Koyna Dam

Impounds Locale Length Height Opening date Dam owner(s)

Koyna River Koyna Nagar, Maharashtra India 807.2 m (2,648 ft) 103.2 m (339 ft) 1967 Government of Maharashtra

Reservoir information Creates Capacity Surface area Shivaji Lake 2,797,400,000 m3 (9.8789×1010 cu ft) 89,178 km2 (34,432 sq mi)

Power generation information Turbines 18

Installed capacity 1,920 MW Official website

The Koyna Dam is one of the largest dams in Maharashtra, India. It is located in Koyna Nagar, nestled in the Western Ghats on the state highway between Chiplun and Karad, Maharashtra. The dam supplies water to western Maharashtra as well as cheap hydroelectric power to the neighbouring areas with a capacity of 1,920 MW. The Koyna project is actually composed of four dams, with the Koyna Dam having the largest catchment area. The catchment area dams the Koyna River and forms the Shivaji Lake which is approximately 50 km (31 mi) in length. Completed in 1963, it is one of the largest civil engineering projects commissioned after Indian independence. The Koyna electricity project is run by the Maharashtra State Electricity Board. Most of the generators are located in excavated caves a kilometre deep, inside the heart of the surrounding hills.

The dam has contributed to earthquakes in the recent past, including the devastating 1967 Koynanagar earthquake that almost razed the dam, resulting in the dam developing major cracks. Date Built in: 1962 - 1963 Height of dam: 103 metres Water storage: 2,797.400 km³ Volume of dam: 1,555.000 m³ Width of dam: 808 m Slope at water side: 24:1 Length of lake: 60 km • Storage: o Gross storage: 98.78 TMC o Live: 93.65 TMC o Dead: 5.125 TMC • Length: 1807.22 m • Height: 85.35 m • Year of completion: 1963

Jayakwadi Dam
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Jayakwadi Dam

Jayakwadi Dam on Godavari River.

Jayakwadi project is one of the largest irrigation projects in Maharashtra. It is a multipurpose project. Its water is used mainly to irrigate agricultural land in the drought prone Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. It also provides water for drinking and industrial usage to nearby towns and villages and to the municipalities and industrial areas of Aurangabad and Jalna. The surrounding area of the dam has a beautiful garden and a bird sanctuary.

It is located on Godavari river at the site of Jayakwadi village in Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district in Maharashtra state, India.

Foundation was laid by late Prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri on 18 October 1965.

Inaugurated by late Prime minister Indira Gandhi on 24 February 1976.

Multipurpose project. Mainly To irrigate land for agriculture in the drought prone of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. Also to provide water for drinking and industrial usage to nearby towns and villages and to the municipalities and industrial areas of Aurangabad and Jalna.

Statistics Built in: 1965–1976 Height of 40 m approx dam:

Water storage: 2.909 km3 9998 m (10 km Width of dam: approx) Area of 350 km2 Reservoir :

About the dam

Jayakwadi project is one of the largest irrigation projects in Aurangabad Maharashtra. o It is a multipurpose project. o Jayakwadi is one of the largest earthen dams in Asia. o Its cachement area is 21,750 km². o Total submergence area due to the reservoir is approx 35,000 ha. o Its height is approx 41.30 m and length of 9998 m (10 km approx) o Nath Sagar is the name of the reservoir formed due to Jayakwadi Dam. o Total area of reservoir is approx 350 km2. o Its total storage capicity is approx 2.909 km³ & effective live storage capacity is 2.17 km³. o The length of left bank canal is 208 km & the length of right bank canal is 132 km.
• o o o o

It irrigates culturable area of 237,452 ha in the districts of Aurangabad, Jalna, Beed and Parbhani. While its total command area is 263,858 ha. Its installed power generating capacity is 12 megawatts. It is also used to supply drinking water to Aurangabad city & surrounding areas. Unfortunately siltation has taken a heavy toll on the project. It is estimated that appprox 30% of the dam is filled with silt, reducing its life as well as storage capacity.

In the year 2009 it has entered in 35th year of its life. It has in its lifetime overflowed only 17 times. On 10 August 2006 highest discharge of 250000 ft³/s was recorded.

Migratory birds at Jayakwadi Dam, Aurangabad

Dnyneshwar Udyan

Dnyaneshwar Udyan is one of the largest gardens in Maharashtra resembling the Vrindavan Gardens of Mysore. It is spread over 125 hectares and is situated on the banks of Nathsagar Lake formed due to Jayakwadi Dam. It is located near the town of Paithan which is 40 km south of Aurangabad and nearly about 22 km east to hatgaon which is femous in all over india

Itaipu Dam

Central Official name Impounds Locale Length Height Hydraulic head Construction began Opening date Construction cost Maintained by Binacional



Usina Hidrelétrica Itaipu Binacional Paraná River Foz do Iguaçu

Ciudad del Este 7,700 m (25,300 ft) 196 m (643 ft) 118 m (387 ft) January 1970 5 May 1984 US$19.6 billion Itaipu Binacional

Reservoir information Creates Itaipu Reservoir

carry both Brazilian and Paraguayan energy to São Paulo where the terminal equipment converts the power to 60 Hz.py The Itaipu Dam (Guarani: Itaipu.6 TWh (2009) Yes www.gov.000. in the south to Guaíra and Salto del Guaíra in the north.000 MW 91. [2] Of the twenty generator units currently installed. In 2008 the plant generated a record 94.[1] It is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay at the Paraná River on the border section between the two countries.4 TWh in 2009. Portuguese pronunciation: Spanish pronunciation: is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay.8 TWh in 2008 and 79. The dam is the largest operating hydroelectric facility in terms of annual generating capacity.3 mi) north of the Friendship Bridge. The name "Itaipu" was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site. generating 94.7 TWh in 2008 and 91. The American composer Philip Glass has also written a symphonic cantata named Itaipu. while the annual generating capacity of the Three Gorges Dam was 80. Itaipu means "the sound of a stone". In the Guarani language. ten generate at 50 Hz for Paraguay and ten generate at 60 Hz for Brazil. 15 km (9. The installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW. supplying 90% of the energy consumed by Paraguay and 19% of that consumed by Brazil. Portuguese: Itaipu.68 billion kWh. Two 600 kV HVDC lines. The project ranges from Foz do Iguaçu.0×1012 cu ft) 1.gov.itaipu. in Brazil. each approximately 800 km long. History .000. Spanish: Itaipú.Capacity Catchment area 29. and Ciudad del Este in Paraguay.350 km2 (520 sq mi) Power generation information Turbines Installed capacity Annual generation Conventional Website 20 × 700 MW 14. in honour of the structure.br www.6 TWh in 2009.itaipu.000 m3 (1. with 20 generating units providing 700 MW each with a hydraulic design head of 118 m.

This was a joint declaration of the mutual interest in studying the exploitation of the hydric resources that the two countries shared in the section of the Paraná River starting from. The terms of the treaty. have been the subject of widespread discontent in Paraguay. and including.p.[4][5] Construction starts The dam undergoes expansion work. Work began in February . which expires in 2023. to the Iguaçu River's watershed. Juracy Magalhães and Sapena Pastor. by the Brazilian and Paraguayan Ministers of Foreign Affairs. (from Italy) won the international competition for the realization of the viability studies and for the elaboration of the construction project.A. 1966. In 1970. The Treaty that gave origin to the power plant was signed in 1973. the consortium formed by the companies IECO (from the United States of America) and ELC Electroconsult S. the Salto de Sete Quedas. Brazil agreed to a fairer payment of electricity to Paraguay and also allowed Paraguay to sell excess power directly to Brazilian companies instead of solely through the Brazilian electricity monopoly. The government of President Lugo vowed to renegotiate the terms of the treaty with Brazil. which long remained hostile to any renegotiation.Negotiations between Brazil and Paraguay The concept behind Itaipu Power Plant was the result of heavy negotiations between the two countries during the 1960s. The "Ata do Iguaçu" (Iguaçu Act) was signed on July 22. respectively.[3] In 2009.

m. 1973. which allowed a section of the riverbed to dry so the dam could be built there. Brazil and Paraguay signed the Itaipu Treaty.1971. the legal instrument for the hydroelectric exploitation of the Paraná River by the two countries. 1974. 1982. Start of operations On May 5. Paraguay and Argentina. On April 26. The first 18 units were installed at the rate of two to three a year. on October 19. and Argentina An important diplomatic settlement was reached with the signing of the Acordo Tripartite by Brazil. 1978. in the event of a conflict. Agreement by Brazil. the three countries were ruled by military dictatorships. the Itaipu Binacional entity was created to administer the plant's construction. the Paraná River had its route changed. Paraguay. Brazil could open the floodgates. At that time. This agreement established the allowed river levels and how much they could change as a result of the various hydroelectrical undertakings in the watershed that was shared by the three countries. On May 17. the last two of these started running in the year 1991. Formation of the lake The plant's reservoir began its formation on October 13. Argentina was concerned that. The works began in January of the following year. 1984. 1979. Throughout this period. heavy rains and flooding accelerated the filling of the reservoir as the water rose 100 meters (330 ft) and reached the gates of the spillway at 10 a. the first generation unit started running in Itaipu. on October 27. Capacity expansion in 2007 . when the dam works were completed and the side canal's gates were closed. Paraná River rerouted On October 14. raising the water level in the River Plate and consequently flood the capital city of Buenos Aires.

the interior of Bahia and parts of Pernambuco. power had been restored to most areas. possibly due to a storm damaging up to three high-voltage distribution lines. In 1995. Blackouts also swept through the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. However.The last two of the 20 electric generation units started operations in September 2006 and in March 2007. the American Society of Civil Engineers elected the Itaipu Dam as one of the seven modern Wonders of the World. It affected the southeast of Brazil most severely. This caused massive power outages in Brazil and Paraguay.[9] Social and environmental impacts . Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo completely without electricity.m.m. the power available exceeds 750 MW half of the time for each generator. Due to a clause in the treaty signed between Brazil. Santa Catarina. the American magazine Popular Mechanics published the results. Mato Grosso. This increase in capacity will allow for 18 generation units to remain running all of the time while two stay down for maintenance. thus raising the installed capacity to 14 GW and completing the power plant.[8] By 12:30 a. November 2009 power failure On November 10. Each turbine generates around 700 MW. the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18 (see the agreement section for more information). local time. 2009. blacking out the entire country of Paraguay for 15 minutes. energy officials said. Paraguay and Argentina. leaving São Paulo. The rated nominal power of each generating unit (turbine and generator) is 700 MW. [7] The blackout hit at 10:13 p. Mato Grosso do Sul.[6] Itaipu itself was not damaged. Wonder of the Modern World In 1994. all the water from the Iguaçu Falls would have the capacity to feed only two generators. by comparison. and plunging Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo into darkness for more than 2 hours. transmission from the plant was totally disrupted. because the head (difference between reservoir level and the river level at the foot of the dam) that actually occurs is higher than the designed head (118 m). 50 million people were reportedly affected.

approximately 10.5 times greater than that of the Channel Tunnel and the volume of concrete is 15 times greater.000 families living beside the Paraná River were displaced. as tourists sought a last glimpse of the falls.[11] Statistics Spillways in action. The volume of excavation of earth and rock in Itaipu is 8. Around forty thousand people worked in the construction. The iron and steel used would allow for the construction of 380 Eiffel Towers.[citation needed] • • • • . the Guaíra Falls were drowned by the newly formed Itaipu reservoir. facilitating safer navigation. Construction • The course of the seventh biggest river in the world was shifted. The Brazilian government liquidated the Guaíra Falls National Park. as were 50 million tons of earth and rock. but eliminating the possibility of restoring the falls in the future. and dynamited the submerged rock face where the falls had been. 80 people died when an overcrowded bridge overlooking the falls collapsed. A few months before the reservoir was filled.When construction of the dam began.[10] The world's largest waterfall by volume. The amount of concrete used to build the Itaipu Power Plant would be enough to build 210 football stadiums the size of the Estádio do Maracanã.

while flooding 2. 1350 square kilometres were flooded.2 thousand cubic metres per second.000 MW installed power.430 km2 (938 sq mi) of land. • • The spillway has a length of 483 m. but have a smaller installed generating capacity. Generating station and dam • The total length of the dam is 7235 m. The crest elevation is 225 m.[12] Though it is the seventh largest reservoir in size in Brazil. The dam is 196 metres high. an earth fill dam. • The flow of two generators (700 m3·s−1 each) is roughly equivalent to the average flow of the Iguaçu Falls (1500 m3·s−1). Tucuruí Dam. Serra da Mesa Dam and Furnas Dam are all larger than the one for Itaipu. Itaipu is actually four dams joined together — from the far left. For the 14. Tucuruí. a rock fill dam. If Brazil were to use Thermal Power Generation to produce the electric power of Itaipu. has an installed capacity of 8. Porto Primavera Dam. The reservoirs for the hydroelectric power plants of Sobradinho Dam. and a concrete wing dam to the right. equivalent to a 65-story building. Balbina Dam. a concrete main dam.000 barrels (69. It is equivalent to 40 times the average flow of the nearby natural Iguaçu Falls. Facts. • • • Hoover Dam.000 m3) of petroleum would have to be burned every day.000 MW. The maximum flow of Itaipu's fourteen segmented spillways is 62. Statistics and Project Construction . 434. into three skislope formed canals.• The cost of constructing Itaipu makes it one of the most expensive objects ever built. The one with the largest hydroelectric production. the Itaipu's reservoir has the best relation between electricity production and flooded area.

This great American icon was to be the largest and heaviest dam. The risks involved were huge and the consequences could have been catastrophic. the construction site was extremely difficult. if the dam failed. iconic and greatest dam ever built.Hoover Dam Hoover dam is America's most famous landmark. Situated in Mojave desert. Hoover Dam is 221m high. 201 meters thick and 3. The Hoover sketch details 21000 men took part in its construction and of them 112 laid their lives to complete this megastructure. completed in 1935. producing the largest amount of Hydro electric power in the world. It was the most colossal structure in the world at that time. Built on Colorado River at Black Canyon. Background for Hoover Construction . 30 Km south-east of Las Vegas. Though its not the superior dam today but still most famous.4 million cubic meters of concrete has been used in it.

would break its banks in every spring and flood the area.Colorado. worlds one of the most powerful and unpredictable rivers. was the Chief Engineer of Hoover Dam and was assigned the job to get it completed in the span from 1931 – 1935. It is an 800 ft high deep gorge through which the river flowed. Frank Crow. If the dam was not completed in the given time it would have cost the contractors $ 3000 / day in financial penalties. Stage 1 of construction Hoover Tunnels . no transportation and the weather too was harsh. The spot. Nowadays this amount is about 788 million pounds. The site chosen for the megastructure Hoover Dam was Black Canyon. so there was no infrastructure. The construction of Hoover took 7 years at a cost of $ 125 million. no labors. The Government instructed the Bureau of Reclamation to come up with a solution and they decided to build world's largest dam. Black canyon is in the middle of the desert.

4rth July and Labor Day. The digging. To divert the Colorado river 4 tunnels were to be excavated on each side of the Canyon. blasting. No proper ventilation was provides. 2 small cofferdams were built to force water into the tunnels. 7 days a week. measuring 4000 ft long and the diameter of the tunnel was 56 ft. work was extremely physically demanding. and debris removal continued for 13 months. upon which dam would be built. Men had to swing 100's of feet down the canyon walls to remove dangerous loose rocks. these were acting as diversion channels. Tunnels Used to divert water from dam site In April 1931 blasting for construction of plain dry area.Hoover Tunnels. began. with men working 3 shifts 24 hours a day. Two tunnels would be constructed on the Nevada side. In may 1931 the drilling continued. using . and another two were to be constructed on the Arizona side. The workers had to face harsh conditions but were paid only 40% extra. Holidays were observed only at Christmas.

and compressors to make holes in the canyon rock where explosives could be placed.000 cubic feet per second.9 metric tons) of dynamite was required for every 14 feet (4.3 meters) of tunnel that workers dug into the canyon wall. allowing river water to be transported away from the construction site at a rate of 1. workers were able to blast and excavate large diversion tunnels. Coffer Dams Workers made the cofferdams by using 100 trucks to dump dirt. These tunnels. Once holes were drilled. were lined with 3 feet of concrete. Till November. The tunnels were then lined with concrete and By sliding sticks of dynamite into holes bored into the canyon wall. men (as well as equipment) arrived at the work site by boat. Workers used 500 pneumatic drills. Due to lack of safety measure men required nerves of steel. A ton (0. was used by the Engineers to design the coffer dams. Coffer dams. being hit by falling rocks. rock. . and debris into the water at a rate of one truckload every 15 seconds. each about the size of a 4-lane highway.jacks and dynamites. This amazing pace of dredging and dumping went on for five months. hoses. The most common cause of death was. Special team then visited the inside of the tunnels to ensure it would remain same for workers to work inside it.5 million gallons per second. to build Hoover Dam Because no roads led into the canyon. workers used dynamite to blast into the rock and break it into smaller pieces that could be hauled away by dump trucks. 1932 four 4 tunnels were completed and the water was allowed to flow through it. 14. The largest flow ever recorded at Black Canyon 200.

incorporating two principles. there were many problems in design which needed to be solved.Stage 2 of construction In this stage building the dam itself was the task. Design of the Hoover Dam Hoover is a Gravity dam. stabilized by its huge mass Hoover is an arch gravity dam. . The work was too huge.

It is because when ingredients of concrete – cement. thus helping it to remain stable. But the dam was too big to be made into a single concrete mount. Plants were installed at the construction site to produce concrete locally. Major problem was the pouring of 3. In another principle. coarse aggregate combine in the presence of water. the larger the cure. thus slowing down the curing process. the arch shape of the dam deflects the force of the water into the canyon walls through the compression of dam's concrete walls. they start a chemical reaction. the concrete would not have settled even today. Heat of hydration in Hoover dam . If the concrete in the dam was poured in only one go. weakening the structure.4 million cubic meters of concrete.According to the first principle. sand. The large the pour. cracks would form. using the compressive strength of concrete (concrete is very strong in compression). resulting in the generation of internal heat. If heat is not dispersed. the weight of the dam forces it into the ground due to its weight.

But Hoover was even 20 times massive than gigantic Lower Crystals Spring Dam. an elaborate overhead network of cables and pulleys was designed. . place and compact the poured in concrete. cool water pipes were passed through each block. a record breaking volume – 8000 cubic meters of concrete was poured in a single day.The cooling of Blocks to avoid shrinkage due to heat evolution To counteract the problem of heat generation. carrying vast buckets of concrete. Each block was 5 ft high and was inter locked with the neighboring one and water was forced between them. To speed up pouring of concrete in the mega structure. Labors stayed on the site to spread. Concrete mix was cooled and cured faster. This idea was conceived by a previous dam called Lower Crystal Spring dams. Hoover dam was built in series of inter locking blocks. Due to this new method. To accelerate the setting of concrete.

532 ft)[1] Clearance 65.61639°N Coordinates 135.02028°E .911 meters (12. Other name(s) Pearl bridge Carries 6 lanes of roadway Crosses Akashi Strait[1] Locale Awaji Island and Kobe[1] Maintained by Honshū-Shikoku Bridge Authority Design Suspension bridge[1] Total length 3.72 meters below Beginning date 1988[1] of construction Completion 1998[1] date Opened April 5.Akashi Kaikyō Bridge Akashi Kaikyō Bridge Akashi Kaikyō Ō-hashi (明石海峡大橋?) Akashi Kaikyō Bridge from the air.8 metres (928 ft) (pylons)[1] Longest span 1.300 34°36′59″N 135°01′13″E 34.991 meters (6.831 ft) Height 282.61639°N 135.02028°ECoordinates: 34°36′59″N 135°01′13″E / / 34. 1998 Toll ¥2.

991 m (6. The Akashi Strait is an international waterway that necessitated the provision of a 1. the construction was restricted to road only. and the bridge was opened for traffic on April 5. The bridge is 3. 1998. moved the two .500metre (4. and the two other sections are each 960 m (3.921 ft)-wide shipping lane. but the Kobe earthquake on January 17. The central span is 1.532 ft)[1].150 ft).The Akashi-Kaikyō Bridge also known as the Pearl Bridge. The bridge links the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honshū to Iwaya on Awaji Island by crossing the busy Akashi Strait. two ferries sank in the strait during a storm. which created three routes across the Inland Sea.911 m (12. with six lanes. Architecture The bridge has three spans. This dangerous waterway often experiences severe storms.990 m (6. The bridge is one of the key links of the Honshū-Shikoku Bridge Project. ferries carried passengers across the Akashi Strait in Japan. killing 168 children. has the longest central span of any suspension bridge. The ensuing shock and public outrage convinced the Japanese government to develop plans for a suspension bridge to cross the strait. Actual construction did not begin until May 1986. The original plan called for a mixed railway-road bridge. at 1. and in 1955.529 ft). It is located in Japan and was completed in 1998[1].532 ft). The central span was originally only 1.831 ft) long overall. It carries part of the Honshū-Shikoku Highway. but when construction on the bridge began in April 1986. History Before the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge was built.991 metres (6. 1995.

000 kilometres (190.000 ST) of concrete. Each anchorage required 350. 390. Currently.towers sufficiently (only the towers had been erected at the time) so that it had to be increased by 1 m (3. Golden Gate Bridge Golden Gate Bridge .000 tonnes (340. green and blue. The steel cables have 300. The bridge also contains pendulums that are designed to operate at the resonance frequency of the bridge to damp forces.300 and the bridge is used by approximately 23.[2][3] The Akashi-Kaikyo bridge has a total of 1737 illumination lights: 1084 for the main cables. 405 for the girders and 132 for the anchorages. allowing the structure to withstand winds of 286 kilometres per hour (178 mph). and is expected to be defrayed by charging commuters a toll to cross the bridge. On the main cables three high light discharged tubes are mounted in the colors red.000 cars/day. The toll is ¥2. The RGB model and computer technology make for a variety of combinations. memorial days or festivities.830 strands of wire.5 on the Richter scale. and harsh sea currents.[1] The bridge was designed with a two-hinged stiffening girder system.000 LT. earthquakes measuring to 8. one in Maiko (including a small museum) and one in Asagiri. Both are accessible by the coastal train line.3 ft). 116 for the main towers.[4] Nearby attractions Two parks in proximity of the bridge have been built for tourists. 28 patterns are used for occasions as national or regional holidays.000 mi) of wire: each cable is 112 centimetres (44 in) in diameter and contains 36. The two main supporting towers rise 298 m (978 ft) above sea level. and the bridge can expand because of heating up to 2 metres (7 ft) over the course of a day.[citation needed] Use The total cost is estimated at ¥500 billion.

3 m) at toll gates.000[4] Daily traffic . Highway and Transportation District[1] Joseph Strauss.4 m) 4.4 m)[2] 90 ft (27.200 ft (1.00 (cash). higher truck loads possible 220 ft (67. truss arch & truss causeways 1. FasTrak only) 118.Carries Crosses Locale Maintained by Designer Design Total length Width Height Longest span Vertical clearance Clearance below Opened 6 lanes of US 101 / SR 1 .280.7 mi (2. and Charles Ellis Suspension.7 km) or 8. Irving Morrow. 1937 Cars (southbound only) Toll $6.00 (carpools during peak hours. California Golden Gate Bridge.981 ft (2.2 m)[3] 14 ft (4. $5.4 m) 746 ft (227.1 m) at mean high water May 27.00 (FasTrak). $3.737. pedestrians and bicycles Golden Gate San Francisco. California and Marin County.

47861°WCoordinates: 37°49′11″N 122°28′43″W / 37. and of the United States. Despite its span length being surpassed by eight other bridges since its completion. it connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County. Route 101 and California State Route 1. The Frommers travel guide considers the Golden Gate Bridge the "possibly the most beautiful.Connects: San Francisco Peninsula with Marin County 37°49′11″N 37. The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed during the year 1937.S. it still has the second longest suspension bridge main span in the United States.[6] History . It has been declared one of the modern Wonders of the World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. and has become one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco. England). As part of both U. California.47861°W The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate. after the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York City. bridge in the world"[5] (although Frommers also bestows the most photographed honor on Tower Bridge in London. the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. certainly the most photographed.81972°N Coordinates 122°28′43″W / 122.81972°N 122.

[11] Conception Although the idea of a bridge spanning the Golden Gate was not new. [11] Many experts said that a bridge couldn’t be built across the 6. a Southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary. Southern Pacific's automobile ferries became very profitable and important to the regional economy.[7][8] Once for railroad passengers and customers only. Experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation. San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats.[7] The Sausalito Land and Ferry Company service. with water 500 ft (150 m) in depth at the center of the channel.[12] San Francisco's City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million. [10] The trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County. with regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for purposes of transporting water to San Francisco. . launched in 1867. the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s.00 per vehicle. a price later reduced to compete with the new bridge. the proposal that eventually took place was made in a 1916 San Francisco Bulletin article by former engineering student James Wilkins. swirling tides and currents. eventually became the Golden Gate Ferry Company.700 ft (2. the city's growth rate was below the national average. and frequent strong winds. Ferry service began as early as 1820. circa 1891 Before the bridge was built.Golden Gate with Fort Point in foreground.[9] The ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco and Sausalito in Marin County took approximately 20 minutes and cost US$1. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay.042 m) strait. It had strong. the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay.

Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs. [14] The bridge faced opposition.[13] At the time. one of the most powerful business interests in California. designed a 55-mile (89 km) long railroad bridge across the Bering Strait. and fielded the question to bridge engineers of whether it could be built for less. from many sources. for his graduate thesis.[7] Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts. on behalf of the Secretary of War. Deakyne.[citation needed] A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical. The name became official with the passage of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act by the state legislature in 1923. leading to a mass boycott of the ferry service. opposed the bridge as competition to its ferry fleet and filed a lawsuit against the project. O'Shaughnessy.[10] The bridge's name was first used when the project was initially discussed in 1917 by M. was an ambitious but dreamy engineer and poet who had. which Strauss promised could be built for $17 million. Southern Pacific Railroad.[7] One who responded.[15] Another ally was the fledgling automobile industry.[16] Design .impractical for the time. Joseph Strauss. approved the transfer of land needed for the bridge structure and leading roads to the "Bridging the Golden Gate Association" and both San Francisco County and Marin County. The Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. connected by a central suspension segment.[7] Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California. including litigation. and Strauss. which supported the development of roads and bridges to increase demand for automobiles. Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. pending further bridge plans by Strauss.M. Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use Federal land for construction. city engineer of San Francisco. the navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors.[3] Strauss's initial drawings[12] were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait.[7] In May 1924. because of recent advances in metallurgy.

[19] Although the Golden Gate Bridge design has proved sound. [19] Moisseiff produced the basic structural design. because he had little understanding or experience with cable-suspension designs. Many locals persuaded Morrow to paint the bridge in the vibrant orange color instead of the standard silver or gray. introducing his "deflection theory" by which a thin. The famous International Orange color was originally used as a sealant for the bridge. Irving Morrow. and the color has been kept ever since.[17] responsibility for much of the engineering and architecture fell on other experts.[18] Senior engineer Charles Alton Ellis. the original . greatly reducing stress by transmitting forces via suspension cables to the bridge towers. a later Moisseiff design. [11] However. flexible roadway would flex in the wind.South tower seen from walkway Strauss was chief engineer in charge of overall design and construction of the bridge project. a relatively unknown residential architect. and walkways. was the principal engineer of the project. collaborating remotely with famed bridge designer Leon Moisseiff. designed the overall shape of the bridge towers. railing. and Art Deco elements such as the streetlights. the lighting scheme.

[20] Ellis was a Greek scholar and mathematician who at one time was a University of Illinois professor of engineering despite having no engineering degree (he eventually earned a degree in civil engineering from University of Illinois prior to designing the Golden Gate Bridge and spent the last twelve years of his career as a professor at Purdue University). eventually turning in ten volumes of hand calculations. In November 1931.[21] In May 2007. Strauss fired Ellis and replaced him with a former subordinate. He became an expert in structural design.[21] With an eye toward self-promotion and posterity. Clifford Paine.Tacoma Narrows Bridge. writing the standard textbook of the time. . Strauss downplayed the contributions of his collaborators who. because of an unexpected aeroelastic flutter. ostensibly for wasting too much money sending telegrams back and forth to Moisseiff. [21] Ellis.[21] Only much later were the contributions of the others on the design team properly appreciated. collapsed in a strong windstorm soon after it was completed. despite receiving little recognition or compensation.[21] Ellis did much of the technical and theoretical work that built the bridge.[17] are largely responsible for the final form of the bridge. He succeeded in having himself credited as the person most responsible for the design and vision of the bridge. obsessed with the project and unable to find work elsewhere during the Depression. continued working 70 hours per week on an unpaid basis. but he received none of the credit in his lifetime. the Golden Gate Bridge District issued a formal report on 70 years of stewardship of the famous bridge and decided to give Ellis major credit for the design of the bridge.

[7] Construction Construction began on January 5. The bonds were approved in November 1930. authorized by an act of the California Legislature. the founder of San Francisco–based Bank of America. he placed a brick from his alma mater's demolished McMicken Hall in the south anchorage before the concrete was poured. when Amadeo Giannini. However. which saved the lives of many otherwise-unprotected steelworkers. Of eleven men killed from falls . agreed on behalf of his bank to buy the entire issue in order to help the local economy.[11] However.[13] by votes in the counties affected by the bridge.[23] Strauss remained head of the project. so it lobbied for a $30 million bond measure. and finance the Golden Gate Bridge. overseeing day-to-day construction and making some groundbreaking contributions. He innovated the use of movable safety netting beneath the construction site.Finance The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District. A graduate of the University of Cincinnati. after the Wall Street Crash of 1929. was incorporated in 1928 as the official entity to design. the District was unable to raise the construction funds. the District was unable to sell the bonds until 1932.[7] The project cost more than $35 million. construct. 1933.[22] The construction budget at the time of approval was $27 million.

The day before vehicle traffic was allowed. "There's a Silver Moon on the Golden Gate".during construction.[7] On opening day.000 people crossed by foot and roller skate.[7] Opening festivities Opening of the Golden Gate Bridge The bridge-opening celebration began on May 27.3 million under budget. 1937 and lasted for one week.[24] Nineteen others who were saved by the net over the course of construction became proud members of the (informal) Halfway to Hell Club. 200. ten were killed (when the bridge was near completion) when the net failed under the stress of a scaffold that had fallen. $1. the last a blockade of beauty queens who required Joseph Strauss to present the bridge to the Highway District before allowing him to pass. was chosen to commemorate the . Mayor Angelo Rossi and other officials rode the ferry to Marin.[25] The project was finished by April 1937. An official song. then crossed the bridge in a motorcade past three ceremonial "barriers".

signaling the official start of vehicle traffic over the Bridge at noon." The next day. San Francisco .C. Weeks of civil and cultural activities called "the Fiesta" followed. Strauss wrote a poem that is now on the Golden Gate Bridge entitled "The Mighty Task is Done. the SFPD had a small riot in the uptown Polk Gulch area. A statue of Strauss was moved in 1955 to a site near the bridge. When the celebration got out of hand.event. President Roosevelt pushed a button in Washington.[12] Description Specifications A photograph of the bridge from a boat Fog at the Golden Gate Bridge. D.

committed to finding funding to complete the $2 million study required prior to the installation of a movable median barrier.200. Traffic As the only road to exit San Francisco to the north. the Bridge Board of Directors. Route 101 and California Route 1. Structure The weight of the roadway is hung from two cables that pass through the two main towers and are fixed in concrete at each end. traffic flows mostly southbound into the city. There are 80. the bridge is part of both U.[26] The bridge has approximately 1. The speed limit on the Golden Gate Bridge was reduced from 55 mph (89 km/h) to 45 mph (72 km/h) on 1 October 1996. weekends. On weekday mornings.000 total rivets.572 strands of wire. four lanes run northbound. The median markers between the lanes are moved to conform to traffic patterns. but the Mackinac Bridge has a shorter suspended span (between towers) compared to the Golden Gate Bridge. Aesthetics .The center span was the longest among suspension bridges until 1964 when the VerrazanoNarrows Bridge was erected between the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City. Michigan's Mackinac Bridge surpassed the Golden Gate Bridge's total length to become the world's longest two-tower suspension bridge in total length between anchorages. The eastern walkway is for pedestrians and bicycles during the weekdays and during daylight hours only (6:30 am to 3:30 pm). and the western walkway is open to bicyclists on weekday afternoons (after 3:30 pm). Although there has been discussion concerning the installation of a movable barrier since the 1980s. Conversely.S. Each cable is made of 27. so four of the six lanes run southbound.000 miles (129.The Golden Gate Bridge also had the world's tallest suspension towers at the time of construction and retained that record until more recently. in March 2005. surpassing the Golden Gate Bridge by 60 feet (18 m). on weekday afternoons.000 km) of wire in the main cables. and holidays (3:30 pm to 6:30 am). In 1957.

[29][30] Since 1990 Acrylic topcoats have been used instead for air-quality reasons.[32] . to outline the bridge's cables and towers.[27] The color was selected by consulting architect Irving Morrow because it complements the natural surroundings and enhances the bridge's visibility in fog.[28] In 1999. Paintwork The bridge was originally painted with red lead primer and a lead-based topcoat. such as lighting. The program was completed in 1995 and it is now maintained by 38 painters who touch up the paintwork where it becomes seriously eroded. Aesthetics was the foremost reason why the first design of Joseph Strauss was rejected. In the mid-1960s. with part of downtown San Francisco visible in the background at far left Despite its red appearance. with $35 million in principal and nearly $39 million in interest raised entirely from bridge tolls. he added details.[31] Current issues Economics The last of the construction bonds were retired in 1971.The Golden Gate Bridge by night. which was touched up as required. a program was started to improve corrosion protection by stripping the original paint and repainting the bridge with zinc silicate primer and vinyl topcoats. it was ranked fifth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. the color of the bridge is officially an orange vermillion called international orange. Upon re-submission of his bridge construction plan.

charging higher tolls during peak hours. called the Mobility. and the FasTrak toll was increased from $4 to $5. but rising and falling depending on traffic levels.[33][34] On 2 September 2008. the toll rate is $2.[38] As a condition of the grant. In October 2007. which it called a "partnership program". most likely a toll increase. the Golden Gate Bridge. the Board unanimously voted to discontinue the proposal and seek additional revenue through other means. would not include changing the name of the bridge or placing advertising on the bridge itself. pedestrian.[42] Suicides . Highway and Transportation District recommended a corporate sponsorship program for the bridge to address its operating deficit.50 per axle. This decision allowed the Bay Area to meet the federal requirement to receive $158 million in federal transportation funds from USDOT Urban Partnership grant. the Golden Gate Bridge District board approved a resolution to implement congestion pricing at the Golden Gate Bridge. the congestion toll must be in place by September 2009.In November 2006. showed that a congestion pricing program is feasible.[39][40] The first results of the study. Access and Pricing Study (MAPS). and northbound motor vehicle traffic remain toll free. The District promised that the proposal. the auto cash toll for all southbound motor vehicles was raised from $5 to $6.[41] The different pricing scenarios considered were presented in public meetings in December 2008 and the final study results are expected for late 2009. Bicycle.[36][37] Congestion pricing Further information: San Francisco congestion pricing In March 2008.[35] For vehicles with more than two axles. projected at $80 million over five years.

this sign promotes a special telephone available on the bridge that connects to a crisis hotline. sorted according to which of the bridge's 128 lamp posts the jumper was nearest when he or she jumped. People have been known to travel to San Francisco specifically to jump off the bridge. and several bodies recovered suspected to be from bridge jumps. Currents beneath the bridge are very strong. found within the forest in 2002. Aokigahara Forest in Japan. police sometimes find abandoned rental cars in the parking lot. At such a speed. and some jumpers have undoubtedly been washed out to sea without ever being seen.[45] For comparison. The water may be as cold as 47 °F (8 °C). An official suicide count was kept. because many were not witnessed. Because of this. with an average of 30 a year. [46] There were 34 bridgejump suicides in 2006 whose bodies were recovered. has a record of 78 bodies.[43] The deck is approximately 245 feet (75 m) above the water. The few who survive the initial impact generally drown or die of hypothermia in the cold water. By 2005. and may take a bus or cab to the site. . this count exceeded 1. jumpers hit the water at some 76 miles per hour (122 km/h). water has been determined to take on properties similar to concrete.As a suicide prevention initiative. The Golden Gate Bridge is not only the most popular place to commit suicide in the United States but also the most popular in the entire world.200 and new suicides were averaging one every two weeks. the reported second-mostpopular place to commit suicide in the world. most jumpers die on their immediate contact with the water.[47] There is no accurate figure on the number of suicides or successful jumps since 1937. The California Highway Patrol removed 70 apparently suicidal people from the bridge that year.[44] After a fall of approximately four seconds. in addition to four jumps that were witnessed but whose bodies were never recovered.

in which filmmaker Eric Steel and his production crew spent one year (2004) filming the bridge from several vantage points.[48] Engineering professor Natalie Jeremijenko. The Whitney Museum. and safety (the load from a poorly designed barrier could significantly affect the bridge's structural integrity during a strong windstorm). most notably that of Gene Sprague as well as a handful of thwarted attempts.[52] Attempts to introduce a suicide barrier had been thwarted by engineering difficulties. One young man survived a jump in 1979.[49] The boxes purportedly recorded 17 jumps in three months. which she claimed to have set up under the bridge. looking for people who appear to be planning to jump. but were opposed for the Golden Gate Bridge for reasons of cost. As of 2006. aesthetics. The film caught 23 jumps. [53] One recurring proposal had been to build a barrier to replace or augment the low railing. far greater than the official count. although individuals may still sustain broken bones or internal injuries. and public opposition.The fatality rate of jumping is roughly 98%. or other preventive measures were raised once again by a well-organized vocal minority of psychiatry professionals. New barriers have eliminated suicides at other landmarks around the world. nevertheless included her project in its prestigious Whitney Biennial. created a "Despondency Index" by correlating the Dow Jones Industrial Average with the number of jumpers detected by "Suicide Boxes" containing motion-detecting cameras. interviews with . and drove himself to a hospital. fence. although questioning whether Jeremijenko's suicide-detection technology actually existed. only 26 people are known to have survived the jump. Cyclists are still permitted across at night. but must be buzzed in and out through the remotely controlled security gates. suicide barrier consultants. a component of the bridge's original architectural design. and families of jumpers after the release of the controversial 2006 documentary film The Bridge.[50] Various methods have been proposed and implemented to reduce the number of suicides. Strong appeals for a suicide barrier. swam to shore. as part of her Bureau of Inverse Technology art collective. The impact cracked several of his vertebrae. Iron workers on the bridge also volunteer their time to prevent suicides by talking or wrestling down suicidal people. in order to film actual suicide jumps. and staff patrol the bridge in carts. high costs.[51] The bridge is now closed to pedestrians at night.[45] Those who do survive strike the water feet-first and at a slight angle. The film also contained interviews with surviving family members of those who jumped. The bridge is fitted with suicide hotline telephones.

survived a suicide plunge from the span and is now a vocal advocate for some type of bridge barrier or net to prevent such incidents from occurring. the bridge was actually vulnerable to complete structural failure (i. lack of funding could delay the net's construction.[58] A $392 million program was initiated to improve the structure's ability to withstand such an event with only minimal (repairable) damage. collapse) triggered by the failure of supports on the 320-foot (98 m) arch over Fort Point. as a 19-year-old in 2000.[57] Seismic retrofit Modern knowledge of the effect of earthquakes on structures led to a program to retrofit the Golden Gate to better resist seismic events.[59][60] . Once thought to have been able to withstand any magnitude of foreseeable earthquake.e. The retrofit's planned completion date is 2012. [54] [55] However.witnesses. and on 3 December 1983.. because of gusts of 69 mph (111 km/h). 2008. in one segment. on 23 December 1982. The net will extend 20 feet (6 m) on either side of the bridge and is expected to cost $40–50 million to complete. because of winds of 70 mph (113 km/h). The proximity of the bridge to the San Andreas Fault places it at risk for a significant earthquake. an interview with Kevin Hines who. the Golden Gate Bridge has been closed due to weather conditions only three times: on 1 December 1951. because of wind gusts of 75 mph (121 km/h). and. On October 10.[56] Wind Air show over Golden Gate Bridge Since its completion. the Golden Gate Bridge Board of Directors voted 14 to 1 to install a plastic-covered stainless-steel net below the bridge as a suicide deterrent.

57528°N 12.1 ft) Longest span 490 metres (1. 17.82694°E .5 metres (77. Locale Sweden Designer Georg Rotne Design Cable-stayed bridge Total length 7. began in December 2009[64] and is expected to be completed in 2013. Denmark and Malmö. Øresund Bridge Official name Øresundsbroen. Öresundsbron Four lanes of European route E20 Carries Double track Oresund Railway Line Crosses Oresund strait (The Sound) Copenhagen.Doyle Drive replacement project The elevated approach to the Golden Gate Bridge through the San Francisco Presidio is popularly known as Doyle Drive. and lacks shoulders. Doyle.608 ft) Clearance 57 metres (187 ft) below Opened July 2. the road has been deemed "vulnerable to earthquake damage".845 metres (25. Doyle Drive. and multimodal transportation structure. dating back to 1933.000 vehicles each weekday between downtown San Francisco and suburban Marin County. director of the California State Automobile Association.[62] However. was named after Frank P. efficient.[61] The highway carries approximately 91. has a problematic 4-lane design. known as the Presidio Parkway.000 road vehicles 55°34′31″N 12°49′37″E / Coordinates 55.738 ft) Width 23. Construction on the $1 billion[63] replacement. For these reasons. a San Francisco County Transportation Authority study recommended that the current outdated structure be replaced with a more modern. 2000 Toll 285DKK[1] /375SEK[2] /39EUR[3] Daily traffic ca.

The Øresund or Öresund Bridge (Danish: Øresundsbroen. there are usually no passport inspections. and a tunnel. one artificial island. it is sometimes called the "Öresund Link" or the "Öresund Connection" (Danish: Øresundsforbindelsen. but according to the Schengen Agreement and the Nordic Passport Union. The Øresund Bridge was designed by the Danish architectural practice Dissing+Weitling. Swedish: Öresundsförbindelsen). This symbolises a common cultural identity for the region. The Øresund Bridge connects Sweden and Denmark. and to prevent ice floes from blocking the strait. Furthermore. a compromise between the two languages. The construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link – which connects Zealand to Funen and whence to the Jutland Peninsula – and the Øresund Bridge have connected Western and Central Europe to Scandinavia. The phrase The Sound Bridge is occasionally heard. . and also to provide a clear channel for ships in good weather or bad. and it is the longest highway and railroad bridge in Europe. using the historic English name for the strait. Swedish: Öresundsbron. There are customs checks at the entrance toll booths for entering Sweden. Name In Sweden and Denmark the bridge is most often referred to as Öresundsbron and Øresundsbroen. The Øresund Bridge also connects two major Metropolitan Areas: those of the Danish capital city of Copenhagen and the major Swedish city of Malmö. but not for entering Denmark. The bridge company itself insists on Øresundsbron. The purpose for the additional expenditure and complexity related to digging a tunnel for part of the way – rather than simply raising that section of the bridge – was to avoid interfering with airliners from the nearby Copenhagen International Airport. joint hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined twin-track railroad and four-lane highway bridgetunnel across the Öresund strait. with some of the people considering themselves "Öresund citizens" once the Øresund Bridge was completed. Since the crossing is actually composed of a bridge. respectively. The Øresund Bridge crosses the border between Denmark and Sweden. and the Öresund Railway Line uses the railroads. the Øresund Bridge connects the highway network of Scandinavia with those of Central and Western Europe The international European route E20 crosses this bridge-tunnel via the roadway.

History The construction of the Øresund Bridge began in 1995. and 9. It was finished about August 14. In 2007. Sweden. In 2008. 79. Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark and Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden met midway across the bridge-tunnel to celebrate its completion. SEK 325. with Queen Margrethe II. almost 25 million people traveled over the Øresund Bridge: 15. Initially. Since 2005. to Skåne. there has been a rapid increase in traffic. 1999. In spite of two schedule setbacks – the discovery of 16 unexploded World War II bombs lying on the seafloor and an inadvertently skewed tunnel segment – the bridge-tunnel was finished three months ahead of schedule. On 12 June 2000. Link features The bridge . probably because of the high tolls. the crossing was not used as much as expected. and King Carl XVI Gustaf as the host and hostess of the ceremony. This may have been caused by Danes buying homes in Sweden – to take advantage of lower housing prices in Malmö – and commuting to work in Denmark. or € 36. the Bridge Run) from Amager. although discounts up to 75% are available for regular users. 2000.30. The bridge-tunnel was opened for public traffic later that day.6 million by train.2 million by car and bus. two weeks before the dedication. Denmark.871 runners competed in a half marathon (Broloppet. to cross by car cost DKK 260. Its official dedication took place on July 1.

3 km (3. A girder and cablestayed design was chosen to provide the rigidity necessary to carry heavy railroad traffic. the girder is supported every 140 m (459 ft) by concrete piers.3 mi) from the Swedish end.000 tonnes and supports two railroad tracks beneath four road lanes in a horizontal girder extending along the entire length of the bridge.738 ft).. Peberholm The bridge joins the Drogden tunnel on the artificial island christened Peberholm (Pepper Islet). The two pairs of free-standing cable supporting towers are 204 m (669 ft) high allowing shipping 57 m (187 ft) of head room under the main span. the Danes chose the name to complement the natural island of Saltholm (salt islet) just to the north. the bridge covers half the distance between Sweden and the Danish island of Amager. With characteristic good humour. The structure has a mass of 82. the border between the two countries being located 5. Its 491 m (1. They also made Peberholm a designated nature reserve.640 ft). At 7.5 mi) long. On both approaches to the three cable-stayed bridge sections. most ship's captains prefer to pass through the unobstructed Drogden Strait above the Drogden Tunnel.611 ft) cable-stayed main span is the longest of this type in the world. Built from Swedish rock and the soil dredged up during the bridge and tunnel construction. Even so. and also to resist large accumulations of ice.Aerial Photo of Oresund Bridge. with an average width of 500 m (1. .845 m (25. Peberholm is approximately 4 km (2.

The tubes are arranged side by side. The 4. two more carry roads while a small fifth tube is provided for emergencies.287 ft) long tunnel comprises a 3.510 m (11. Two tubes in the tunnel carry railway tracks.050 m (13. Rail transport Satellite image of the Oresund Bridge The public transport rail system is operated jointly by the Swedish SJ and the Danish via DSBFirst on a commission by Skånetrafiken and other county traffic companies (that also sell .Drogden Tunnel Cross-section of the Oresund Tunnel The connection between the artificial island of Peberholm and the artificial peninsula at Kastrup on Amager island – the nearest populated part of Denmark – is through the Drogden Tunnel (Drogdentunnelen).516 ft) undersea tube tunnel plus 270 m (886 ft) entry tunnels at each end. The tube tunnel is made from 20 prefabricated reinforced concrete segments – the most massive in the world at 55.000 tonnes each – interconnected in a trench dug in the seabed.

especially in the tunnel section. A series of new dual-voltage trains were developed which link the Copenhagen area with Malmö and southern Sweden as far as Gothenburg and Kalmar on selected schedules. Copenhagen Airport at Kastrup is served by its own train station close to the western bridgehead. 16. 4 ft 81⁄2 in) and capable of high-speeds up to 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph). including motorway and railway connections on land. was calculated at DKK 30. especially the Malmö Central Station. Costs In the tunnel The cost for the entire Øresund Connection construction. For the new Malmö City Tunnel connection a flyover will pass one track over to the other side. There were challenges related to the difference in electrification and signaling between the Danish and Swedish railway networks.tickets) and the Danish transport agency. with the cost of the bridge paid back by 2035. The switch is made at the Malmö Central Station. Trains operate every 20 minutes over the crossing and once an hour during the night in both directions. Sweden runs railways with left-hand traffic and Denmark with right-hand traffic. SJ operate the X2000 and InterCity trains over the bridge with connections to Gothenburg and Stockholm. are the main sources of congestion. The rail section is double track standard gauge (1435 mm. the line switches to Danish signaling which continues into the tunnel. People have to stand onboard during rush hour since it is hard to run more trains. and 1-2 per hour and direction SJ trains and DSB trains every other hour.1 billion according to the 2000 year price index. The line is signaled according to the standard Swedish system across the length of the bridge. The new Malmö City Tunnel and its stations will relieve the congestion on the Swedish side. but slower in Denmark. DSB operate trains to Ystad that connect directly to a ferry to Bornholm. The congestion is mainly on land and not really on the bridge. from Swedish 15 kV. In 2006 Sweden began spending a further SEK . An additional couple of Øresundstrains are operated at rush hour. Freight trains also use the crossing. which is also a terminus. On Peberholm. The solution chosen is to switch the electrical system. The rail connection has become popular and is now experiencing congestion. The railway stations on both sides of the bridge.7 Hz to Danish 25 kV. 50 Hz AC right before the eastern bridgehead at Lernacken in Sweden.

The Malmö City Tunnel has the benefit of connecting the southern part of the inner city to the rail network and allowing many more trains to and from Malmö. which is expected to take about 30 years. Swedish kronor (SEK) and euro (EUR): Vehicle Motorcycle Standard car Motorhome/car+caravan Minibus (6-9 metres) Bus (longer than 9 metres) Lorry/truck (9-20 metres) Lorry/truck (over 20 metres) Train ticket[4] DKK[1] 150 275 550 550 1145 795 1190 78 SEK[2] 215 380 790 790 1675 1170 1755 98 EUR[3] 21 39 75 75 157 109 163 9 There has been criticism of the tolls which are much higher than what many consider reasonable for a bridge.45 billion on the Malmö City Tunnel as a new rail connection to the bridge. After the increase in traffic these fees are enough to pay the interest and begin paying back the loans.9. The connection will be entirely user financed. Toll charge In April 2009. Especially on the Danish side the land connection has domestic benefit. However they are comparable with the ferry charges that were levied before the bridge was built and for the ferries still running between Helsingborg and Helsingør. The owner company is owned half by the Danish government and half by the Swedish government. This owner company has taken loans guaranteed by the governments to finance the connection. Radio masts and towers . The tax payers have not paid for the bridge and the tunnel. the toll for driving the fixed link was as follows (one way trip without discount) in Danish kroner (DKK). it is due for completion in 2010. tax money has been used for the land connections. and the user fees are the only incomes for the company. However. mainly connecting the airport to the railway network.

but it collapsed in 1991. Masts are sometimes named after the broadcasting organisations that use them. Similar structures include electricity pylons and towers for wind turbines. or after a nearby city or town. typically. search Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England A dismantled radio mast in sections Radio masts and towers are. leaving the KVLY/KTHI-TV mast as the tallest. They are among the tallest man-made structures. The Warsaw Radio Mast was the world's tallest supported structure on land.From Wikipedia. including television. tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting. In the case of a mast radiator or radiating tower. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. • [edit] Mast or tower? . the whole mast or tower is itself the transmitting antenna.

There are a few borderline designs which are partly free-standing and partly guyed. Masts tend to be cheaper to build but require an extended area surrounding them to accommodate the stay blocks.A radio mast base showing how virtually all support is provided by the guy-wires The terms "mast" and "tower" are often used interchangeably.) [edit] Materials [edit] Steel lattice . in structural engineering terms. For example: • • • • The Gerbrandy tower consists of a self-supporting tower with a guyed mast on top. with a guyed mast on top. The few remaining Blaw-Knox towers do the opposite: they have a guyed lower section surmounted by a freestanding part. (Tower portion is not freestanding. a tower is a self-supporting or cantilevered structure. Towers are more commonly used in cities where land is in short supply. However. Zendstation Smilde a tall tower with a guyed mast on top (guys go to ground) Torre de Collserola a guyed tower. while a mast is held up by stays or guys.

low wind resistance and economy in the use of materials. Such structures are usually triangular or square in cross-section. . When built as a stayed mast. One exception is the BlawKnox type. the structure may be parallel-sided or taper over part or all of its height. It provides great strength.Steel lattice tower The steel lattice is the most widespread form of construction. The Crystal Palace tower in London is an example. When built as a tower. usually the whole mast is parallel-sided. the tower is said to be an Eiffelized one. in the manner of the Eiffel Tower. When constructed of several sections which taper exponentially with height.

these were the subject of collapses at the Emley Moor and Waltham TV stations in the 1960s. these masts have heights between 150 and 200 metres. In the UK. In Germany and the Netherlands most towers constructed for point-to-point microwave links are built of reinforced concrete. Except for the mast in Vinnytsia. more resembling silos than towers. used exclusively for FM/TV transmission. AT&T built numerous concrete towers. guyed masts were built between 1960 and 1965 with crossbars running from the mast structure to the guys. Many are still in use today. such as those used for microwave point-to-point links. This can be important when antennas with narrow beamwidths are used. while in the UK most are lattice towers. and when the structure is to be occupied by people. At several cities in Russia and Ukraine. In the 1950s. First modern TV Tower in Stuttgart [edit] Reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete towers are relatively expensive to build but provide a high degree of mechanical rigidity in strong winds. for its first transcontinental microwave route.[edit] Tubular steel Some masts are constructed out of steel tubes. . All these masts are tubular structures.

but all of these towers have since been demolished. Many were built in the UK during World War II because of a shortage of steel.Concrete towers can form prestigious landmarks. except for the Gliwice Radio Tower. Ferryside Relay is an example of a TV relay transmitter using a wooden pole. [edit] Wood There are fewer wooden towers now than in the past. these buildings may have public areas such as observation decks or restaurants. As well as accommodating technical staff. [edit] Other types of antenna supports and structures [edit] Poles . In Germany before World War II wooden towers were used at nearly all medium-wave transmission sites. such as the CN Tower in Toronto. It was designed in 1956 by the local civil engineer Fritz Leonhardt. The Stuttgart TV tower was the first tower in the world to be built in reinforced concrete. Tokyo Tower [edit] Fibreglass Fibreglass poles are occasionally used for low-power non-directional beacons or medium-wave broadcast transmitters.

Many people view bare cellphone towers as ugly and an intrusion into their neighbourhoods. Sometimes self-supporting tubular galvanized steel poles are used: these may be termed monopoles. particularly for portable radio services and low-power FM radio stations. trees.[4] . this 100' tall cross conceals equipment for T-Mobile. there are transmitting antennas on the Empire State Building. Florida. for instance. water tanks and other features. Many companies offer to 'hide' cellphone towers in. such as towers disguised as cacti in Coronado National Forest. the Sears Tower. These are generally called "stealth towers" or "stealth installations". In North America.[2] There are many providers that offer these services as part of the normal tower installation and maintenance service.Shorter masts may consist of a self-supporting or guyed wooden pole. such towers disguised as trees are nearly indistinguishable from the real thing. several local TV and radio stations were knocked off the air until backup transmitters could be put into service.[1] Such facilities also exist in Europe. or as. The level of detail and realism achieved by disguised cellphone towers is remarkably high. flag poles. for example.[3] Such towers can be placed unobtrusively in national parks and other such protected places. When the buildings collapsed. even for local wildlife (who additionally benefit from the artificial flora). [edit] Buildings In some cases. Even though people increasingly depend upon cellular communications. it is possible to install transmitting antennas on the roofs of tall buildings. and formerly on the World Trade Center towers. they are opposed to the bare towers spoiling otherwise scenic views. church towers. similar to a telegraph pole. [edit] Disguised cell-sites Completed in December 2009 at Epiphany Lutheran Church in Lake Worth.

When retracted. They are usually only strong enough to support fairly small antennas. the only difference is that a mast radiator may be supported on an insulator at its base.Even when disguised. and highlighted the sentiment that such disguises serve more to allow the installation of such towers in subterfuge away from public scrutiny rather than to serve towards the beautification of the landscape. there will be one insulator supporting each leg. LW or MW) up to an appropriate height. In the case of a tower. They can save money by needing to withstand high winds only when raised. Such an arrangement is used occasionally by military agencies or radio amateurs. such towers can create controversy. Presidential campaign of that year. Structurally. which may be powered by hand or an electric motor. It can carry an antenna or a wire (for VLF. the whole assembly can sometimes be lowered to a horizontal position by means of a second tiltover winch. These can be erected very quickly. [edit] Other special structures . Telescopic masts consist of two or more concentric sections and come in two principal types: • • Pump-up masts are often used on vehicles and are raised to their full height pneumatically or hydraulically. [edit] Telescopic. [edit] Balloons and kites A tethered balloon or a kite can serve as a temporary support. and for temporary communications in emergencies.[original research?][5] [edit] Mast radiators Main article: Mast radiator A mast radiator is a radio tower or mast in which the whole structure works as an antenna. Telescopic lattice masts are raised by means of a winch. a tower doubling as a flagpole attracted controversy in 2004 in relation to the U. pump-up and tiltover towers Main article: Cell on wheels A special form of the radio tower is the telescopic mast. and as such are widely used in amateur radio. This enables antennas to be fitted and adjusted at ground level before winching the mast up.S. These tend to cater for greater heights and loads than the pump-up type. It is used frequently as a transmitting antenna for long or medium wave broadcasting. Telescopic masts are used predominantly in setting up temporary radio links for reporting on major news events. The American broadcasters TV Martí broadcast a television program to Cuba by means of such a balloon. They are also used in tactical military networks. however.

They consist of two electrodes buried deep in the ground at least a few dozen kilometres apart. The wires are supported by small masts or towers or rock anchors. From the transmitter building to the electrodes. and are installed on similar pylons. overhead feeder lines run. These lines look like power lines of the 10 kV level. [edit] Design features [edit] Economic and aesthetic considerations A radio amateur's do it yourself steel-lattice tower Felsenegg-Girstel TV-tower Uetliberg TV-tower . The same technique was also used for the Criggion VLF transmitter. Such structures require no tall masts. See List of spans: Antenna spans across valleys. For ELF transmitters ground dipole antennas are used.For two VLF transmitters wire antennas spun across deep valleys are used.

than one big one. Towers look less ugly if they and the antennas mounted on them appear symmetrical.Communications tower. towers and the antennas mounted on them require maintenance. A steel lattice tower is cheaper to build than a concrete tower of equal height. They are sometimes built in prominent places and include observation decks or restaurants. especially if they look identical. Height requirements vary across states and countries. neon lamps were used. access to the whole of the structure is necessary. Concrete towers can be built with aesthetic design . Nowadays such lamps tend to use LED arrays. [edit] Aircraft warning features Tall structures in excess of certain legislated heights are often equipped with aircraft warning lamps. [edit] Access for riggers Because masts. [edit] Masts for HF/shortwave antennas For transmissions in the shortwave range.[citation needed] A guyed mast is cheaper to build than a self-supporting tower of equal height. visually. [edit] Light pollution and nuisance lighting . may have stairs and sometimes a lift. A guyed mast needs additional land to accommodate the guys. Shortwave transmitters rarely use masts taller than about 100 metres. In the past. camouflaged as a slim tree • • • • • • • The cost of a mast or tower is roughly proportional to the square of its height. which tend to require more frequent maintenance. also called a service elevator. usually red. there is little to be gained by raising the antenna more than a few wavelengths above ground level. to warn pilots of the structure's existence. Alternatively. Small structures are typically accessed with a ladder. Two small towers may be less intrusive. Larger structures. An unguyed tower will fit into a much smaller plot. ruggedized and underrun filament lamps were used to maximize the bulb life. and is thus best suited to rural locations where land is relatively cheap. Structures over a certain height may also be required to be painted with contrasting color schemes such as white and orange or white and red to make them more visible against the sky. and may include additional rules such as requiring a white flashing strobe in the daytime and pulsating red fixtures at night.and they are. especially in Continental Europe.

One finds such shock-mounts. tower heights may be restricted so as to reduce or eliminate the need for aircraft warning lights. Further towers of this building method can be found near Smilde (the Netherlands) and Fernsehturm. which look like cylinders thicker than the mast.In some countries where light pollution is a concern. Telecom operators in the USA can erect new telecom masts or towers as the government has lifted the moratorium.[8] . The limit is more commonly set to 190 or 180 feet to allow for masts extending above the tower.[6][7] [edit] Catastrophic collapses Main article: List of catastrophic collapses of radio masts and towers [edit] Law Since June 2010. Reports have been issued documenting known bird fatalities and calling for research to find ways to minimize the hazard that communications towers can pose to birds. Waldenburg. which was earlier placed on the issuance of permits for the construction of telecommunication towers. Baden-Württemberg. There are also constructions. for example. This is particularly a concern with steel tube construction. Germany). [edit] Wind-induced oscillations One problem with radio masts is the danger of wind-induced oscillations. such as limiting tower height to below 200 feet and therefore not requiring aircraft illumination under FCC rules. which consist of a free-standing tower (usually from reinforced concrete). For example in the United States the 1996 Telecommunications Act allows local jurisdictions to set maximum heights for towers. television and cell towers have been documented to pose a hazard to birds. [edit] Hazard to birds Radio. The best known such construction is the Gerbrandy Tower in Lopik (the Netherlands). One can reduce this by building cylindrical shock-mounts into the construction. onto which a guyed radio mast is installed. at the radio masts of DHO38 in Saterland.

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