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1.1 Background of the Study The most important thing of all in human life is communication. Communication is an important role in human life. Communication is a way to convey the ideas, feeling and fulfill our needs. As a human life, we need to communicate with others in order to get our purposes. We can`t do our activities without a communication. By communicating everything will be easier. All over the world, language is used for communication. We need for our daily activity. In every interaction we need a language. Language is the most significant possession of human being. It is used for human being to send message from one to another, to maintain communication from speaker to listener and so on. A language has an important role in every day life in doing various interactions. English is very important language in the world, because it is used as a means of communication in the world, or as international language. Beside that, English is also spoken all over the world as instructional language of scientific study, economy, business, technology information, politics and others. In Indonesia English is the first foreign language, which is taught as a compulsory subject in all schools, from junior high school until university, even now days English is taught formally in elementary school. Nevertheless, now days most of the pre-elementary school use English as a second language. It reflects that English is considered as an international language which plays an important role
in this modern life. New movement in language teaching often begins with the reaction of the old one. At present, the method that is recommended in teaching English in Indonesia is communicative language teaching method which is involves the mastery of four language skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing. In communicative language teaching, aims of teaching are means of both oral and written communication. In relation to this study, vocabulary is the most important of all. Cross (1999 :60) states that vocabulary can be defined roughly, as the word that teach in the foreign language. However a new item of vocabulary may be more than a single word. Brown (2001) writes that English teacher lean to ignore the significance of vocabulary in their teaching of speaking or communication performance. In fact the use of suitable vocabulary can cancel out structure incorrectness. Based on this authenticity, recently, methodologists and linguist have increasingly turned their attention to vocabulary, learning stressing their important in language teaching and reassessing some of the ways it is taught and learnt. It means that vocabulary plays a very essential task in language teaching. As the objective of language teaching is to develop students skills, namely listening skills, speaking skills, reading skills, and writing skills, the acquisition of meaning also influences the performance of student on more vocabulary items, they will be more likely to have better ability to articulate and communicate the message. those skills. Another strong view on the important of vocabulary is stated by Clark (1997). He pointed out that the more vocabularies a person master, the more ideas he/she could express. More over, he described that people who have many ideas
or ones who master a large number of vocabulary are able to communicate easily and fluently in any particular situation. However, if they have not enough vocabulary they will get difficulty in communicating their ideas. Furthermore Brown (1996) states that school pupil as well as adult learners feel terribly frustrated or not being able to say in the language they learnt just because they lack of the vocabulary. In other words many language learners, especially foreign language learners, are not able to communicate using the language because they have or master limited number of vocabulary. Vocabulary becomes a significant aspect in successful teaching ,learning a language Marianne (1991: 298) supports that teacher and students must increase their vocabulary to communicate and also increase facility to communicating. Communication can not relate if not mastery in vocabulary. There are many ways to learn vocabulary. Philips (1993: 68) gives idea that vocabulary is best learned when the meaning of the word is illustrated by picture, an action, or a real object. The children should meet and use the word in relevant contexts, in order to fix them in their minds. Vocabulary need to be taught in context and children should always be given plenty opportunities to use the language that they have learned in class. This means that they do not just learn the rules superficially but put them into practice in order to be able to communicate. Hence, teaching to improve the students’ abilities in vocabulary needs interaction between teacher and students. In teaching learning process of English as foreign language, the teacher must be able to build up the students` interest, especially in increasing their vocabulary items. The teacher should give the students a feeling success in
learning English. There are many ways to develop the students` interest in learning. One of them is teaching English by using children English songs. Songs can be used as a tool to increase the students` interest or motivation in learning. Music and rhythm are essential part of language learning for young learners. Children really enjoy learning by singing songs, and adult learners find working with current or well known pop songs highly motivated (Sarah Philips, 2003). Music and rhythm make it easier to imitate and remember than words which are just spoken. If you teach children by English songs, the vocabulary will be much easier to stick on the students` mind. Furthermore, we can use songs and rhythm of English to reinforce student to learn structure and vocabulary. Wheeler (1993) states that children all over the world love listening songs and most of them love singing too! Using children English songs to introduce language and develop vocabulary is a great way to have children to remember words. He also claims that a song can improve the student’s motivation to learn the language, especially the weaker ones. After analyzing the characteristics of the problem deeply, in this study, the researcher will use children English songs in order to encourage and to improve the students in mastering vocabulary. Songs are interesting media for the students to learn more vocabulary. Wheeler states that singing a song is natural habit of the people mostly doing in their life consciously or unconsciously. It seems to be remarkable way for enhancing and encouraging long term memory for language learners, besides the teacher can easily find them and use them as a technique of teaching vocabulary to build up students` ability of SD N 3 Bugbug.
challenges related to vocabulary mastery faced by the subject of this study are definitely too broad and complex to be dealt with in a single study. the present study intends to reveal the effectiveness of children English songs in improving the vocabulary ability of the fourth grade students of SDN 3 Bugbug.4 Limitation of the Study On account of this fact. the research question can be formulated as follows: to what extent is the effectiveness of teaching vocabulary through children English songs to the fourth grade students of SDN 3 Bugbug in academic year 2009/2010? 1. 1. According in the present class action study the researcher limits her investigation to the teaching of vocabulary through children English songs to the fourth grade students of SDN 3 Bugbug. 1. The present study is also limited to the students ` ability to master the new vocabulary used in the teaching learning process. . in accordance with the above fact.3 Objective of the Study The objective of the study is to answer the research question that has been previously formulated and determined.Therefore.2 Statement of Research Question In the relation to the background of the research. the researcher is highly motivated to find out the effectiveness of the technique of teaching vocabulary through children English songs in improving the students` vocabulary mastery. In line with this rationale.
1.5 Significance of the Study The outcome of this study at providing both theoretical and practical significances as the following: 1. Teacher should be able to choose the right methods and techniques in teaching vocabulary integratively to improve the student’s acquisition of English. 3. The outcome of this study is meant to give English teacher a better understanding of importance of children English songs technique in improving the students` vocabulary. . For the institution This research is expected to give contribution in term of teaching vocabulary to the fourth grade students. They could learn English in a good mood and not stressful. 2. to enrich the existing syllabus and also to increase the number of catalogues in the library. For the teacher This research is expected to give a new technique to the teacher as the way to improve the vocabulary mastery. For student This research is expected to help the students to improve their vocabulary mastery and increase their motivation and interest in learning English.
In this study vocabulary is defined as a new words that have to be mastered by the students under study as suggested by English teaching syllabus. it is essential to state some assumption as follows: 1. 1. The English teachers are assumed to have similar teaching qualification in teaching English. not all variables can be controlled. 1.1.6 Assumption Because of the limitation of time. the hypothesis will be stated as the following: Children English Songs are significantly effective in improving the students` vocabulary. and investigator’s ability. The subjects under study are assumed to have similar prior learning experiences in English.7 Hypothesis On attempting to give a temporary solution to the problem. In order to neutralize the compounding variables. finance. a. The subjects under study are assumed to have been learning English for the same period of time. 3. it is necessary to define operationally the term: vocabulary and children English song. Children English songs are defined as series of children songs used by the researcher as a technique to improve the vocabulary of . 2.8 Definition of the Key Terms To give a clear understanding of the term used in this present study. b.
SD N 3 Bugbug stands for Sekolah Dasar . Teaching vocabulary through children English songs 5. c. Assessment of vocabulary Discussion on each of this heading is devoted in chapter II which deal with “Review of Related Literature” CHAPTER II . Karangasem regency. SDN 3 Bugbug as one which is located in Bugbug village.the students of SD N 3 Bugbug. The students are requested to learn and memorize and practiced various children songs and then followed by vocabulary exercises to practice their vocabulary ability. Conception of children English songs 4. which is in English call Elementary School. Conception of vocabulary 2. 1. The present study was conducted on the ground of the following theoretical basis: 1. Conception of teaching vocabulary 3.9 Theoretical Framework The fundamental theoretical framework can to a great extent. minimize versions of classroom action.
In order to support this statement the researcher uses some conceptions which are quoted from some books dealing with vocabulary mastery. Marianne (1991: 299). . The students should master appropriate vocabulary. (4) teaching vocabulary through children English songs. states that in the second language classroom however `` neglected`` vocabulary has been in theory. This statement as one of example that actually in teaching vocabulary teacher also has lack of attention and also perception of the study of vocabulary in language teaching. (3) conception of children English songs. One of the way is by using songs as teaching aids. 2.1 Conception of Vocabulary In the process of teaching learning English as a foreign language. (5) assessment of vocabulary. teacher should be creative in finding the way to the effective and efficiently arouse the students’ interest to be active in the class room. The theoretical basis were the following: (1) conception of vocabulary. in order to be able to understand the content of the songs. (2) conception of teaching vocabulary.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter the researcher wrote some important points include lots of relevant theoretical reviews from many related literatures to support this study. there is little doubt that a great deal of vocabulary teaching is currently going on and has always been going on.
Second word knowledge also comes in two forms. cat associated with kitten. triangle. to complete a word tree ` holiday` are summer. etc. Example. such as(a) student should help them selves to learn by learning associated word together. picture o tree or a lion etc. Completing word tree can help to learn vocabulary. oral and print. because vocabulary is very important in learning English. even if we use them ourselves as we speak and write. paw. and may include many words to which we assign some meaning. (c) Word trees can be useful. a cycle. Receptive vocabulary includes words that we use when we speak or write. hotel. vocabulary is more complex than this definition suggests. Furthermore they say that to learn vocabulary not only by studying with their book but also by reading and listening to English. Receptive vocabulary is typically larger than productive vocabulary. For this statement we know to understand some ways how to learn English is very important as a way to mastery in vocabulary. receptive and productive. example. First. Print vocabulary includes those words that we recognize and use in reading and writing. Picture and diagram can help to remember vocabulary. However. words come in two forms. sun bathing etc.Michael and O Dell (2001:4-6) give some ways how to learn to master vocabulary. (b) pictures and diagrams can help learn. Example. . Learning word together that are associated in meaning is a popular and useful way of organizing vocabulary study. mew. Oral vocabulary includes those words that we recognize and use in listening and speaking. Kamil & Hiebert (2004) state that vocabulary is knowledge of word and word meanings.
usually arranged glossary. interpretation and communication. not only do we need a rich vocabulary to put our ideas into words. So to avoid this trouble. profession. (3) list of words used in a book usually with definition or translation. Hackman (1991) defines vocabulary as follows: (1) the total number of words which make up a language. Based on the above facts. A new word can make us aware what we did not know existed. Moreover. Kathleen(2003:6) defines vocabulary as a list or collection of word arranged in alphabetical order.Richard (1995) add their state about vocabulary. but the words them selves gives us ideas and sharpen our thinking. etc. Brown(2001:1) supports the definition by giving a definition. it is important for students to master vocabulary in English. While Shoebotton(2003:6) defines vocabulary as words or phrases which label the part of material to be learnt and which are necessary for students to use in talking and writing. It is a vehicle for thought. self expression. it means that the vocabulary is a foundation or a basis of language. He defines vocabulary as a list of words and often phrase. Furthermore he also state that all of us from time had trouble in expressing an idea because we lack the necessary words. People who want to involve in a communication activity are fully aware of the importance of vocabulary mastery. Madsen (1993: 461) states vocabulary is a list of words with their meaning especially in book for learning a foreign language. (2) range of words known or used by a person in a trade. . With knowing a new vocabulary students got a new concept and enlarge their knowledge. This statement support how important the students’ mastery in vocabulary.
. As soon as student can recognize a few words with similar letter sound association. Teacher use various a good basic sight vocabulary. This means that they do not just learn the rules superficially.2. First part is ``unplanned vocabulary teaching`` that is extemporaneous teaching of problem vocabulary item that come up with out warning in the course of the lesson. or real object. they are ready to begin building up word attack skills.2 Conception of Teaching Vocabulary Philips (1993: 68) states that both vocabulary and grammar need to be taught in context and the children should always be given plenty of opportunities to use the language that they have learnt in class. but put them into practice in order to communicate. for example by a picture. The second is ``planned vocabulary teaching`` that is where the teacher goes into the classroom with an item or a set of vocabulary item that he or she decided before hand what will be taught during the course of the lesson. There are actually many techniques in teaching vocabulary. Technique for production include situational sets. Some of them are technique for comprehension and production. Marianne (1991: 298) states that discussion of the teaching of vocabulary is divided into two parts. Phillips (1998:68) says that vocabulary is best learned when the meaning of the word is illustrated. Technique for comprehension include utilizing contexts clues. an action. metaphor sets and collocation. Cross (1999: 27) states that the basic sight vocabulary is important because it forms a good foundation upon which word analysis skill may be developed. word morphology etc. Furthermore she states that much of this teaching is unplanned.
David (2001:1) states that songs and chants have long been known to enhance learning in the English classroom. 2. so the students are asked to look for and also to understand the meaning of those words by relating them to their context. Children really enjoy learning by singing songs. Children all over the world love listening songs and most of them love singing too.. The technique that will be used by the teacher should enable to facilitate the creativity and the practical experience for the learners in gaining our language skill above. It is very difficult to determine which one is the best way. the vocabulary item being taught to the students especially the meaning of unfamiliar words can be presented in various ways and context. English songs will make students easier to imitate and remember words.Each of the technique has its own advantages. Songs also can reinforce student to learn structure and vocabulary. . Songs can help to create an exciting and comfortable atmosphere Sarah Philips (2003) states that songs can be used as a tool to increase the students` interest or motivation in learning. In connection to this study that is improving the mastery of vocabulary through children English songs.3 Conception of Children English Songs Laidlow (2006) states that using song to introduce language and develop vocabulary is a great way to help children to remember words. The teacher should be able to select the most appropriate way to ensure the improvement of students` ability.
The objective of the activities is `` to arouse the pleasure of teaching and learning and with its strong purpose on teaching English must be a fun``. People may sing a song many times. chants and rhymes help children language development. in teaching vocabulary. Because by singing. Ward (2002: 23) state that songs. the language teaching may implement various ways and techniques.2. There will be many new vocabularies that can be appropriately introduced in a song. students may play around words of the songs and is often accompanied by laughing and joking. this providing repetitive practice in the new language. they can live up the language class by using them to stimulate the students` interest. Transference of information from the sort term to the long term memory is facilitated by repetition and songs achieve this affect. and also their physical development . It aims to motivate. Songs can help to create an exciting and comfortable atmosphere Vanessa Reilly and Shelle M. many teacher give simple song to dig up students` capability in vocabulary mastery. Especially. Song can be used to learn many subjects. to kill students` boredom and stimulate memory. Teacher tends to find enjoyable songs. In language learning. encourage and stimulate students` interest to learn. Teaching to young ages are funny activities. Karl Nordvall (2001:1) states that songs and chants have long been known to enhance learning in the English classroom.4 Teaching Vocabulary through Children English Songs The pupils who learn English as second language deal with the four language skills. Students` memory can actually work better when they are relaxed. The activity of learning vocabulary through songs relaxed and receptive state in learners.
Butler (2001) explains the essence of assessment answers the questions: 1. is useful in education for both the placement of students in initial course work and ascertaining the extent of students' acquisition of skills/knowledge. review. Assessment is also the systematic collection.5 Assessment of Vocabulary Testing is an important part of every teaching and learning experience. For addition." Standard-based measurement. In general terms. Assessment can be done by carrying out a sequence of tests. assessment is the determination of a value. and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development.when used in conjunction with dance and mime. Did the students achieve the intended standards? . and the use of imagery enriches their perception of the world and their ability to express what they feel. Butler (2001) states Assessment is the act of collecting information about individuals or groups of individuals in order to better understand them. Test may be constructed primarily as devices to reinforce learning and to motivate the students or primarily as a mean of assessing the students’ performance in the language." Standard refers to a "target. based on a "standard. 2. Both testing and teaching are so closely interrelated that it is virtually impossible to wok in either field without constantly concerned with the other. or measurement. or assessment. The language in traditional songs is rich and colorful and extends the children`s vocabulary and use of rhymes encourage children to explore the sound of words.
Objective tests are ones in which the learning material is divided into small units. The tests are objective in the sense that they can be scored without requiring any judgment by the scorer as to whether an answer is correct or not.2. were published in the US by Daniel Starch in . and communicative approach. Good classroom English tests should consist of objective and productive tests. the integrative approach. for Latin. Read (2005: 76) explain how psychometrics. If the instruction was NOT effective. French. the teacher. Read (2005: 75) states the history of vocabulary assessment in the twentieth century is very much associated with the development of objective testing. Moreover. It is important that through objective test where active vocabulary should be assess by means of productive tests. and German. Furthermore. came to have a dominant influence on assessment in all areas of the American school curriculum during the period after the first world war. improve my instruction to meet the needs of all students? There are four main approaches to language testing: the essay-translation approach. so that the new test progressively displaced traditional essay examinations from the 1930s on the first modern language tests. each of which can be assessed by means of a test item with a single correct answer that can be specified in advance. If the student did not achieve the intended standards. the science of mental measurement that gave rise to objective testing. how can I. Most commonly these are items of the multiple-choice type. Was the instruction effective? 4. will the feedback he/she received help improve the student’s performance? 3. the structuralize approach.
similar though more limited work was done on the vocabulary of major European languages. These test assessed vocabulary knowledge by presenting learners with a list of foreign words to be matched with their English translation. According to Lado (1961: 181). In addition to above statement. and thus the tests were highly reliable. in relation to requirements of psychometric theory. • There was a great deal of work in the 1920s and 1930s to prepare lists of the most frequent words in English. as well as other words that were useful for the needs of particular groups of students. • Multiple choice vocabulary tests proved to have excellent technical characteristics. Reliability was the great virtue of a psychometric test. or a matching test comprising jumbled lists of words and shot definitions. Read (2005) states that it is easy to see how vocabulary became popular as a component of objective language test: • Words could be treated as independent linguistic units with a meaning expressed by a synonym. Wellwritten items could discriminate effectively among learners according to their level of ability. Other early tests used multiple-choice items in a similar way. a short defining phrase or a translation equivalent. .1916 (Spolsky 1995). with a word of second language in the stem and four or five words of first language as the option. These lists provided a large stock of vocabulary items that could be conveniently sampled to select the target words for a test. it was relatively straightforward to write a set of multiple choice items consisting of a word followed by four or five possible meanings. As a result.
and valid. As Ur (1998: 71) mentioned there are several ways to assess the students’ mastery of vocabulary. Pike. that all assessments made by all teachers are always relevant.used. the strong relationship between vocabulary and general intelligence is one of the most robust findings in the history of intelligence testing (Anderson and Freebody. matching. the . Frequently. objective vocabulary tests seemed to be valid indicators of language ability in a broad sense. Butler (2001) states the assessments we have made must be relevant. then the assessments are tied to our classroom instruction. dictation. To be valid. 1998: 77) Although multiple choice items are the most suitable instrument for testing vocabulary. they should not be over. however. depending on the levels of the students. spelling.g. and valid. and singing. one of the most consistent findings in L1 reading research has been the high correlation between tests of vocabulary and reading comprehension.78-80) noted. The material itself should always determine the types of questions. and valid tests for classroom use. such as using multiple choice. reliable. rather than extraneous features. other item types are far more interesting and useful. As Anderson and Freebody (1998. The same has been shown to apply in second language assessment (e.• Rather than simply measuring vocabulary knowledge. Furthermore. In order to be able to construct relevant. An assessment is reliable when the same answers receive the same score no matter when the assessment occurs or how or who does the scoring. an assessment must measure what it is intended to measure. or when students receive the same scores no matter which version of the test they take. If they are relevant. 1979). which are constructed. reliable. That does not mean. reliable.
The results of the assessment are shared with both the students and the teacher. To monitor and aid children’s progress. In this . when you discuss the results of the assessment by written feedback in the form of short comments. 2. Assessment is not complete as soon as you collect the children work. On the basis of assessment outcomes able to give individualized help to each child. A teacher needs to be constantly aware of what the children know. Offering feedback is an integral part of the assessment process and should follow as soon as possible after the assessment task is carried out. Learning a language is a long process. and how best to help them. 3. what difficulties they are experiencing. but it is a necessary part of teaching and learning. Assessment may at first sound treating and not suited to a child’s nature. to find out how effective you have been and how successful your chosen methodology or materials were. Assessment result gives children tangible evidence of their progress. the purposes of assessment are to provide feedback to students and to serve as a diagnostic tool for instruction. To provide children with evidence of their progress and enhance motivation. as Butler (2001) states. One of the best ways to give feedback is through conferencing with the children. To monitor your performance and plan future work. The information you get from assessment can help you to evaluate your own work. In other words. Assessment can serve the following purposes: 1.English teachers need to have enough knowledge and working principles of test construction.
assessment was administered on ordinary way by giving them test. the degree to which a test measure what it is supposed to do. The test was administered on every session along investigation. the degree of consistency of the test and validity. . students can explore new study strategies and teachers can search out and implement new instructional techniques. Test can be beneficial for both students and teachers. Gillet & Temple (1996) write that there are two qualities that every test should possess. In this teaching learning process. on this present study. should the assessment indicate a need for improvement.manner. assessment in order to know the students achievement toward the material that has been taught. It was aimed in order to monitor student’s progress toward their achievement in vocabulary mastery which was teaching through children English songs. reliability. now far the students grasp the material during teaching vocabulary process. Furthermore.
These groups of students were selected as the subjects of study because they had crucial problems in vocabulary. To make it clear. and reflection. action. Observation. Consequently. They were 11 female and 9 male. the design action study could be described as follows: Cycle I Cycle II : : IR RP P P2 A1 A2 O1 O2 R1 R2 .CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD 3. There was just one class of the fourth grade students of SDN 3 Bugbug and there were 20 students as subjects. This study was divided into two cycles that consisted of four phases. There were Planning. 3. observation. According to Kemmis and Mc Taggar (1998: 35). In this methodology the researcher acted as a teacher which is further defined as a cycle process of action. and Reflection.1 Subject of the Study This research was conducted to find out the solution of learning problem faced by specific group of students.2 Research Design The present study was a classroom action research. Action. the finding of any classroom action research cauld not be generalized to other group of students of the other school. an action research is a cyclic process of planning.
1998: 35) The design of the action study could be described as the following. In the initial reflection or pre-test expressed to assess the data about the students` achievement in vocabulary. in the planning. Besides that an observation needed also to be carried out in order to record the effect of the action. reflection was also being developed. However.Notes: IR: Initial reflection P: Planning A: Action O: Observation R: Reflection RP: Revised planning (Kemmis and Taggart. Finally. To carry the planning out. an action study needed to be conducted in line to the planning. The result of observation could be further applied in conducting a reflection. the researcher was supposed to plan all the things required for a successful investigation of research. Based on the above facts. the action did not need to absolutely guide by the planning in sense that in action could be differently done with a similar conceptual thinking in dealing with a problem being encountered in real practices. In this phase the researcher found out some problems and tried out to give solution for those problems. The planning itself should be flexible and future oriented. This reflection was also intended to be used as to memorize/consider/analyze the action on the basis of the .
The cycles can be figured out as the following: 3. In this phase the researcher found out some problems and tried to give solution for those problems b. Planning Planning determining the steps of the action and instrument used for collecting the data. which each cycle would be completed in four sessions. In this study. The study was done into two cycles. Initial Reflection The Initial reflection refered to diagnoses of the unsuccessfulness of the action applied in the classroom. As an addition. Determining the subjects of the study. it was through the reflection that researcher could decide whether to continue or stop the study. In the IR the subjects were requested to answer ten questions. The steps are as follows.2. cycle I and cycle II. . Selecting material such as some children English songs Preparing and administering pre-test in vocabulary. that was at the researcher carried out a preliminary study of SD N 3 Bugbug.results of the observation. the researcher taught vocabulary through children English songs to the fourth grade students of SDN 3 Bugbug. The pre-test ( Initial reflection) in vocabulary for the subjects under study was chiefly intended to measure the real pre-existing vocabulary.1Cycle I a. In this preliminary study the researcher asked some questions to the English teacher there about the difficulties faced by the students in vocabulary.
By the end of the first and second session the researcher administered questionnaires to the subjects under study. As mention in the previous discussion. The researcher tried to brain storms the . The administration of questionnaires were actually intended to measure quantitatively the changing learning behaviors of the subject in improving their vocabulary which had been taught through children English songs. Action study needed to be conducted in line to the planning. Action In this study. action refers to how the teacher acted in the classroom related to the teaching vocabulary through children English songs. They were three main activities namely: Pre-activity In this part. Preparing and administering reflection ( post-test) in vocabulary at the end of each session. aimed to activate and focus the students. the researcher who also acted as a classroom teacher. It involved the teaching learning process such as what the researcher did in the classroom was managed based on the teaching scenario. c. The administering of post-test was used to measure the extend of the subject progress in vocabulary Designing / making lesson plans Constructing and administering questionnaire to the subjects under study. the present classroom action study whch dealt with the teaching of vocabulary through children English songs was divided into two cycles and each cycle consisted of four sessions.
The researcher concluded the lesson being taught and the researcher ended the session. Reflection Reflection was also being developed. it was through the reflection that researcher could decide whether to continue or stop the study . It needed also to be carried out in order to record the effect of the action. Post activity The researcher asked the students whether they had any difficulties during teaching and learning process.classroom situation by giving some questions to build up the students` interest and motivation. This reflection was also intended to be used as to memorize/consider/analyze the action on the basis of the results of the observation. Whilst activity The researcher introduced the children English song. d. As an addition. The researcher gave the students post-test. The results of observation could be further applied in a reflection. and sang the song three times then asked the students to sing the song together. At the end of each cycle the researcher gave questionnaire to the students. After that she told the students the meaning of each word stated in the song. e. It helped the researcher to know whether the technique was able to improve the students` vocabulary ability. Observation The observation was necessary to do while the teaching and learning process.
Whilst activity The researcher introduced the children English song. Besides this problem. . interest and also enjoyment. Based on the characteristics of the problems. the researcher ended the session. there were three main activities namely: Pre-Activity First of all. Action During the treatment on this study.2Cycle II a. the problem being handled in this study were the students` poor abilities in the English vocabulary. Post activity The researcher asked the students whether they had any difficulties during teaching and learning process. and sang the song three times then asked the students to sing the song together. After that she told the students the meaning of each word stated in the song. the students were also observed to learn English with limited motivation. The researcher gave the students post-test.3. after that she tried to tried to brain storms the classroom situation by giving some questions to build up the students` interest and motivation. the researcher then decided to make a new plan in solving the problem.2. the researcher greeted the students. b. At last. Revised Planning As it was mentioned on the background of the study already.
pre-test and post-test. Reflection After this cycle was completed. Questionnaire The questionnaire was conducted to the students of the fourth grade of SDN 3 Bugbug after the completion of cycle I and cycle II. 3. diary. It consisted of teacher activities. b. d. . This diary was used to record how the classroom activities was runs in each session. students’ activities.c. It would show the effectiveness of the technique used in teaching English vocabulary. a. The results of the post-test in each session of this cycle were compared to the result of pre-test. comments of the researcher. a further reflection needed to be done. time allocation. the reason for the phenomena was studied.3 Research Instrument The instruments which were used in collecting the data for this study were questionnaire. Diary The diary was in the form of table. If the students did not show a significant improvement. So there were four columns in the table. Observation The researcher observed the situation of the class during the action conducted. This was done to get a clear picture of the students learning behavior changed when they were taught vocabulary through children English songs.
reflection. Thus there were considerably three kinds of raw scores obtained for the present class action study that are: 1. post-test and questionnaire.4 Data Collection The data obtained for analysis in this study involved the data of the student participation in learning vocabulary mastery through children English songs. Scores indicating the subjects` pre-existing vocabulary ability. There were two kinds of data collection such as quantitative data which was collected from the tests and qualitative data which was collected from the observation in the form of teacher’s diary and questionnaires. were gathered through administering IR. and questionnaires. 3. Scores showing the subjects` changing learning behaviors. 3. . 2.5 Data Analysis The main data needed for the present action study as mention previously. Scores showing the subjects` pre-existing achievement in vocabulary and 3. Tests The tests particularly consisted of pre-test and post-test. while the purpose of doing post-test was to examine whether or not the treatment that was taken effectively to improve the students’ ability of vocabulary.c. The data was obtained by collecting the result of pre-test. The pre-test done to find out the students` ability in vocabulary.
59% correctly .69% correctly : those students who are able to answer the test items between 0% . the data which resulted from the questionnaire would also be analyzed descriptively trough the following formula: : those students who are able to answer the test items between 90% .79% correctly : those students who are able to answer the test items between 60% .100% correctly : those students who are able to answer the test items between 80% . 2003:10) Finally. The average score of each student will be counted using this formula : Mean ═ Total of the right answers Total of the test items 2.The data then analyzed in percentage as follows: 1.89% correctly : those students who are able to answer the test items between 70% . The average score of the whole students will be counted using this formula : Mean ═ Total score of all the students Total of students. x 100 Where: M = mean score / the average score of the students` achievement of vocabulary mastery ∑X = the sum of the total score N = the total number of the students In relation to the mean score obtained. the researcher could determine the students` qualification by using the criterion as shown in the following: Excellent Very good Good Sufficient Insufficient (Heaton.
1995) Χ 100 % CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS .% ═ Number of the students choosing an item Number of the subjects (Masidjo.
The qualitative findings were taken from the observation in every session of both cycles. 4. There were two findings achieved in this research namely: quantitative and qualitative findings where was useful to know the improvement of the student’s ability in vocabulary.The discussion in this chapter involved the result of the instrument used to collect data. 11 female and 9 male.1 Scores of the students in pre-existing vocabulary ability . The data of this study were obtained in class IV of the fourth grade students of SD N 3 Bugbug. The detail of the discussion could be elaborated as follows. Further discussion was presented in the tables below.1.1 Data The data of the present study in vocabulary test was conducted in two phases namely: pre-test and post-test. which the subject of this study were 20 students.post-test cycle II and questionnaires at the end of cycle I and cycle II. post-test cycle I . Those were well known as quantitative findings. 4. it could be seen by comparing the mean score obtained on pre-test with the grand mean score of post-test in every cycle. Post-test which was administered at the end of every session. Before and after treatment was given. those were discussions of the initial reflection or pre-test.
where the mean score could be found out as follow. scores of the students on pre-test No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Subject of the study Ni Kadek Aprilia Kusuma Dewi Ni Luh Apriani Christine Angelica I Putu Dodi Setiawan I Wayan Darma Novayana Ni Ketut Dresti Kasiani Made Gama Sasmita Ni Kade Novi Meliyana Ni Komang Nukarimasih I Putu Raka Very Premana Ni Wayan Santi I Putu Suardika I Nengah Sudarma Yasa I Wayan Sudiasa I Kadek Sunartawan Ni Wayan Sumariati Ni Luh Tine Diah Prawesti Ni Kade Vima Bella Utami Ni Luh Putu Wulandari I Kadek Yuda Prawira Negara Total Score Score of the initial reflection 50 40 70 50 40 40 60 50 30 70 40 30 60 40 40 50 50 40 60 40 940 On initial reflection. The total of the items were 10 items. During did the test most of the students seem to be confused and they were nervous. there were 20 subjects who followed test given by the researcher. For more detail information about the student’s achievement in initial reflection were presented by the researcher in the form of raw score into the following table Table 1.In order to get initial data about the student’s ability in vocabulary. The researcher designed the pre-test in objective form. the researcher administered pre-test. The total score got by the whole subjects was 940 from the total obtained. . but there were also some got enough mark. From the pre –test there were many students got bad marks.
M = ∑X N M = 940 20 M = 47 Based on the result above. From the fact the researcher offered some songs to solve the students problem in learning vocabulary. This means the students’ ability in vocabulary before the researcher conducted her investigation was low.1. This could be enjoyable classroom atmosphere in learning the words and was able to store the information being learnt in a long period of time in their brain. then the researcher decided to conduct cycle I to improve the students’ ability in vocabulary.2 Score showing the subjects` progress achievement in vocabulary. Post-test administered in order to know the result of teaching vocabulary by songs. the mean score obtained by the students on initial reflection was 47 in relation to the score qualification that score could be classified into “low” category. The low achievement that was got by the students was caused by the limited technique used in teaching vocabulary. 4. Teacher just translated the words into their native language and nothing done to make them understand the lesson in detail. The teacher taught with the general technique according to the text book and never teach with special vocabulary. The student’s achievement in vocabulary through children English .
By using the formula the mean score of each session could be computed as follows. For more detail information about the student’s achievement during the treatment all of the data obtained by the subject of the study were presented in the form of raw score into the following table.songs can be seen from the score got by the students in the mean score. In session III the sum of the total score was 1260 and in session IV the sum of the total score was 1340. 3. II. . Scores of the students on cycle I (Post – Test 1. 2. and 4 ) No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Subject of the Study Ni Kadek Aprilia Kusuma Dewi Ni Luh Apriani Christine Angelica I Putu Dodi Setiawan I Wayan Darma Novayana Ni Ketut Dresti Kasiani Made Gama Sasmita Ni Kade Novi Meliyana Ni Komang Nukarimasih I Putu Raka Very Premana Ni Wayan Santi I Putu Suardika I Nengah Sudarma Yasa I Wayan Sudiasa I Kadek Sunartawan Ni Wayan Sumariati Ni Luh Tine Diah Prawesti Ni Kade Vima Bella Utami Ni Luh Putu Wulandari I Kadek Yuda Prawira Negara Total Score S1 50 50 70 50 50 50 60 50 40 70 50 40 60 50 50 50 60 50 60 50 1060 S2 50 60 70 60 50 50 60 50 50 70 60 50 60 50 60 50 60 60 60 60 1140 S3 60 60 80 60 60 60 70 60 60 70 60 50 70 60 60 60 70 60 70 60 1260 S4 70 70 80 70 60 60 70 60 60 80 70 60 70 60 70 60 70 60 70 70 1340 Based on the table 2 the sum of the total score got by the students in session I was 1060. Table 2. Meanwhile in session II the sum of the total score was 1140. III and IV. Various scores showed by the students in the post-test I.
and 8) The researcher administered post-test in every session in each cycle. 7. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Subject of the Study Ni Kadek Aprilia Kusuma Dewi Ni Luh Apriani Christine Angelica I Putu Dodi Setiawan I Wayan Darma Novayana Ni Ketut Dresti Kasiani Made Gama Sasmita Ni Kade Novi Meliyana Ni Komang Nukarimasih S5 70 70 90 70 70 70 80 70 70 S6 70 80 90 70 70 80 80 70 70 S7 80 80 100 80 80 90 90 80 80 S8 90 90 100 90 90 90 90 80 90 . Every mark of the students in cycle II could be seen in the table below. 6.Session one: M = ∑X 1 N M = 1060 20 M = 53 Session three: M = ∑X 3 N M = 1260 20 M = 63 Session two: M = ∑X2 N M = 1140 20 M = 57 Session four: M =∑X4 N M = 1340 20 M = 67 Table 3. Scores of the students on cycle II (Post-test 5. which also was carried out in cycle II. In this cycle the students got more good marks than in the cycle I.
From this qualification the researcher felt very satisfied. we know this score was categorized into more than good. During the teaching and learning process the researcher also did observation to know the students’ problem as well as the weakness of the strategy applied in this session. the mean score of each session in cycle II can be computed as follows. M = ∑X 5 N M = 1480 20 M = 74 M = ∑X 7 N M = 1700 20 M = 85 M = ∑X6 N M = 1520 20 M = 76 M = ∑X8 N M = 1820 20 M = 91 From the computation the table above. From the observation sheet of researcher’s diary. the researcher who .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 I Putu Raka Very Premana Ni Wayan Santi I Putu Suardika I Nengah Sudarma Yasa I Wayan Sudiasa I Kadek Sunartawan Ni Wayan Sumariati Ni Luh Tine Diah Prawesti Ni Kade Vima Bella Utami Ni Luh Putu Wulandari I Kadek Yuda Prawira Negara Total Score 80 70 70 80 70 80 70 80 70 80 70 1480 90 80 70 80 70 80 70 80 70 80 70 1520 90 90 80 90 80 90 80 90 80 90 80 1700 100 90 90 100 80 90 90 100 90 90 90 1840 By using the same formula.
The first questionnaire was administered at the end of cycle I and the second at the end of cycle II. The answer of the questionnaires were quantitatively score using the rating scale 0-3 (score option A = 3.acted as a teacher saw that the student kept interested and motivated and also felt enjoyable in doing their jobs. B = 2.1. To gain additional information about the student’s achievement on vocabulary ability was through the questionnaire. C = 1 and D = 0). A. 4.3 Scores showing the subjects` changing learning behaviors. Questionnaire of Cycle No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A 15 12 15 15 12 12 15 15 15 12 9 15 18 18 15 15 12 15 12 15 B 6 8 6 6 8 8 6 6 8 8 10 6 6 6 6 8 8 6 8 8 C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . The qualitative data needed by the researcher was gathered by administering two questionnaires. The obtained data showing the subjects` total scores for items of questionnaires are tabulated as the following.
Total 281 142 35 0 B. The mean of the IR score (Xo) and the mean of the post-test scores for eight sessions (X1. X2. and X8) are presented as the following. X7. IR (Xo) score M = ∑X = 940 = 47 A 21 12 15 21 15 15 21 21 21 15 15 15 21 24 21 15 15 21 15 21 363 B 4 6 6 4 6 6 6 4 4 6 6 6 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 4 102 C 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 1 28 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . the collected data should be analyzed and then the results of the analysis were discussed.2 Data Analysis Based on the research instruments in which the researcher administered pre-test and post-test in each session.X6. X5. X4. Questionnaire of Cycle II No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total 4. X3.
5 4 4 The results of the above analysis were considered as the findings of the present classroom action study. which could be summarized as the following: Summary of the research finding showing the mean of each session and the grand mean for cycle I and cycle II Pre-test ( IR) Cycle I So S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 Xo X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 = 47 = 53 = 57 = 63 = 67 = 74 = 76 = 85 = 91 Grand Mean XI = 60 Cycle II Grand Mean XII = 81.N 20 M = ∑X2 = 1140 = 57 N 20 M =∑X4 = 1340 = 67 N 20 M = ∑X6 = 1520 = 76 N 20 M = ∑X8 = 1820 = 91 N 20 M = ∑X 1= 1060 = 53 N 20 M = ∑X 3= 1260 = 63 N 20 M = ∑X 5= 1480 = 74 N 20 M = ∑X 7= 1700 = 85 N 20 The grand mean XI of the post-test scores in cycle I was: X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 = 53+ 57 + 63 + 67 = 240 = 60 4 4 The grand mean XII of the post-test scores in cycle II was: X5 + X6 + X7 + X8 = 74 + 76 + 85 + 91 = 326 = 81.5 .
Total percentage of item D = 0 X 100% = 0% 458 B. Questionnaire cycle II 5. The data collected through the administration of questionnaire were considered as additional supporting data. These were collected by the end of cycle I and cycle II to the subject under study. The data obtained from the questionnaires had to be computed and discussed. C and D were shown as the following.33% 458 2. Total percentage of item B = 142 X 100% = 31% 458 3. Total percentage of item A = 363 X 100% = 73. It showed that the target had been achieved. Total percentage of item A = 281 X 100% = 61. B. The grand mean score in cycle I was better than cycle II.68% 493 .63% 493 6. A.64% 458 4. Questionnaire cycle I 1. The computation of the comparative percentages for the scores of the items of the questionnaires showing the subject total answers for item of A. Total percentage of item B = 102 X 100% = 20.From the result of the table above we know that the grand mean score between cycle I and cycle II were different. Total percentage of item C = 35 X 100% = 7.
20.63%. Total percentage of item D = 0 X 100% = 0% 493 The computation of the above results of the analysis of the questionnaire scores in cycle I and cycle II.64% of the students said they felt ordinary to learnt vocabulary by children English songs and 0% of the students did not like the technique. 7. These finding undoubtedly supported the major findings on the present classroom study.67% and 0% for total responses of the questionnaire items. and 5. Total percentage of item C = 28 X 100% = 5. it could be concluded that the students like learning vocabulary through children English songs and also could improve their ability in vocabulary. In cycle I showed the comparative percentages of 61.67% were ordinary with the technique.64% and 0% for total responses of the questionnaire items. the obtained comparative percentages of the items of the questionnaires indicated the subjects` positive changing attitudes and motivation in learning vocabulary through children English song. 5. there were 73.68% of the students said they were motivated enough in learning vocabulary through children English songs. 31% of the students said they liked the technique. From the result above. While in cycle II showed the comparative percentages of 73. Where 61. The researcher also taught that it was important to make it vivid. that was. 31%. 7.68%.63% of the students said that they were very motivated in learning vocabulary through children English songs. 20.35% of the students said that they liked very much to learnt vocabulary by children English songs.35%. the main finding of the present classroom action study. Clearly. the increasing .7.67% 493 8.
comparative mean figures if the IR score and the post-test scores obtained by the students under study for cycle I and cycle II could be graphically presented as the following. Graph showing the subjects` progressing in vocabulary ability Through children English songs 10 0 9 0 8 0 M E A N 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 I R S1 S2 S3 S4 C CE YL I Graph showing the subjects` progressing Grand Mean of Vocabulary ability Through Children English Song .
they could be stated that there was a lot of improvement on the student’s achievement in vocabulary .10 0 9 0 8 0 M E A N 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 IR S5 S6 S7 S8 C C EII YL Graph showing the subjects` progressing Grand Mean of Vocabulary ability Through Children English Song 10 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 I R C CE YL I G A DM A RN EN C CE YL I I Based on the result of eight sessions in both cycle.
so that they felt comfortable in singing and doing the tests. In this case. and X4 .especially in cycle II. Their problem certainly needed to be overcome. the students also got high achievement because the words in the tests had been discussed in the teaching process. 4. The researcher in this session will discuss all of the findings of the mean scores based up on the result of the data analysis on the previous sessions. The mean figure of XI was 53. This mean figure clearly showed that the vocabulary ability of the students under study was relatively low. X3 . The mean figure of X2 was 57. The mean figure of X3 was 63 and the mean . The result of the data analysis of the reflection score in cycle I showed the increasing mean figure of X1 . Regarding the regular improvement on the mean score students got from session to session in cycle I and cycle II the researcher thought of a final consideration to stop the action up to session four in cycle II. X2 .3 Discussion of Findings The purposed of this study was to improve the student’s ability in vocabulary through children English songs. The data analysis which established the finding of the present classroom action study showed that the Mean of IR or pre-test scores ( Xo) obtained by the subject under study in vocabulary through Children English Song showed the mean 47. The decision to stop the action was made because the mean score target by the researcher had been achieved. This was caused by the fact that the songs and the post-test were more familiar with the students.
The mean figure of X7 was 85 and the mean figure of S8 was 91. Then according to the result of post-test and comparative percentages of questionnaires in cycle I. 31%. Where 61. which were carried out in cycle II. 7.35% of the students said that they liked very much to learn vocabulary by children English songs. compare with the mean figure of IR (X0) score was 47. 7. 31% of the students said they liked the technique. The Grand mean figure of the post-test scores obtained by the subjects under study in cycle I was 60 and in .64% of the students said they felt ordinary to learnt vocabulary by children English songs and 0% of the students did not like the technique. The mean figure of X5 was X4. X7 and X8. These finding clearly showed that the vocabulary ability of the subjects under study progressed and improved significantly after they had been taught through Children English Songs. X6 . In cycle I showed the comparative percentages of 61. Positive attitudes and behavior as well as high motivation in learning vocabulary were also showed by the comparative percentage figures of questionnaires. The mean figure obtained by the subject under study for each session in cycle I was obviously much higher than the mean figure of the IR score. The data analysis of the post-test scores in cycle II showed the result of X5 . the researcher used them as the basis to make some planning revisions.figure of X4 was 67. The Grand mean (XI) of the post-test scores in cycle I was 60.64% and 0% for total responses of the questionnaire items. The mean figure of X6 was 76. the mean figure obtained by the subjects for each session was convincingly much higher than the IR mean figure.35%.
67% and 0% for total responses of the questionnaire items.cycle II was 81. 5.5.68%. The questionnaire in cycle II showed the comparative percentages of 73. 20. There was a significant difference of 21. there were 73. Their vocabulary ability progressed and improved very constantly and significantly from session to session CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS .63% of the students said that they were very motivated in learning vocabulary through children English songs. these findings clearly showed and proved that teaching English through Children English Songs to the fourth grade of SD N 3 Bugbug was an effective technique to improve their ability in vocabulary.63%. and 5. Finally.68% of the students said they were motivated enough in learning vocabulary through children English songs.5 between the main figure of cycle I and cycle II.67% were not sure with the technique. 20.
The data analysis of the post-test scores in cycle I showed the result of mean figure of XI was 53. the researcher concluded that Children English Songs could improve the students` vocabulary of SD N 3 Bugbug in academic year 2009-2010. In this case .5. then researcher conducted a classroom action research by directly teaching the students in the classroom. In order to get those objectives fulfilled.1 Conclusions On the basis which had been discussed previously teaching vocabulary through children English Song could improve the ability of the students of SD N 3 Bugbug in academic year 2009-2010. The grand mean of the reflection scores in cycle I X1 was 60. The mean figure of X2 was 57.5. She conducted two cycles where each cycle was made up of four sessions. the resulted mean figure progressed and increased significantly. The grand mean of the reflection scores in cycle II figured the mean figure of XII was 81. The mean figure of X7 was 85 and the mean figure of X8 was 91. This mean figure clearly pointed out that vocabulary ability of SD N 3 Bugbug in academic year 2009-2010 was considered low. The figure or IR (X0) = 47. Meanwhile the mean figure of S5 was 74. The mean figure of X3 was 63 and the mean figure of X4 was 67. The establish mean figure for each session was much higher than the IR mean figure from SI to S8. The different of the grand mean figure of cycle I and cycle II was 21. She administered pre-test and eight post-test for cycle I and cycle II to know the result of the treatment which she had conducted. The mean figure of X6 was 76.5. Based on the result of the post-test which has been discussed in chapter IV.
since it can build up the students` interest. Also. 2. The English teachers are suggested to use children English song as an effective alternative technique in teaching vocabulary for young learners. The students had to be more active to communicate in order to improve their vocabulary . . motivation and enjoyment in learning process. 5. 3.children English songs were very much effective to be used as a good technique in teaching vocabulary.2 Suggestions Based on the results of the study that had been stated on the conclusions above then some suggestions are put forward by the researcher as the following: 1. the teacher should be active to encourage the students to communicate in English in daily activities. The English teacher of SD N 3 Bugbug are suggested to use children English songs as one alternative of good technique in teaching vocabulary also modify this technique with good teaching aid or media.
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