Koyna Dam

Impounds Locale Length Height Opening date Dam owner(s)

Koyna River Koyna Nagar, Maharashtra India 807.2 m (2,648 ft) 103.2 m (339 ft) 1967 Government of Maharashtra

Reservoir information Creates Capacity Surface area Shivaji Lake 2,797,400,000 m3 (9.8789×1010 cu ft) 89,178 km2 (34,432 sq mi)

Power generation information Turbines 18

Installed capacity 1,920 MW Official website

The Koyna Dam is one of the largest dams in Maharashtra, India. It is located in Koyna Nagar, nestled in the Western Ghats on the state highway between Chiplun and Karad, Maharashtra. The dam supplies water to western Maharashtra as well as cheap hydroelectric power to the neighbouring areas with a capacity of 1,920 MW. The Koyna project is actually composed of four dams, with the Koyna Dam having the largest catchment area. The catchment area dams the Koyna River and forms the Shivaji Lake which is approximately 50 km (31 mi) in length. Completed in 1963, it is one of the largest civil engineering projects commissioned after Indian independence. The Koyna electricity project is run by the Maharashtra State Electricity Board. Most of the generators are located in excavated caves a kilometre deep, inside the heart of the surrounding hills.

The dam has contributed to earthquakes in the recent past, including the devastating 1967 Koynanagar earthquake that almost razed the dam, resulting in the dam developing major cracks. Date Built in: 1962 - 1963 Height of dam: 103 metres Water storage: 2,797.400 km³ Volume of dam: 1,555.000 m³ Width of dam: 808 m Slope at water side: 24:1 Length of lake: 60 km • Storage: o Gross storage: 98.78 TMC o Live: 93.65 TMC o Dead: 5.125 TMC • Length: 1807.22 m • Height: 85.35 m • Year of completion: 1963

Jayakwadi Dam
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Jayakwadi Dam

Jayakwadi Dam on Godavari River.

Jayakwadi project is one of the largest irrigation projects in Maharashtra. It is a multipurpose project. Its water is used mainly to irrigate agricultural land in the drought prone Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. It also provides water for drinking and industrial usage to nearby towns and villages and to the municipalities and industrial areas of Aurangabad and Jalna. The surrounding area of the dam has a beautiful garden and a bird sanctuary.

It is located on Godavari river at the site of Jayakwadi village in Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district in Maharashtra state, India.

Foundation was laid by late Prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri on 18 October 1965.

Inaugurated by late Prime minister Indira Gandhi on 24 February 1976.

Multipurpose project. Mainly To irrigate land for agriculture in the drought prone of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. Also to provide water for drinking and industrial usage to nearby towns and villages and to the municipalities and industrial areas of Aurangabad and Jalna.

Statistics Built in: 1965–1976 Height of 40 m approx dam:

Water storage: 2.909 km3 9998 m (10 km Width of dam: approx) Area of 350 km2 Reservoir :

About the dam

Jayakwadi project is one of the largest irrigation projects in Aurangabad Maharashtra. o It is a multipurpose project. o Jayakwadi is one of the largest earthen dams in Asia. o Its cachement area is 21,750 km². o Total submergence area due to the reservoir is approx 35,000 ha. o Its height is approx 41.30 m and length of 9998 m (10 km approx) o Nath Sagar is the name of the reservoir formed due to Jayakwadi Dam. o Total area of reservoir is approx 350 km2. o Its total storage capicity is approx 2.909 km³ & effective live storage capacity is 2.17 km³. o The length of left bank canal is 208 km & the length of right bank canal is 132 km.
• o o o o

It irrigates culturable area of 237,452 ha in the districts of Aurangabad, Jalna, Beed and Parbhani. While its total command area is 263,858 ha. Its installed power generating capacity is 12 megawatts. It is also used to supply drinking water to Aurangabad city & surrounding areas. Unfortunately siltation has taken a heavy toll on the project. It is estimated that appprox 30% of the dam is filled with silt, reducing its life as well as storage capacity.

In the year 2009 it has entered in 35th year of its life. It has in its lifetime overflowed only 17 times. On 10 August 2006 highest discharge of 250000 ft³/s was recorded.

Migratory birds at Jayakwadi Dam, Aurangabad

Dnyneshwar Udyan

Dnyaneshwar Udyan is one of the largest gardens in Maharashtra resembling the Vrindavan Gardens of Mysore. It is spread over 125 hectares and is situated on the banks of Nathsagar Lake formed due to Jayakwadi Dam. It is located near the town of Paithan which is 40 km south of Aurangabad and nearly about 22 km east to hatgaon which is femous in all over india

Itaipu Dam

Central Official name Impounds Locale Length Height Hydraulic head Construction began Opening date Construction cost Maintained by Binacional



Usina Hidrelétrica Itaipu Binacional Paraná River Foz do Iguaçu

Ciudad del Este 7,700 m (25,300 ft) 196 m (643 ft) 118 m (387 ft) January 1970 5 May 1984 US$19.6 billion Itaipu Binacional

Reservoir information Creates Itaipu Reservoir

itaipu.8 TWh in 2008 and 79.br www.350 km2 (520 sq mi) Power generation information Turbines Installed capacity Annual generation Conventional Website 20 × 700 MW 14. The American composer Philip Glass has also written a symphonic cantata named Itaipu. The installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW.[1] It is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay at the Paraná River on the border section between the two countries. Itaipu means "the sound of a stone".6 TWh in 2009.6 TWh (2009) Yes www.000 MW 91. generating 94. The name "Itaipu" was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site.itaipu.000.000. carry both Brazilian and Paraguayan energy to São Paulo where the terminal equipment converts the power to 60 Hz. in Brazil. History . In 2008 the plant generated a record 94. The project ranges from Foz do Iguaçu. ten generate at 50 Hz for Paraguay and ten generate at 60 Hz for Brazil.68 billion kWh. Spanish: Itaipú. In the Guarani language.gov. while the annual generating capacity of the Three Gorges Dam was 80.Capacity Catchment area 29.0×1012 cu ft) 1.gov.3 mi) north of the Friendship Bridge. 15 km (9. in honour of the structure. Two 600 kV HVDC lines. Portuguese: Itaipu. The dam is the largest operating hydroelectric facility in terms of annual generating capacity. in the south to Guaíra and Salto del Guaíra in the north. supplying 90% of the energy consumed by Paraguay and 19% of that consumed by Brazil.000 m3 (1.py The Itaipu Dam (Guarani: Itaipu.7 TWh in 2008 and 91. Portuguese pronunciation: Spanish pronunciation: is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. and Ciudad del Este in Paraguay.4 TWh in 2009. with 20 generating units providing 700 MW each with a hydraulic design head of 118 m. [2] Of the twenty generator units currently installed. each approximately 800 km long.

to the Iguaçu River's watershed. The government of President Lugo vowed to renegotiate the terms of the treaty with Brazil.p. 1966. This was a joint declaration of the mutual interest in studying the exploitation of the hydric resources that the two countries shared in the section of the Paraná River starting from. The "Ata do Iguaçu" (Iguaçu Act) was signed on July 22. Work began in February . (from Italy) won the international competition for the realization of the viability studies and for the elaboration of the construction project. and including. The Treaty that gave origin to the power plant was signed in 1973. which long remained hostile to any renegotiation. Brazil agreed to a fairer payment of electricity to Paraguay and also allowed Paraguay to sell excess power directly to Brazilian companies instead of solely through the Brazilian electricity monopoly. respectively.A.Negotiations between Brazil and Paraguay The concept behind Itaipu Power Plant was the result of heavy negotiations between the two countries during the 1960s.[4][5] Construction starts The dam undergoes expansion work. the Salto de Sete Quedas. by the Brazilian and Paraguayan Ministers of Foreign Affairs.[3] In 2009. which expires in 2023. have been the subject of widespread discontent in Paraguay. The terms of the treaty. In 1970. Juracy Magalhães and Sapena Pastor. the consortium formed by the companies IECO (from the United States of America) and ELC Electroconsult S.

the last two of these started running in the year 1991.1971. on October 27. 1982. on October 19. Paraná River rerouted On October 14. Throughout this period. the legal instrument for the hydroelectric exploitation of the Paraná River by the two countries. On April 26. Agreement by Brazil. Start of operations On May 5.m. Capacity expansion in 2007 . Formation of the lake The plant's reservoir began its formation on October 13. and Argentina An important diplomatic settlement was reached with the signing of the Acordo Tripartite by Brazil. This agreement established the allowed river levels and how much they could change as a result of the various hydroelectrical undertakings in the watershed that was shared by the three countries. Paraguay. Brazil and Paraguay signed the Itaipu Treaty. 1984. The first 18 units were installed at the rate of two to three a year. when the dam works were completed and the side canal's gates were closed. the three countries were ruled by military dictatorships. Brazil could open the floodgates. raising the water level in the River Plate and consequently flood the capital city of Buenos Aires. At that time. the Itaipu Binacional entity was created to administer the plant's construction. The works began in January of the following year. 1974. 1979. 1973. Paraguay and Argentina. Argentina was concerned that. which allowed a section of the riverbed to dry so the dam could be built there. On May 17. the first generation unit started running in Itaipu. heavy rains and flooding accelerated the filling of the reservoir as the water rose 100 meters (330 ft) and reached the gates of the spillway at 10 a. in the event of a conflict. the Paraná River had its route changed. 1978.

2009. power had been restored to most areas. Due to a clause in the treaty signed between Brazil. and plunging Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo into darkness for more than 2 hours. Santa Catarina. Mato Grosso. This caused massive power outages in Brazil and Paraguay.m. In 1995. energy officials said.The last two of the 20 electric generation units started operations in September 2006 and in March 2007. Wonder of the Modern World In 1994. by comparison. leaving São Paulo.[6] Itaipu itself was not damaged. blacking out the entire country of Paraguay for 15 minutes.[9] Social and environmental impacts . local time. The rated nominal power of each generating unit (turbine and generator) is 700 MW. all the water from the Iguaçu Falls would have the capacity to feed only two generators. 50 million people were reportedly affected. thus raising the installed capacity to 14 GW and completing the power plant. It affected the southeast of Brazil most severely. November 2009 power failure On November 10. because the head (difference between reservoir level and the river level at the foot of the dam) that actually occurs is higher than the designed head (118 m). [7] The blackout hit at 10:13 p. the American Society of Civil Engineers elected the Itaipu Dam as one of the seven modern Wonders of the World. Each turbine generates around 700 MW. the power available exceeds 750 MW half of the time for each generator. the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18 (see the agreement section for more information).[8] By 12:30 a. the American magazine Popular Mechanics published the results. the interior of Bahia and parts of Pernambuco. Paraguay and Argentina. Mato Grosso do Sul. This increase in capacity will allow for 18 generation units to remain running all of the time while two stay down for maintenance. Blackouts also swept through the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. possibly due to a storm damaging up to three high-voltage distribution lines. However. transmission from the plant was totally disrupted.m. Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo completely without electricity.

and dynamited the submerged rock face where the falls had been. The Brazilian government liquidated the Guaíra Falls National Park. as were 50 million tons of earth and rock.5 times greater than that of the Channel Tunnel and the volume of concrete is 15 times greater. Construction • The course of the seventh biggest river in the world was shifted. as tourists sought a last glimpse of the falls. approximately 10.[11] Statistics Spillways in action. A few months before the reservoir was filled.000 families living beside the Paraná River were displaced. 80 people died when an overcrowded bridge overlooking the falls collapsed. The iron and steel used would allow for the construction of 380 Eiffel Towers. The amount of concrete used to build the Itaipu Power Plant would be enough to build 210 football stadiums the size of the Estádio do Maracanã.[10] The world's largest waterfall by volume.[citation needed] • • • • . facilitating safer navigation. but eliminating the possibility of restoring the falls in the future. the Guaíra Falls were drowned by the newly formed Itaipu reservoir.When construction of the dam began. Around forty thousand people worked in the construction. The volume of excavation of earth and rock in Itaipu is 8.

• • The spillway has a length of 483 m.[12] Though it is the seventh largest reservoir in size in Brazil. a concrete main dam. Generating station and dam • The total length of the dam is 7235 m. • • • Hoover Dam. Serra da Mesa Dam and Furnas Dam are all larger than the one for Itaipu. Porto Primavera Dam. The crest elevation is 225 m. The one with the largest hydroelectric production. The maximum flow of Itaipu's fourteen segmented spillways is 62.000 barrels (69.000 MW. and a concrete wing dam to the right. but have a smaller installed generating capacity. If Brazil were to use Thermal Power Generation to produce the electric power of Itaipu. For the 14. • The flow of two generators (700 m3·s−1 each) is roughly equivalent to the average flow of the Iguaçu Falls (1500 m3·s−1). Statistics and Project Construction .• The cost of constructing Itaipu makes it one of the most expensive objects ever built. Itaipu is actually four dams joined together — from the far left. an earth fill dam. into three skislope formed canals. The reservoirs for the hydroelectric power plants of Sobradinho Dam. the Itaipu's reservoir has the best relation between electricity production and flooded area. 434. a rock fill dam. 1350 square kilometres were flooded. Facts.000 m3) of petroleum would have to be burned every day.430 km2 (938 sq mi) of land. has an installed capacity of 8. while flooding 2. equivalent to a 65-story building.2 thousand cubic metres per second. The dam is 196 metres high. Tucuruí Dam. It is equivalent to 40 times the average flow of the nearby natural Iguaçu Falls. Balbina Dam. Tucuruí.000 MW installed power.

It was the most colossal structure in the world at that time. This great American icon was to be the largest and heaviest dam. The risks involved were huge and the consequences could have been catastrophic.Hoover Dam Hoover dam is America's most famous landmark. The Hoover sketch details 21000 men took part in its construction and of them 112 laid their lives to complete this megastructure. Built on Colorado River at Black Canyon. producing the largest amount of Hydro electric power in the world. 30 Km south-east of Las Vegas. completed in 1935. 201 meters thick and 3.4 million cubic meters of concrete has been used in it. the construction site was extremely difficult. Though its not the superior dam today but still most famous. if the dam failed. Situated in Mojave desert. Hoover Dam is 221m high. iconic and greatest dam ever built. Background for Hoover Construction .

The construction of Hoover took 7 years at a cost of $ 125 million. was the Chief Engineer of Hoover Dam and was assigned the job to get it completed in the span from 1931 – 1935. It is an 800 ft high deep gorge through which the river flowed. The spot. The site chosen for the megastructure Hoover Dam was Black Canyon. so there was no infrastructure. The Government instructed the Bureau of Reclamation to come up with a solution and they decided to build world's largest dam. Nowadays this amount is about 788 million pounds. Black canyon is in the middle of the desert. worlds one of the most powerful and unpredictable rivers.Colorado. Stage 1 of construction Hoover Tunnels . would break its banks in every spring and flood the area. Frank Crow. no transportation and the weather too was harsh. If the dam was not completed in the given time it would have cost the contractors $ 3000 / day in financial penalties. no labors.

No proper ventilation was provides. these were acting as diversion channels. using . began. Tunnels Used to divert water from dam site In April 1931 blasting for construction of plain dry area. The workers had to face harsh conditions but were paid only 40% extra. Holidays were observed only at Christmas. with men working 3 shifts 24 hours a day. blasting. 2 small cofferdams were built to force water into the tunnels.Hoover Tunnels. Two tunnels would be constructed on the Nevada side. work was extremely physically demanding. and debris removal continued for 13 months. 7 days a week. In may 1931 the drilling continued. and another two were to be constructed on the Arizona side. 4rth July and Labor Day. measuring 4000 ft long and the diameter of the tunnel was 56 ft. Men had to swing 100's of feet down the canyon walls to remove dangerous loose rocks. To divert the Colorado river 4 tunnels were to be excavated on each side of the Canyon. upon which dam would be built. The digging.

Once holes were drilled. Special team then visited the inside of the tunnels to ensure it would remain same for workers to work inside it. were lined with 3 feet of concrete. These tunnels. The largest flow ever recorded at Black Canyon 200. and compressors to make holes in the canyon rock where explosives could be placed. and debris into the water at a rate of one truckload every 15 seconds. workers used dynamite to blast into the rock and break it into smaller pieces that could be hauled away by dump trucks.000 cubic feet per second. Due to lack of safety measure men required nerves of steel. allowing river water to be transported away from the construction site at a rate of 1. Workers used 500 pneumatic drills. hoses. to build Hoover Dam Because no roads led into the canyon. 1932 four 4 tunnels were completed and the water was allowed to flow through it. A ton (0.9 metric tons) of dynamite was required for every 14 feet (4.3 meters) of tunnel that workers dug into the canyon wall. 14. The most common cause of death was. each about the size of a 4-lane highway. men (as well as equipment) arrived at the work site by boat. being hit by falling rocks. Coffer dams.5 million gallons per second. rock. This amazing pace of dredging and dumping went on for five months. Till November. workers were able to blast and excavate large diversion tunnels.jacks and dynamites. was used by the Engineers to design the coffer dams. . Coffer Dams Workers made the cofferdams by using 100 trucks to dump dirt. The tunnels were then lined with concrete and By sliding sticks of dynamite into holes bored into the canyon wall.

. incorporating two principles. The work was too huge. Design of the Hoover Dam Hoover is a Gravity dam.Stage 2 of construction In this stage building the dam itself was the task. stabilized by its huge mass Hoover is an arch gravity dam. there were many problems in design which needed to be solved.

According to the first principle. they start a chemical reaction. the arch shape of the dam deflects the force of the water into the canyon walls through the compression of dam's concrete walls. If the concrete in the dam was poured in only one go. It is because when ingredients of concrete – cement. thus helping it to remain stable. coarse aggregate combine in the presence of water. In another principle. Plants were installed at the construction site to produce concrete locally. thus slowing down the curing process. resulting in the generation of internal heat. But the dam was too big to be made into a single concrete mount. sand. the concrete would not have settled even today. Heat of hydration in Hoover dam . cracks would form. Major problem was the pouring of 3. weakening the structure.4 million cubic meters of concrete. The large the pour. using the compressive strength of concrete (concrete is very strong in compression). the larger the cure. If heat is not dispersed. the weight of the dam forces it into the ground due to its weight.

. carrying vast buckets of concrete. Due to this new method. This idea was conceived by a previous dam called Lower Crystal Spring dams. But Hoover was even 20 times massive than gigantic Lower Crystals Spring Dam. an elaborate overhead network of cables and pulleys was designed. Concrete mix was cooled and cured faster. place and compact the poured in concrete. Hoover dam was built in series of inter locking blocks. Labors stayed on the site to spread. Each block was 5 ft high and was inter locked with the neighboring one and water was forced between them. a record breaking volume – 8000 cubic meters of concrete was poured in a single day.The cooling of Blocks to avoid shrinkage due to heat evolution To counteract the problem of heat generation. cool water pipes were passed through each block. To accelerate the setting of concrete. To speed up pouring of concrete in the mega structure.

Other name(s) Pearl bridge Carries 6 lanes of roadway Crosses Akashi Strait[1] Locale Awaji Island and Kobe[1] Maintained by Honshū-Shikoku Bridge Authority Design Suspension bridge[1] Total length 3. 1998 Toll ¥2.72 meters below Beginning date 1988[1] of construction Completion 1998[1] date Opened April 5.61639°N Coordinates 135.532 ft)[1] Clearance 65.911 meters (12.61639°N 135.991 meters (6.8 metres (928 ft) (pylons)[1] Longest span 1.300 34°36′59″N 135°01′13″E 34.02028°E .831 ft) Height 282.Akashi Kaikyō Bridge Akashi Kaikyō Bridge Akashi Kaikyō Ō-hashi (明石海峡大橋?) Akashi Kaikyō Bridge from the air.02028°ECoordinates: 34°36′59″N 135°01′13″E / / 34.

at 1. has the longest central span of any suspension bridge. The original plan called for a mixed railway-road bridge. but the Kobe earthquake on January 17. This dangerous waterway often experiences severe storms. which created three routes across the Inland Sea. Actual construction did not begin until May 1986.500metre (4. The central span was originally only 1.921 ft)-wide shipping lane. 1995.150 ft). and the two other sections are each 960 m (3.The Akashi-Kaikyō Bridge also known as the Pearl Bridge.532 ft)[1]. The bridge links the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honshū to Iwaya on Awaji Island by crossing the busy Akashi Strait. The Akashi Strait is an international waterway that necessitated the provision of a 1. The central span is 1. the construction was restricted to road only. The bridge is 3. It carries part of the Honshū-Shikoku Highway. History Before the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge was built.990 m (6. The ensuing shock and public outrage convinced the Japanese government to develop plans for a suspension bridge to cross the strait. moved the two .831 ft) long overall.911 m (12. but when construction on the bridge began in April 1986.532 ft). ferries carried passengers across the Akashi Strait in Japan. and in 1955. killing 168 children. two ferries sank in the strait during a storm. It is located in Japan and was completed in 1998[1]. 1998.529 ft). Architecture The bridge has three spans. and the bridge was opened for traffic on April 5.991 m (6. with six lanes.991 metres (6. The bridge is one of the key links of the Honshū-Shikoku Bridge Project.

The RGB model and computer technology make for a variety of combinations.000 kilometres (190. On the main cables three high light discharged tubes are mounted in the colors red. green and blue. earthquakes measuring to 8.[4] Nearby attractions Two parks in proximity of the bridge have been built for tourists. 28 patterns are used for occasions as national or regional holidays.830 strands of wire.000 mi) of wire: each cable is 112 centimetres (44 in) in diameter and contains 36. Currently.[1] The bridge was designed with a two-hinged stiffening girder system. and the bridge can expand because of heating up to 2 metres (7 ft) over the course of a day.5 on the Richter scale. 116 for the main towers.000 cars/day. 390. Both are accessible by the coastal train line. Each anchorage required 350. The steel cables have 300. and is expected to be defrayed by charging commuters a toll to cross the bridge.000 LT.000 ST) of concrete. memorial days or festivities.[2][3] The Akashi-Kaikyo bridge has a total of 1737 illumination lights: 1084 for the main cables.towers sufficiently (only the towers had been erected at the time) so that it had to be increased by 1 m (3. Golden Gate Bridge Golden Gate Bridge .3 ft). 405 for the girders and 132 for the anchorages. one in Maiko (including a small museum) and one in Asagiri. The two main supporting towers rise 298 m (978 ft) above sea level. and harsh sea currents. allowing the structure to withstand winds of 286 kilometres per hour (178 mph).[citation needed] Use The total cost is estimated at ¥500 billion. The toll is ¥2.000 tonnes (340.300 and the bridge is used by approximately 23. The bridge also contains pendulums that are designed to operate at the resonance frequency of the bridge to damp forces.

truss arch & truss causeways 1. $3.00 (carpools during peak hours.00 (FasTrak).4 m)[2] 90 ft (27.200 ft (1. Irving Morrow. Highway and Transportation District[1] Joseph Strauss.1 m) at mean high water May 27. higher truck loads possible 220 ft (67.7 km) or 8.7 mi (2.Carries Crosses Locale Maintained by Designer Design Total length Width Height Longest span Vertical clearance Clearance below Opened 6 lanes of US 101 / SR 1 .280.3 m) at toll gates. $5. California and Marin County. pedestrians and bicycles Golden Gate San Francisco.4 m) 746 ft (227.4 m) 4. and Charles Ellis Suspension.2 m)[3] 14 ft (4.737. 1937 Cars (southbound only) Toll $6.000[4] Daily traffic . California Golden Gate Bridge. FasTrak only) 118.00 (cash).981 ft (2.

Despite its span length being surpassed by eight other bridges since its completion. The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed during the year 1937. It has been declared one of the modern Wonders of the World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. it still has the second longest suspension bridge main span in the United States.81972°N Coordinates 122°28′43″W / 122. the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean.81972°N 122. England).47861°WCoordinates: 37°49′11″N 122°28′43″W / 37. Route 101 and California State Route 1. certainly the most photographed. The Frommers travel guide considers the Golden Gate Bridge the "possibly the most beautiful. As part of both U. it connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County. after the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York City. and of the United States.S.Connects: San Francisco Peninsula with Marin County 37°49′11″N 37.47861°W The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate. bridge in the world"[5] (although Frommers also bestows the most photographed honor on Tower Bridge in London. and has become one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco. California.[6] History .

[11] Many experts said that a bridge couldn’t be built across the 6. a price later reduced to compete with the new bridge. the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s.042 m) strait. Experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation. the proposal that eventually took place was made in a 1916 San Francisco Bulletin article by former engineering student James Wilkins. the city's growth rate was below the national average. and frequent strong winds.[11] Conception Although the idea of a bridge spanning the Golden Gate was not new. Ferry service began as early as 1820. with regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for purposes of transporting water to San Francisco.[7][8] Once for railroad passengers and customers only. San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats.00 per vehicle.700 ft (2. with water 500 ft (150 m) in depth at the center of the channel. swirling tides and currents.[12] San Francisco's City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million. [10] The trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes.[9] The ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco and Sausalito in Marin County took approximately 20 minutes and cost US$1. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County. Southern Pacific's automobile ferries became very profitable and important to the regional economy. eventually became the Golden Gate Ferry Company. the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. launched in 1867. . It had strong. a Southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary.Golden Gate with Fort Point in foreground. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay.[7] The Sausalito Land and Ferry Company service. circa 1891 Before the bridge was built.

Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs.[13] At the time. including litigation. Deakyne. leading to a mass boycott of the ferry service. and Strauss.[10] The bridge's name was first used when the project was initially discussed in 1917 by M. from many sources. The Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. Joseph Strauss.[7] Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts.[3] Strauss's initial drawings[12] were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait. and fielded the question to bridge engineers of whether it could be built for less. which supported the development of roads and bridges to increase demand for automobiles. pending further bridge plans by Strauss. the navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors.impractical for the time. was an ambitious but dreamy engineer and poet who had.[7] One who responded. O'Shaughnessy. connected by a central suspension segment. on behalf of the Secretary of War. designed a 55-mile (89 km) long railroad bridge across the Bering Strait.[citation needed] A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical. Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project.[7] Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California. opposed the bridge as competition to its ferry fleet and filed a lawsuit against the project. approved the transfer of land needed for the bridge structure and leading roads to the "Bridging the Golden Gate Association" and both San Francisco County and Marin County. which Strauss promised could be built for $17 million. [14] The bridge faced opposition. Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use Federal land for construction. Southern Pacific Railroad. city engineer of San Francisco. because of recent advances in metallurgy. one of the most powerful business interests in California.[7] In May 1924. The name became official with the passage of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act by the state legislature in 1923.M.[16] Design . for his graduate thesis.[15] Another ally was the fledgling automobile industry.

and walkways. [11] However. The famous International Orange color was originally used as a sealant for the bridge. Many locals persuaded Morrow to paint the bridge in the vibrant orange color instead of the standard silver or gray.[19] Although the Golden Gate Bridge design has proved sound. introducing his "deflection theory" by which a thin. Irving Morrow. the lighting scheme. flexible roadway would flex in the wind. the original . a relatively unknown residential architect. greatly reducing stress by transmitting forces via suspension cables to the bridge towers. and Art Deco elements such as the streetlights. and the color has been kept ever since.[18] Senior engineer Charles Alton Ellis. [19] Moisseiff produced the basic structural design.South tower seen from walkway Strauss was chief engineer in charge of overall design and construction of the bridge project. was the principal engineer of the project. collaborating remotely with famed bridge designer Leon Moisseiff. railing.[17] responsibility for much of the engineering and architecture fell on other experts. a later Moisseiff design. because he had little understanding or experience with cable-suspension designs. designed the overall shape of the bridge towers.

[21] Only much later were the contributions of the others on the design team properly appreciated.[21] Ellis did much of the technical and theoretical work that built the bridge. obsessed with the project and unable to find work elsewhere during the Depression.[17] are largely responsible for the final form of the bridge.[20] Ellis was a Greek scholar and mathematician who at one time was a University of Illinois professor of engineering despite having no engineering degree (he eventually earned a degree in civil engineering from University of Illinois prior to designing the Golden Gate Bridge and spent the last twelve years of his career as a professor at Purdue University). the Golden Gate Bridge District issued a formal report on 70 years of stewardship of the famous bridge and decided to give Ellis major credit for the design of the bridge. Strauss downplayed the contributions of his collaborators who. but he received none of the credit in his lifetime. Clifford Paine.Tacoma Narrows Bridge. [21] Ellis.[21] With an eye toward self-promotion and posterity. because of an unexpected aeroelastic flutter. Strauss fired Ellis and replaced him with a former subordinate. . ostensibly for wasting too much money sending telegrams back and forth to Moisseiff. writing the standard textbook of the time. despite receiving little recognition or compensation. collapsed in a strong windstorm soon after it was completed. eventually turning in ten volumes of hand calculations. He became an expert in structural design. In November 1931. continued working 70 hours per week on an unpaid basis.[21] In May 2007. He succeeded in having himself credited as the person most responsible for the design and vision of the bridge.

construct. was incorporated in 1928 as the official entity to design.[13] by votes in the counties affected by the bridge. A graduate of the University of Cincinnati. He innovated the use of movable safety netting beneath the construction site. when Amadeo Giannini.[23] Strauss remained head of the project. which saved the lives of many otherwise-unprotected steelworkers.Finance The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District. The bonds were approved in November 1930. authorized by an act of the California Legislature.[11] However. However. he placed a brick from his alma mater's demolished McMicken Hall in the south anchorage before the concrete was poured. after the Wall Street Crash of 1929. the District was unable to sell the bonds until 1932. and finance the Golden Gate Bridge. overseeing day-to-day construction and making some groundbreaking contributions. Of eleven men killed from falls . 1933.[22] The construction budget at the time of approval was $27 million. agreed on behalf of his bank to buy the entire issue in order to help the local economy. [7] Construction Construction began on January 5.[7] The project cost more than $35 million. so it lobbied for a $30 million bond measure. the District was unable to raise the construction funds. the founder of San Francisco–based Bank of America.

[7] Opening festivities Opening of the Golden Gate Bridge The bridge-opening celebration began on May 27.[7] On opening day.000 people crossed by foot and roller skate.[24] Nineteen others who were saved by the net over the course of construction became proud members of the (informal) Halfway to Hell Club. An official song. was chosen to commemorate the . 200. then crossed the bridge in a motorcade past three ceremonial "barriers". "There's a Silver Moon on the Golden Gate". Mayor Angelo Rossi and other officials rode the ferry to Marin. 1937 and lasted for one week.during construction. the last a blockade of beauty queens who required Joseph Strauss to present the bridge to the Highway District before allowing him to pass.[25] The project was finished by April 1937. ten were killed (when the bridge was near completion) when the net failed under the stress of a scaffold that had fallen. $1. The day before vehicle traffic was allowed.3 million under budget.

President Roosevelt pushed a button in Washington." The next day.event.C. San Francisco . A statue of Strauss was moved in 1955 to a site near the bridge. D. the SFPD had a small riot in the uptown Polk Gulch area. Weeks of civil and cultural activities called "the Fiesta" followed. Strauss wrote a poem that is now on the Golden Gate Bridge entitled "The Mighty Task is Done. signaling the official start of vehicle traffic over the Bridge at noon. When the celebration got out of hand.[12] Description Specifications A photograph of the bridge from a boat Fog at the Golden Gate Bridge.

Traffic As the only road to exit San Francisco to the north.000 total rivets. The eastern walkway is for pedestrians and bicycles during the weekdays and during daylight hours only (6:30 am to 3:30 pm). the Bridge Board of Directors. The median markers between the lanes are moved to conform to traffic patterns. Aesthetics .[26] The bridge has approximately 1. Structure The weight of the roadway is hung from two cables that pass through the two main towers and are fixed in concrete at each end. Michigan's Mackinac Bridge surpassed the Golden Gate Bridge's total length to become the world's longest two-tower suspension bridge in total length between anchorages.S. In 1957. in March 2005. Route 101 and California Route 1. Although there has been discussion concerning the installation of a movable barrier since the 1980s. committed to finding funding to complete the $2 million study required prior to the installation of a movable median barrier. surpassing the Golden Gate Bridge by 60 feet (18 m). and the western walkway is open to bicyclists on weekday afternoons (after 3:30 pm).000 miles (129. On weekday mornings. four lanes run northbound.000 km) of wire in the main cables.572 strands of wire. Conversely. the bridge is part of both U. weekends. and holidays (3:30 pm to 6:30 am). so four of the six lanes run southbound.The Golden Gate Bridge also had the world's tallest suspension towers at the time of construction and retained that record until more recently. on weekday afternoons. The speed limit on the Golden Gate Bridge was reduced from 55 mph (89 km/h) to 45 mph (72 km/h) on 1 October 1996. but the Mackinac Bridge has a shorter suspended span (between towers) compared to the Golden Gate Bridge.200. Each cable is made of 27. There are 80. traffic flows mostly southbound into the city.The center span was the longest among suspension bridges until 1964 when the VerrazanoNarrows Bridge was erected between the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City.

[31] Current issues Economics The last of the construction bonds were retired in 1971. he added details. a program was started to improve corrosion protection by stripping the original paint and repainting the bridge with zinc silicate primer and vinyl topcoats. Paintwork The bridge was originally painted with red lead primer and a lead-based topcoat.[29][30] Since 1990 Acrylic topcoats have been used instead for air-quality reasons. The program was completed in 1995 and it is now maintained by 38 painters who touch up the paintwork where it becomes seriously eroded. to outline the bridge's cables and towers. it was ranked fifth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. with $35 million in principal and nearly $39 million in interest raised entirely from bridge tolls. which was touched up as required. such as lighting.[27] The color was selected by consulting architect Irving Morrow because it complements the natural surroundings and enhances the bridge's visibility in fog.[32] . with part of downtown San Francisco visible in the background at far left Despite its red appearance.[28] In 1999.The Golden Gate Bridge by night. In the mid-1960s. Upon re-submission of his bridge construction plan. Aesthetics was the foremost reason why the first design of Joseph Strauss was rejected. the color of the bridge is officially an orange vermillion called international orange.

the congestion toll must be in place by September 2009. showed that a congestion pricing program is feasible. and the FasTrak toll was increased from $4 to $5. This decision allowed the Bay Area to meet the federal requirement to receive $158 million in federal transportation funds from USDOT Urban Partnership grant.50 per axle. most likely a toll increase. would not include changing the name of the bridge or placing advertising on the bridge itself.[41] The different pricing scenarios considered were presented in public meetings in December 2008 and the final study results are expected for late 2009. the Golden Gate Bridge District board approved a resolution to implement congestion pricing at the Golden Gate Bridge.[33][34] On 2 September 2008. the auto cash toll for all southbound motor vehicles was raised from $5 to $6.[38] As a condition of the grant.[42] Suicides . the Golden Gate Bridge. pedestrian.In November 2006.[39][40] The first results of the study. Access and Pricing Study (MAPS).[36][37] Congestion pricing Further information: San Francisco congestion pricing In March 2008. Bicycle. called the Mobility. The District promised that the proposal. and northbound motor vehicle traffic remain toll free. charging higher tolls during peak hours. Highway and Transportation District recommended a corporate sponsorship program for the bridge to address its operating deficit. In October 2007. projected at $80 million over five years.[35] For vehicles with more than two axles. the Board unanimously voted to discontinue the proposal and seek additional revenue through other means. the toll rate is $2. but rising and falling depending on traffic levels. which it called a "partnership program".

Because of this.[44] After a fall of approximately four seconds.As a suicide prevention initiative.[47] There is no accurate figure on the number of suicides or successful jumps since 1937. has a record of 78 bodies. water has been determined to take on properties similar to concrete. and may take a bus or cab to the site. An official suicide count was kept. found within the forest in 2002. this sign promotes a special telephone available on the bridge that connects to a crisis hotline. Currents beneath the bridge are very strong. and several bodies recovered suspected to be from bridge jumps.[43] The deck is approximately 245 feet (75 m) above the water. the reported second-mostpopular place to commit suicide in the world. The few who survive the initial impact generally drown or die of hypothermia in the cold water. By 2005. The water may be as cold as 47 °F (8 °C).200 and new suicides were averaging one every two weeks. jumpers hit the water at some 76 miles per hour (122 km/h). [46] There were 34 bridgejump suicides in 2006 whose bodies were recovered. this count exceeded 1. with an average of 30 a year. People have been known to travel to San Francisco specifically to jump off the bridge. because many were not witnessed. The Golden Gate Bridge is not only the most popular place to commit suicide in the United States but also the most popular in the entire world. in addition to four jumps that were witnessed but whose bodies were never recovered. The California Highway Patrol removed 70 apparently suicidal people from the bridge that year. sorted according to which of the bridge's 128 lamp posts the jumper was nearest when he or she jumped. Aokigahara Forest in Japan. police sometimes find abandoned rental cars in the parking lot. and some jumpers have undoubtedly been washed out to sea without ever being seen. At such a speed. most jumpers die on their immediate contact with the water. .[45] For comparison.

although individuals may still sustain broken bones or internal injuries. although questioning whether Jeremijenko's suicide-detection technology actually existed. fence. and safety (the load from a poorly designed barrier could significantly affect the bridge's structural integrity during a strong windstorm). nevertheless included her project in its prestigious Whitney Biennial. The bridge is fitted with suicide hotline telephones. [53] One recurring proposal had been to build a barrier to replace or augment the low railing.[50] Various methods have been proposed and implemented to reduce the number of suicides. but were opposed for the Golden Gate Bridge for reasons of cost. The impact cracked several of his vertebrae. far greater than the official count. Iron workers on the bridge also volunteer their time to prevent suicides by talking or wrestling down suicidal people. only 26 people are known to have survived the jump. in which filmmaker Eric Steel and his production crew spent one year (2004) filming the bridge from several vantage points. and drove himself to a hospital. looking for people who appear to be planning to jump. Strong appeals for a suicide barrier.[48] Engineering professor Natalie Jeremijenko. and public opposition. The film also contained interviews with surviving family members of those who jumped. and families of jumpers after the release of the controversial 2006 documentary film The Bridge. suicide barrier consultants.[45] Those who do survive strike the water feet-first and at a slight angle. Cyclists are still permitted across at night. in order to film actual suicide jumps.[49] The boxes purportedly recorded 17 jumps in three months. most notably that of Gene Sprague as well as a handful of thwarted attempts. As of 2006. high costs.[52] Attempts to introduce a suicide barrier had been thwarted by engineering difficulties. as part of her Bureau of Inverse Technology art collective. One young man survived a jump in 1979. created a "Despondency Index" by correlating the Dow Jones Industrial Average with the number of jumpers detected by "Suicide Boxes" containing motion-detecting cameras. and staff patrol the bridge in carts. or other preventive measures were raised once again by a well-organized vocal minority of psychiatry professionals. interviews with . swam to shore. a component of the bridge's original architectural design.The fatality rate of jumping is roughly 98%. which she claimed to have set up under the bridge. New barriers have eliminated suicides at other landmarks around the world. aesthetics. The film caught 23 jumps. The Whitney Museum.[51] The bridge is now closed to pedestrians at night. but must be buzzed in and out through the remotely controlled security gates.

and on 3 December 1983.[58] A $392 million program was initiated to improve the structure's ability to withstand such an event with only minimal (repairable) damage. Once thought to have been able to withstand any magnitude of foreseeable earthquake. on 23 December 1982. survived a suicide plunge from the span and is now a vocal advocate for some type of bridge barrier or net to prevent such incidents from occurring. The proximity of the bridge to the San Andreas Fault places it at risk for a significant earthquake. [54] [55] However.e. On October 10.. because of wind gusts of 75 mph (121 km/h). the Golden Gate Bridge Board of Directors voted 14 to 1 to install a plastic-covered stainless-steel net below the bridge as a suicide deterrent. The retrofit's planned completion date is 2012. the bridge was actually vulnerable to complete structural failure (i. 2008. the Golden Gate Bridge has been closed due to weather conditions only three times: on 1 December 1951.witnesses.[57] Seismic retrofit Modern knowledge of the effect of earthquakes on structures led to a program to retrofit the Golden Gate to better resist seismic events. and. The net will extend 20 feet (6 m) on either side of the bridge and is expected to cost $40–50 million to complete. an interview with Kevin Hines who. collapse) triggered by the failure of supports on the 320-foot (98 m) arch over Fort Point. as a 19-year-old in 2000. in one segment. lack of funding could delay the net's construction.[56] Wind Air show over Golden Gate Bridge Since its completion. because of gusts of 69 mph (111 km/h). because of winds of 70 mph (113 km/h).[59][60] .

began in December 2009[64] and is expected to be completed in 2013. efficient.57528°N 12. director of the California State Automobile Association. and lacks shoulders. known as the Presidio Parkway.845 metres (25. 2000 Toll 285DKK[1] /375SEK[2] /39EUR[3] Daily traffic ca. Öresundsbron Four lanes of European route E20 Carries Double track Oresund Railway Line Crosses Oresund strait (The Sound) Copenhagen. has a problematic 4-lane design.82694°E . Locale Sweden Designer Georg Rotne Design Cable-stayed bridge Total length 7. Doyle. Doyle Drive.738 ft) Width 23. Construction on the $1 billion[63] replacement. a San Francisco County Transportation Authority study recommended that the current outdated structure be replaced with a more modern.1 ft) Longest span 490 metres (1.608 ft) Clearance 57 metres (187 ft) below Opened July 2. dating back to 1933.000 road vehicles 55°34′31″N 12°49′37″E / Coordinates 55.000 vehicles each weekday between downtown San Francisco and suburban Marin County. Denmark and Malmö. was named after Frank P.5 metres (77. For these reasons. the road has been deemed "vulnerable to earthquake damage".[61] The highway carries approximately 91.Doyle Drive replacement project The elevated approach to the Golden Gate Bridge through the San Francisco Presidio is popularly known as Doyle Drive. and multimodal transportation structure. Øresund Bridge Official name Øresundsbroen. 17.[62] However.

There are customs checks at the entrance toll booths for entering Sweden. and to prevent ice floes from blocking the strait. and the Öresund Railway Line uses the railroads. Since the crossing is actually composed of a bridge. The phrase The Sound Bridge is occasionally heard. Swedish: Öresundsbron. The Øresund Bridge also connects two major Metropolitan Areas: those of the Danish capital city of Copenhagen and the major Swedish city of Malmö. with some of the people considering themselves "Öresund citizens" once the Øresund Bridge was completed. This symbolises a common cultural identity for the region. using the historic English name for the strait. and a tunnel. The bridge company itself insists on Øresundsbron. and it is the longest highway and railroad bridge in Europe. but according to the Schengen Agreement and the Nordic Passport Union. and also to provide a clear channel for ships in good weather or bad. respectively. . it is sometimes called the "Öresund Link" or the "Öresund Connection" (Danish: Øresundsforbindelsen. but not for entering Denmark. The Øresund Bridge connects Sweden and Denmark. Name In Sweden and Denmark the bridge is most often referred to as Öresundsbron and Øresundsbroen. the Øresund Bridge connects the highway network of Scandinavia with those of Central and Western Europe The international European route E20 crosses this bridge-tunnel via the roadway. a compromise between the two languages. there are usually no passport inspections.The Øresund or Öresund Bridge (Danish: Øresundsbroen. joint hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined twin-track railroad and four-lane highway bridgetunnel across the Öresund strait. one artificial island. The Øresund Bridge was designed by the Danish architectural practice Dissing+Weitling. The construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link – which connects Zealand to Funen and whence to the Jutland Peninsula – and the Øresund Bridge have connected Western and Central Europe to Scandinavia. The Øresund Bridge crosses the border between Denmark and Sweden. Swedish: Öresundsförbindelsen). Furthermore. The purpose for the additional expenditure and complexity related to digging a tunnel for part of the way – rather than simply raising that section of the bridge – was to avoid interfering with airliners from the nearby Copenhagen International Airport.

to cross by car cost DKK 260. Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark and Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden met midway across the bridge-tunnel to celebrate its completion. to Skåne. almost 25 million people traveled over the Øresund Bridge: 15. This may have been caused by Danes buying homes in Sweden – to take advantage of lower housing prices in Malmö – and commuting to work in Denmark.History The construction of the Øresund Bridge began in 1995. there has been a rapid increase in traffic. Denmark. Its official dedication took place on July 1. On 12 June 2000.6 million by train. SEK 325.30. two weeks before the dedication. 1999. In spite of two schedule setbacks – the discovery of 16 unexploded World War II bombs lying on the seafloor and an inadvertently skewed tunnel segment – the bridge-tunnel was finished three months ahead of schedule. 2000.871 runners competed in a half marathon (Broloppet. and 9. Sweden. the Bridge Run) from Amager.2 million by car and bus. In 2007. It was finished about August 14. the crossing was not used as much as expected. Initially. In 2008. and King Carl XVI Gustaf as the host and hostess of the ceremony. with Queen Margrethe II. Link features The bridge . although discounts up to 75% are available for regular users. probably because of the high tolls. Since 2005. The bridge-tunnel was opened for public traffic later that day. or € 36. 79.

738 ft). The structure has a mass of 82.5 mi) long. the bridge covers half the distance between Sweden and the Danish island of Amager. the border between the two countries being located 5.. and also to resist large accumulations of ice. Peberholm is approximately 4 km (2. the Danes chose the name to complement the natural island of Saltholm (salt islet) just to the north. Even so. Its 491 m (1.Aerial Photo of Oresund Bridge. Built from Swedish rock and the soil dredged up during the bridge and tunnel construction. They also made Peberholm a designated nature reserve. With characteristic good humour. Peberholm The bridge joins the Drogden tunnel on the artificial island christened Peberholm (Pepper Islet). .845 m (25. At 7. A girder and cablestayed design was chosen to provide the rigidity necessary to carry heavy railroad traffic.3 mi) from the Swedish end. most ship's captains prefer to pass through the unobstructed Drogden Strait above the Drogden Tunnel. On both approaches to the three cable-stayed bridge sections. with an average width of 500 m (1. The two pairs of free-standing cable supporting towers are 204 m (669 ft) high allowing shipping 57 m (187 ft) of head room under the main span. the girder is supported every 140 m (459 ft) by concrete piers.640 ft).000 tonnes and supports two railroad tracks beneath four road lanes in a horizontal girder extending along the entire length of the bridge.3 km (3.611 ft) cable-stayed main span is the longest of this type in the world.

The tubes are arranged side by side.287 ft) long tunnel comprises a 3.Drogden Tunnel Cross-section of the Oresund Tunnel The connection between the artificial island of Peberholm and the artificial peninsula at Kastrup on Amager island – the nearest populated part of Denmark – is through the Drogden Tunnel (Drogdentunnelen).050 m (13. two more carry roads while a small fifth tube is provided for emergencies.000 tonnes each – interconnected in a trench dug in the seabed.516 ft) undersea tube tunnel plus 270 m (886 ft) entry tunnels at each end. The 4. Two tubes in the tunnel carry railway tracks.510 m (11. The tube tunnel is made from 20 prefabricated reinforced concrete segments – the most massive in the world at 55. Rail transport Satellite image of the Oresund Bridge The public transport rail system is operated jointly by the Swedish SJ and the Danish via DSBFirst on a commission by Skånetrafiken and other county traffic companies (that also sell .

especially in the tunnel section. The rail connection has become popular and is now experiencing congestion. which is also a terminus. are the main sources of congestion. the line switches to Danish signaling which continues into the tunnel. SJ operate the X2000 and InterCity trains over the bridge with connections to Gothenburg and Stockholm. The solution chosen is to switch the electrical system. On Peberholm. but slower in Denmark. especially the Malmö Central Station. The line is signaled according to the standard Swedish system across the length of the bridge. There were challenges related to the difference in electrification and signaling between the Danish and Swedish railway networks. In 2006 Sweden began spending a further SEK . The rail section is double track standard gauge (1435 mm. The congestion is mainly on land and not really on the bridge. Costs In the tunnel The cost for the entire Øresund Connection construction. Trains operate every 20 minutes over the crossing and once an hour during the night in both directions. and 1-2 per hour and direction SJ trains and DSB trains every other hour. The switch is made at the Malmö Central Station.1 billion according to the 2000 year price index. from Swedish 15 kV.tickets) and the Danish transport agency. with the cost of the bridge paid back by 2035.7 Hz to Danish 25 kV. Copenhagen Airport at Kastrup is served by its own train station close to the western bridgehead. Sweden runs railways with left-hand traffic and Denmark with right-hand traffic. was calculated at DKK 30. For the new Malmö City Tunnel connection a flyover will pass one track over to the other side. A series of new dual-voltage trains were developed which link the Copenhagen area with Malmö and southern Sweden as far as Gothenburg and Kalmar on selected schedules. The new Malmö City Tunnel and its stations will relieve the congestion on the Swedish side. 50 Hz AC right before the eastern bridgehead at Lernacken in Sweden. Freight trains also use the crossing. including motorway and railway connections on land. DSB operate trains to Ystad that connect directly to a ferry to Bornholm. 4 ft 81⁄2 in) and capable of high-speeds up to 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph). 16. People have to stand onboard during rush hour since it is hard to run more trains. The railway stations on both sides of the bridge. An additional couple of Øresundstrains are operated at rush hour.

mainly connecting the airport to the railway network. The Malmö City Tunnel has the benefit of connecting the southern part of the inner city to the rail network and allowing many more trains to and from Malmö. The owner company is owned half by the Danish government and half by the Swedish government. the toll for driving the fixed link was as follows (one way trip without discount) in Danish kroner (DKK).9. Radio masts and towers . This owner company has taken loans guaranteed by the governments to finance the connection. However they are comparable with the ferry charges that were levied before the bridge was built and for the ferries still running between Helsingborg and Helsingør. However. Especially on the Danish side the land connection has domestic benefit.45 billion on the Malmö City Tunnel as a new rail connection to the bridge. which is expected to take about 30 years. and the user fees are the only incomes for the company. Toll charge In April 2009. tax money has been used for the land connections. The connection will be entirely user financed. The tax payers have not paid for the bridge and the tunnel. Swedish kronor (SEK) and euro (EUR): Vehicle Motorcycle Standard car Motorhome/car+caravan Minibus (6-9 metres) Bus (longer than 9 metres) Lorry/truck (9-20 metres) Lorry/truck (over 20 metres) Train ticket[4] DKK[1] 150 275 550 550 1145 795 1190 78 SEK[2] 215 380 790 790 1675 1170 1755 98 EUR[3] 21 39 75 75 157 109 163 9 There has been criticism of the tolls which are much higher than what many consider reasonable for a bridge. After the increase in traffic these fees are enough to pay the interest and begin paying back the loans. it is due for completion in 2010.

From Wikipedia. including television. typically. The Warsaw Radio Mast was the world's tallest supported structure on land. search Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England A dismantled radio mast in sections Radio masts and towers are. In the case of a mast radiator or radiating tower. leaving the KVLY/KTHI-TV mast as the tallest. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. • [edit] Mast or tower? . tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting. Similar structures include electricity pylons and towers for wind turbines. They are among the tallest man-made structures. but it collapsed in 1991. or after a nearby city or town. the whole mast or tower is itself the transmitting antenna. Masts are sometimes named after the broadcasting organisations that use them.

(Tower portion is not freestanding. For example: • • • • The Gerbrandy tower consists of a self-supporting tower with a guyed mast on top.) [edit] Materials [edit] Steel lattice . However. Masts tend to be cheaper to build but require an extended area surrounding them to accommodate the stay blocks. a tower is a self-supporting or cantilevered structure.A radio mast base showing how virtually all support is provided by the guy-wires The terms "mast" and "tower" are often used interchangeably. in structural engineering terms. Towers are more commonly used in cities where land is in short supply. while a mast is held up by stays or guys. with a guyed mast on top. There are a few borderline designs which are partly free-standing and partly guyed. Zendstation Smilde a tall tower with a guyed mast on top (guys go to ground) Torre de Collserola a guyed tower. The few remaining Blaw-Knox towers do the opposite: they have a guyed lower section surmounted by a freestanding part.

One exception is the BlawKnox type. low wind resistance and economy in the use of materials. in the manner of the Eiffel Tower. When built as a stayed mast. When built as a tower. the tower is said to be an Eiffelized one. When constructed of several sections which taper exponentially with height. the structure may be parallel-sided or taper over part or all of its height. The Crystal Palace tower in London is an example. usually the whole mast is parallel-sided. . It provides great strength. Such structures are usually triangular or square in cross-section.Steel lattice tower The steel lattice is the most widespread form of construction.

First modern TV Tower in Stuttgart [edit] Reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete towers are relatively expensive to build but provide a high degree of mechanical rigidity in strong winds. while in the UK most are lattice towers. Except for the mast in Vinnytsia. these masts have heights between 150 and 200 metres. such as those used for microwave point-to-point links. more resembling silos than towers.[edit] Tubular steel Some masts are constructed out of steel tubes. these were the subject of collapses at the Emley Moor and Waltham TV stations in the 1960s. Many are still in use today. In Germany and the Netherlands most towers constructed for point-to-point microwave links are built of reinforced concrete. used exclusively for FM/TV transmission. All these masts are tubular structures. for its first transcontinental microwave route. In the 1950s. AT&T built numerous concrete towers. and when the structure is to be occupied by people. At several cities in Russia and Ukraine. This can be important when antennas with narrow beamwidths are used. guyed masts were built between 1960 and 1965 with crossbars running from the mast structure to the guys. In the UK. .

these buildings may have public areas such as observation decks or restaurants. In Germany before World War II wooden towers were used at nearly all medium-wave transmission sites.Concrete towers can form prestigious landmarks. such as the CN Tower in Toronto. It was designed in 1956 by the local civil engineer Fritz Leonhardt. but all of these towers have since been demolished. The Stuttgart TV tower was the first tower in the world to be built in reinforced concrete. [edit] Other types of antenna supports and structures [edit] Poles . Ferryside Relay is an example of a TV relay transmitter using a wooden pole. Many were built in the UK during World War II because of a shortage of steel. As well as accommodating technical staff. except for the Gliwice Radio Tower. [edit] Wood There are fewer wooden towers now than in the past. Tokyo Tower [edit] Fibreglass Fibreglass poles are occasionally used for low-power non-directional beacons or medium-wave broadcast transmitters.

and formerly on the World Trade Center towers. the Sears Tower. such as towers disguised as cacti in Coronado National Forest. Even though people increasingly depend upon cellular communications. several local TV and radio stations were knocked off the air until backup transmitters could be put into service. In North America. trees. or as. there are transmitting antennas on the Empire State Building. for example.[3] Such towers can be placed unobtrusively in national parks and other such protected places. The level of detail and realism achieved by disguised cellphone towers is remarkably high. particularly for portable radio services and low-power FM radio stations. Many people view bare cellphone towers as ugly and an intrusion into their neighbourhoods. Many companies offer to 'hide' cellphone towers in.[4] . These are generally called "stealth towers" or "stealth installations". water tanks and other features. Sometimes self-supporting tubular galvanized steel poles are used: these may be termed monopoles. When the buildings collapsed. even for local wildlife (who additionally benefit from the artificial flora). for instance. they are opposed to the bare towers spoiling otherwise scenic views.[2] There are many providers that offer these services as part of the normal tower installation and maintenance service.Shorter masts may consist of a self-supporting or guyed wooden pole. flag poles. [edit] Buildings In some cases. [edit] Disguised cell-sites Completed in December 2009 at Epiphany Lutheran Church in Lake Worth. it is possible to install transmitting antennas on the roofs of tall buildings.[1] Such facilities also exist in Europe. this 100' tall cross conceals equipment for T-Mobile. church towers. similar to a telegraph pole. Florida. such towers disguised as trees are nearly indistinguishable from the real thing.

[edit] Telescopic. pump-up and tiltover towers Main article: Cell on wheels A special form of the radio tower is the telescopic mast. These tend to cater for greater heights and loads than the pump-up type. This enables antennas to be fitted and adjusted at ground level before winching the mast up.[original research?][5] [edit] Mast radiators Main article: Mast radiator A mast radiator is a radio tower or mast in which the whole structure works as an antenna. These can be erected very quickly. They can save money by needing to withstand high winds only when raised. When retracted. and as such are widely used in amateur radio. which may be powered by hand or an electric motor. It is used frequently as a transmitting antenna for long or medium wave broadcasting. there will be one insulator supporting each leg. Telescopic masts consist of two or more concentric sections and come in two principal types: • • Pump-up masts are often used on vehicles and are raised to their full height pneumatically or hydraulically.S. a tower doubling as a flagpole attracted controversy in 2004 in relation to the U. The American broadcasters TV Martí broadcast a television program to Cuba by means of such a balloon. the only difference is that a mast radiator may be supported on an insulator at its base.Even when disguised. Telescopic masts are used predominantly in setting up temporary radio links for reporting on major news events. and highlighted the sentiment that such disguises serve more to allow the installation of such towers in subterfuge away from public scrutiny rather than to serve towards the beautification of the landscape. and for temporary communications in emergencies. [edit] Balloons and kites A tethered balloon or a kite can serve as a temporary support. They are usually only strong enough to support fairly small antennas. Structurally. however. In the case of a tower. Telescopic lattice masts are raised by means of a winch. Such an arrangement is used occasionally by military agencies or radio amateurs. It can carry an antenna or a wire (for VLF. such towers can create controversy. They are also used in tactical military networks. the whole assembly can sometimes be lowered to a horizontal position by means of a second tiltover winch. Presidential campaign of that year. LW or MW) up to an appropriate height. [edit] Other special structures .

They consist of two electrodes buried deep in the ground at least a few dozen kilometres apart. The same technique was also used for the Criggion VLF transmitter. For ELF transmitters ground dipole antennas are used.For two VLF transmitters wire antennas spun across deep valleys are used. overhead feeder lines run. Such structures require no tall masts. From the transmitter building to the electrodes. See List of spans: Antenna spans across valleys. These lines look like power lines of the 10 kV level. and are installed on similar pylons. The wires are supported by small masts or towers or rock anchors. [edit] Design features [edit] Economic and aesthetic considerations A radio amateur's do it yourself steel-lattice tower Felsenegg-Girstel TV-tower Uetliberg TV-tower .

especially in Continental Europe. Small structures are typically accessed with a ladder. access to the whole of the structure is necessary. Concrete towers can be built with aesthetic design . neon lamps were used. there is little to be gained by raising the antenna more than a few wavelengths above ground level. Alternatively. Shortwave transmitters rarely use masts taller than about 100 metres. Structures over a certain height may also be required to be painted with contrasting color schemes such as white and orange or white and red to make them more visible against the sky. [edit] Masts for HF/shortwave antennas For transmissions in the shortwave range. especially if they look identical. usually red. [edit] Light pollution and nuisance lighting . Larger structures. camouflaged as a slim tree • • • • • • • The cost of a mast or tower is roughly proportional to the square of its height. Two small towers may be less intrusive.and they are. towers and the antennas mounted on them require maintenance. visually. [edit] Aircraft warning features Tall structures in excess of certain legislated heights are often equipped with aircraft warning lamps. which tend to require more frequent maintenance. In the past. than one big one. A guyed mast needs additional land to accommodate the guys. to warn pilots of the structure's existence. [edit] Access for riggers Because masts. Nowadays such lamps tend to use LED arrays. Height requirements vary across states and countries.[citation needed] A guyed mast is cheaper to build than a self-supporting tower of equal height. Towers look less ugly if they and the antennas mounted on them appear symmetrical. ruggedized and underrun filament lamps were used to maximize the bulb life. also called a service elevator. may have stairs and sometimes a lift. An unguyed tower will fit into a much smaller plot.Communications tower. and is thus best suited to rural locations where land is relatively cheap. A steel lattice tower is cheaper to build than a concrete tower of equal height. and may include additional rules such as requiring a white flashing strobe in the daytime and pulsating red fixtures at night. They are sometimes built in prominent places and include observation decks or restaurants.

such as limiting tower height to below 200 feet and therefore not requiring aircraft illumination under FCC rules.[8] . One can reduce this by building cylindrical shock-mounts into the construction. This is particularly a concern with steel tube construction. [edit] Hazard to birds Radio. Baden-Württemberg. Germany).In some countries where light pollution is a concern. at the radio masts of DHO38 in Saterland. tower heights may be restricted so as to reduce or eliminate the need for aircraft warning lights. Waldenburg. There are also constructions. One finds such shock-mounts. which look like cylinders thicker than the mast. Further towers of this building method can be found near Smilde (the Netherlands) and Fernsehturm. for example. Reports have been issued documenting known bird fatalities and calling for research to find ways to minimize the hazard that communications towers can pose to birds. which was earlier placed on the issuance of permits for the construction of telecommunication towers. onto which a guyed radio mast is installed. [edit] Wind-induced oscillations One problem with radio masts is the danger of wind-induced oscillations. Telecom operators in the USA can erect new telecom masts or towers as the government has lifted the moratorium. For example in the United States the 1996 Telecommunications Act allows local jurisdictions to set maximum heights for towers. which consist of a free-standing tower (usually from reinforced concrete).[6][7] [edit] Catastrophic collapses Main article: List of catastrophic collapses of radio masts and towers [edit] Law Since June 2010. The best known such construction is the Gerbrandy Tower in Lopik (the Netherlands). The limit is more commonly set to 190 or 180 feet to allow for masts extending above the tower. television and cell towers have been documented to pose a hazard to birds.

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