You are on page 1of 45

TA202A: Introduction to Manufacturing Processes

(2017-18, 2nd semester)

Dr. J. Ramkumar
Department of Mechanical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
Course Schedule
Schedule :Tuesday (8:00-9:00 AM)
Venue: L-20

Schedule: Monday-Friday (2:00-5:00 PM)
Venue: TA202 ME Lab

Goal: The course aims to impart the basic knowledge about the
fundamental manufacturing techniques employed to convert a raw
material into final product.
Course Contents

1.Introduction: Introduction to manufacturing, evolution of

manufacturing, classification of manufacturing, Materials in
2.Conventional Material Removal Processes: Theory of chip
formations, generation of surfaces, force and power relationships,
cutting tool material and its geometry, tool wear and tool life,
fundamentals of machine tools, types of machining operations. [3]
3.Unconventional Material Removal Processes: Introduction, need for
advanced machining processes, classifications: mechanical energy
processes, thermal energy processes, electro chemical machining
etc. [3]
Course Contents

4.Layered/Generative Manufacturing Processes: Fundamentals of

layered manufacturing, layered manufacturing technologies,
classifications of additive manufacturing processes.[2]
5.Computer Numerical Control and Programming: Basics of numerically
controlled machines, programming for NC machines. Programming
examples including turning, drilling, milling etc.[1]
6. Engineering Metrology: Dimensions, limit, fit and tolerances,
surfaces, structure and properties, surface texture and roughness,
engineering metrology and instrumentation.[2]
Reference Books

1. Fundamental of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes and Systems: M. P.

Groover (John Wiley).
2. Manufacturing Science: A. Ghosh and A.K. Mallik (East- West Press).
3. Advanced Machining Processes: V. K. Jain (Allied Publishers).
4. Fundamental of Manufacturing Processes: G. K. Lal and S. K. Choudhuary (Narosa).
5. Introduction to Micromachining: Ed. V. K. Jain (Narosa).
6. Micro manufacturing Processed: Ed.: V. K. Jain (CRC Press).
7. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials: S. Kalpakliam and S. R.
Schmid (Prentice Hall).
Name Photograph Day Email
Dr. Niraj Sinha Monday

Dr. J. Ramkumar Tuesday

Mr. Amarjit P. Kene Wednesday

Dr. Mohit Law Thursday

Dr. Arvind Kumar Friday

Lab (TA202)
Lab Training first five turns:
Turning (1st Lab), Milling (2nd Lab), Drilling & Fitting (3rd Lab), CNC demonstration (4th
Lab), Project final submission (5th Lab)

1st & 2nd Turn: Project group formation

2nd Turn: Discussion with project ideas (Each group members come with an idea
3rdTurn: Bring rough sketches (Isometric) of finalized project
4th Turn: CNC Demonstration
5th Turn: Drawings Submission

Topics: 1. Agriculture,
2. Healthcare,
3. Energy,
4. Machines and Mechanisms for play toys
Staff Members: TA202 Lab
Ph. No. 7984



Staff Members :TA202 Lab


Staff Members :TA202 Lab

Sample Lab Report Template
Grading policy

Theory Marks Lab (50Marks) Marks

(50Marks) Lab Quiz 10.0
Mid Semester Exam 20 Lab Exercises 02.5
Lab Reports 02.5
End Semester Exam 25 Guide’s Evaluation 05.0(Weightage)
Mid Semester Evaluation 10.0
Quiz 05 End Semester Project 20.0
End Semester report 05.0
To pass this course, one should score
Minimum theory marks ≥ 20% (10/50)
Total marks ≥ 40 %
Information About the Course

TA202A: Introduction to Manufacturing Processes

TA: Technical Arts.
Introduction: Latin verb introducere, refers to a beginning.
Manufacturing: Something made from raw materials by hand or by
Process: A series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result.

Manufacturing (Latin word) : Manus (Made) + factus (Hands) :

Made by hands.
Present perspective: Involves making products from raw material by
various processes, machinery, & operations following a well organized
plan for each activity required.
Really fascinating products

LASER Keyboard Self stirring mug Mug with its own biscuit pocket

A pocket-sized washing machine A solar-powered camping tent Fingers engraved water glass
Pouring made E-z pan attachment
Prism glass

Dots that let you find things with

your phone
How products have transformed over the years
Changes in life style with product development
Cost fall of components

Tablet average global selling price Microprocessor cost per transistor cycle
Manufacturing sector in India

Make in India, structural reforms will enable manufacturing sector to drive growth
Contribution of Manufacturing to GDP of different countries
Manufacturing & Employment Relation
Manufacturing - Technological
Application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry,
properties, and/or appearance of a starting material to make parts or products.
Manufacturing – Economic
Transformation of materials into items of greater value by one or more
processing and/or assembly operations.
Manufacturing Industries
Industry consists of enterprises and organizations that produce or
supply goods and services
Industries can be classified as:
1. Primary industries - cultivate and exploit natural resources, e.g.,
agriculture, mining
2. Secondary industries - take the outputs of primary industries and
convert them into consumer and capital goods
3. Tertiary industries - service sector

Note: Secondary industries include manufacturing, construction, and

electric power generation.
For our purposes, manufacturing means production of hardware –
Nuts and bolts, forgings, cars, airplanes, digital computers, plastic
parts, and ceramic products.
Classification of Manufacturing processes
Select the suitable manufacturing processes for the following products.
Materials in Manufacturing

Their chemistries are different, and their

mechanical and physical properties are
different. These differences affect the
manufacturing processes that can be used
to produce products from them.
Mechanical properties
Tensile strength – Measures the force required to pull something such as rope,wire or a structural
beam to the point where it breaks
Ductility – A measure of how much strain a material can take before rupturing.
Malleability – The pproperty of a material that can be worked or hammered or shaped without

Brittleness –Breaking or shattering of a material when subjected to stress (when force is applied to it).
Elasticity – The property of a material that returns to its original shape after stress (e.g. external
forces) that made it deform or distort is removed

Plasticity - The deformation of a material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to

applied forces
Mechanical properties

Toughness – The ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.

Hardness – The property of being rigid and resistant to pressure; not easily scratched

Machinability – The property of a material that can be shaped by hammering, pressing, rolling
Physical properties
 Specific heat – The heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one

degree centigrade (J/kg K)

 Density – Mass per unit volume expressed in such units as kg/cm 3

 Thermal conductivity –Rate at which heat flows through a given material (W/m K).

 Melting point – A temperature at which a solid begins to liquify

 Electrical conductivity – A measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current

 Coefficient of thermal expansion – Degree of expansion divided by the change in temperature

Ashby Curve
Usually alloys, which are composed of two or more elements, at least one of
which is metallic. Two basic groups:
1. Ferrous metals - Based on iron, comprises about 75% of metal tonnage
in the world:
Steel and cast iron
2. Nonferrous metals - All other metallic elements and their alloys:
Aluminum, copper, nickel, silver, tin, etc.
Metal properties:
Good conductors of electricity and heat
Lustrous appearance
Susceptible to corrosion
Strong, but deformable
Compounds containing metallic (or semi-metallic) and nonmetallic elements.
Typical nonmetallic elements are oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon
For processing, ceramics divide into:
1. Crystalline ceramics – includes:
Traditional ceramics, such as clay, and modern ceramics, such as alumina (Al2O3)
2. Amorphous :Glasses – mostly based on silica (SiO2)
Thermally and electrically insulating
Resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments
Hard, but brittle
Compound formed of repeating structural units called mers, whose atoms share
electrons to form very large molecules
 Polymer usually consists of carbon plus one or more elements such as hydrogen and

Polyethylene: (the mer unit is C2H4) Polypropylene: (the mer unit is C3H6)

Composed primarily of C and H (hydrocarbons).

Low melting temperature.
Most are poor conductors of electricity and heat.
Many have high plasticity.
A few have good elasticity.
Some are transparent, some are opaque.
Material consisting of two or more phases that are processed separately and then bonded
together to achieve properties superior to its constituents
Phase - homogeneous mass of material, such as grains of identical unit cell structure in a
solid metal
 Usual structure consists of particles or fibers of one phase mixed in a second phase
 Properties depend on components, physical shapes of components, and the way they are
combined to form the final material.
In two material system, there are two phases : Primary phase & Secondary phase.
 The primary phase forms the matrix within which the secondary phase imbedded
 The imbedded phase is also known as dispersed phase or reinforcing phase
Shape Memory Materials
Shape Memory Materials (SMM) are those materials which, after being deformed
plastically (i.e., permanently) at the room temperature into various shapes, return to their
original shapes upon heating.
Typical Shape Memory Alloys are
 55% Ni-45%Ti
 Copper-Aluminum-Nickel
 Copper-Zinc-Aluminum
 Iron-Manganese-Silicon
 SMM have good ductility, good corrosion resistance, high electrical conductivity
 Behavior of SMM can also be reversible, i.e., shape can switch back and forth upon
Can be used To generate motion and/or force in temperature sensitive actuators
 Eyeglass frames, connectors, clamps and fasteners
Shape Memory Materials

Shape Memory spring Jacket with Shape memory fabric

Shape Memory alloy

Piezoelectric Materials
Piezoelectric materials are materials that produce an electric current when they are
placed under mechanical stress. The piezoelectric process is also reversible, so if you
apply an electric current to these materials, they will actually change shape slightly (a
maximum of 4%).

There are several materials that we have known for some time that posses piezoelectric
properties, including bone, proteins, crystals (e.g. Quartz) and ceramics (e.g. Lead,
Zirconate Titanate).
 A biomaterial can be defined as any substance (other than a drug) or combination of
substances synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as
a whole or as a part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ
or function of the body.
 Theoretically, any material can be a biomaterial as long as it serves the stated medical
and surgical purposes.
Example of Biomaterial

Titanium Biomaterials
Biomaterial applications
Orthopedic Applications:
 Metallic materials are normally used for load bearing members such as pins and
plates and femoral stems etc.
 Ceramics such as Alumina and Zirconia are used for wear applications in joint
 Polymers such as ultra high molecular weight polyethylene are used as articulating
surfaces against ceramic components in joint replacements.
Dental Applications:
 Metallic biomaterials have been used as pins for anchoring tooth implants and as
parts of orthodontic devices.
 Ceramics have found uses as tooth implants including alumina and dental porcelains.
 Polymers, are also orthodontic devices such as plates and dentures.
Recap of the lecture

 Overview of the course

 Manufacturing: Introduction
 Classification of Manufacturing
 Materials in Manufacturing
 Different Materials in Manufacturing