Koyna Dam

Impounds Locale Length Height Opening date Dam owner(s)

Koyna River Koyna Nagar, Maharashtra India 807.2 m (2,648 ft) 103.2 m (339 ft) 1967 Government of Maharashtra

Reservoir information Creates Capacity Surface area Shivaji Lake 2,797,400,000 m3 (9.8789×1010 cu ft) 89,178 km2 (34,432 sq mi)

Power generation information Turbines 18

Installed capacity 1,920 MW Official website

The Koyna Dam is one of the largest dams in Maharashtra, India. It is located in Koyna Nagar, nestled in the Western Ghats on the state highway between Chiplun and Karad, Maharashtra. The dam supplies water to western Maharashtra as well as cheap hydroelectric power to the neighbouring areas with a capacity of 1,920 MW. The Koyna project is actually composed of four dams, with the Koyna Dam having the largest catchment area. The catchment area dams the Koyna River and forms the Shivaji Lake which is approximately 50 km (31 mi) in length. Completed in 1963, it is one of the largest civil engineering projects commissioned after Indian independence. The Koyna electricity project is run by the Maharashtra State Electricity Board. Most of the generators are located in excavated caves a kilometre deep, inside the heart of the surrounding hills.

The dam has contributed to earthquakes in the recent past, including the devastating 1967 Koynanagar earthquake that almost razed the dam, resulting in the dam developing major cracks. Date Built in: 1962 - 1963 Height of dam: 103 metres Water storage: 2,797.400 km³ Volume of dam: 1,555.000 m³ Width of dam: 808 m Slope at water side: 24:1 Length of lake: 60 km • Storage: o Gross storage: 98.78 TMC o Live: 93.65 TMC o Dead: 5.125 TMC • Length: 1807.22 m • Height: 85.35 m • Year of completion: 1963

Jayakwadi Dam
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Jayakwadi Dam

Jayakwadi Dam on Godavari River.

Jayakwadi project is one of the largest irrigation projects in Maharashtra. It is a multipurpose project. Its water is used mainly to irrigate agricultural land in the drought prone Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. It also provides water for drinking and industrial usage to nearby towns and villages and to the municipalities and industrial areas of Aurangabad and Jalna. The surrounding area of the dam has a beautiful garden and a bird sanctuary.

It is located on Godavari river at the site of Jayakwadi village in Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district in Maharashtra state, India.

Foundation was laid by late Prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri on 18 October 1965.

Inaugurated by late Prime minister Indira Gandhi on 24 February 1976.

Multipurpose project. Mainly To irrigate land for agriculture in the drought prone of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. Also to provide water for drinking and industrial usage to nearby towns and villages and to the municipalities and industrial areas of Aurangabad and Jalna.

Statistics Built in: 1965–1976 Height of 40 m approx dam:

Water storage: 2.909 km3 9998 m (10 km Width of dam: approx) Area of 350 km2 Reservoir :

About the dam

Jayakwadi project is one of the largest irrigation projects in Aurangabad Maharashtra. o It is a multipurpose project. o Jayakwadi is one of the largest earthen dams in Asia. o Its cachement area is 21,750 km². o Total submergence area due to the reservoir is approx 35,000 ha. o Its height is approx 41.30 m and length of 9998 m (10 km approx) o Nath Sagar is the name of the reservoir formed due to Jayakwadi Dam. o Total area of reservoir is approx 350 km2. o Its total storage capicity is approx 2.909 km³ & effective live storage capacity is 2.17 km³. o The length of left bank canal is 208 km & the length of right bank canal is 132 km.
• o o o o

It irrigates culturable area of 237,452 ha in the districts of Aurangabad, Jalna, Beed and Parbhani. While its total command area is 263,858 ha. Its installed power generating capacity is 12 megawatts. It is also used to supply drinking water to Aurangabad city & surrounding areas. Unfortunately siltation has taken a heavy toll on the project. It is estimated that appprox 30% of the dam is filled with silt, reducing its life as well as storage capacity.

In the year 2009 it has entered in 35th year of its life. It has in its lifetime overflowed only 17 times. On 10 August 2006 highest discharge of 250000 ft³/s was recorded.

Migratory birds at Jayakwadi Dam, Aurangabad

Dnyneshwar Udyan

Dnyaneshwar Udyan is one of the largest gardens in Maharashtra resembling the Vrindavan Gardens of Mysore. It is spread over 125 hectares and is situated on the banks of Nathsagar Lake formed due to Jayakwadi Dam. It is located near the town of Paithan which is 40 km south of Aurangabad and nearly about 22 km east to hatgaon which is femous in all over india

Itaipu Dam

Central Official name Impounds Locale Length Height Hydraulic head Construction began Opening date Construction cost Maintained by Binacional



Usina Hidrelétrica Itaipu Binacional Paraná River Foz do Iguaçu

Ciudad del Este 7,700 m (25,300 ft) 196 m (643 ft) 118 m (387 ft) January 1970 5 May 1984 US$19.6 billion Itaipu Binacional

Reservoir information Creates Itaipu Reservoir

supplying 90% of the energy consumed by Paraguay and 19% of that consumed by Brazil.itaipu.py The Itaipu Dam (Guarani: Itaipu. The American composer Philip Glass has also written a symphonic cantata named Itaipu. and Ciudad del Este in Paraguay. [2] Of the twenty generator units currently installed. 15 km (9. Itaipu means "the sound of a stone".0×1012 cu ft) 1. Portuguese: Itaipu.3 mi) north of the Friendship Bridge.itaipu.6 TWh (2009) Yes www. each approximately 800 km long. Spanish: Itaipú.7 TWh in 2008 and 91.[1] It is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay at the Paraná River on the border section between the two countries. in Brazil.350 km2 (520 sq mi) Power generation information Turbines Installed capacity Annual generation Conventional Website 20 × 700 MW 14.000.68 billion kWh.gov. The project ranges from Foz do Iguaçu.8 TWh in 2008 and 79.gov.Capacity Catchment area 29.000 MW 91. In 2008 the plant generated a record 94. ten generate at 50 Hz for Paraguay and ten generate at 60 Hz for Brazil.br www. History . The installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW. Two 600 kV HVDC lines.6 TWh in 2009. In the Guarani language. with 20 generating units providing 700 MW each with a hydraulic design head of 118 m. generating 94. The name "Itaipu" was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site. in honour of the structure. Portuguese pronunciation: Spanish pronunciation: is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay.000. carry both Brazilian and Paraguayan energy to São Paulo where the terminal equipment converts the power to 60 Hz. while the annual generating capacity of the Three Gorges Dam was 80.4 TWh in 2009.000 m3 (1. in the south to Guaíra and Salto del Guaíra in the north. The dam is the largest operating hydroelectric facility in terms of annual generating capacity.

A. to the Iguaçu River's watershed. (from Italy) won the international competition for the realization of the viability studies and for the elaboration of the construction project. The "Ata do Iguaçu" (Iguaçu Act) was signed on July 22. which expires in 2023. The government of President Lugo vowed to renegotiate the terms of the treaty with Brazil. respectively. the consortium formed by the companies IECO (from the United States of America) and ELC Electroconsult S. The Treaty that gave origin to the power plant was signed in 1973. have been the subject of widespread discontent in Paraguay. by the Brazilian and Paraguayan Ministers of Foreign Affairs. 1966.p. the Salto de Sete Quedas.[3] In 2009. which long remained hostile to any renegotiation. Work began in February .[4][5] Construction starts The dam undergoes expansion work. This was a joint declaration of the mutual interest in studying the exploitation of the hydric resources that the two countries shared in the section of the Paraná River starting from. Brazil agreed to a fairer payment of electricity to Paraguay and also allowed Paraguay to sell excess power directly to Brazilian companies instead of solely through the Brazilian electricity monopoly. In 1970. Juracy Magalhães and Sapena Pastor.Negotiations between Brazil and Paraguay The concept behind Itaipu Power Plant was the result of heavy negotiations between the two countries during the 1960s. The terms of the treaty. and including.

Agreement by Brazil. 1982. on October 27. Paraguay. The works began in January of the following year. The first 18 units were installed at the rate of two to three a year. raising the water level in the River Plate and consequently flood the capital city of Buenos Aires. 1984. the last two of these started running in the year 1991. Start of operations On May 5. the first generation unit started running in Itaipu. on October 19. 1979. Brazil and Paraguay signed the Itaipu Treaty. At that time.m. On May 17. This agreement established the allowed river levels and how much they could change as a result of the various hydroelectrical undertakings in the watershed that was shared by the three countries. 1978. in the event of a conflict. 1974. Argentina was concerned that. the Paraná River had its route changed. 1973. Throughout this period. Formation of the lake The plant's reservoir began its formation on October 13. which allowed a section of the riverbed to dry so the dam could be built there. heavy rains and flooding accelerated the filling of the reservoir as the water rose 100 meters (330 ft) and reached the gates of the spillway at 10 a. Paraná River rerouted On October 14.1971. the three countries were ruled by military dictatorships. when the dam works were completed and the side canal's gates were closed. and Argentina An important diplomatic settlement was reached with the signing of the Acordo Tripartite by Brazil. Brazil could open the floodgates. Capacity expansion in 2007 . Paraguay and Argentina. the legal instrument for the hydroelectric exploitation of the Paraná River by the two countries. On April 26. the Itaipu Binacional entity was created to administer the plant's construction.

m. energy officials said.m. Mato Grosso. the power available exceeds 750 MW half of the time for each generator. This increase in capacity will allow for 18 generation units to remain running all of the time while two stay down for maintenance. possibly due to a storm damaging up to three high-voltage distribution lines. Blackouts also swept through the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. Santa Catarina. Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo completely without electricity. the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18 (see the agreement section for more information). the American Society of Civil Engineers elected the Itaipu Dam as one of the seven modern Wonders of the World.[9] Social and environmental impacts . It affected the southeast of Brazil most severely. by comparison. leaving São Paulo. 2009. all the water from the Iguaçu Falls would have the capacity to feed only two generators. Mato Grosso do Sul. the American magazine Popular Mechanics published the results. thus raising the installed capacity to 14 GW and completing the power plant.[6] Itaipu itself was not damaged. power had been restored to most areas. The rated nominal power of each generating unit (turbine and generator) is 700 MW. transmission from the plant was totally disrupted. local time. and plunging Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo into darkness for more than 2 hours. because the head (difference between reservoir level and the river level at the foot of the dam) that actually occurs is higher than the designed head (118 m). [7] The blackout hit at 10:13 p. 50 million people were reportedly affected. Paraguay and Argentina.The last two of the 20 electric generation units started operations in September 2006 and in March 2007. Due to a clause in the treaty signed between Brazil. However. the interior of Bahia and parts of Pernambuco.[8] By 12:30 a. In 1995. Each turbine generates around 700 MW. This caused massive power outages in Brazil and Paraguay. blacking out the entire country of Paraguay for 15 minutes. Wonder of the Modern World In 1994. November 2009 power failure On November 10.

as tourists sought a last glimpse of the falls. Around forty thousand people worked in the construction.000 families living beside the Paraná River were displaced.[10] The world's largest waterfall by volume. The iron and steel used would allow for the construction of 380 Eiffel Towers. but eliminating the possibility of restoring the falls in the future. The volume of excavation of earth and rock in Itaipu is 8.When construction of the dam began. and dynamited the submerged rock face where the falls had been. 80 people died when an overcrowded bridge overlooking the falls collapsed. The Brazilian government liquidated the Guaíra Falls National Park. The amount of concrete used to build the Itaipu Power Plant would be enough to build 210 football stadiums the size of the Estádio do Maracanã. approximately 10. as were 50 million tons of earth and rock.[citation needed] • • • • .5 times greater than that of the Channel Tunnel and the volume of concrete is 15 times greater. A few months before the reservoir was filled. the Guaíra Falls were drowned by the newly formed Itaipu reservoir. Construction • The course of the seventh biggest river in the world was shifted. facilitating safer navigation.[11] Statistics Spillways in action.

equivalent to a 65-story building. The reservoirs for the hydroelectric power plants of Sobradinho Dam. 434. Statistics and Project Construction . If Brazil were to use Thermal Power Generation to produce the electric power of Itaipu.000 MW installed power.2 thousand cubic metres per second.000 barrels (69.000 MW. and a concrete wing dam to the right. The maximum flow of Itaipu's fourteen segmented spillways is 62. has an installed capacity of 8. The crest elevation is 225 m. For the 14. Itaipu is actually four dams joined together — from the far left. • • • Hoover Dam. • The flow of two generators (700 m3·s−1 each) is roughly equivalent to the average flow of the Iguaçu Falls (1500 m3·s−1). while flooding 2. Tucuruí.430 km2 (938 sq mi) of land. Porto Primavera Dam.000 m3) of petroleum would have to be burned every day. but have a smaller installed generating capacity. into three skislope formed canals.• The cost of constructing Itaipu makes it one of the most expensive objects ever built. the Itaipu's reservoir has the best relation between electricity production and flooded area. Balbina Dam. a rock fill dam.[12] Though it is the seventh largest reservoir in size in Brazil. Serra da Mesa Dam and Furnas Dam are all larger than the one for Itaipu. The one with the largest hydroelectric production. Generating station and dam • The total length of the dam is 7235 m. The dam is 196 metres high. • • The spillway has a length of 483 m. Facts. a concrete main dam. It is equivalent to 40 times the average flow of the nearby natural Iguaçu Falls. Tucuruí Dam. 1350 square kilometres were flooded. an earth fill dam.

iconic and greatest dam ever built. completed in 1935. It was the most colossal structure in the world at that time. Hoover Dam is 221m high. producing the largest amount of Hydro electric power in the world. 30 Km south-east of Las Vegas. 201 meters thick and 3.Hoover Dam Hoover dam is America's most famous landmark. The Hoover sketch details 21000 men took part in its construction and of them 112 laid their lives to complete this megastructure. This great American icon was to be the largest and heaviest dam. The risks involved were huge and the consequences could have been catastrophic.4 million cubic meters of concrete has been used in it. Situated in Mojave desert. Though its not the superior dam today but still most famous. Background for Hoover Construction . the construction site was extremely difficult. Built on Colorado River at Black Canyon. if the dam failed.

would break its banks in every spring and flood the area. The spot. Nowadays this amount is about 788 million pounds. no labors. Frank Crow. The site chosen for the megastructure Hoover Dam was Black Canyon. The construction of Hoover took 7 years at a cost of $ 125 million.Colorado. Black canyon is in the middle of the desert. no transportation and the weather too was harsh. It is an 800 ft high deep gorge through which the river flowed. so there was no infrastructure. worlds one of the most powerful and unpredictable rivers. If the dam was not completed in the given time it would have cost the contractors $ 3000 / day in financial penalties. The Government instructed the Bureau of Reclamation to come up with a solution and they decided to build world's largest dam. was the Chief Engineer of Hoover Dam and was assigned the job to get it completed in the span from 1931 – 1935. Stage 1 of construction Hoover Tunnels .

Hoover Tunnels. Holidays were observed only at Christmas. 4rth July and Labor Day. Two tunnels would be constructed on the Nevada side. and another two were to be constructed on the Arizona side. measuring 4000 ft long and the diameter of the tunnel was 56 ft. work was extremely physically demanding. began. Tunnels Used to divert water from dam site In April 1931 blasting for construction of plain dry area. with men working 3 shifts 24 hours a day. To divert the Colorado river 4 tunnels were to be excavated on each side of the Canyon. 7 days a week. The workers had to face harsh conditions but were paid only 40% extra. these were acting as diversion channels. upon which dam would be built. Men had to swing 100's of feet down the canyon walls to remove dangerous loose rocks. blasting. using . The digging. and debris removal continued for 13 months. No proper ventilation was provides. 2 small cofferdams were built to force water into the tunnels. In may 1931 the drilling continued.

workers used dynamite to blast into the rock and break it into smaller pieces that could be hauled away by dump trucks. was used by the Engineers to design the coffer dams. The largest flow ever recorded at Black Canyon 200. men (as well as equipment) arrived at the work site by boat.jacks and dynamites. 14. This amazing pace of dredging and dumping went on for five months. being hit by falling rocks. workers were able to blast and excavate large diversion tunnels. The tunnels were then lined with concrete and By sliding sticks of dynamite into holes bored into the canyon wall. .5 million gallons per second.3 meters) of tunnel that workers dug into the canyon wall. Special team then visited the inside of the tunnels to ensure it would remain same for workers to work inside it. Coffer dams. Once holes were drilled. to build Hoover Dam Because no roads led into the canyon. each about the size of a 4-lane highway. Till November. allowing river water to be transported away from the construction site at a rate of 1. A ton (0.000 cubic feet per second. The most common cause of death was. Due to lack of safety measure men required nerves of steel. Workers used 500 pneumatic drills. and debris into the water at a rate of one truckload every 15 seconds. rock. hoses.9 metric tons) of dynamite was required for every 14 feet (4. Coffer Dams Workers made the cofferdams by using 100 trucks to dump dirt. were lined with 3 feet of concrete. and compressors to make holes in the canyon rock where explosives could be placed. 1932 four 4 tunnels were completed and the water was allowed to flow through it. These tunnels.

incorporating two principles. Design of the Hoover Dam Hoover is a Gravity dam.Stage 2 of construction In this stage building the dam itself was the task. . The work was too huge. stabilized by its huge mass Hoover is an arch gravity dam. there were many problems in design which needed to be solved.

coarse aggregate combine in the presence of water. It is because when ingredients of concrete – cement. resulting in the generation of internal heat. the concrete would not have settled even today. In another principle. thus helping it to remain stable. weakening the structure. If heat is not dispersed. Plants were installed at the construction site to produce concrete locally.4 million cubic meters of concrete. cracks would form.According to the first principle. sand. But the dam was too big to be made into a single concrete mount. the weight of the dam forces it into the ground due to its weight. The large the pour. Heat of hydration in Hoover dam . the arch shape of the dam deflects the force of the water into the canyon walls through the compression of dam's concrete walls. thus slowing down the curing process. the larger the cure. using the compressive strength of concrete (concrete is very strong in compression). If the concrete in the dam was poured in only one go. Major problem was the pouring of 3. they start a chemical reaction.

carrying vast buckets of concrete. Concrete mix was cooled and cured faster.The cooling of Blocks to avoid shrinkage due to heat evolution To counteract the problem of heat generation. Due to this new method. This idea was conceived by a previous dam called Lower Crystal Spring dams. cool water pipes were passed through each block. But Hoover was even 20 times massive than gigantic Lower Crystals Spring Dam. Labors stayed on the site to spread. Each block was 5 ft high and was inter locked with the neighboring one and water was forced between them. Hoover dam was built in series of inter locking blocks. place and compact the poured in concrete. To accelerate the setting of concrete. a record breaking volume – 8000 cubic meters of concrete was poured in a single day. To speed up pouring of concrete in the mega structure. . an elaborate overhead network of cables and pulleys was designed.

61639°N Coordinates 135.72 meters below Beginning date 1988[1] of construction Completion 1998[1] date Opened April 5. Other name(s) Pearl bridge Carries 6 lanes of roadway Crosses Akashi Strait[1] Locale Awaji Island and Kobe[1] Maintained by Honshū-Shikoku Bridge Authority Design Suspension bridge[1] Total length 3.02028°E .300 34°36′59″N 135°01′13″E 34.532 ft)[1] Clearance 65.02028°ECoordinates: 34°36′59″N 135°01′13″E / / 34.Akashi Kaikyō Bridge Akashi Kaikyō Bridge Akashi Kaikyō Ō-hashi (明石海峡大橋?) Akashi Kaikyō Bridge from the air.911 meters (12.61639°N 135.831 ft) Height 282.8 metres (928 ft) (pylons)[1] Longest span 1.991 meters (6. 1998 Toll ¥2.

The ensuing shock and public outrage convinced the Japanese government to develop plans for a suspension bridge to cross the strait. killing 168 children. Actual construction did not begin until May 1986. which created three routes across the Inland Sea. moved the two . The central span is 1. Architecture The bridge has three spans. The central span was originally only 1. The bridge links the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honshū to Iwaya on Awaji Island by crossing the busy Akashi Strait.911 m (12. It carries part of the Honshū-Shikoku Highway. This dangerous waterway often experiences severe storms.532 ft).831 ft) long overall. 1995.991 metres (6. History Before the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge was built. at 1. The original plan called for a mixed railway-road bridge.921 ft)-wide shipping lane.529 ft). but the Kobe earthquake on January 17.150 ft). two ferries sank in the strait during a storm. The bridge is 3.The Akashi-Kaikyō Bridge also known as the Pearl Bridge. 1998. and the two other sections are each 960 m (3. The Akashi Strait is an international waterway that necessitated the provision of a 1.991 m (6. the construction was restricted to road only.532 ft)[1]. has the longest central span of any suspension bridge. It is located in Japan and was completed in 1998[1].990 m (6. The bridge is one of the key links of the Honshū-Shikoku Bridge Project.500metre (4. but when construction on the bridge began in April 1986. ferries carried passengers across the Akashi Strait in Japan. and the bridge was opened for traffic on April 5. and in 1955. with six lanes.

5 on the Richter scale. allowing the structure to withstand winds of 286 kilometres per hour (178 mph).000 tonnes (340.[1] The bridge was designed with a two-hinged stiffening girder system.000 cars/day. and the bridge can expand because of heating up to 2 metres (7 ft) over the course of a day.000 ST) of concrete. The steel cables have 300. 405 for the girders and 132 for the anchorages. and harsh sea currents.000 kilometres (190.[4] Nearby attractions Two parks in proximity of the bridge have been built for tourists. Currently. The bridge also contains pendulums that are designed to operate at the resonance frequency of the bridge to damp forces. green and blue.830 strands of wire. earthquakes measuring to 8. memorial days or festivities. Both are accessible by the coastal train line. 116 for the main towers.towers sufficiently (only the towers had been erected at the time) so that it had to be increased by 1 m (3. one in Maiko (including a small museum) and one in Asagiri. Each anchorage required 350. The toll is ¥2. 28 patterns are used for occasions as national or regional holidays. The RGB model and computer technology make for a variety of combinations. Golden Gate Bridge Golden Gate Bridge .000 LT.3 ft).[citation needed] Use The total cost is estimated at ¥500 billion.000 mi) of wire: each cable is 112 centimetres (44 in) in diameter and contains 36. On the main cables three high light discharged tubes are mounted in the colors red.[2][3] The Akashi-Kaikyo bridge has a total of 1737 illumination lights: 1084 for the main cables. 390. The two main supporting towers rise 298 m (978 ft) above sea level. and is expected to be defrayed by charging commuters a toll to cross the bridge.300 and the bridge is used by approximately 23.

truss arch & truss causeways 1.7 km) or 8.3 m) at toll gates.200 ft (1.1 m) at mean high water May 27.2 m)[3] 14 ft (4. FasTrak only) 118.Carries Crosses Locale Maintained by Designer Design Total length Width Height Longest span Vertical clearance Clearance below Opened 6 lanes of US 101 / SR 1 . and Charles Ellis Suspension.00 (carpools during peak hours. California Golden Gate Bridge.981 ft (2.737.000[4] Daily traffic .280.4 m) 4. pedestrians and bicycles Golden Gate San Francisco.4 m) 746 ft (227. $5.7 mi (2. $3. 1937 Cars (southbound only) Toll $6. higher truck loads possible 220 ft (67.00 (FasTrak).4 m)[2] 90 ft (27. Highway and Transportation District[1] Joseph Strauss.00 (cash). Irving Morrow. California and Marin County.

47861°WCoordinates: 37°49′11″N 122°28′43″W / 37. after the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York City. It has been declared one of the modern Wonders of the World by the American Society of Civil Engineers.[6] History . and of the United States.Connects: San Francisco Peninsula with Marin County 37°49′11″N 37. it still has the second longest suspension bridge main span in the United States.81972°N Coordinates 122°28′43″W / 122. Despite its span length being surpassed by eight other bridges since its completion. certainly the most photographed. bridge in the world"[5] (although Frommers also bestows the most photographed honor on Tower Bridge in London. England).47861°W The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate. The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed during the year 1937. it connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County.81972°N 122. California. Route 101 and California State Route 1. and has become one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco. As part of both U. the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean.S. The Frommers travel guide considers the Golden Gate Bridge the "possibly the most beautiful.

042 m) strait.[7][8] Once for railroad passengers and customers only. Southern Pacific's automobile ferries became very profitable and important to the regional economy. the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s. eventually became the Golden Gate Ferry Company.[11] Conception Although the idea of a bridge spanning the Golden Gate was not new.[7] The Sausalito Land and Ferry Company service. [11] Many experts said that a bridge couldn’t be built across the 6. swirling tides and currents. the city's growth rate was below the national average. with regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for purposes of transporting water to San Francisco.[12] San Francisco's City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million. a Southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary. circa 1891 Before the bridge was built. the proposal that eventually took place was made in a 1916 San Francisco Bulletin article by former engineering student James Wilkins. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County. . a price later reduced to compete with the new bridge. launched in 1867. [10] The trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay.00 per vehicle. with water 500 ft (150 m) in depth at the center of the channel. the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. Experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation. San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats.Golden Gate with Fort Point in foreground. and frequent strong winds. It had strong. Ferry service began as early as 1820.700 ft (2.[9] The ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco and Sausalito in Marin County took approximately 20 minutes and cost US$1.

[citation needed] A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical. because of recent advances in metallurgy. O'Shaughnessy. opposed the bridge as competition to its ferry fleet and filed a lawsuit against the project.[15] Another ally was the fledgling automobile industry.[10] The bridge's name was first used when the project was initially discussed in 1917 by M. which Strauss promised could be built for $17 million. leading to a mass boycott of the ferry service. Joseph Strauss.[7] Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California.[16] Design . and Strauss.[7] One who responded. [14] The bridge faced opposition. The name became official with the passage of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act by the state legislature in 1923. the navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors.[13] At the time.[7] Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts.[3] Strauss's initial drawings[12] were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait. for his graduate thesis.impractical for the time. The Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic.M. on behalf of the Secretary of War. which supported the development of roads and bridges to increase demand for automobiles. Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use Federal land for construction. pending further bridge plans by Strauss. including litigation. was an ambitious but dreamy engineer and poet who had. and fielded the question to bridge engineers of whether it could be built for less. connected by a central suspension segment. from many sources. Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs. Southern Pacific Railroad. Deakyne. one of the most powerful business interests in California.[7] In May 1924. Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. designed a 55-mile (89 km) long railroad bridge across the Bering Strait. city engineer of San Francisco. approved the transfer of land needed for the bridge structure and leading roads to the "Bridging the Golden Gate Association" and both San Francisco County and Marin County.

was the principal engineer of the project. greatly reducing stress by transmitting forces via suspension cables to the bridge towers. and the color has been kept ever since. designed the overall shape of the bridge towers. a relatively unknown residential architect. Irving Morrow. collaborating remotely with famed bridge designer Leon Moisseiff. the original .[18] Senior engineer Charles Alton Ellis. and Art Deco elements such as the streetlights. [11] However. the lighting scheme. introducing his "deflection theory" by which a thin. and walkways. [19] Moisseiff produced the basic structural design.South tower seen from walkway Strauss was chief engineer in charge of overall design and construction of the bridge project. railing. Many locals persuaded Morrow to paint the bridge in the vibrant orange color instead of the standard silver or gray. a later Moisseiff design. The famous International Orange color was originally used as a sealant for the bridge.[17] responsibility for much of the engineering and architecture fell on other experts. flexible roadway would flex in the wind.[19] Although the Golden Gate Bridge design has proved sound. because he had little understanding or experience with cable-suspension designs.

because of an unexpected aeroelastic flutter. despite receiving little recognition or compensation. He became an expert in structural design. obsessed with the project and unable to find work elsewhere during the Depression.Tacoma Narrows Bridge. eventually turning in ten volumes of hand calculations. ostensibly for wasting too much money sending telegrams back and forth to Moisseiff. . Strauss downplayed the contributions of his collaborators who.[21] In May 2007. Clifford Paine. collapsed in a strong windstorm soon after it was completed.[21] Only much later were the contributions of the others on the design team properly appreciated.[17] are largely responsible for the final form of the bridge. [21] Ellis. the Golden Gate Bridge District issued a formal report on 70 years of stewardship of the famous bridge and decided to give Ellis major credit for the design of the bridge.[20] Ellis was a Greek scholar and mathematician who at one time was a University of Illinois professor of engineering despite having no engineering degree (he eventually earned a degree in civil engineering from University of Illinois prior to designing the Golden Gate Bridge and spent the last twelve years of his career as a professor at Purdue University). Strauss fired Ellis and replaced him with a former subordinate. but he received none of the credit in his lifetime. He succeeded in having himself credited as the person most responsible for the design and vision of the bridge. In November 1931. writing the standard textbook of the time. continued working 70 hours per week on an unpaid basis.[21] With an eye toward self-promotion and posterity.[21] Ellis did much of the technical and theoretical work that built the bridge.

[22] The construction budget at the time of approval was $27 million. overseeing day-to-day construction and making some groundbreaking contributions. However.Finance The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District. authorized by an act of the California Legislature.[11] However. The bonds were approved in November 1930. was incorporated in 1928 as the official entity to design. construct. Of eleven men killed from falls . [7] Construction Construction began on January 5. the District was unable to sell the bonds until 1932. he placed a brick from his alma mater's demolished McMicken Hall in the south anchorage before the concrete was poured. so it lobbied for a $30 million bond measure.[7] The project cost more than $35 million. when Amadeo Giannini. which saved the lives of many otherwise-unprotected steelworkers. A graduate of the University of Cincinnati. He innovated the use of movable safety netting beneath the construction site. agreed on behalf of his bank to buy the entire issue in order to help the local economy.[13] by votes in the counties affected by the bridge. the founder of San Francisco–based Bank of America. after the Wall Street Crash of 1929.[23] Strauss remained head of the project. and finance the Golden Gate Bridge. 1933. the District was unable to raise the construction funds.

ten were killed (when the bridge was near completion) when the net failed under the stress of a scaffold that had fallen. 200. was chosen to commemorate the .during construction. "There's a Silver Moon on the Golden Gate". Mayor Angelo Rossi and other officials rode the ferry to Marin.000 people crossed by foot and roller skate.3 million under budget.[24] Nineteen others who were saved by the net over the course of construction became proud members of the (informal) Halfway to Hell Club. 1937 and lasted for one week. the last a blockade of beauty queens who required Joseph Strauss to present the bridge to the Highway District before allowing him to pass.[7] Opening festivities Opening of the Golden Gate Bridge The bridge-opening celebration began on May 27. The day before vehicle traffic was allowed. $1. then crossed the bridge in a motorcade past three ceremonial "barriers". An official song.[7] On opening day.[25] The project was finished by April 1937.

D. Weeks of civil and cultural activities called "the Fiesta" followed.C. When the celebration got out of hand." The next day. President Roosevelt pushed a button in Washington.[12] Description Specifications A photograph of the bridge from a boat Fog at the Golden Gate Bridge. the SFPD had a small riot in the uptown Polk Gulch area. A statue of Strauss was moved in 1955 to a site near the bridge. signaling the official start of vehicle traffic over the Bridge at noon. Strauss wrote a poem that is now on the Golden Gate Bridge entitled "The Mighty Task is Done. San Francisco .event.

000 miles (129.000 km) of wire in the main cables.200.The center span was the longest among suspension bridges until 1964 when the VerrazanoNarrows Bridge was erected between the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City. Traffic As the only road to exit San Francisco to the north. surpassing the Golden Gate Bridge by 60 feet (18 m). The median markers between the lanes are moved to conform to traffic patterns. Structure The weight of the roadway is hung from two cables that pass through the two main towers and are fixed in concrete at each end. and holidays (3:30 pm to 6:30 am). and the western walkway is open to bicyclists on weekday afternoons (after 3:30 pm). the Bridge Board of Directors.The Golden Gate Bridge also had the world's tallest suspension towers at the time of construction and retained that record until more recently.000 total rivets. Conversely. In 1957. committed to finding funding to complete the $2 million study required prior to the installation of a movable median barrier. but the Mackinac Bridge has a shorter suspended span (between towers) compared to the Golden Gate Bridge. four lanes run northbound. the bridge is part of both U.S. The speed limit on the Golden Gate Bridge was reduced from 55 mph (89 km/h) to 45 mph (72 km/h) on 1 October 1996.[26] The bridge has approximately 1. Although there has been discussion concerning the installation of a movable barrier since the 1980s. weekends. On weekday mornings. There are 80. Michigan's Mackinac Bridge surpassed the Golden Gate Bridge's total length to become the world's longest two-tower suspension bridge in total length between anchorages. Aesthetics . on weekday afternoons. traffic flows mostly southbound into the city. The eastern walkway is for pedestrians and bicycles during the weekdays and during daylight hours only (6:30 am to 3:30 pm). in March 2005. Each cable is made of 27. Route 101 and California Route 1.572 strands of wire. so four of the six lanes run southbound.

with $35 million in principal and nearly $39 million in interest raised entirely from bridge tolls.The Golden Gate Bridge by night. with part of downtown San Francisco visible in the background at far left Despite its red appearance. he added details. Upon re-submission of his bridge construction plan. it was ranked fifth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. In the mid-1960s.[31] Current issues Economics The last of the construction bonds were retired in 1971. such as lighting. which was touched up as required. to outline the bridge's cables and towers. Paintwork The bridge was originally painted with red lead primer and a lead-based topcoat. a program was started to improve corrosion protection by stripping the original paint and repainting the bridge with zinc silicate primer and vinyl topcoats.[29][30] Since 1990 Acrylic topcoats have been used instead for air-quality reasons.[32] .[28] In 1999. The program was completed in 1995 and it is now maintained by 38 painters who touch up the paintwork where it becomes seriously eroded. Aesthetics was the foremost reason why the first design of Joseph Strauss was rejected.[27] The color was selected by consulting architect Irving Morrow because it complements the natural surroundings and enhances the bridge's visibility in fog. the color of the bridge is officially an orange vermillion called international orange.

[39][40] The first results of the study. Access and Pricing Study (MAPS).[41] The different pricing scenarios considered were presented in public meetings in December 2008 and the final study results are expected for late 2009.In November 2006. the toll rate is $2. the auto cash toll for all southbound motor vehicles was raised from $5 to $6. In October 2007. the congestion toll must be in place by September 2009. the Golden Gate Bridge. Bicycle.[36][37] Congestion pricing Further information: San Francisco congestion pricing In March 2008. but rising and falling depending on traffic levels. and the FasTrak toll was increased from $4 to $5.[35] For vehicles with more than two axles. projected at $80 million over five years.[38] As a condition of the grant. The District promised that the proposal. the Golden Gate Bridge District board approved a resolution to implement congestion pricing at the Golden Gate Bridge. the Board unanimously voted to discontinue the proposal and seek additional revenue through other means. most likely a toll increase.[42] Suicides . called the Mobility. and northbound motor vehicle traffic remain toll free. pedestrian. This decision allowed the Bay Area to meet the federal requirement to receive $158 million in federal transportation funds from USDOT Urban Partnership grant. charging higher tolls during peak hours.[33][34] On 2 September 2008. would not include changing the name of the bridge or placing advertising on the bridge itself.50 per axle. Highway and Transportation District recommended a corporate sponsorship program for the bridge to address its operating deficit. showed that a congestion pricing program is feasible. which it called a "partnership program".

Currents beneath the bridge are very strong.200 and new suicides were averaging one every two weeks.[43] The deck is approximately 245 feet (75 m) above the water. . found within the forest in 2002.[45] For comparison. in addition to four jumps that were witnessed but whose bodies were never recovered. because many were not witnessed. jumpers hit the water at some 76 miles per hour (122 km/h).[47] There is no accurate figure on the number of suicides or successful jumps since 1937. most jumpers die on their immediate contact with the water.[44] After a fall of approximately four seconds. has a record of 78 bodies. this count exceeded 1. The California Highway Patrol removed 70 apparently suicidal people from the bridge that year. and some jumpers have undoubtedly been washed out to sea without ever being seen. At such a speed. The few who survive the initial impact generally drown or die of hypothermia in the cold water.As a suicide prevention initiative. this sign promotes a special telephone available on the bridge that connects to a crisis hotline. An official suicide count was kept. with an average of 30 a year. water has been determined to take on properties similar to concrete. sorted according to which of the bridge's 128 lamp posts the jumper was nearest when he or she jumped. Aokigahara Forest in Japan. [46] There were 34 bridgejump suicides in 2006 whose bodies were recovered. police sometimes find abandoned rental cars in the parking lot. and several bodies recovered suspected to be from bridge jumps. the reported second-mostpopular place to commit suicide in the world. and may take a bus or cab to the site. By 2005. The Golden Gate Bridge is not only the most popular place to commit suicide in the United States but also the most popular in the entire world. People have been known to travel to San Francisco specifically to jump off the bridge. The water may be as cold as 47 °F (8 °C). Because of this.

in which filmmaker Eric Steel and his production crew spent one year (2004) filming the bridge from several vantage points.[45] Those who do survive strike the water feet-first and at a slight angle. far greater than the official count. in order to film actual suicide jumps. The Whitney Museum. Strong appeals for a suicide barrier. Iron workers on the bridge also volunteer their time to prevent suicides by talking or wrestling down suicidal people. New barriers have eliminated suicides at other landmarks around the world. or other preventive measures were raised once again by a well-organized vocal minority of psychiatry professionals. The film also contained interviews with surviving family members of those who jumped. and drove himself to a hospital. Cyclists are still permitted across at night. but were opposed for the Golden Gate Bridge for reasons of cost. fence. One young man survived a jump in 1979. The impact cracked several of his vertebrae. The film caught 23 jumps. created a "Despondency Index" by correlating the Dow Jones Industrial Average with the number of jumpers detected by "Suicide Boxes" containing motion-detecting cameras.[52] Attempts to introduce a suicide barrier had been thwarted by engineering difficulties. high costs.The fatality rate of jumping is roughly 98%. as part of her Bureau of Inverse Technology art collective. swam to shore.[49] The boxes purportedly recorded 17 jumps in three months. As of 2006. only 26 people are known to have survived the jump. and staff patrol the bridge in carts. and public opposition. most notably that of Gene Sprague as well as a handful of thwarted attempts. although questioning whether Jeremijenko's suicide-detection technology actually existed. a component of the bridge's original architectural design.[51] The bridge is now closed to pedestrians at night. but must be buzzed in and out through the remotely controlled security gates. although individuals may still sustain broken bones or internal injuries. looking for people who appear to be planning to jump. The bridge is fitted with suicide hotline telephones. aesthetics. nevertheless included her project in its prestigious Whitney Biennial. which she claimed to have set up under the bridge.[48] Engineering professor Natalie Jeremijenko. interviews with .[50] Various methods have been proposed and implemented to reduce the number of suicides. and families of jumpers after the release of the controversial 2006 documentary film The Bridge. and safety (the load from a poorly designed barrier could significantly affect the bridge's structural integrity during a strong windstorm). [53] One recurring proposal had been to build a barrier to replace or augment the low railing. suicide barrier consultants.

lack of funding could delay the net's construction. as a 19-year-old in 2000.[56] Wind Air show over Golden Gate Bridge Since its completion. an interview with Kevin Hines who. 2008. The retrofit's planned completion date is 2012. [54] [55] However. survived a suicide plunge from the span and is now a vocal advocate for some type of bridge barrier or net to prevent such incidents from occurring.[59][60] . the Golden Gate Bridge has been closed due to weather conditions only three times: on 1 December 1951. because of wind gusts of 75 mph (121 km/h).witnesses. On October 10. the bridge was actually vulnerable to complete structural failure (i. in one segment.[57] Seismic retrofit Modern knowledge of the effect of earthquakes on structures led to a program to retrofit the Golden Gate to better resist seismic events.[58] A $392 million program was initiated to improve the structure's ability to withstand such an event with only minimal (repairable) damage.e. Once thought to have been able to withstand any magnitude of foreseeable earthquake. The net will extend 20 feet (6 m) on either side of the bridge and is expected to cost $40–50 million to complete. because of gusts of 69 mph (111 km/h). collapse) triggered by the failure of supports on the 320-foot (98 m) arch over Fort Point. and. on 23 December 1982. and on 3 December 1983. because of winds of 70 mph (113 km/h). the Golden Gate Bridge Board of Directors voted 14 to 1 to install a plastic-covered stainless-steel net below the bridge as a suicide deterrent.. The proximity of the bridge to the San Andreas Fault places it at risk for a significant earthquake.

845 metres (25. the road has been deemed "vulnerable to earthquake damage". a San Francisco County Transportation Authority study recommended that the current outdated structure be replaced with a more modern.738 ft) Width 23.1 ft) Longest span 490 metres (1. began in December 2009[64] and is expected to be completed in 2013. director of the California State Automobile Association.000 road vehicles 55°34′31″N 12°49′37″E / Coordinates 55. efficient. and lacks shoulders. has a problematic 4-lane design. 2000 Toll 285DKK[1] /375SEK[2] /39EUR[3] Daily traffic ca. Doyle Drive.82694°E .5 metres (77.[61] The highway carries approximately 91. Øresund Bridge Official name Øresundsbroen. Locale Sweden Designer Georg Rotne Design Cable-stayed bridge Total length 7.Doyle Drive replacement project The elevated approach to the Golden Gate Bridge through the San Francisco Presidio is popularly known as Doyle Drive. 17. For these reasons. dating back to 1933. was named after Frank P. Construction on the $1 billion[63] replacement. Doyle.000 vehicles each weekday between downtown San Francisco and suburban Marin County. Denmark and Malmö.[62] However.608 ft) Clearance 57 metres (187 ft) below Opened July 2. and multimodal transportation structure. Öresundsbron Four lanes of European route E20 Carries Double track Oresund Railway Line Crosses Oresund strait (The Sound) Copenhagen.57528°N 12. known as the Presidio Parkway.

and also to provide a clear channel for ships in good weather or bad. There are customs checks at the entrance toll booths for entering Sweden. a compromise between the two languages. Name In Sweden and Denmark the bridge is most often referred to as Öresundsbron and Øresundsbroen. The Øresund Bridge also connects two major Metropolitan Areas: those of the Danish capital city of Copenhagen and the major Swedish city of Malmö. The Øresund Bridge connects Sweden and Denmark. . one artificial island. and the Öresund Railway Line uses the railroads. respectively. and a tunnel. but according to the Schengen Agreement and the Nordic Passport Union. This symbolises a common cultural identity for the region. Furthermore. The Øresund Bridge crosses the border between Denmark and Sweden. and to prevent ice floes from blocking the strait. using the historic English name for the strait. with some of the people considering themselves "Öresund citizens" once the Øresund Bridge was completed.The Øresund or Öresund Bridge (Danish: Øresundsbroen. but not for entering Denmark. The construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link – which connects Zealand to Funen and whence to the Jutland Peninsula – and the Øresund Bridge have connected Western and Central Europe to Scandinavia. The Øresund Bridge was designed by the Danish architectural practice Dissing+Weitling. there are usually no passport inspections. The bridge company itself insists on Øresundsbron. Swedish: Öresundsbron. it is sometimes called the "Öresund Link" or the "Öresund Connection" (Danish: Øresundsforbindelsen. and it is the longest highway and railroad bridge in Europe. Since the crossing is actually composed of a bridge. the Øresund Bridge connects the highway network of Scandinavia with those of Central and Western Europe The international European route E20 crosses this bridge-tunnel via the roadway. The phrase The Sound Bridge is occasionally heard. The purpose for the additional expenditure and complexity related to digging a tunnel for part of the way – rather than simply raising that section of the bridge – was to avoid interfering with airliners from the nearby Copenhagen International Airport. joint hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined twin-track railroad and four-lane highway bridgetunnel across the Öresund strait. Swedish: Öresundsförbindelsen).

Link features The bridge .871 runners competed in a half marathon (Broloppet. to Skåne. to cross by car cost DKK 260. Denmark. 2000. Initially. although discounts up to 75% are available for regular users. Sweden. or € 36.30.History The construction of the Øresund Bridge began in 1995. In spite of two schedule setbacks – the discovery of 16 unexploded World War II bombs lying on the seafloor and an inadvertently skewed tunnel segment – the bridge-tunnel was finished three months ahead of schedule. two weeks before the dedication. and 9. and King Carl XVI Gustaf as the host and hostess of the ceremony. Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark and Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden met midway across the bridge-tunnel to celebrate its completion. Since 2005.2 million by car and bus. In 2007. Its official dedication took place on July 1. the crossing was not used as much as expected. 1999. This may have been caused by Danes buying homes in Sweden – to take advantage of lower housing prices in Malmö – and commuting to work in Denmark. On 12 June 2000.6 million by train. In 2008. The bridge-tunnel was opened for public traffic later that day. the Bridge Run) from Amager. SEK 325. almost 25 million people traveled over the Øresund Bridge: 15. 79. with Queen Margrethe II. It was finished about August 14. there has been a rapid increase in traffic. probably because of the high tolls.

At 7. Peberholm The bridge joins the Drogden tunnel on the artificial island christened Peberholm (Pepper Islet). the border between the two countries being located 5. On both approaches to the three cable-stayed bridge sections. Built from Swedish rock and the soil dredged up during the bridge and tunnel construction. Peberholm is approximately 4 km (2. .640 ft). and also to resist large accumulations of ice.000 tonnes and supports two railroad tracks beneath four road lanes in a horizontal girder extending along the entire length of the bridge. Even so.5 mi) long. Its 491 m (1. the Danes chose the name to complement the natural island of Saltholm (salt islet) just to the north. With characteristic good humour.845 m (25. the bridge covers half the distance between Sweden and the Danish island of Amager. with an average width of 500 m (1.. A girder and cablestayed design was chosen to provide the rigidity necessary to carry heavy railroad traffic.738 ft). most ship's captains prefer to pass through the unobstructed Drogden Strait above the Drogden Tunnel.3 km (3. the girder is supported every 140 m (459 ft) by concrete piers. The two pairs of free-standing cable supporting towers are 204 m (669 ft) high allowing shipping 57 m (187 ft) of head room under the main span.611 ft) cable-stayed main span is the longest of this type in the world. They also made Peberholm a designated nature reserve.3 mi) from the Swedish end. The structure has a mass of 82.Aerial Photo of Oresund Bridge.

510 m (11. The 4.516 ft) undersea tube tunnel plus 270 m (886 ft) entry tunnels at each end. Two tubes in the tunnel carry railway tracks.Drogden Tunnel Cross-section of the Oresund Tunnel The connection between the artificial island of Peberholm and the artificial peninsula at Kastrup on Amager island – the nearest populated part of Denmark – is through the Drogden Tunnel (Drogdentunnelen). Rail transport Satellite image of the Oresund Bridge The public transport rail system is operated jointly by the Swedish SJ and the Danish via DSBFirst on a commission by Skånetrafiken and other county traffic companies (that also sell .050 m (13.287 ft) long tunnel comprises a 3. The tube tunnel is made from 20 prefabricated reinforced concrete segments – the most massive in the world at 55. The tubes are arranged side by side.000 tonnes each – interconnected in a trench dug in the seabed. two more carry roads while a small fifth tube is provided for emergencies.

The railway stations on both sides of the bridge. the line switches to Danish signaling which continues into the tunnel.tickets) and the Danish transport agency. are the main sources of congestion. The rail connection has become popular and is now experiencing congestion. The line is signaled according to the standard Swedish system across the length of the bridge.7 Hz to Danish 25 kV. There were challenges related to the difference in electrification and signaling between the Danish and Swedish railway networks. 50 Hz AC right before the eastern bridgehead at Lernacken in Sweden. The new Malmö City Tunnel and its stations will relieve the congestion on the Swedish side. especially the Malmö Central Station. 4 ft 81⁄2 in) and capable of high-speeds up to 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph). The switch is made at the Malmö Central Station. In 2006 Sweden began spending a further SEK . and 1-2 per hour and direction SJ trains and DSB trains every other hour. Trains operate every 20 minutes over the crossing and once an hour during the night in both directions. was calculated at DKK 30. DSB operate trains to Ystad that connect directly to a ferry to Bornholm. The solution chosen is to switch the electrical system. The congestion is mainly on land and not really on the bridge. For the new Malmö City Tunnel connection a flyover will pass one track over to the other side. from Swedish 15 kV. People have to stand onboard during rush hour since it is hard to run more trains. but slower in Denmark. with the cost of the bridge paid back by 2035. Freight trains also use the crossing. 16. Costs In the tunnel The cost for the entire Øresund Connection construction. The rail section is double track standard gauge (1435 mm. An additional couple of Øresundstrains are operated at rush hour. Sweden runs railways with left-hand traffic and Denmark with right-hand traffic. which is also a terminus. SJ operate the X2000 and InterCity trains over the bridge with connections to Gothenburg and Stockholm. Copenhagen Airport at Kastrup is served by its own train station close to the western bridgehead. On Peberholm.1 billion according to the 2000 year price index. A series of new dual-voltage trains were developed which link the Copenhagen area with Malmö and southern Sweden as far as Gothenburg and Kalmar on selected schedules. especially in the tunnel section. including motorway and railway connections on land.

which is expected to take about 30 years. Swedish kronor (SEK) and euro (EUR): Vehicle Motorcycle Standard car Motorhome/car+caravan Minibus (6-9 metres) Bus (longer than 9 metres) Lorry/truck (9-20 metres) Lorry/truck (over 20 metres) Train ticket[4] DKK[1] 150 275 550 550 1145 795 1190 78 SEK[2] 215 380 790 790 1675 1170 1755 98 EUR[3] 21 39 75 75 157 109 163 9 There has been criticism of the tolls which are much higher than what many consider reasonable for a bridge. This owner company has taken loans guaranteed by the governments to finance the connection. and the user fees are the only incomes for the company. However. The owner company is owned half by the Danish government and half by the Swedish government. The tax payers have not paid for the bridge and the tunnel. the toll for driving the fixed link was as follows (one way trip without discount) in Danish kroner (DKK). The Malmö City Tunnel has the benefit of connecting the southern part of the inner city to the rail network and allowing many more trains to and from Malmö. Radio masts and towers .45 billion on the Malmö City Tunnel as a new rail connection to the bridge. it is due for completion in 2010. However they are comparable with the ferry charges that were levied before the bridge was built and for the ferries still running between Helsingborg and Helsingør. tax money has been used for the land connections.9. Especially on the Danish side the land connection has domestic benefit. After the increase in traffic these fees are enough to pay the interest and begin paying back the loans. mainly connecting the airport to the railway network. The connection will be entirely user financed. Toll charge In April 2009.

or after a nearby city or town. Masts are sometimes named after the broadcasting organisations that use them. • [edit] Mast or tower? . including television. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. typically. but it collapsed in 1991.From Wikipedia. search Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England A dismantled radio mast in sections Radio masts and towers are. leaving the KVLY/KTHI-TV mast as the tallest. Similar structures include electricity pylons and towers for wind turbines. tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting. The Warsaw Radio Mast was the world's tallest supported structure on land. In the case of a mast radiator or radiating tower. They are among the tallest man-made structures. the whole mast or tower is itself the transmitting antenna.

Towers are more commonly used in cities where land is in short supply. For example: • • • • The Gerbrandy tower consists of a self-supporting tower with a guyed mast on top. There are a few borderline designs which are partly free-standing and partly guyed. The few remaining Blaw-Knox towers do the opposite: they have a guyed lower section surmounted by a freestanding part.) [edit] Materials [edit] Steel lattice . while a mast is held up by stays or guys. in structural engineering terms.A radio mast base showing how virtually all support is provided by the guy-wires The terms "mast" and "tower" are often used interchangeably. Zendstation Smilde a tall tower with a guyed mast on top (guys go to ground) Torre de Collserola a guyed tower. Masts tend to be cheaper to build but require an extended area surrounding them to accommodate the stay blocks. a tower is a self-supporting or cantilevered structure. (Tower portion is not freestanding. However. with a guyed mast on top.

When built as a stayed mast. When built as a tower. Such structures are usually triangular or square in cross-section. One exception is the BlawKnox type.Steel lattice tower The steel lattice is the most widespread form of construction. The Crystal Palace tower in London is an example. . in the manner of the Eiffel Tower. It provides great strength. When constructed of several sections which taper exponentially with height. the structure may be parallel-sided or taper over part or all of its height. the tower is said to be an Eiffelized one. low wind resistance and economy in the use of materials. usually the whole mast is parallel-sided.

for its first transcontinental microwave route. these were the subject of collapses at the Emley Moor and Waltham TV stations in the 1960s. and when the structure is to be occupied by people. these masts have heights between 150 and 200 metres. . In Germany and the Netherlands most towers constructed for point-to-point microwave links are built of reinforced concrete. such as those used for microwave point-to-point links. guyed masts were built between 1960 and 1965 with crossbars running from the mast structure to the guys. more resembling silos than towers.[edit] Tubular steel Some masts are constructed out of steel tubes. All these masts are tubular structures. At several cities in Russia and Ukraine. Except for the mast in Vinnytsia. This can be important when antennas with narrow beamwidths are used. AT&T built numerous concrete towers. In the 1950s. In the UK. First modern TV Tower in Stuttgart [edit] Reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete towers are relatively expensive to build but provide a high degree of mechanical rigidity in strong winds. used exclusively for FM/TV transmission. Many are still in use today. while in the UK most are lattice towers.

In Germany before World War II wooden towers were used at nearly all medium-wave transmission sites. [edit] Wood There are fewer wooden towers now than in the past. these buildings may have public areas such as observation decks or restaurants. such as the CN Tower in Toronto. except for the Gliwice Radio Tower.Concrete towers can form prestigious landmarks. Ferryside Relay is an example of a TV relay transmitter using a wooden pole. Tokyo Tower [edit] Fibreglass Fibreglass poles are occasionally used for low-power non-directional beacons or medium-wave broadcast transmitters. The Stuttgart TV tower was the first tower in the world to be built in reinforced concrete. Many were built in the UK during World War II because of a shortage of steel. but all of these towers have since been demolished. [edit] Other types of antenna supports and structures [edit] Poles . As well as accommodating technical staff. It was designed in 1956 by the local civil engineer Fritz Leonhardt.

In North America. such as towers disguised as cacti in Coronado National Forest. Many companies offer to 'hide' cellphone towers in. water tanks and other features.[4] . several local TV and radio stations were knocked off the air until backup transmitters could be put into service. even for local wildlife (who additionally benefit from the artificial flora). Even though people increasingly depend upon cellular communications. it is possible to install transmitting antennas on the roofs of tall buildings. or as.[2] There are many providers that offer these services as part of the normal tower installation and maintenance service.[1] Such facilities also exist in Europe.Shorter masts may consist of a self-supporting or guyed wooden pole. [edit] Buildings In some cases. Florida. particularly for portable radio services and low-power FM radio stations. and formerly on the World Trade Center towers. there are transmitting antennas on the Empire State Building. trees. for example. for instance. When the buildings collapsed. such towers disguised as trees are nearly indistinguishable from the real thing. Sometimes self-supporting tubular galvanized steel poles are used: these may be termed monopoles. they are opposed to the bare towers spoiling otherwise scenic views. this 100' tall cross conceals equipment for T-Mobile. church towers. These are generally called "stealth towers" or "stealth installations". similar to a telegraph pole. Many people view bare cellphone towers as ugly and an intrusion into their neighbourhoods.[3] Such towers can be placed unobtrusively in national parks and other such protected places. [edit] Disguised cell-sites Completed in December 2009 at Epiphany Lutheran Church in Lake Worth. flag poles. the Sears Tower. The level of detail and realism achieved by disguised cellphone towers is remarkably high.

Presidential campaign of that year. [edit] Other special structures .Even when disguised. there will be one insulator supporting each leg. a tower doubling as a flagpole attracted controversy in 2004 in relation to the U.S. however. Such an arrangement is used occasionally by military agencies or radio amateurs. When retracted. LW or MW) up to an appropriate height. [edit] Telescopic. It can carry an antenna or a wire (for VLF. the only difference is that a mast radiator may be supported on an insulator at its base. In the case of a tower. such towers can create controversy. which may be powered by hand or an electric motor. Telescopic lattice masts are raised by means of a winch. and as such are widely used in amateur radio. These tend to cater for greater heights and loads than the pump-up type. and for temporary communications in emergencies. the whole assembly can sometimes be lowered to a horizontal position by means of a second tiltover winch. Telescopic masts are used predominantly in setting up temporary radio links for reporting on major news events. pump-up and tiltover towers Main article: Cell on wheels A special form of the radio tower is the telescopic mast. They are also used in tactical military networks. It is used frequently as a transmitting antenna for long or medium wave broadcasting. They are usually only strong enough to support fairly small antennas. These can be erected very quickly. They can save money by needing to withstand high winds only when raised. The American broadcasters TV Martí broadcast a television program to Cuba by means of such a balloon. This enables antennas to be fitted and adjusted at ground level before winching the mast up.[original research?][5] [edit] Mast radiators Main article: Mast radiator A mast radiator is a radio tower or mast in which the whole structure works as an antenna. Structurally. and highlighted the sentiment that such disguises serve more to allow the installation of such towers in subterfuge away from public scrutiny rather than to serve towards the beautification of the landscape. [edit] Balloons and kites A tethered balloon or a kite can serve as a temporary support. Telescopic masts consist of two or more concentric sections and come in two principal types: • • Pump-up masts are often used on vehicles and are raised to their full height pneumatically or hydraulically.

These lines look like power lines of the 10 kV level. For ELF transmitters ground dipole antennas are used. See List of spans: Antenna spans across valleys. Such structures require no tall masts. The wires are supported by small masts or towers or rock anchors. [edit] Design features [edit] Economic and aesthetic considerations A radio amateur's do it yourself steel-lattice tower Felsenegg-Girstel TV-tower Uetliberg TV-tower . The same technique was also used for the Criggion VLF transmitter. They consist of two electrodes buried deep in the ground at least a few dozen kilometres apart. overhead feeder lines run.For two VLF transmitters wire antennas spun across deep valleys are used. and are installed on similar pylons. From the transmitter building to the electrodes.

also called a service elevator. than one big one. especially if they look identical. Towers look less ugly if they and the antennas mounted on them appear symmetrical. to warn pilots of the structure's existence. [edit] Aircraft warning features Tall structures in excess of certain legislated heights are often equipped with aircraft warning lamps. access to the whole of the structure is necessary. A steel lattice tower is cheaper to build than a concrete tower of equal height. camouflaged as a slim tree • • • • • • • The cost of a mast or tower is roughly proportional to the square of its height. Two small towers may be less intrusive. ruggedized and underrun filament lamps were used to maximize the bulb life. which tend to require more frequent maintenance. Nowadays such lamps tend to use LED arrays. Small structures are typically accessed with a ladder.and they are.Communications tower. Height requirements vary across states and countries. Concrete towers can be built with aesthetic design . In the past. and is thus best suited to rural locations where land is relatively cheap. Larger structures. An unguyed tower will fit into a much smaller plot. [edit] Access for riggers Because masts. neon lamps were used. A guyed mast needs additional land to accommodate the guys. usually red. and may include additional rules such as requiring a white flashing strobe in the daytime and pulsating red fixtures at night. [edit] Masts for HF/shortwave antennas For transmissions in the shortwave range. especially in Continental Europe.[citation needed] A guyed mast is cheaper to build than a self-supporting tower of equal height. Alternatively. towers and the antennas mounted on them require maintenance. Shortwave transmitters rarely use masts taller than about 100 metres. there is little to be gained by raising the antenna more than a few wavelengths above ground level. [edit] Light pollution and nuisance lighting . They are sometimes built in prominent places and include observation decks or restaurants. visually. may have stairs and sometimes a lift. Structures over a certain height may also be required to be painted with contrasting color schemes such as white and orange or white and red to make them more visible against the sky.

One finds such shock-mounts.[6][7] [edit] Catastrophic collapses Main article: List of catastrophic collapses of radio masts and towers [edit] Law Since June 2010.[8] . at the radio masts of DHO38 in Saterland. One can reduce this by building cylindrical shock-mounts into the construction. Further towers of this building method can be found near Smilde (the Netherlands) and Fernsehturm. Germany). which consist of a free-standing tower (usually from reinforced concrete). which look like cylinders thicker than the mast. which was earlier placed on the issuance of permits for the construction of telecommunication towers. Reports have been issued documenting known bird fatalities and calling for research to find ways to minimize the hazard that communications towers can pose to birds. Baden-Württemberg. television and cell towers have been documented to pose a hazard to birds. onto which a guyed radio mast is installed. There are also constructions. [edit] Wind-induced oscillations One problem with radio masts is the danger of wind-induced oscillations. This is particularly a concern with steel tube construction. tower heights may be restricted so as to reduce or eliminate the need for aircraft warning lights. [edit] Hazard to birds Radio. The limit is more commonly set to 190 or 180 feet to allow for masts extending above the tower. For example in the United States the 1996 Telecommunications Act allows local jurisdictions to set maximum heights for towers. such as limiting tower height to below 200 feet and therefore not requiring aircraft illumination under FCC rules. Telecom operators in the USA can erect new telecom masts or towers as the government has lifted the moratorium. Waldenburg. for example. The best known such construction is the Gerbrandy Tower in Lopik (the Netherlands).In some countries where light pollution is a concern.

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