This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
the daily transactions of an organisation. TPS's are all to do with business, money and most importantly securing and recording the daily transactions of a company. This topic focus' on the processes of storing and retrieving, collecting and analysing. Contents 4.1 Characteristics of Transaction Processing Systems 4.2 Examples of Transaction processing Systems 4.3 Storing and Retrieving 4.4 Other Information Processes 4.5 Issues Related to Transaction Processing Systems HSC Questions on TPS News forum TPS Teaching Program TPS Outline Year 12 Assessment Task includes Multimedia Glossary TPS TPS Topic Test
4.1 Characteristics of A Transaction Processing System Four important characteristics of a TPS are: Rapid Response 1 Reliability Inflexibility Controlled Processing
Batch Processing Real-time Processing Transaction Processing Monitors Data Validation Manual Transaction Systems Questions for 4.1 Batch Processing Vs Real Time Processing Batch Processing: was developed early on when computers were scarce and computing time was expensive. batch processing reduced costs by reducing the time for user input. In batch processing all the information that needs to be processed is collected and processed as a batch (group) at a later time.
This machine shown above was used by US Agricultural Department to store statistics on erosion. You can see how all the punch cards are processed together. Real Time Processing: The processing occurs on the spot at that time. Examples of real time processing in TPS systems are EFTPOS machines and ATMs such as is happening in the image. When goods are purchased using EFTPOS the transaction occurs on the spot. 2 main concerns with real-time processing are: concurrency: ensures that more than one user cannot change the same data at
e. Type Check: Checks the data type is the correct type such as data entered in a text field is text. delivery order processing.g. e.the same time. 4 Field Checking: This occurs as data is entered into the database to ensure as far as possible that what is entered makes sense. type checks and a check digit. . This involves software called a transaction processing monitor (TPM) and requires 2 processes: Transaction Initiation: This is like a communications handshake and sets up the protocols and acknowledges the readiness of the system to send and receive the transaction data. airline reservations. the month of a person's date of birth should lie between 1 and 12. TP monitor technology controls transaction applications and performs business logic/rules computations and database updates in distributed client server environments. Range Check: Checks that the data lie within a specified range of values. and customer service.. network access. Times are added as headers in the data to allow the data to be traced in the evnt of data loss. The ISBN for a book. This is used to reduce and help eliminate errors. Check Digit: Used for numerical data. list checks. 3 Data Validation this is the process of checking the accuracy of entered data. atomicity: all the steps in a transaction are completed or no transaction takes place and any changes do not go through. TP monitor technology is used in data management. numbers in a numerical field. The computer checks this calculation when data are entered.g.. security systems. An extra digit is added to a number which is calculated from the digits. HSC Questions Transaction Processing Monitor This is software used to initiate and monitor the transaction inorder to reduce errors and is sometimes referred to as middleware. There are a number of different checks made including: range checks.
POS. This list may include the states of Australia.List Check: used to compare what is entered compared to a set of accepted data (i. Library Loans) . The earliest writings are Sumerian business receipts on clay tablets which are around 5 thousand years old.e. You may keep these for tax reasons or for warranties but either way they are transaction records. 6 Contents Components of a TPS Examples of Real-time Transaction Processing (reservation systems. 4. This required bookkeepers to 5 balance the accounts. You probably keep receipts for goods that you buy. Until recent times many records were still stored in account books. no computers). Months of the year. These are the manual equivalent of spreadsheets. Transferring these paper based records into an electronic system has many benefits including: customers can purchase goods at their convenience it is easy to do stocktakes reduced wage costs Whatever the peripheral benefits computerisation of a manual system will aim to maximise profits. names of capital cities. Data Validation Questions HSC Questions on Validation and Verification Manual Transaction Systems Manual transaction systems are business systems which operate without an information system (i. Most people still keep a range of receipts on paper.2 Examples of Transaction Processing Systems In this section we will look at components of a TPS and some real life examples.e. They have been around for thousands of years. However these days most companies are electronic whether it be buying a seat on a plane or purchasing a book. But of course people still keep manual transaction records. a list).
2 Characteristics of a TPS Components of a TPS The components of a TPS include hardware. The most important component of a TPS are people. marketing etc. POS is just an abbreviation of the full name of EFTPOS. These are the people who will enter the data. participants and people from the environment. People in a TPS can be divided into 3 categories: users. software and people. Participants: Participants are direct users of the system.. They will use it to provide information information about the system but will not enter data themselves. Once the transaction has 8 taken place then tickets need to be printed credits will be transferred from the customer's account to the booking agency. any required . receipts need to be printed and transaction records need to be updated in the database. goods are scanned from barcodes or details are typed in. Examples of reservation systems can be found at travel agencies. The 7 information they provide from the TPS may be used to provide inputs for other information systems such as stock control.. They include data entry operators. When a transaction takes place. Library Loans Reservation Systems These are used by businesses where services need to be booked. people working at checkouts and anyone carrying out the tasks required to process the data. rental companies. Point of Sale (POS) POS is the system that is in place for purchases involving EFTPOS (electronic funds transfer at point of sale). People From The Environment: These are people who do not directly work for the company but people off the street who sometimes require the services of a TPS as they enter transactions and validate data such as a customer withdrawing money from an ATM. Every time a booking is made the available resources need to be reduced by the same number or resources reserved or paid for. airline companies. The POS system is what allows the convenience of an ATM at midnight. Without people the system does not have customers and without customers it does not have a funtion to perform. POS.Examples of Batch Transaction Processing Questions for 4. Examples of Real-time Transaction Processing There are 3 examples of TPS examined in the HSC:reservation systems. POS systems are found in many businesses now from major outlets such as Coles or Woolworths to many mixed businesses and petrol stations. customer service operators. Users: The users are people employees of the company who own the TPS. entertainment agencies such as Tickatek or the relevant venues.
Library Loans The borrower will normally have a library membership card which will be scanned and checked for overdue books and fines. The system will also allow reservations to be placed on the books. a receipt is sent to the customer (displayed on the screen or printed on a receipt). such as credit card transactions" HSC syllabus page 45 Clearing of Presented Cheques (Cheque Clearance) Once a cheque is presented to a bank it is normally put to the side and processed as part of a batch. The details about available books will then be updated on the database. These days. coded inventory data is sent through to update the database and the inventory or bank balance is updated. Examples of Batch Transaction Processing Contents Cheque Clearance Generation of Bills Credit Card Transactions There are three examples that the NSW HSC syllabus refers to: cheque clearance. the borrowed items will be scanned and each item will then be placed under the borrowers name. Generation of Bills . In fact the cheque will become a part of one batch once it is deposited at the bank and then part of another batch once it is sent to the issuer's bank. computerising transactions as they occur. bill generation and credit card sales transactions "examples of batch processing. Each step has built in delays to ensure that people are not paid twice or the money taken out of an account which does not have the money.credit card checks are made. including: clearing of presented cheques 9 generation of bills systems that appear real time. It will also work out the change required and any receipt will normally itemise items. but actual updating is processed in batch. will electronic processeing cheques are normally cleared within three days it use to take over a week.
Databases are 1 used to store the data and requires a safe and effective plan for backups and recovery if anything goes wrong. Huh? Seems strange doesn't it. . Some companies will even allow users to view their bills and account details online.3 Storing and Retrieving many people daily rely on the reliability of TPS and as such they must have an efficient and safe 1 method of storage and retrieval. But in reality the only real time transaction is the check that is made to ensure that the card is current. and presentation to virtual executives of organisation. these transactions may take from hours to weeks before they are processed. identity theft). Case Study Students create their own virtual case studies including feasibility studies. For many people it always seems that many bills appear at once. stolen. Once there is an overlap of bills they will continue to come at the same time because that is how they are generated: as a batch for a fixed time period. Of course there are still manual credit card transactions which are entered into the TPS. This is not coincidence but you will be glad to know that it is not part of some evil plot. privacy (personal details can be read) and ethical issues. The bills are generated as a batch to reduce mailing and printing costs. sample PowerPoint for a case study 1 0 Laura's Liquorland TPS notes from Andrew Rebecca TPS PowerPoint Celia PowerPoint 4. Credit Card Transactions Credit card transactions on the internet are very unusual because they appear real time but in fact are actually batch. The transaction i8s actually processed as a batch at a later stage. cancelled or over the limit. and is not listed as lost. Most bills are generated for a fixed time period which the computers will automatically generate once that period has fallen due.Bills are not pleasant. The manual aspects to online credit card transactions bring in issues of security (credit card fraud.
Good Design) Data warehousing Backup Procedures Doing Updates (batch) Real-time Updates Worksheet for 4.Contents Databases and files (hierarchical. .3 Storing and Retrieving Databases and Files hierarchical. network or relational structure. network relational structure Good Design For TPS Files and TPS' 1 2 A database is an organised collection of data. When an organisation stores its operational records and accounts in a databses this type of database is then called an operational database. The TPS will out of necessity have access to aspects of the database such as accounts and stock. Hierarchical Databases: are organised in a hierarchical or tree like structure consisting of nodes and branches. There are 3 different types of schemas which may be used to organise the database structure. Because the TPS only has access to a subset of the database this is called a subschema. The database is organised in a schema. network or relational structure. hierarchical. Each node can have many branches but the child node can only have one parent node.
Network Database: In networked databases the primary node in a branch is called the owner (parent) of that group with information relevant to that topic being a member of that level 0 node. A relational database consists of a . Relational Databases: A relational database organises information through a series of related tables. Realtionships are formed between tables to link various types of information. Relational databases are the most commonly used type of database. The child nodes can be linked (member) of other groups.
3 High Normalisation: A high level of normalisation (reduction of redundant data) increases access rates. Good Design For a TPS A good TPS must have several important characteristics: Good Data Placement: Commonly used blocks of data should be together to speed up data access rates. The invention of the relational database system has standardized the way that data is stored and processed. This data can then be used for a . time taken for updates and concurrency for a database Archiving of Historical Data: Old data needs to be archived to reduce the overall physical size of the database which increases access (including queries and reports) and backup times. All of this data is stored in databases called data warehouses. Most of the database management systems used today are based on the relational system. Short Transactions: Break up complicated and long transactions into shorter transactions to 1 improve processing time and concurrency.collection of tables that store particular sets of data. Good Hardware Configuration: The hardware should be physically capable of dealing with the demands placed upon it including enough physical space to store the data. demographics on customer bases for products. Data Warehousing consolidated subject-oriented 1 4 historical read only Data is a valuable commodity which is traded and sold. sales figures and so on. This data ranges from personal information on customers.
. Backup Procedures Organisations using TPS are very dependent on the reliability of their systems. 1 5 Transaction Files: This is a collection of the transaction records. data mining . Refer also to knowledge management . Read-Only: The data can not be changed by users. A longer time frame allows better analysis of the data. batch processing and real-time processing require different types of files and different ways to store and retrieve the information. Data stored in data warehouses is used to look for patterns in credit card usage which points to fraud.myriad of reasons. Audirors will use these files to audit a companies transaction records. subject-oriented. As such backup 1 procedures must be well planned and recovery procedures must have a minimal disruption to the 6 organisation Contents .. particular product etc. HSC Questions on Data Warehousing Files and TPS' A file is a stored block of data. Reports can be writtenn or marketing plans may revised all based on figures stored in a data awarehouse. TPS' have five different file types: Master File: This is the main copy of a database and is the main operational database for the TPS. This is used to update the transactions stored on the master file. Subject oriented: data is stored by subject to allow querying and reports. A copy of transaction data must be stored in this file. A Report File: A collection of data that has been formatted ready to print and present Work File: temporary file created during a transaction A program File: Contains code for the processing of data> This may be in SQL or another programming language. historical and read only Consolidated: data is organised in a consistent manner to allow usage of the data across organisations. people who look after these data warehouses are called Knowledge Managers. financial systems . In a database a file is a set of related facts such as the details about on customer or the details about a particular loan. It can only be added to. Expert Systems A data warehouse provides data that is consolidated. Historical: data is stored over a long time period. AI programs are often used to look for meaningful patterns.
Checkpoint: Periodically throughout the day any information system will create checkpoints. The recovery process is the process by which the database is restored back to a reliable configuration. When failures in a TPS occur the system can be restored back to the last checkpoint or any other checkpoint chosen.Recovery Process Forward and Backward Recovery 3 Generations of Backups (grandfather. Processing can then be resumed from the last checkpoint. father Son) Partial backups Updating In A Batch Updating In real-time Recovery Process A TPS may crash or have errors for any number of reasons including: hardware failure. Journal: Journals record what happens in a database. at least several times an hour. Forward Recovery: is like a REDO button where lost transactions are covered from the trasnaction . human error (such as entering the wrong data). In order to deal with the failures the TPS must be able to restore correct data where possible. There are two types of journals: transaction 1 logs which will record all the details about a transaction. Forward and Backward Recovery There are two types of recovery procedures: backward recovery and forward recovery. Remember most details in the database will not change very often. 1 8 Backward Recovery: is used like an UNDO Button for a TPS. as such checkpoints should be very regular. software failure. Recovery Manager: This is a program used to restore the database back to the chosen checkpoint. With a backward recovery the database administrator will try to undo unwanted changes. The recovery process includes: Backups: A copy of the database is made on an ongoing basis. usually at least once a day when system is not used a backup of the entire system will be made. Because a TPS is all about transactions a 7 transaction log will be long and detailed. The journal roll from the register will form a hard copy of what is recorded. viruses and worms or external problems such as power failure/ natural disaster such as flood. The second type is the database change log which shows changes made to the database. All processing will very temporarily stop while all parts of the system are synchronised. Most of the time a transaction can be pined down to a rough time and then tracked from there.
If the system fails during a batch process then the system then the master file may be corrupted. the error maybe from a virus or hacker. Banks will keep many more than 3 generations. The phrase is a general one and many more than 3 generations may be saved. Sometimes the most recent backup 1 is not the one we want. It maybe that for some reason an error crept into the system and it is best 9 to use an earlier configuration. This means that an earlier configuration must be used. . 3 Generations of Backups (Grandfather-Father-Son) Grandfather-father-son is a backup system where 3 generations (backups made over 3 differnt times) where the grandfather is the oldest and the son is the most recent backup.journal and the backup.
This is one of the IBM 3590 computers similar to the ones large banks are still using. When a batch update is carried out it involves: retrieving data from tape batch update begins at the start of the tape All the data is restored in the order it was stored 2 batch update finishes when the end of the tape is reached 0 Right: Manual Imprinter: These machines are not very common anymore but if a card is not working properly then one of these might be used. . There are two stages to this process: collection/ storage of transaction data in a transaction file. This one only saves 10 Gb of data. the second stage is updating master file by processing the transaction file. Bottom Right: Tape cartridge for IBM 3590. The tapes are normally in banks so that much larger amounts of data can be stored.Doing Updates (batch) When transactions are recorded on paper such as one of the old manual transactions using a card then the master file is updated using a batch process when convenient. Left: Inside view of the Magstars with 3590 tapes and drives.e. Updates in Real-time Real-time processing occurs at that time not at a later stage. The process by its nature is always sequential and may still involve magnetic tape. In a large system this will mean that a 2 large number of users will be using the system at once. The steps involved in real-time processing 1 involve: sending transaction data to a master file in an online database the empoyee will perform data verification and validation as the transaction is performed (i. 3590 E model extended length tape cartridges that can contain up to 120 GB of data (3:1 compression).
There are many on the market . data mining. Collecting in a TPS involves 3 hardware such as MICR readers. For example when goods are brought by EFTPOS there will be a receipt. on-screen forms. Right: This is an MICR reader. The cheques may be scanned by a teller but will normally be processed as part of a batch much later. Data will be stored using a direct access device i.4 Other Information Processes All information play a role in TPS' but the HSC focus' on Collecting and analysing 2 Collecting (hardware [MICR. when funds are withdrawn 2 from an ATM there will be data collected and a receipt generated.e. harddrive and not a sequential device such as tape drive 4. card readers [for EFTPOS] or maybe ATMs. barcode readers]. management Information Systems) Worksheet for 4. forms [paper forms. The ink used to print the characters contain magntic particles. ATMs and barcode readers MICR (magnetic Ink character recognition) systems are commonly used by banks in reading the account details which 2 4 are located at the bottom of cheques. MICR readers. web 2 forms]) Analysing data (decision support systems.4 Other Information Processes Collecting Collecting in TPS systems comes as a result of the generation of data from a transaction.asking customer if their details are correct) confirmation of the completion of the transaction will be received and a receipt is handed to customer. hardware forms Collecting: Hardware Hardware used to collect data in a TPS include. ATM.
Left: ATM Barcode Readers: Are optical (laser) devices which read barcodes by scanning them with a laser. data is transferred between the ATM and the banks central computer normally using a private leased line.ATM (automatic telling machine) are used by banking customers to withdraw money and do transactions without the necessity of walking into a bank. Web Forms: Web forms are much the same as On-screen forms but will be accessed through the internet. barcodes will store information about the products on the shelves including product name. Analysing Data The transactions from a TPS are all stored in a database and will be analysed extensively to maximise profits and marketing possibilities. A DSS creates a mathematical model of the system which helps decison making about actions affecting a person organisation. a private leased line. In the home loan DSS customers can analyse how paying off more each pay would affect their loans. product price. Collecting: Forms Forms are used to collect data from customers. There are 3 different types of forms we will examine: Paper forms: will normally be processed as a batch. many stockbrokers now use programs that will automatically put in requests to sell shares once they reach a certain price (either high or low). The output of a TPS will become the input for other systems such as: DSS and MIS DSS (decision support systems): 2 Decision Support Systems are created to help people make decisions by providing access to 6 information and analysis tools. 2 5 On-screen Forms: are created for data entry to a database which will be updated real-time. The computer may be connected through to a database by a network connection or more likely for a TPS. an order code and sometimes other information as well. A DSS allows the users to pose what-if questions and by changing a number of variables and then find out what the outcomes would be. Another example of a decision support system is the simple analysis tools that banks use to help formulate loans for prospective customers. they often store an image which will display on a screen. When people use an ATM they are participants in a real-time system. how a different type of loan may make it easier to make ends meet and by so doing tailor .
MIS (Management Information Systems): Management Information Systems provide information to managers of an organisation. This relates to reports. stock inventories. Data Mining is used to find relationships and patterns amongst the data transaction data stored. There are a range of different reports that help managers make predictions and help manage a company including: Scheduled Reports: reports which are generated on a regular basis Forecasting Reports: used to help make predictions about trends On-demand Reports: generated on request to meet specific needs Exception Reports: To report unexpected occurences MIS and EIS are really specialist examples of Decision Support Systems (DSS) 4. An EIS. payroll details. statistics.5 Issues Related to Transaction Processing Systems Transaction processing systems have made and are making big changes to the way we look for goods and the way they are purchased.47 . ATMs have made it much easier to withdraw money while internet banking has made the process of paying bills and scheduling payments very easy for many people. But what are the downsides? How has this technology affected society overall? For the HSC "Students learn to: 2 assess the impact on participants involved in transaction processing 7 identify jobs that have changed and/or jobs that have been created as a result of transaction processing. bias and accuracy problems that could arise from the actions of participants" HSC Syllabus p. executive Information System is a form of MIS designed for upper management and provides information which might help them make decisions ona strategic level about future directions or issues concerning managers.the loan to suit the customer. and report on the implications of these changes for participants in the system discuss alternatives for when the transaction processing system is not available and explain why they need to be periodically tested identify security. A DSS depends upon the accuracy of the maths involved in creating the model and the ability of the user to accurately interpret the resulting data. budgets or any other details that assist managers with running an organisation.
In areas involved with sales and customer service Transaction processing system have changed the way that people work. Companies 2 cannot afford to lose business. for example collecting. deskilling of the workforce when their jobs become more tedious and require less skills. data accuracy. Customers as participants ands direct users (by completing online forms. Students need to discuss alternatives for when the transaction processing system is not available and explain why they need to be periodically tested. ATM machines: This also impacts in a variety of ways including ~ massive job losses (including tellers at the counters and back office staff). online transactions) CASE STUDY: Stamps come unstuck: mail goes online Non-Computer Procedures When computer systems fail companies need non-computer procedures which can come into play. Older people who were raised with computers can find it very stressful being forced into higher and higher levels of computerisation. data integrity) Control in Processing Worksheet for 4. reskilling where new skills are required when the job changes the bypassing of clerks by people in the environment performing with. There are 2 areas that the HSC is primarily interested in (see HSC Syllabus p 47): 2 8 the automation of jobs once performed by clerks: this impacts in a variety of ways including~ job losses. Forms need to be used and manual records need to be maintained 9 which will be entered as a batch when the system comes back online. people as Participants) Non-Computer procedures Bias Importance of Data (data security. fees imposed on users to discourage them from going to the counter. This becomes very important if you have customers who want to buy goods. .5 Issues Related To Transaction Processing Systems Nature of Work Changes in technology can cause stress and uncertainty for many people.Contents Nature of Work (automation of Jobs.
Data validation is used to restrict mistakes on entering mistakes while data verification is carried out to try to pick up errors. If data is lost it may have significant financial implications. isolation. consistency.Bias Data should be free from bias. This corruption may be from hackers. staff or natural cause such as fire. data bias refers to bias a one sided distortion of the truth within a 3 data source. Data integrity with real time systems involves the ACID test (atomicity. However this data can becomes biased as people add comments or when information may be taken out of context and becomes skewed. data straight from a TPS rarely contains bias because of the nature of the data i. A network failure or a lack of disk space can also cause consistency problems. Data Security: data security involves safeguarding the data from malicious or unintentional corruption or theft or data. cash transactions. accurate and that data integrity is maintained. and durability) Atomicity: either all steps in a transaction are completed or the entire transaction is cancelled Consistency: Consistency ensures that only operations that comply with database validity constraints are allowed. Firewalls: to restrict unauthorised access by hackers Virus checks must be carried out on a very regular basis 3 security patches must be current so that any security flaws are not used by hackers or trojans 1 regular backups must be made and stored away from the physical location of the database Data Accuracy: Every effort must be made to ensure that data is accurate. Data Integrity: Data integrity describes the overall reliability of the data. An operation that repeats a check number should fail due to consistency and ensure that the information in the database is correct and accurate. Importance of Data Data in a TPS has a different significance to many other systems because it is dealing with cash. For instance. Consistency rules enforced by the database will make sure that these situations do not leave . viruses. As such it is critical that businesses have procedures to ensure that data is secure. a database tracking a checking account may only allow unique check numbers to exist for each transaction. The bias maybe intentional where a group such as a government body or 0 organisation is trying to push a point of view or it can be unintentional such as an individuals point of view. IT professionals try to ensure data integrity by: Restricting the levels of access by using logins and passwords with varying levels of access depending upon requirements for access to the information stored.e.
(3 marks) Use the following information to answer parts (b) and (c). and enters the shipment number (taken from the box). the chef is required to enter a reason. All fish are shipped by express freight in special protective boxes to ensure freshness on arrival. This means that only when the withdrawal transaction is successfully completed will the new balance be reported. and briefly describe a situation where real-time processing is appropriate. Other ways include database "mirrors" which replicate the database on another server. When a shipment is delivered to a restaurant the chef inspects the shipment for freshness. describe the following components and their relationship in the context of Quality Fish Farm s information . HSC Questions on TPS 2002 2003 Question 25 Transaction Processing Systems (20 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet. QFF has a transaction processing system (TPS) that processes sales and tracks shipments. The transaction processing system also allows orders to be entered and bills to be paid online. When an item is rejected. The system uses this information to update the restaurant s bill for the shipment. Durability is often achieved through separate transaction logs that can "re-create" all transactions from a checkpoint. This system includes a web-based facility used by restaurants to accept shipments. logs onto the sales TPS. Durability: Durability ensures that once a transaction is complete the information as changed will survive failures of the system. Isolation: A teller looking up a balance must be isolated from a concurrent transaction involving a withdrawal from the same account. 3 Quality Fish Farm (QFF) sells fresh f ish to restaurants throughout Australia from its farm in 3 Tasmania. The chef then accesses QFF s website. (3 marks) (ii) Describe bias in data collection. A system crash or other failure must not be allowed to lose the contents of the database. Backups by themselves do not provide "durability". (a) (i) Define real-time processing.information in an inconsistent state. The chef accepts or rejects each item. The system then displays the items of the shipment. 3 Control in Transaction Processing 2 Precautions must be taken to ensure that false or criminal transactions do not take place. and provide an example. (b) With reference to the information system diagram on page 19 (included below).
system: (6 marks) purpose. (5 marks) . (3 marks) (ii) Discuss the impact of the use of this information system on the employees of Quality Fish Farm and the restaurants. participants. (c ) (i ) Describe measures that can assist accurate data entry by the restaurant employees. collecting. information technology. storing and retri e ving. data/information. processing.
processing the tagging of voter details and counting of votes.2004 Question 25 T ransaction P r ocessing Systems (20 marks) Use a SEPARATE writing booklet. The voter logged onto a secure website with his/her membership number and PIN before the voting deadline. The customer prints the image and brings the hard copy to the cinema. (a) (i) Define data integrity and briefly describe ONE measure that may help to ensure data integrity. the voter s details were tagged to prevent multiple voting. (ii) Define datawarehouse and describe its purpose. Use the following information to answer parts (b) (c). (b) Describe the e-voting transaction processing system in terms of the information processes of: collecting. (ii) Analyse this e. 3 Marks Use the following information to answer parts (b) (c). Using a web browser.v oting transaction processing system to determine both its strengths and its weaknesses. (c) (i) Outline backup procedures suitable for this e-voting transaction processing system so that no votes will be lost in the event of a system failure. Each voter was sent a personal identification number (PIN) by post. A cinema allows customers to purchase movie tickets via the internet. The e-voting system checked that the user had completed all voting details correctly according to voting rules. The system provides the customer with an image of a ticket which contains a unique bar code. and a confirmation was generated for the voter. storing. allowing its 2 million members to vote via the internet. 2005 (a)(i) Define batch processing and give an example. Entry to the movie is via a turnstile . customers select the movie session they wish to see and submit credit card details. Once the vote was accepted. One of Australia s largest organisations recently conducted the country s biggest e-voting project. 3 Marks (a)(ii) Define MICR and give an example of its use.
The cost of the ticket is added to their phone bill. pull-down menu. 4 Marks (c) The cinema company wishes to implement a system where customers can purchase tickets via their mobile phones. At the cinema turnstile. An image of the ticket. 6 Marks . and their credit card details. Identify and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the mobile phone system.capable of reading that bar code. Indicate clearly what screen elements are being used to input the data (eg. and justify your choices. The customers send a text message containing the movie session they wish to see. 4 Marks (b)(ii) Describe the sequence in which this real-time transaction processing occurs. the customer displays the image of the ticket and waves the phone over the barcode reader. (b)(i) Design a suitable web-based data entry screen for the customer to submit data about their choice of movie session. is downloaded to the customer s phone. and identify the main information technology required at each stage. with a barcode. and a conventional system where tickets are bought at the cinema. the webbrowser system. radio buttons). text field.