computer and Design Software

– Amazing !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
– Reduce time required to perform calculations
– Reduce the engineers feel for structures
– Computer are useless without a fundamental
understanding of how engineering system works

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Why Steel????

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Why Steel????
• High Strength
– High strength per unit of weight
– Long-span Bridges & tall buildings
• Uniformity
– Constant properties with time
( Oppose to concrete)
• Elasticity/ Predictable
– Follows Hooke’s law up to fairly high
– Clear yield behavior
– Moment of inertia can be calculated

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Permanence
– Proper maintained last forever
• Ductility
• The property of a material by which it can be
withstand extensive deformation without failure under
high tensile stress.

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Toughness
– High Strength and ductility Absorb energy
• Stiffness
– E= 29,000 Ksi (lot more than timber or concrete)
• Ability to be bolted and welded
– Steel can be welded without cracking
• Standard section (rolled into a wide variety of sizes and shapes)
• Rapid Assembly and Erection
• Pre Fabricated, Reusable and Recyclable
• Additions to Existing Structures
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Steel problems
• Corrosion
– When exposed to air and water Painting
• Fireproofing Costs
– Strength reduced /Heat conductor
• Steel more subject to buckling
– High strength to weight ratio smaller sections buckling

• Fatigue
– Large number of cycles of stress reversal
• Strength reduction

• Brittle Fracture
– Low temperature or Fatigue-type
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

History of engineered construction using metals
• Iron
– Chief component of steel
– Wrought iron first used for tools around 4000 BC
• Produced by heating ore in a charcoal fire
– Cast and wrought iron used in the late 18C and early 19C in

• Steel
– An alloy of primarily iron and carbon
– Fewer impurities and less carbon than cast iron
– Began to replace iron in construction in the mid 1800s
• First steel railroad bridge in 1874
• First steel framed building in 1884
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Review of Steel Material Properties

• Stress : Strain :

Review of Steel Material Properties

Properties of

Types of Structural Steel
• Materials Information for Steel Design
– Defined in ASTM Standards but summarized
in Part 2 (see pp 2-48 to 2-50)

The major type

• Carbon Steels
– ASTM 36 available for most rolled shapes Fy=36 ksi

• High-Strength Low-alloy Steels (HSLA):

– Add Alloying elements other than carbon to increase
strength but maintain adequate ductility and weldability
– ASTM A572 Gr 50 and ASTM A992 Fy=50 ksi

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Chemical Composition = Iron + Carbon + Other

Wrought Iron Steel Cast Iron
less 0.2 % Carbon 0.2 - 2 % Carbon More 2% Carbon
Soft & Malleable + Hard & Brittle
Controlled amounts of:
Manganese, Phosphorous
Structural Silicon, Sulfur, Oxygen
Steel Mild Steel
Combinations of:
0.2 - 0.25 % Carbon
Chromium, Cobalt, Copper,
Medium Steel Carbon Steel + Molybdenum, Nickel,
0.25 - 0.45 % Carbon Tungsten, Vanadium
Hard Steel
0.45 - 0.85 % Carbon Alloy Steel
Spring Steel Stainless Steel
0.85 - 1.85 % Carbon Weathering Steel

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Common Structural Steels

Common Structural Steels

AISC Approved Steels: Steel Manual page 16.1-6

ASTM Designation Shapes Available

A36 W, M, S, HP, C, MC, L, Plates, Bars
A572 W, M, S, HP, C, MC, L, Plates, Bars
A500 HSS
A588 (Weathering Steel) – Same as A572
A992 W

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Steel Sections
• Angle Iron was the First Structural shapes 1819
• Ι-shaped steel sections were first rolled in US 1884
• The most desirable members are those with large Ι in
proportion to their A. Ι, Τ and C .
W section
 approx 27 in deep
 weighing 114 Lb/ft

Rectangular Hollow
Structural Section
14 in deep
 10 in wide
 5/8 in wall thickness


CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Basic Load Combinations

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Symbols and Notation
• D = dead load;
• Di = weight of ice;
• E = earthquake load;
• F = load due to fluids with well-defined pressures and maximum heights;
• Fa = flood load;
• H = load due to lateral earth pressure, ground water pressure, or pressure of bulk materials;
• L = live load;
• Lr = roof live load;
• R = rain load;
• S = snow load;
• T = self-straining force;
• W = wind load;
• W i = wind-on-ice determined in accordance with

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Combination Factored Loads

1. 1.4(D + F)
2. 1.2(D + F + T ) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
3. 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + 0.5(L or W)
4. 1.2D + 1.0W + 0.5L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
5. 1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L + 0.2S
6. 0.9D + 1.0W + 1.6H
7. 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H
• Exceptions:
• 1. The load factor on L in combinations (3), (4), and (5) is permitted to equal 0.5 for all
occupancies in which Lo in Table 4.1 is less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of
garages or areas occupied as places of public assembly.
• 2. The load factor on H shall be set equal to zero in combinations (6) and (7) if the structural
action due to H counteracts that due to W or E. Where lateral earth pressure provides resistance
to structural actions from other forces, it shall not be included in H but shall be included in the
design resistance.
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Loads Factors

Review statistical load factor

combinations pp 2-10 to 2.11 of Section
2 of Manual. Defined by ASCE 7.

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Steel Design in
What’s the DIFFERENCE?????

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

L oad and
R esistance
F actor
D esign
A llowable
S tress
D esign

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

AISC Specifications for Steel Buildings

1st Edition – 1923

7th Edition - 1969

8th Edition - 1978
9th Edition - 1989 1st Edition – 1986
2nd Edition – 1993
3rd Edition – 2001

1st Edition
“Unified” Specification 13th Edition– 2005
14th Edition – 2011

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Basic Design Equation:
( forces, EFFECTS
deflections, etc.) ≤ ( strength,
ductility , etc.)

• Uncertainty
– Magnitude of loads acting on structure
– Ability of structure to carry those loads
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Uncertainties in Load Effects

– Uncertainties in loads
(depends on type of load:
dead, live, wind, EQ, etc)
– Uncertainties in load combinations
– Uncertainties in modeling and analysis

• Uncertainties in Resistance
– Uncertainties in member properties
( yield stress, dimensions, geometric,
imperfections, residual stresses, etc.)
– Uncertainties predicting structural
( depends on type of behavior, e.g.,
column buckling, lateral torsional
buckling, block shear rupture, etc.)
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

OLD ASD ( Allowable Stress Design)

Basic Design Equation:

fcalc ≤ Fallow

fcalc = calculated stress in a structural component

under service loads

Fallow = allowable stress

Fn stress at failure
Fallow = =
Ω factor of safety (1.67-2)

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

Old ASD step by step

• Use service loads used to calculate stress,
f, by mechanics methods
• Predict a failure or yield stress for the
given behavior, Fy or Fcr
• Divide by factor of Safety, F.S., to get Fall
• Then f < Fall
• Appears to be precise, but is very

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design)

Basic Design Equation:

Σ λi Qi ≤ Φ Rn
Qi = calculated load effect (M, V, P, etc) under
service load i, where i = D, L, W, etc.

λi = load factor; depends on load type and combination

(accounts for uncertainties in load effects)

Rn = nominal strength = stress or force at failure

Φ = resistance factor; depends on type of resistance

(accounts for uncertainties in resistance)
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

LRFD step by step

• Taking estimated loads, Q, by methods of CEE 380
• Computing resistance , R, based upon methods of engineering
mechanics CEE 220, 379, 363, and 380
• Resistance factor, Φ , is based upon based upon the standard
deviation or variation of resistance and the proximity of our
estimated resistance to the mean
• Load factor, λ, is based upon the standard deviation or variation of
loads and the proximity of our design loads to the mean

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

ASD versus LRFD

Factor of (λ
(Ω) Resistance


 In LRFD, basic design check is done in terms of forces rather than stresses.

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

• Rn : Nominal Strength (LRFD & ASD )
– Calculated theoretical strength

Allowable Rn Nominal strength
• Φ Rn : Design strength strength : =
(Nominal strength) X (resistance factor) Safety factor

RU : required strength using LRFD load Ra: required strength using ASD laod

Φ Rn ≥ Ru ≥ Ra

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

ASD is Really LRFD in Disguise
Rn N

ΦRn ≥ ∑ λi Qi ≥ ∑ Qi
i=1 Ω i=1

Qi = one of N service loads in a group

λi = load factor associated with loads in LRFD
Rn = nominal structural strength
Φ = resistance factor;

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

In this course we will only use

LRFD Design

It is not the method used by all designers

but it is the most rational method and
method of the future.

CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures

LFRD Vocabulary
• Limit State = a limit of structural usefulness
= a failure mode
= a condition at which a structure (part of it)
cease to perform its intended function
• Limit States
– Strength Limit States
• Excessive yielding
• Fracture
• Buckling
• Fatigue
– Serviceability Limit States
• Deflection
• Cracking
• Slipping
• Vibration
• Deterioration
CEE 451 Design of Metal Structures